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Sample records for individual levels effects

  1. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching.

  2. Intersexuality in crustaceans: genetic, individual and population level effects.

    PubMed

    Ford, Alex T; Sambles, Christine; Kille, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Scientists investigating toxicants such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) at the cellular at the sub-cellular level are often faced with criticisms as to how these effects can be extrapolated to the level of individuals and their populations. This report aims to provide an overview of the studies undertaken on crustacean model, Echinogammarus marinus LEACH (AMPHIPODA), and intersex phenotypes, at the individual and population levels, and provide additional emergent data at the genomic level. These, normal and intersex, males and females have been investigated by cross-hybridisation microarray analysis and specific sexually dimorphic genes and corresponding properties identified between each sexual phenotype. The morphology, physiology and histology of these intersexes have been investigated in detail and a number of reproductive costs have been identified including reduced fecundity and fertility. These costs have been incorporated into a population model and simulated over a ten-year period to ascertain how different levels of intersexuality affect the stability of populations. Based on the information gained through study of intersex models (with known endocrine dysfunction) together with the substantial quantity of historical data relating to effects of chemicals on amphipod fecundity, growth and mortality, the development of appropriate biomarkers is nearer to being assessed from the level of genes to that of the population.

  3. Mathematics Achievement Effects of Three Levels of Individualization: Whole Class, Ability Grouped, and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Karweit, Nancy L.

    This research evaluated mathematics achievement and attitudinal effects of three instructional methods directed in varying degrees toward accommodating diversity in students' prior achievement. Two randomized field experiments of 16 and 18 weeks' duration, respectively, compared an individualized model, Team Assisted Individualization (TAI); an…

  4. Status Effects in Group Problem Solving: Group and Individual Level Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming

    Eighty ninth graders who solved an algebra problem in groups of four showed status effects at the individual level. The students had filled out preactivity questionnaires about mathematical status and social status and a postactivity leadership questionnaire. Hierarchical regressions and path analyses show that, at the group level, solution score…

  5. Contaminant effect endpoints in terrestrial vertebrates at and above the individual level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Golden, N.H.; Albers, P.H.; Heinz, G.H.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Use of biochemical, physiological, anatomical, reproductive and behavioral characteristics of wild terrestrial vertebrates to assess contaminant exposure and effects has become commonplace over the past 3 decades. At the level of the individual organism, response patterns have been associated with and sometimes causally linked to contaminant exposure. However, such responses at the organismal level are rarely associated with or causally linked to effects at the population level. Although the ultimate goal of ecotoxicology is the protection of populations, communities, and ecosystems, most of the existing science and regulatory legislation focus on the level of the individual. Consequently, much of this overview concentrates on contaminant effects at the organismal level, with some extrapolation to higher-level effects. In this chapter, we review the state of the science for the evaluation of biotic end-points used to assess contaminant exposure and effects at or above the level of the individual. In addition, we describe extant contaminant concentration thresholds, guidelines, or standards (toxicant criteria) in environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil, sediment, foods) that have been developed to protect wild terrestrial vertebrates. Suggestions are provided to develop and embellish the use and value of such endpoints and criteria for extrapolation of effects to higher levels of biological organization. Increasing focus on populations, communities, and ecosystems is needed to develop biologically meaningful regulatory guidelines that will protect natural resources.

  6. The Effects of Contextual and Individual Level Factors on Chinese Adults’ Attitudes towards Social Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we describe Chinese adults’ attitudes towards three specific aspects of social environments: local government performance, severity of major social issues, and social trust. We further explore how county level contextual factors and personal experiences relate to subjective social environments, while controlling for individual demographics. On average, Chinese adults in the CFPS endorsed moderately positive ratings for their local governments, but perceived high severities in various social issues, ranking economic inequality as the most severe. A moderate level of generalized trust (54%) was found, together with very high trust in parents and very low trust in Americans and strangers. Further analyses revealed that variations in subjective social environments at the prefectural level were relatively small compared with individual level variations. At the individual level, personal experiences such as perceived unfair treatment showed consistently negative effects on how people evaluated their social environments. At the contextual level, employment rates appeared more influential than other studied factors. Regional economic inequality, as indicated by prefectural Gini, was not associated with most studied outcomes. PMID:25893142

  7. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child's Gross Motor Coordination Development.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child's motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  8. Effects of subchronic exposure to glyphosate in juvenile oysters (Crassostrea gigas): From molecular to individual levels.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Antoine; Séguin, Alexis; Devos, Alexandre; Pabic, Charles Le; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean Marc; Serpentini, Antoine; Fievet, Bruno; Costil, Katherine

    2015-06-30

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used and can be measured in aquatic ecosystems, including coastal waters. The effect of glyphosate on non-target organisms is an issue of worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to glyphosate in juvenile oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Yearling oysters were exposed to three concentrations of glyphosate (0.1, 1 and 100μgL(-1)) for 56days. Various endpoints were studied, from the individual level (e.g., gametogenesis and tissue alterations) to the molecular level (mRNA quantification), including biochemical endpoints such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities and malondialdehyde content. No mortality and growth occurred during the experiment, and individual biomarkers revealed only slight effects. The levels of gene expression significantly increased in oysters exposed to the highest glyphosate concentration (GST and metallothioneins) or to all concentrations (multi-xenobiotic resistance). These results suggested an activation of defence mechanisms at the molecular level.

  9. Effect of vitamin A administration on free radicals and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Patlar, Suleyman; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to explore the effect of vitamin A administration on Free Radicals production and antioxidant system activity and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion The study registered 10 healthy sedentary males their mean age was 22,85±0,26 years. The subjects were orally administrated with 300 mg vitamin A (retinol) for 4 weeks and engaged in strenuous exercise (using the Bruce protocol) once a week. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at four different times, before and after the supplementation and before and after exercise to analyze Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels using colorimetric ELISA test kits and plasma lactate levels using an autoanalyzer. Exhaustion exercise leaded to an increase in both MDA, NO, and lactate, and GSH, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD levels compared to resting levels both before and after supplementation (p<0.05). Increased NO levels found in pre-supplementation exhaustion showed a significant decrease after the supplementation of vitamin A (p<0.05), but the other parameters were not changed after vitamin A administration. The results of our study demonstrate that the increase caused by 4-week strenuous exercise in the levels of the free radical NO was offset by vitamin A supplementation. It can be suggested that supplementation of vitamin A at physiological doses has a limited effect on lipid peroxidation caused by strenuous exercise.

  10. Effects of matrix heterogeneity on animal dispersal: from individual behavior to metapopulation-level parameters.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Eloy; Wiegand, Thorsten; Palomares, Francisco; Ferreras, Pablo; Delibes, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Mounting theoretical and empirical evidence shows that matrix heterogeneity may have contrasting effects on metapopulation dynamics by contributing to patch isolation in nontrivial ways. We analyze the movement properties during interpatch dispersal in a metapopulation of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). On a daily temporal scale, lynx habitat selection defines two types of matrix habitats where individuals may move: open and dispersal habitats (avoided and used as available, respectively). There was a strong and complex impact of matrix heterogeneity on movement properties at several temporal scales (hourly and daily radiolocations and the entire dispersal event). We use the movement properties on the hourly temporal scale to build a simulation model to reconstruct individual dispersal events. The two most important parameters affecting model predictions at both the individual (daily) and metapopulation scales were related to the movement capacity (number of movement steps per day and autocorrelation in dispersal habitat) followed by the parameters representing the habitat selection in the matrix. The model adequately reproduced field estimates of population-level parameters (e.g., interpatch connectivity, maximum and final dispersal distances), and its performance was clearly improved when including the effect of matrix heterogeneity on movement properties. To assume there is a homogeneous matrix results in large errors in the estimate of interpatch connectivity, especially for close patches separated by open habitat or corridors of dispersal habitat, showing how important it is to consider matrix heterogeneity when it is present. Movement properties affect the interaction of dispersing individuals with the landscape and can be used as a mechanistic representation of dispersal at the metapopulation level. This is so when the effect of matrix heterogeneity on movement properties is evaluated under biologically meaningful spatial and temporal scales.

  11. Effects of the polycyclic musk HHCB on individual- and population-level endpoints in Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Signe; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, Daniel; Forbes, Valery

    2009-05-01

    Although the polycyclic musk 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) is frequently detected in aquatic sediments, very little is known about its effects on sediment-feeding organisms. Effects of sediment-associated HHCB on growth, feeding rate, survival and reproduction in the gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum were measured in the laboratory. Snails were exposed to six nominal HHCB concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 and 100microg g(-1) dry weight (dw) sediment. Adult survival and growth were not affected by HHCB. However, juvenile growth and survival, reproduction, time to first reproduction and adult feeding rate were more sensitive endpoints and declined with increasing HHCB concentration. Individual-level endpoints for P. antipodarum were integrated into a population model to investigate the effects of HHCB on population growth rate. Under otherwise favorable laboratory conditions, population growth rate was slightly (by ca. 2%), but not significantly, reduced with increasing HHCB exposure concentration. Model simulations were performed to explore the consequences of HHCB exposure under more ecologically realistic conditions (i.e., survival and reproduction of unexposed snails were markedly reduced relative to the laboratory). The results suggest that despite detectable effects of HHCB on individual-level endpoints measured in the laboratory, impacts on population dynamics of this deposit feeder are not likely to occur at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations.

  12. Effects of chronic low level lead exposure on the physiology of individually identifiable neurons.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T

    1983-01-01

    Although chronic exposure to lead has been correlated with a variety of behavioral and neurochemical deficits in humans and other mammals, little is known of the mechanisms of action of chronic lead at the level of the individual nerve cell. We have used the individually identifiable neurons of the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a model system to investigate the effects of chronic low level (5 microM) lead exposure on neuronal physiology. Thirteen neuronal parameters were measured with intracellular microelectrode recording in each of six different identifiable neurons or homogeneous neuron clusters. Results were analyzed by a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). MANOVA analysis indicates that there is a significant overall effect of lead exposure (p = 0.0001) and a significant interaction between lead and neuron type (p = 0.01). In most neuron types, chronic lead causes an increase in the resting potential, a slowing of recovery of the membrane potential after the undershoot of a spike, a decrease in spontaneous spiking activity, and a decrease in the input resistance. Lead also has differential effects on identifiable neurons, depressing excitability in some neuron types while not altering excitability in others.

  13. Effects of Individual Physician-Level and Practice-Level Financial Incentives on Hypertension Care: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Laura A.; Simpson, Kate; Pietz, Kenneth; Urech, Tracy H.; Hysong, Sylvia J.; Profit, Jochen; Conrad, Douglas A.; Dudley, R. Adams; Woodard, LeChauncy D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Pay for performance is intended to align incentives to promote high quality care, but results have been contradictory. Objective To test the effect of explicit financial incentives to reward guideline-recommended hypertension care. Design, Setting, and Participants Cluster randomized controlled trial of 12 Veterans Affairs hospital-based outpatient clinics with five performance periods and a 12-month washout. We enrolled 83 primary care physicians and 42 non-physician personnel (e.g., nurses, pharmacists) working with physicians to deliver hypertension care. Interventions Clinics randomized to one of four groups: physician-level (individual) incentives; practice-level incentives; individual- plus practice-level incentives (combined); or none. Intervention participants received up to five payments every four months; all participants could access feedback reports. Main outcome measures For each four-month period, the number of hypertensive patients among a random sample who achieved guideline-recommended blood pressure thresholds or received an appropriate response to uncontrolled blood pressure; and/or been prescribed guideline-recommended medications and the number who developed hypotension. Results Mean (standard deviation) total payments over the study were $4,270 ($459), $2,672 ($153), and $1,648 ($248) for the combined, individual, and practice-level interventions, respectively. The adjusted change over the study in patients meeting the combined blood pressure/appropriate response measure was 8.84 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.20–11.80) for the individual-level, 3.70 (95% CI, 0.24–7.68) for the practice-level, 5.54 (95% CI, 1.92–9.52) for the combined, and 0.47 (95% CI, −3.12–4.04) for the control groups. For medications, the change was 9.07 (95% CI, 4.52–13.44), 4.98 (95% CI, 0.64–10.08), 7.26 (95% CI, 2.92–12.48), and 4.35 (95% CI, −0.28–9.28) percentage points, respectively. The adjusted estimated

  14. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  15. Psychosocial effects of an Ebola outbreak at individual, community and international levels

    PubMed Central

    Basnayake, Anoma; Wurie, Fatou; Jambai, Musu; Koroma, Alimamy Sultan; Muana, Andrew T; Hann, Katrina; Eaton, Julian; Martin, Steven; Nellums, Laura B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2013–2016 Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone was the worst in history with over 28 000 cases and 11 000 deaths. Here we examine the psychosocial consequences of the epidemic. Ebola is a traumatic illness both in terms of symptom severity and mortality rates. Those affected are likely to experience psychological effects due to the traumatic course of the infection, fear of death and experience of witnessing others dying. Survivors can also experience psychosocial consequences due to feelings of shame or guilt (e.g. from transmitting infection to others) and stigmatization or blame from their communities. At the community level, a cyclical pattern of fear occurs, with a loss of trust in health services and stigma, resulting in disruptions of community interactions and community break down. Health systems in affected countries were severely disrupted and overstretched by the outbreak and their capacities were significantly reduced as almost 900 health-care workers were infected with Ebola and more than 500 died. The outbreak resulted in an increased need for health services, reduced quality of life and economic productivity and social system break down. It is essential that the global response to the outbreak considers both acute and long-term psychosocial needs of individuals and communities. Response efforts should involve communities to address psychosocial need, to rebuild health systems and trust and to limit stigma. The severity of this epidemic and its long-lasting repercussions should spur investment in and development of health systems. PMID:26966332

  16. Psychosocial effects of an Ebola outbreak at individual, community and international levels.

    PubMed

    Van Bortel, Tine; Basnayake, Anoma; Wurie, Fatou; Jambai, Musu; Koroma, Alimamy Sultan; Muana, Andrew T; Hann, Katrina; Eaton, Julian; Martin, Steven; Nellums, Laura B

    2016-03-01

    The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone was the worst in history with over 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. Here we examine the psychosocial consequences of the epidemic. Ebola is a traumatic illness both in terms of symptom severity and mortality rates. Those affected are likely to experience psychological effects due to the traumatic course of the infection, fear of death and experience of witnessing others dying. Survivors can also experience psychosocial consequences due to feelings of shame or guilt (e.g. from transmitting infection to others) and stigmatization or blame from their communities. At the community level, a cyclical pattern of fear occurs, with a loss of trust in health services and stigma, resulting in disruptions of community interactions and community break down. Health systems in affected countries were severely disrupted and overstretched by the outbreak and their capacities were significantly reduced as almost 900 health-care workers were infected with Ebola and more than 500 died. The outbreak resulted in an increased need for health services, reduced quality of life and economic productivity and social system break down. It is essential that the global response to the outbreak considers both acute and long-term psychosocial needs of individuals and communities. Response efforts should involve communities to address psychosocial need, to rebuild health systems and trust and to limit stigma. The severity of this epidemic and its long-lasting repercussions should spur investment in and development of health systems.

  17. Individual, population and community level effects of subtle anthropogenic contamination in estuarine meiobenthos.

    PubMed

    Rubal, Marcos; Guilhermino, Lúcia M; Medina, Matías H

    2009-10-01

    The study presented here searched for the level of taxonomic resolution required to detect the effects of low-level chronic pollution on estuarine meiobenthic communities. Meiofauna from two sites, with special attention to harpacticoid copepods, was analysed at different taxonomic levels of aggregation using uni- and multivariate methods. Adaptation processes that could buffer biodiversity disruptions were also considered through the analysis of fitness-related and tolerance traits in the harpacticoid copepod Paronychocamptus nanus. Results showed that uni- and multivariate analyses could be inadequate when assessing subtle anthropogenic contamination. Instead, the assessment of inter-population differences in tolerance to the main source of stress rises as a required procedure if potential effects of this type of contamination are being investigated. Specifically, a 96 h acute toxicity test performed with populations from the affected site appears as a faster and reliable general tool to assess impacts of low-level chronic pollution in estuaries.

  18. Ten-Year Trend in SES Effects on Reading Achievement at School and Individual Levels: A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang-Hansen, Kajsa

    2008-01-01

    This study examined changes in the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on reading achievement at individual and school levels between 1991 and 2001. Data from 9 countries that participated in both the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Reading Literacy Study 1991 and the Trend Study in the Progress in…

  19. Explaining the Muslim employment gap in Western Europe: individual-level effects and ethno-religious penalties.

    PubMed

    Connor, Phillip; Koenig, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    It is well-documented that Muslims experience economic disadvantages in Western European labor markets. However, few studies comprehensively test individual-level explanations for the Muslim employment gap. Using data from the European Social Survey, this research note briefly examines the role of individual-level differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in mediating employment differences. Results reveal that human capital, migration background, religiosity, cultural values, and perceptions of discrimination jointly account for about 40% of the employment variance between Muslims and non-Muslims. Model specifications for first- and second-generation Muslim immigrants reveal a similar pattern, with migration background and perceived discrimination being of key relevance in mediating employment difference. While individual-level effects are indeed relevant, unexplained variance suggests that symbolic boundaries against Islam may still translate into tangible ethno-religious penalties.

  20. Domain Knowledge and Individual Interest: The Effects of Academic Level and Specialization in Statistics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Kimberly A.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous research studies have highlighted the significant impact of domain knowledge and individual interest on learning. However, much of this prior research has neglected several important issues regarding the dynamic interplay of domain knowledge and individual interest both within and between domains as well as across developmental stages of…

  1. Effects of seed abundance on seed scatter-hoarding of Edward's rat (Leopoldamys edwardsi Muridae) at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmao; Cheng, Jinrui; Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Zhibin

    2008-11-01

    Mast seeding is a common phenomenon, and has important effects on seed dispersal and hoarding by animals. At population level, the predator satiation hypothesis proposes that the satiating effect of a large amount of seeds on a relatively small number of predators benefits seed survival in mast-seeding years. However, the effect of mast seeding on the scatter-hoarding of rodents at the individual level is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed abundance (by simulating mast seeding and non-mast seeding) on the removal, consumption and scatter-hoarding of seeds of Camellia oleifera (Theaceae) by Edward's rat Leopoldamys edwardsi (Muridae) in seminatural enclosures in southwest China. We wanted to test the masting-enhanced hoarding hypothesis, which suggests that rodents tend to scatter-hoard more seeds in mast-seeding years in order to occupy more food resources. Our results indicate that L. edwardsi tended to disperse and scatter-hoard more seeds of C. oleifera per night with increasing seed abundance, and to eat less seeds per night when there was a high level of seed abundance in the enclosure experiments. These results support the masting-enhanced hoarding hypothesis. This capacity of rodents may be an evolutionary adaptation to the mast-seeding phenomenon. Our results suggest that mast seeding benefits forest regeneration not only through the predator satiation effect at the population level, but also through increased hoarding by animals at the individual level.

  2. Racial Bullying and Victimization in Canadian School-Aged Children: Individual and School Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larochette, Anne-Claire; Murphy, Ashley Nicole; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous individual factors, including race, have been identified to date that may place children at risk for bullying involvement. The importance of the school's environment on bullying behaviours has also been highlighted, as the majority of bullying occurs at school. The variables associated with racial bullying and victimization, however, have…

  3. Determining mercury levels in anchovy and in individuals with different fish consumption habits, together with their neurological effects.

    PubMed

    Çamur, Derya; Güler, Çağatay; Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Özdilek, Betül

    2016-07-01

    An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul. Mercury levels in samples were measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Participants were examined neurologically and mini mental state examination was applied to evaluate their cognitive functions. Mercury levels in fish were found to be below the national and international permitted levels. There was no statistically significant relation between mercury levels and the sea from which fish were caught. Hair mercury levels for all participants were within permitted ranges. However, hair mercury levels in both cities increased significantly with amount and frequency of fish consumption. A significant correlation was determined at correlation analysis between levels of fish consumption and hair mercury levels in the fishmongers and in the entire group (r = 0.32, p = 0.025; r = 0.23, p = 0.023, respectively). Neurological examination results were normal, except for a decrease in deep tendon reflexes in some participants in both cities. There was no correlation between Standardized Mini Mental State Examination results and hair mercury levels. We conclude that establishing a monitoring system for mercury levels in fish and humans will be useful in terms of evaluating potential neurotoxic effects.

  4. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities. PMID:26264007

  5. Energy Drink vs. Coffee: The Effects on Levels of Alertness in Fatigued Individuals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    supplements , and energy drinks. Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of caffeine to increase alertness and improve cognitive... supplements , and energy drinks. Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of caffeine to increase alertness and improve cognitive performance in...countermeasure. Caffeine is commonly found in coffee, soft drinks, tea, gum, supplements , and energy drinks. Multiple studies have demonstrated the

  6. INDIVIDUAL EFFECTS OF ESTROGENS ON A MARINE FISH, CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS), EXTRAPOLATED TO POPULATION LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment may alter the population dynamics of wildlife by affecting reproductive output. This study describes a matrix modeling approach to link laboratory studies on endocrine disruption with potential ecological effects. The exper...

  7. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages

    PubMed Central

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; III, Richard Kelly; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague–Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system. PMID:26817976

  8. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; Kelly, Richard; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system.

  9. Ascertaining effects of nanoscale polymeric interfaces on competitive protein adsorption at the individual protein level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Xie, Tian; Ravensbergen, Kristina; Hahm, Jong-In

    2016-02-01

    With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those occurring in a competitive adsorption environment. Complex sequences of adhesion events in competitive adsorption involving multicomponent protein systems have been extensively investigated, but our understanding is still limited primarily to macroscopic adhesion onto chemically simple surfaces. We examine the competitive adsorption behavior from a binary protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen at the single protein level. We subsequently evaluate a series of adsorption and displacement processes occurring on both the macroscopic homopolymer and nanoscopic diblock copolymer surfaces, while systematically varying the protein concentration and incubation time. We identify the similarities and dissimilarities in competitive protein adsorption behavior between the two polymeric surfaces, the former presenting chemical uniformity at macroscale versus the latter exhibiting periodic nanointerfaces of chemically alternating polymeric segments. We then present our novel experimental finding of a large increase in the nanointerface-engaged residence time of the initially bound proteins and further explain the origin of this phenomenon manifested on nanoscale diblock copolymer surfaces. The outcomes of this study may provide timely insight into nanoscale competitive protein adsorption that is much needed in designing bioimplant and tissue engineering materials. In addition, the fundamental understanding gained from this study can be beneficial for the development of highly miniaturized biodevices and biomaterials fabricated by using nanoscale polymeric materials and interfaces.With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those

  10. Effect of hearing aid release time and presentation level on speech perception in noise in elderly individuals with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pottackal Mathai, Jijo; Mohammed, Hasheem

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of compression time settings and presentation levels on speech perception in noise for elderly individuals with hearing loss. To compare aided speech perception performance in these individuals with age-matched normal hearing subjects. Twenty (normal hearing) participants within the age range of 60-68 years and 20 (mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss) in the age range of 60-70 years were randomly recruited for the study. In the former group, SNR-50 was determined using phonetically balanced sentences that were mixed with speech-shaped noise presented at the most comfortable level. In the SNHL group, aided SNR-50 was determined at three different presentation levels (40, 60, and 80 dB HL) after fitting binaural hearing aids that had different compression time settings (fast and slow). In the SNHL group, slow compression time settings showed significantly better SNR-50 compared to fast release time. In addition, the mean of SNR-50 in the SNHL group was comparable to normal hearing participants while using a slow release time. A hearing aid with slow compression time settings led to significantly better speech perception in noise, compared to that of a hearing aid that had fast compression time settings.

  11. Effect of ethnicity on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Priscila Aparecida Correa; Gross, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Disparities in HbA1c levels have been observed among ethnic groups. Most studies were performed in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), which may interfere with results due to the high variability of glucose levels. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of ethnicity on HbA1c levels in individuals without DM. Methods This is a systematic review with meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 2016. Studies published after 1996, performed in adults without DM, reporting HbA1c results measured by certified/standardized methods were included. A random effects model was used and the effect size was presented as weighted HbA1c mean difference (95% CI) between different ethnicities as compared to White ethnicity. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, totalling data from 49,238 individuals. There were significant differences between HbA1c levels in Blacks [0.26% (2.8 mmol/mol); 95% CI 0.18 to 0.33 (2.0 to 3.6), p <0.001; I2 = 90%, p <0.001], Asians [0.24% (2.6 mmol/mol); 95% CI 0.16 to 0.33 (1.7 to 3.6), p <0.001; I2 = 80%, p = 0.0006] and Latinos [0.08% (0.9 mmol/mol); IC 95% 0.06 to 0.10 (0.7 to 1.1); p <0.001; I2 = 0%; p = 0.72] when compared to Whites. Conclusions/Interpretation This meta-analysis shows that, in individuals without DM, HbA1c values are higher in Blacks, Asians, and Latinos when compared to White persons. Although small, these differences might have impact on the use of a sole HbA1c point to diagnose DM in all ethnic populations. PMID:28192447

  12. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed.

  13. Modeling contextual effects using individual-level data and without aggregation: an illustration of multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) with collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Masyn, Katherine E; Johnston, William R; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Population health scientists increasingly study how contextual-level attributes affect individual health. A major challenge in this domain relates to measurement, i.e., how best to measure and create variables that capture characteristics of individuals and their embedded contexts. This paper presents an illustration of multilevel factor analysis (MLFA), an analytic method that enables researchers to model contextual effects using individual-level data without using derived variables. MLFA uses the shared variance in sets of observed items among individuals within the same context to estimate a measurement model for latent constructs; it does this by decomposing the total sample variance-covariance matrix into within-group (e.g., individual-level) and between-group (e.g., contextual-level) matrices and simultaneously modeling distinct latent factor structures at each level. We illustrate the MLFA method using items capturing collective efficacy, which were self-reported by 2,599 adults in 65 census tracts from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS). MLFA identified two latent factors at the individual level and one factor at the neighborhood level. Indicators of collective efficacy performed differently at each level. The ability of MLFA to identify different latent factor structures at each level underscores the utility of this analytic tool to model and identify attributes of contexts relevant to health.

  14. Variation in cadmium uptake, feeding rate, and life-history effects in the gastropod potamopyrgus antipodarum: linking toxicant effects on individuals to the population level.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A; Forbes, V E; Parker, E D

    2001-11-01

    A life-table response experiment was performed to investigate the effects of sediment-bound cadmium on individual life-history traits and feeding rates of four clones of Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Demographic effects were evaluated using a simple two-stage model to estimate population growth rate (lambda). Decomposition analysis was performed to investigate the contributions of each of the affected life-history traits to the effects observed on lambda, and elasticity analysis was applied to examine the relative sensitivity of lambda to changes in each of the life-history traits. Interclonal differences in tolerance to sediment-bound cadmium were statistically significant but were within an order of magnitude. There were no consistent patterns among clones in terms of which individual life-history trait was most or least sensitive to cadmium exposure. The relative performance of clones did not rank consistently across the cadmium gradient and was dependent on which trait was measured. Although lambda was most sensitive to changes in survival terms, the effects of cadmium on time to first reproduction and reproductive output were the major causes of reductions in lambda. Large percent reductions in some of the individual life-history traits were attenuated at the population level, but very small effects on population growth rate were statistically significant.

  15. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Edward; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin; Lau, John; Beckmann, Jens F.; Cripps, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine whether the patterns of within-person responses on a 12-trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999). ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiraling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of processes at the level of the individual, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques. PMID:27486415

  16. A pilot study on the effect of cognitive training on BDNF serum levels in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Angelucci, Francesco; Peppe, Antonella; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.; Serafini, Francesca; Zabberoni, Silvia; Barban, Francesco; Shofany, Jacob; Caltagirone, Carlo; Costa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, besides motor dysfunctions, may also display mild cognitive deficits (MCI) which increase with disease progression. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and in the regulation of synaptic connectivity. Moreover, the brain and peripheral level of this protein may be significantly reduced in PD patients. These data suggest that a cognitive rehabilitation protocol aimed at restoring cognitive deficits in PD patients may also involve changes in this neurotrophin. Thus, in this pilot study we evaluated the effect of a cognitive rehabilitation protocol focused on the training of executive functioning and measured BDNF serum levels in a group of PD patients with mild cognitive impairment, as compared to the effect of a placebo treatment (n = 7/8 group). The results showed that PD patients undergoing the cognitive rehabilitation, besides improving their cognitive performance as measured with the Zoo Map Test, also displayed increased serum BDNF levels as compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that BDNF serum levels may represent a biomarker of the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in PD patients affected by MCI. However, the functional significance of this increase in PD as well as other neuropathological conditions remains to be determined. PMID:25852518

  17. The Effects of a Discriminative Stimulus, Paired with Individual and Group Reward Contingencies, on the Decibel Levels in an Elementary School Lunch Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Bryan; Alexander, Melina; Edmonson, Claudia; Stenhoff, Donald; West, Richard P.

    A study examined the effects of using a musical clocklight as discriminative stimulus, paired with individual and group contingency rewards, on the decibel level in an elementary school lunchroom. Subjects were 256 students aged 5-12, who ate lunch in two sessions for younger and older students. The musical clocklight (MCL) apparatus consisted of…

  18. Does industry take the susceptible subpopulation of asthmatic individuals into consideration when setting derived no-effect levels?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Mia K V; Johanson, Gunnar; Öberg, Mattias; Schenk, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, can be aggravated by exposure to certain chemical irritants. The objectives were first to investigate the extent to which experimental observations on asthmatic subjects are taken into consideration in connection with the registration process under the EU REACH regulation, and second, to determine whether asthmatics are provided adequate protection by the derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for acute inhalation exposure. We identified substances for which experimental data on the pulmonary functions of asthmatics exposed to chemicals under controlled conditions are available. The effect concentrations were then compared with DNELs and other guideline and limit values. As of April 2015, only 2.6% of 269 classified irritants had available experimental data on asthmatics. Fourteen of the 22 identified substances with available data were fully registered under REACH and we retrieved 114 reliable studies related to these. Sixty-three of these studies, involving nine of the 14 substances, were cited by the REACH registrants. However, only 17 of the 114 studies, involving four substances, were regarded as key studies. Furthermore, many of the DNELs for acute inhalation were higher than estimated effect levels for asthmatics, i.e., lowest observed adverse effect concentrations or no-observed adverse effect concentrations, indicating low or no safety margin. We conclude that REACH registrants tend to disregard findings on asthmatics when deriving these DNELs. In addition, we found examples of DNELs, particularly among those derived for workers, which likely do not provide adequate protection for asthmatics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Does industry take the susceptible subpopulation of asthmatic individuals into consideration when setting derived no‐effect levels?

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mia K. V.; Johanson, Gunnar; Öberg, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, can be aggravated by exposure to certain chemical irritants. The objectives were first to investigate the extent to which experimental observations on asthmatic subjects are taken into consideration in connection with the registration process under the EU REACH regulation, and second, to determine whether asthmatics are provided adequate protection by the derived no‐effect levels (DNELs) for acute inhalation exposure. We identified substances for which experimental data on the pulmonary functions of asthmatics exposed to chemicals under controlled conditions are available. The effect concentrations were then compared with DNELs and other guideline and limit values. As of April 2015, only 2.6% of 269 classified irritants had available experimental data on asthmatics. Fourteen of the 22 identified substances with available data were fully registered under REACH and we retrieved 114 reliable studies related to these. Sixty‐three of these studies, involving nine of the 14 substances, were cited by the REACH registrants. However, only 17 of the 114 studies, involving four substances, were regarded as key studies. Furthermore, many of the DNELs for acute inhalation were higher than estimated effect levels for asthmatics, i.e., lowest observed adverse effect concentrations or no‐observed adverse effect concentrations, indicating low or no safety margin. We conclude that REACH registrants tend to disregard findings on asthmatics when deriving these DNELs. In addition, we found examples of DNELs, particularly among those derived for workers, which likely do not provide adequate protection for asthmatics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27283874

  20. Effect of Peer Nominations of Teacher-Student Support at Individual and Classroom Levels on Social and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students’ individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students’ peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students’ peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students’ academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers’ perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children’s social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:24930822

  1. Effect of peer nominations of teacher-student support at individual and classroom levels on social and academic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E

    2014-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students' peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students' academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers' perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children's social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed.

  2. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals’ experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone

  3. Error propagation models to examine the effects of geocoding quality on spatial analysis of individual-level datasets.

    PubMed

    Zandbergen, P A; Hart, T C; Lenzer, K E; Camponovo, M E

    2012-04-01

    The quality of geocoding has received substantial attention in recent years. A synthesis of published studies shows that the positional errors of street geocoding are somewhat unique relative to those of other types of spatial data: (1) the magnitude of error varies strongly across urban-rural gradients; (2) the direction of error is not uniform, but strongly associated with the properties of local street segments; (3) the distribution of errors does not follow a normal distribution, but is highly skewed and characterized by a substantial number of very large error values; and (4) the magnitude of error is spatially autocorrelated and is related to properties of the reference data. This makes it difficult to employ analytic approaches or Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation modeling because these rely on generalized statistical characteristics. The current paper describes an alternative empirical approach to error propagation modeling for geocoded data and illustrates its implementation using three different case-studies of geocoded individual-level datasets. The first case-study consists of determining the land cover categories associated with geocoded addresses using a point-in-raster overlay. The second case-study consists of a local hotspot characterization using kernel density analysis of geocoded addresses. The third case-study consists of a spatial data aggregation using enumeration areas of varying spatial resolution. For each case-study a high quality reference scenario based on address points forms the basis for the analysis, which is then compared to the result of various street geocoding techniques. Results show that the unique nature of the positional error of street geocoding introduces substantial noise in the result of spatial analysis, including a substantial amount of bias for some analysis scenarios. This confirms findings from earlier studies, but expands these to a wider range of analytical techniques.

  4. Antidepressant Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy Unrelated to the Brain's Functional Network Connectivity alterations at an Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Dong; Ji, Feng; Li, Gong-Ying; Lyu, Bo-Xuan; Hu, Wei; Zhuo, Chuan-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can alleviate the symptoms of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Functional network connectivity (FNC) is a newly developed method to investigate the brain's functional connectivity patterns. The first aim of this study was to investigate FNC alterations between TRD patients and healthy controls. The second aim was to explore the relationship between the ECT treatment response and pre-ECT treatment FNC alterations in individual TRD patients. Methods: This study included 82 TRD patients and 41 controls. Patients were screened at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment with a combination of ECT and antidepressants. Group information guided-independent component analysis (GIG-ICA) was used to compute subject-specific functional networks (FNs). Grassmann manifold and step-wise forward component selection using support vector machines were adopted to perform the FNC measure and extract the functional networks' connectivity patterns (FCP). Pearson's correlation analysis was used to calculate the correlations between the FCP and ECT response. Results: A total of 82 TRD patients in the ECT group were successfully treated. On an average, 8.50 ± 2.00 ECT sessions were conducted. After ECT treatment, only 42 TRD patients had an improved response to ECT (the Hamilton scores reduction rate was more than 50%), response rate 51%. 8 FNs (anterior and posterior default mode network, bilateral frontoparietal network, audio network, visual network, dorsal attention network, and sensorimotor network) were obtained using GIG-ICA. We did not found that FCPs were significantly different between TRD patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the baseline FCP was unrelated to the ECT treatment response. Conclusions: The FNC was not significantly different between the TRD patients and healthy controls, and the baseline FCP was unrelated to the ECT treatment response. These findings will necessitate that we modify the experimental scheme to

  5. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal-level interventions at reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Bambra, C L; Cairns, J-M; Kasim, A; Moore, H J; Summerbell, C D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity are well established in high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence of the types of intervention that are effective in reducing these inequalities among adults. Objectives: To systematically review studies of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal interventions in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults. Methods: Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence (both experimental and observational) of interventions at an individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults (aged 18 years or over) in any setting and country. Studies were included if they reported a body fatness-related outcome and if they included a measure of socio-economic status. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The ‘best available' international evidence was provided by 20 studies. At the individual level, there was evidence of the effectiveness of primary care delivered tailored weight loss programmes among deprived groups. Community based behavioural weight loss interventions and community diet clubs (including workplace ones) also had some evidence of effectiveness—at least in the short term. Societal level evaluations were few, low quality and inconclusive. Further, there was little evidence of long term effectiveness, and few studies of men or outside the USA. However, there was no evidence to suggest that interventions increase inequalities. Conclusions: The best available international evidence suggests that some individual and community-based interventions may be effective in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults in the short term. Further research is required particularly of more complex, multi

  6. Effectiveness and sustainability of the ViSC Social Competence Program to prevent cyberbullying and cyber-victimization: Class and individual level moderators.

    PubMed

    Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the general anti-bullying program ViSC sustainably prevents cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. A longitudinal randomized control group design was used to examine (i) program effectiveness immediately after a 1 year implementation phase and (ii) sustainable program effects 6 months later taking several moderators on the class level (class climate and ethnic diversity) and on the individual level (gender, age, internet usage, traditional bullying/victimization) into account. Effectiveness (e.g., the change between waves 2 and 1) was examined in 2,042 students (47.6% girls), aged 11.7 years (SD = 0.88) enrolled in 18 schools and 103 classes. Sustainability (e.g., the change between waves 3 and 2) was examined in a sub-sample of 6 schools and 35 classes comprising 659 students. The self-assessment multiple-item scales showed longitudinal and multiple group invariance. Factor scores were extracted to compute difference scores for effectiveness (Posttest minus Pretest) and sustainability (Follow-up test minus Posttest) for cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. Multilevel Modeling was applied to examine (i) the effectiveness and (ii) the sustainability of the ViSC intervention controlling for several individual and class level variables. Controlling for covariates, it was demonstrated that the ViSC program is effective in preventing cyberbullying and cyber-victimization and that the effects are sustainable after 6 months. The consequences for cyberbullying prevention are discussed.

  7. LINKING INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL RESPONSES AND POPULATION-LEVEL CONSEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection of populations is at the heart of ecological risk assessment, yet most studies measure effects on individuals. In this chapter, we outline the need to enhance our ability to project and interpret the effect of stressors on natural populations and to manage risk mor...

  8. The Emergence of Family-specific Support Constructs: Cross-level Effects of Family-supportive Supervision and Family-Supportive Organization Perceptions on Individual Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rachel T; Matthews, Russell A; Walsh, Benjamin M

    2016-12-01

    Implicit to the definitions of both family-supportive supervision (FSS) and family-supportive organization perceptions (FSOP) is the argument that these constructs may manifest at a higher (e.g. group or organizational) level. In line with these conceptualizations, grounded in tenants of conservation of resources theory, we argue that FSS and FSOP, as universal resources, are emergent constructs at the organizational level, which have cross-level effects on work-family conflict and turnover intentions. To test our theoretically derived hypotheses, a multilevel model was examined in which FSS and FSOP at the unit level predict individual work-to-family conflict, which in turn predicts turnover intentions. Our hypothesized model was generally supported. Collectively, our results point to FSOP serving as an explanatory mechanism of the effects that mutual perceptions of FSS have on individual experiences of work-to-family conflict and turnover intentions. Lagged (i.e. overtime) cross-level effects of the model were also confirmed in supplementary analyses. Our results extend our theoretical understanding of FSS and FSOP by demonstrating the utility of conceptualizing them as universal resources, opening up a variety of avenues for future research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Selective toxin effects on faster and slower growing individuals in the formation of hormesis at the population level - A case study with Lactuca sativa and PCIB.

    PubMed

    Belz, Regina G; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-10-01

    Natural plant populations have large phenotypic plasticity that enhances acclimation to local stress factors such as toxin exposures. While consequences of high toxin exposures are well addressed, effects of low-dose toxin exposures on plant populations are seldom investigated. In particular, the importance of 'selective low-dose toxicity' and hormesis, i.e. stimulatory effects, has not been studied simultaneously. Since selective toxicity can change the size distribution of populations, we assumed that hormesis alters the size distribution at the population level, and investigated whether and how these two low-dose phenomena coexist. The study was conducted with Lactuca sativa L. exposed to the auxin-inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB) in vitro. In two separate experiments, L. sativa was exposed to 12 PCIB doses in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate). Shoot/root growth responses at the population level were compared to the fast-growing (≥90% percentile) and the slow-growing subpopulations (≤10% percentile) by Mann-Whitney U testing and dose-response modelling. In the formation of pronounced PCIB hormesis at the population level, low-dose effects proved selective, but widely stimulatory which seems to counteract low-dose selective toxicity. The selectivity of hormesis was dose- and growth rate-dependent. Stimulation occurred at lower concentrations and stimulation percentage was higher among slow-growing individuals, but partly or entirely masked at the population level by moderate or negligible stimulation among the faster growing individuals. We conclude that the hormetic effect up to the maximum stimulation may be primarily facilitated by an increase in size of the most slow-growing individuals, while thereafter it seems that mainly the fast-growing individuals contributed to the observed hormesis at the population level. As size distribution within a population is related to survival, our study hints that selective effects on slow

  10. Mediation and causality at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lars R

    2009-09-01

    Within a person-oriented research paradigm the focus is on individuals characterized by patterns of information that are regarded as indivisible wholes. It is then not sufficient to carry out standard variable-oriented mediation analysis. The procedure suggested by von Eye, Mun, and Mair (2009) for pattern-oriented mediation analysis is much better aligned to this person-oriented framework. An important new feature in their approach is that it can detect mediator configurations that prohibit predictor and outcome connections at a pattern level. Two extensions of their procedure are suggested, namely (1) the use of cluster analysis to arrive at the categories and (2) the use of other models for estimating the expected frequencies. It is pointed out that in their context a functional relations perspective might be more relevant than the standard causality perspective.

  11. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies.

  12. Type 2 diabetes in Asians: prevalence, risk factors, and effectiveness of behavioral intervention at individual and population levels.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mary Beth; Oza-Frank, Reena; Staimez, Lisa R; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2012-08-21

    This review summarizes the current data on diabetes risk factors, prevalence, and prevention efforts in Asia and Asian migrant populations. Studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a large and growing threat to public health in Asian populations. Furthermore, Asian subgroups (e.g., South Asians/Asian Indians, Chinese) have unique risk factor profiles for developing diabetes, which differ from other populations and between Asian ethnic groups. Lifestyle intervention programs are effective in preventing diabetes in Asians, as with other ethnicities. The strength of these findings is lessened by the lack of systematically collected data using objective measurements. Large epidemiologic studies of diabetes prevalence and risk factor profiles and translational trials identifying sustainable and culturally acceptable lifestyle programs for Asian subgroups are needed.

  13. Population Characteristics May Reduce the Levels of Individual Call Identity

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, María del Mar; Caferri, Eleonora; Méndez, Maria; Godoy, José A.; Campioni, Letizia; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo), we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success) among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1) similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2) high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other’s vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network. PMID:24204869

  14. Individual Innovativeness Levels of Educational Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coklar, Ahmet Naci

    2012-01-01

    In the present study carried out with 190 educational administrators, the individual innovativeness of educational administrators was examined. As a result of the study, it was found out that the educational administrators considered themselves as early adaptors. It was also revealed that professional seniority was not important in terms of…

  15. Individualized Instruction at Levels I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Gisela

    An experimental approach to individualized instruction in German 1 and 2, based on the A-LM series revised edition, is described. The program neither prescribes behavioral objectives nor requires contracting for work to be performed for specific grades. Procedures followed in the preparation of instructional materials are reviewed. Results of the…

  16. Effect of Folic Acid therapy on Homocysteine Level in patients with Atherosclerosis or Buerger’s Disease and in Healthy individuals: A clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Modaghegh, Mohammad Hadi Saeed; Ravari, Hassan; Haghighi, Mohammad Zare; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis and some other vascular diseases such as Buerger’s disease. Objective The aim of this study was to measure the Homocysteine levels in 3 different groups of participants (Buerger’s disease, atherosclerosis patients, and healthy cases) and determine the therapeutic effect of folic acid therapy on homocysteine levels for these three groups Methods This nonrandomized clinical trial study was conducted in the vascular and endovascular surgery research center of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Mashhad, Iran. This interventional study consisted of 44 participants of which 22 patients had Buerger’s disease and a control group of 22 healthy individuals, all of which were enrolled in this study. All of the study’s participants had their serum homocysteine levels measured both before and after 12 weeks of folic acid (5mg/day) therapy. The data analysis used fo data analysis was a Chi square and t-test or their non-parametrical equivalents for data analysis by means of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 Results The homocysteine levels were found to be significantly higher in patients with Buerger’s disease as compared to other groups before treatment with folic acid (Buerger = 21.8 ± 8.5 Mm/L, atherosclerosis = 17.3 ± 6.9, healthy = 13.8 ± 3.1; p < 0.001). After treatment with folic acid at 5 mg/daily for 12 weeks, the new plasma homocysteine levels did not show any significant difference (p = 0.38) between the Buerger’s disease group (14.6 ± 4.5 Mm/L) and atherosclerosis group (13.9 ± 4.7), but it was found to besignificantly higher in both groups when compared to the healthy group (10.7 ± 3.9, p<0.05). The plasma homocysteine level was reduced significantly when compared to its initial level in all 3 groups. The comparison of differences among three groups was found not to be significant (p=0.41) Conclusions It seems that supplementary

  17. Retrieval of effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area density (LAD) profile at individual tree level using high density multi-return airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; West, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    As an important canopy structure indicator, leaf area index (LAI) proved to be of considerable implications for forest ecosystem and ecological studies, and efficient techniques for accurate LAI acquisitions have long been highlighted. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), often termed as airborne laser scanning (ALS), once was extensively investigated for this task but showed limited performance due to its low sampling density. Now, ALS systems exhibit more competing capacities such as high density and multi-return sampling, and hence, people began to ask the questions like-"can ALS now work better on the task of LAI prediction?" As a re-examination, this study investigated the feasibility of LAI retrievals at the individual tree level based on high density and multi-return ALS, by directly considering the vertical distributions of laser points lying within each tree crown instead of by proposing feature variables such as quantiles involving laser point distribution modes at the plot level. The examination was operated in the case of four tree species (i.e. Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula and Quercus robur) in a mixed forest, with their LAI-related reference data collected by using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). In light of the differences between ALS- and TLS-based LAI characterizations, the methods of voxelization of 3D scattered laser points, effective LAI (LAIe) that does not distinguish branches from canopies and unified cumulative LAI (ucLAI) that is often used to characterize the vertical profiles of crown leaf area densities (LADs) was used; then, the relationships between the ALS- and TLS-derived LAIes were determined, and so did ucLAIs. Tests indicated that the tree-level LAIes for the four tree species can be estimated based on the used airborne LiDAR (R2 = 0.07, 0.26, 0.43 and 0.21, respectively) and their ucLAIs can also be derived. Overall, this study has validated the usage of the contemporary high density multi

  18. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ben P.; McKeown, Niall J.; Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W.; Small, Daniel P.; Moore, Pippa J.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories. PMID:26822220

  19. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben P; McKeown, Niall J; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W; Small, Daniel P; Moore, Pippa J

    2016-01-29

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories.

  20. Mixed treatment comparisons using aggregate and individual participant level data.

    PubMed

    Saramago, Pedro; Sutton, Alex J; Cooper, Nicola J; Manca, Andrea

    2012-12-10

    Mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) extend the traditional pair-wise meta-analytic framework to synthesize information on more than two interventions. Although most MTCs use aggregate data (AD), a proportion of the evidence base might be available at the individual level (IPD). We develop a series of novel Bayesian statistical MTC models to allow for the simultaneous synthesis of IPD and AD, potentially incorporating study and individual level covariates. The effectiveness of different interventions to increase the provision of functioning smoke alarms in households with children was used as a motivating dataset. This included 20 studies (11 AD and 9 IPD), including 11 500 participants. Incorporating the IPD into the network allowed the inclusion of information on subject level covariates, which produced markedly more accurate treatment-covariate interaction estimates than an analysis solely on the AD from all studies. Including evidence at the IPD level in the MTC is desirable when exploring participant level covariates; even when IPD is available only for a fraction of the studies. Such modelling may not only reduce inconsistencies within networks of trials but also assist the estimation of intervention subgroup effects to guide more individualised treatment decisions.

  1. Cultural Diversity in Online Learning: A Study of the Perceived Effects of Dissonance in Levels of Individualism/Collectivism and Tolerance of Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapanes, Marie A.; Smith, Glenn G.; White, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Online learning courses are hypothesized to be influenced by the instructors' and students' cultural values. This study collected survey data from online instructors and students to analyze the effects that Hofstede's individualism/collectivism and ambiguity (in)tolerance cultural dimensions exert on online courses offered from an…

  2. Effect of population breast screening on breast cancer mortality up to 2005 in England and Wales: an individual-level cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Louise E; Coleman, Derek A; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Moss, Susan M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Population breast screening has been implemented in the UK for over 25 years, but the size of benefit attributable to such programmes remains controversial. We have conducted the first individual-based cohort evaluation of population breast screening in the UK, to estimate the impact of the NHS breast screening programme (NHSBSP) on breast cancer mortality. Methods: We followed 988 090 women aged 49–64 years in 1991 resident in England and Wales, who because of the staggered implementation of the NHSBSP, included both invited subjects and an uninvited control group. Individual-level breast screening histories were linked to individual-level mortality and breast cancer incidence data from national registers. Risk of death from breast cancer was investigated by incidence-based mortality analyses in relation to intention to screen and first round attendance. Overdiagnosis of breast cancer following a single screening round was also investigated. Results: Invitation to NHSBSP screening was associated with a reduction in breast cancer mortality in 1991–2005 of 21% (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.73–0.84, P<0·001) after adjustment for age, socioeconomic status and lead-time. Breast cancer deaths among first invitation attenders were 46% lower than among non-attenders (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.51–0·57, P<0.001) and 32% lower following adjustment for age, socioeconomic status and self-selection bias (RR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.63–0·73, P<0.001). There was little evidence of overdiagnosis associated with invitation to first screen. Conclusions: The results indicate a substantial, statistically significant reduction in breast cancer mortality between 1991 and 2005 associated with NHSBSP activity. This is important in public health terms. PMID:27931047

  3. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement

    PubMed Central

    Füllemann, Désirée; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability within groups. Methods: Data of 1,219 employees nested in 103 work groups were obtained from a baseline employee survey of a large stress management intervention project implemented in six medium and large-sized organizations in diverse sectors. A variety of important job resources were assessed and grouped to an overall job resource factor with three subfactors (manager behavior, peer behavior, and task-related resources). Data were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling. Results: The results indicated that job resources cluster within work groups and can be aggregated to a group-level job resources construct. However, a resource-rich environment, indicated by high group-level job resources, did not additionally benefit employee work engagement but on the contrary, was negatively related to it. Conclusions: On the basis of this unexpected result, replication studies are encouraged and suggestions for future studies on possible underlying within-group processes are discussed. The study supports the presumed value of integrating work group as a relevant psychosocial environment into the motivational process and indicates a need to further investigate emergent processes involved in aggregation procedures across levels. PMID:27108639

  4. The independent contribution of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level socioeconomic position on attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel model of direct and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Uthman, Olalekan Abdulrahman; Moradi, Tahereh; Lawoko, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    We examined associations between country, neighbourhood, and individual socioeconomic position (SEP) and attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 165,983 women and 68,501 men nested within 7465 communities from 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected between 2003 and 2007. Contrary to expectation women were 34% more likely to justify IPVAW than men. We found that sex moderates associations of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVAW. There was a significant positive interaction effect between sex and education attainment; women with no education were more likely to justify IPVAW than men with no education. Negative sex interaction with household wealth status indicates that differences in attitude are less pronounced among women. Unemployed men were more likely to justify IPVAW. Interaction effects indicate that the association of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage with attitudes was more pronounced among women than among men. The association of country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVWA was inconclusive. There was some evidence that neighbourhood modified the association between individual SEP and attitudes towards IPV. Also, there was cross-level interaction between country and neighbourhood SEP. Neighbourhood and individual SEP were independently associated with attitudes towards IPVAW. The relationship with country-level SEP was inconclusive. The findings underscore the need to implement public health prevention/intervention strategies not only at the level of individual SEP but also at the neighbourhood level.

  5. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  6. Selection for fitness at the individual or population levels: modelling effects of genetic modifications in microalgae on productivity and environmental safety.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Kevin J; Greenwell, H Christopher; Lovitt, Robert W; Shields, Robin J

    2010-04-07

    A mechanistic model of microalgae is used to explore the implications of modifying microalgal chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency with an aim to optimising commercial biomass production. The models show the potential for a 10 fold increase in microalgae productivity in genetically modified versus unmodified configurations, while also enabling the use of bioreactors of greater optical depth operating at lower dilution rates. Analysis suggests that natural selection of a trait benefiting the individual (high Chl:C(max), i.e., high antennae size) conflicts with artificial selection of a trait (low Chl:C(max)) of most benefit to production at the population level. The implication is that GM strains rather than strains selected from nature will be most beneficial for commercial algal biofuels production. Further, escaped GM algae populations may, depending on the specific nature of the modification, be quickly out-competed by the natural forms because individually a high Chl:C is beneficial in low light environments. However, it remains possible that changes in biochemical composition associated with genetic modification of photosystem competence, or with other selection processes to enhance commercial gain, may adversely affect the value of such organisms as prey for zooplankton, leading to the unwanted generation of future harmful algae.

  7. Effect of the method to measure levels of glycated hemoglobin on individual clinical decisions: comparison of an immunoassay with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-Alcalá, Héctor; Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; Cedillo-Carvallo, Beatriz

    2009-09-01

    Our objective was to compare in a prospective study the clinical performance of the reference and an alternative method to measure blood levels of glycated hemoglobin. A total of 178 samples from patients with diabetes were tested by both methods, and results were analyzed for correlation and comparison of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to classify patients according to glycemic control. There was a significant linear correlation between methods (r = 0.645; P < .0001); the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the alternative method to identify patients with controlled and uncontrolled status were as follows: controlled, 88%, 78%, 77%, and 88%; and uncontrolled, 78%, 88%, 88%, and 77%, respectively. Results show that although the results of both methods show a statistically significant correlation, the ability of the alternative method to correctly classify individual patients according to glycemic control status is far from optimal.

  8. Effects of individual and combined exposure to sodium arsenite and sodium fluoride on tissue oxidative stress, arsenic and fluoride levels in male mice.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Megha; Flora, S J S

    2006-08-25

    Arsenic and fluoride are potent toxicants, widely distributed through drinking water and food and often result in adverse health effects. The present study examined the effects of sodium meta-arsenite (100 mg/l in drinking water) and sodium fluoride (5 mg/kg, oral, once daily), administered either alone or in combination for 8 weeks, on various biochemical variables indicative of tissue oxidative stress and cell injury in Swiss albino male mice. A separate group was first exposed to arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride exposure. Exposure to arsenic or fluoride led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by increased level of blood and tissues reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. An increase in the level of liver and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced GSH content were observed in both arsenic and fluoride administered mice. The changes were significantly more pronounced in arsenic exposed animals than in fluoride. It was interesting to observe that during combined exposure the toxic effects were less pronounced compared to the effects of arsenic or fluoride alone. In some cases antagonistic effects were noted following co-exposure to arsenic and fluoride. Arsenic and fluoride concentration increased significantly on exposure. Interestingly, their concentration decreased significantly on concomitant exposure for 8 weeks. However, the group which was administered arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride administration showed no such protection suggesting that the antagonistic effect of fluoride on arsenic or vice versa is possible only during interaction at the gastro intestinal sites. These results are new and interesting and require further exploration.

  9. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Kirkby, Nikolai; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce J.; Bardow, Allan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from 85 individuals with low levels of caries experience (healthy group) and 79 individuals with high levels of caries experience (caries group) were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbiome Identification Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique. Subsequently, saliva samples from caries-free individuals in the healthy group (n = 57) and the caries group (n = 31) were compared. A significantly higher α-diversity (p < 0.0001) and a twofold higher relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Fusobacterium were recorded in saliva samples from the healthy group compared with the caries group. Differences observed were more pronounced when limiting the analyses to caries-free individuals in each group. Data from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that low levels of caries experience might associate with a characteristic salivary bacterial composition different from that in individuals with high caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level. PMID:28326153

  10. A computational approach to studying ageing at the individual level

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Márcio A.; Schnell, Santiago; Pletcher, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The ageing process is actively regulated throughout an organism's life, but studying the rate of ageing in individuals is difficult with conventional methods. Consequently, ageing studies typically make biological inference based on population mortality rates, which often do not accurately reflect the probabilities of death at the individual level. To study the relationship between individual and population mortality rates, we integrated in vivo switch experiments with in silico stochastic simulations to elucidate how carefully designed experiments allow key aspects of individual ageing to be deduced from group mortality measurements. As our case study, we used the recent report demonstrating that pheromones of the opposite sex decrease lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster by reversibly increasing population mortality rates. We showed that the population mortality reversal following pheromone removal was almost surely occurring in individuals, albeit more slowly than suggested by population measures. Furthermore, heterogeneity among individuals due to the inherent stochasticity of behavioural interactions skewed population mortality rates in middle-age away from the individual-level trajectories of which they are comprised. This article exemplifies how computational models function as important predictive tools for designing wet-laboratory experiments to use population mortality rates to understand how genetic and environmental manipulations affect ageing in the individual. PMID:26865300

  11. Individual and combined effects of crude protein, methionine, and probiotic levels on laying hen productive performance and nitrogen pollution in the manure.

    PubMed

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Arif, Muhammad; Ashour, Elwy A

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the dietary levels of protein, methionine (Met), as well as probiotic on productive performance, feed utilization, and environmental pollution by N in Lohmann Brown laying hens. A total number of 160 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 20 weeks of age were randomly divided into 8 treatment groups using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design experiment. The experiment involved two levels of crude protein (16 and 18 %), two levels of Met (0.45 and 0.50 %), and two concentrations of probiotic (0 or 1 g/kg diet, with a concentration of 10(10) CFU/g of Lactobacillus acidophilus) within 20-42 weeks of age. Results revealed that egg production parameters were significantly (P < 0.01) improved for hens fed diets of 18 % CP comparing with that of 16 % protein within the period from 26 to 30 weeks of age. Protein utilization and feed efficiency values were enhanced with 0.67 and 0.72 % Met during the period of 26-30 weeks of the age. For the N pollution, results showed that increasing crude protein in the diet from 16 to 18 % caused significant (P < 0.01) increase in the excreted N from 0.349 to 0.492 g/d. The methionine level of 0.72 % recorded the highest values of total consumed N being 3.98 g/d and excreted N being 0.527 g/d comparing with the other levels. It could be concluded that the best productive performance could be given by using 0.72 % total sulfur amino acids (TSAA). Furthermore, the dietary level of 18 % CP with 0.72 % Met is preferred in feeding laying hens through the whole experimental period. Ecologically, reducing the level of crude protein in layer diets to be 16 % along with the supplementation of Met can play an important role in minimizing the pollution with N from poultry excretion.

  12. Where There Is a (Collective) Will, There Are (Effective) Ways: Integrating Individual- and Group-Level Factors in Explaining Humanitarian Collective Action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig; Reese, Gerhard; Berndsen, Mariette; Bliuc, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The 21st century has borne witness to catastrophic natural and human-induced tragedies. These disasters necessitate humanitarian responses; however, the individual and collective bases of support are not well understood. Drawing on Duncan's motivational model of collective action, we focus on how individual differences position a person to adopt group memberships and develop a "group consciousness" that provides the basis for humanitarian action. Longitudinal mediation analyses involving supporters of international humanitarian action (N = 384) sampled annually for 3 years provided support for the hypothesized model, with some twists. The results revealed that within time point, a set of individual differences (together, the "pro-social orientation") promoted a humanitarian group consciousness that, in turn, facilitated collective action. However, longitudinally, there was evidence that a more general pro-social orientation undermined subsequent identification with, and engagement in, the humanitarian cause. Results are discussed in terms of understanding the interplay between individual and group in collective actions.

  13. The Role of Hofstede's Individualism in National-Level Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Tiffany; Steel, G. Daniel; Fairweather, John

    2013-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that culture is a factor that influences creativity. The influence of culture on creativity is, however, relatively understudied and the majority of creativity research focuses on creativity at the level of the individual or organization. In this article, the relationship between Hofstede's cultural values…

  14. Artificial cybernetic living individuals based on supramolecular-level organization as dispersed individuals.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    One of the most characteristic features of spontaneously originating biological systems is that their most fundamental structure and especially functioning is based on molecular-level organization. This property is particularly important when natural living individuals composed of organic compounds of carbon are compared with (hypothetical) artificial living individuals based on metals, plastic, glass, silicon, and so on, whose most basic structural and functional units appear at the supramolecular level. The cybernetic definition of a living individual I proposed previously is used in the present work. I argue that artificial, supramolecular living individuals existing self-dependently in the environment of some distant planet must have the form of dispersed individuals composed of several separate subindividuals that are integrated functionally, but not structurally. These subindividuals would be analogous to such modules of human technical civilization as machines, robots, steelworks, chemical plants, electronic factories, power stations, and mines. Such dispersed individuals would resemble colonies of social insects and moles, which are also composed of separate subindividuals (particular insects and moles) carrying out different specialized functions.

  15. Productivity, individual-level and colony-level flexibility, and organization of work as consequences of colony size

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, István; Wenzel, John W.

    1998-01-01

    In social insects, colony-level complexity may emerge from simple individual-level behaviors and interactions. Emergent global properties such as colony size, which can be viewed as a consequence of life history traits, may influence individual-level behaviors themselves. The effects of colony size on productivity, body size, behavioral flexibility, and colony organization are examined here by considering colony size as an independent variable. Large colony size commonly corresponds with complex colony-level performance, small body size, and lower per capita productivity. Analyzing the construction behavior of various wasp societies reveals that complexity of individual behavior is inversely related to colony size. Parallel processing by specialists in large colonies provides flexible and efficient colony-level functioning. On the other hand, individual behavioral flexibility of jack-of-all trades workers ensures success of the small and early societies. PMID:9671735

  16. Effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home.

    PubMed

    Park, Heeok; Pringle Specht, Janet K

    2009-08-01

    This pilot study investigated the effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home. Fifteen individuals listened to their preferred music for 30 minutes prior to peak agitation time, two times per week for 2 weeks, followed by no music intervention for 2 weeks. The process was repeated once. The findings showed that mean agitation levels were significantly lower while listening to music than before listening to the music. The findings of this pilot study suggest the importance of music intervention for individuals with dementia who live at home.

  17. Quantifying purported competition with individual- and population-level metrics.

    PubMed

    Walters, Eric L; James, Frances C

    2010-12-01

    Competitive species interactions may contribute to population declines. Purportedly, Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus), a common species, and Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), an endangered species, compete for roosting and nesting cavities in living pine trees. To determine whether behavioral interactions measured at the individual level manifest themselves at the population level, we conducted field experiments designed to test whether the presence of Red-bellied Woodpeckers resulted in a decrease in fitness to Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. As part of a 4-year study examining the nature of interspecific interactions in two populations of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (one stable, the Apalachicola Ranger District; one declining, the Wakulla Ranger District) in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, we conducted a set of Red-bellied Woodpecker removal experiments. Paradoxically, following the removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers, we observed decreases in Red-cockaded Woodpecker group size, proportion of nests that were successful, and proportion of individuals remaining on territories. Removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers may have exaggerated the immigration rate of Red-bellied Woodpeckers to Red-cockaded Woodpecker territories. The Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in the Apalachicola Ranger District likely can withstand pressure from immigrating Red-bellied Woodpeckers given that their population has remained relatively stable despite the presence of Red-bellied Woodpeckers. A major factor of population persistence in the Wakulla Ranger District was the high turnover rate of adult female Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, a phenomenon that was exacerbated by removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers. Relying solely on observations of apparently competitive interactions between individuals may not necessarily provide information about population-level outcomes. Paradoxically, removing species that appear to be competitors may harm species of concern.

  18. Evaluating Bang for the Buck: A Cost-Effectiveness Comparison Between Individual Interviews and Focus Groups Based on Thematic Saturation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namey, Emily; Guest, Greg; McKenna, Kevin; Chen, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Evaluators often use qualitative research methods, yet there is little evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of the two most commonly employed qualitative methods--in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus groups (FGs). We performed an inductive thematic analysis of data from 40 IDIs and 40 FGs on the health-seeking behaviors of African…

  19. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income.

    PubMed

    Cramm, J M; Møller, V; Nieboer, A P

    2012-02-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level differences in socioeconomic status determined individual-level subjective well-being. Crime experience, health status, social capital, and demographic variables were assessed at the individual level. The indicators of subjective well-being were estimated with a two-level random-intercepts and fixed slopes model. Social capital, health and marital status (all p < .001), followed by income level (p < .01) and the Townsend score (p < .05) were significantly related to individual-level subjective well-being outcomes. Our findings showed that individual-level subjective well-being is influenced by neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status as measured by the Townsend deprivation score. Individuals reported higher levels of subjective well-being in less deprived neighbourhoods. Here we wish to highlight the role of context for subjective well-being, and to suggest that subjective well-being outcomes may also be defined in ecological terms. We hope the findings are useful for implementing programs and interventions designed to achieve greater subjective well-being for people living in deprived areas.

  20. Hepcidin level predicts hemoglobin concentration in individuals undergoing repeated phlebotomy.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E; Schlumpf, Karen S; Wright, David J; Johnson, Bryce; Glynn, Simone A; Busch, Michael P; Olbina, Gordana; Westerman, Mark; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2013-08-01

    Dietary iron absorption is regulated by hepcidin, an iron regulatory protein produced by the liver. Hepcidin production is regulated by iron stores, erythropoiesis and inflammation, but its physiology when repeated blood loss occurs has not been characterized. Hepcidin was assayed in plasma samples obtained from 114 first-time/reactivated (no blood donations in preceding 2 years) female donors and 34 frequent (≥3 red blood cell donations in preceding 12 months) male donors as they were phlebotomized ≥4 times over 18-24 months. Hepcidin levels were compared to ferritin and hemoglobin levels using multivariable repeated measures regression models. Hepcidin, ferritin and hemoglobin levels declined with increasing frequency of donation in the first-time/reactivated females. Hepcidin and ferritin levels correlated well with each other (Spearman's correlation of 0.74), but on average hepcidin varied more between donations for a given donor relative to ferritin. In a multivariable repeated measures regression model the predicted inter-donation decline in hemoglobin varied as a function of hepcidin and ferritin; hemoglobin was 0.51 g/dL lower for subjects with low (>45.7 ng/mL) or decreasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL), and was essentially zero for other subjects including those with high (>45.7 ng/mL) or increasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL) levels (P<0.001). In conclusion, hepcidin levels change rapidly in response to dietary iron needed for erythropoiesis. The dynamic regulation of hepcidin in the presence of a low levels of ferritin suggests that plasma hepcidin concentration may provide clinically useful information about an individual's iron status (and hence capacity to tolerate repeated blood donations) beyond that of ferritin alone. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00097006.

  1. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…

  2. Beverage consumption and individual-level associations in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few previous studies investigated consumption distributions of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations in Asia despite the recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control. This study aimed to provide recent evidence on beverage consumption trends from 2001 to 2009 for overall and subtypes of SSBs and for milk as a comparable healthy beverage in South Korea, as well as associations with individual-level socioeconomic status (SES). Methods The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2001 to 2009 were used. Consumption prevalence and average caloric intake by SSB type were examined. Associations of SES with consumption were assessed in a multivariate logistic regression model (consumption prevalence) and in a multivariate two-part regression model (overall caloric intake adjusting for consumption probability). Results SSB consumption prevalence increased to 38%, 69%, 70%, and 50% by 2009 up from 31%, 66%, 63%, and 32% in 2001 among adolescents, young adults, adults, and the elderly, respectively. Miscellaneous SSBs (sports/energy drinks, coffee/tea products, flavored milk, and others) were the most prevalent and their prevalence increased among adults (from 62% to 69%) and the elderly (from 30% to 47%) between 2001 and 2009. Adolescents consumed the most calories from miscellaneous SSBs among all beverage types although its prevalence was lower than regular soda and milk in both 2001 and 2009. Women (top- income group only) and men in higher income groups showed higher odds of consuming total SSBs (OR = 1.18-1.25), soda (OR = 1.18, men only), fruit drinks (OR = 1.18, the top-income only for both genders), and miscellaneous SSBs (OR = 1.1-1.2). Men with higher-education showed higher odds of total SSB consumption (OR = 1.14-1.20), and all subtypes of SSBs (OR = 1.18, 1.29, 1.19 for soda, fruit drinks, and miscellaneous SSBs, respectively for the top-education group only

  3. Spatial data aggregation for spatio-temporal individual-level models of infectious disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Deeth, Lorna E; Deardon, Rob

    2016-05-01

    A class of complex statistical models, known as individual-level models, have been effectively used to model the spread of infectious diseases. These models are often fitted within a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework, which can have a sig nificant computational expense due to the complex nature of the likelihood function associated with this class of models. Increases in population size or duration of the modeled epidemic can contribute to this computational burden. Here, we explore the effect of reducing this computational expense by aggregating the data into spatial clusters, and therefore reducing the overall population size. Individual-level models, reparameterized to account for this aggregation effect, may then be fitted to the spatially aggregated data. The ability of two reparameterized individual-level models, when fitted to this reduced data set, to identify a covariate effect is investigated through a simulation study.

  4. Organizational- and individual-level correlates of posttreatment substance use: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Toorjo

    2008-03-01

    In addressing the need to study the effects of organizational factors on individual-level treatment outcomes, this study used hierarchical models to examine the organizational- and individual-level correlates of posttreatment substance use. Risk for posttreatment use varied significantly across organizations. Factors in the external institutional environment of facilities significantly influenced risk for use: managed care regulation increased the risk, whereas Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations accreditation decreased it (p < .01 for both). On the individual level, longer treatment episodes and treatment completion reduced the risk (p < .01 for both) after controlling for client characteristics. The benefits of length of stay in treatment were modified by elements of the external institutional environment and organizational treatment technology. The ameliorative effects of prolonged treatment were reduced by higher levels of managed care regulation, organizational monitoring, caseload size (p < .01 for all), and proportion of degreed staff (p < .05). The results highlight the influence of organizational factors on posttreatment use.

  5. Building obesity in Canada: understanding the individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants using a multi-level approach.

    PubMed

    Pouliou, Theodora; Elliott, Susan J; Paez, Antonio; Newbold, K Bruce

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify heterogeneities associated with the relationships between the body mass index (BMI) and individual as well as socio-environmental correlates at the individual- and area-levels. The data sources used were: (i) the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey; (ii) the 2001 Canadian Census; and (iii) the Enhanced Points of Interest (EPOI) database from the Desktop Mapping Technologies Inc. Participants were adults (≥ 20 years; n = 12,836; based on a survey weight scheme N(weighted) = 5,418,218) from Toronto and Vancouver census metropolitan areas with no missing BMI records. In addition to conventional 1 km-buffers, we constructed activity-space-buffers to better assess the walkability and potentially increased BMI of individuals. Multi-level analysis was then applied to estimate the relative effects of both individual- and area-level risk-factors for increased BMI. The findings demonstrate a negative association between BMI and energy expenditure, mixed land uses, residential density and average value of dwellings, while a positive association was found with low educational attainment. Relationships were independent of individual characteristics such as age and ethnicity. Although the majority of the variation in these outcomes was found to be due to individual-level differences, this study did show significant differences at the area-level as well. The activity-space-buffers presented a vast improvement compared to the conventional 1 km-buffers. The results presented support the rationale that targeting high-risk individuals will only address a portion of the increasing BMI problem; it is essential to also address the characteristics of places that compel individuals to make unhealthy choices.

  6. Decoherence spectroscopy with individual two-level tunneling defects

    PubMed Central

    Lisenfeld, Jürgen; Bilmes, Alexander; Matityahu, Shlomi; Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schechter, Moshe; Schön, Gerd; Shnirman, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress with microfabricated quantum devices has revealed that an ubiquitous source of noise originates in tunneling material defects that give rise to a sparse bath of parasitic two-level systems (TLSs). For superconducting qubits, TLSs residing on electrode surfaces and in tunnel junctions account for a major part of decoherence and thus pose a serious roadblock to the realization of solid-state quantum processors. Here, we utilize a superconducting qubit to explore the quantum state evolution of coherently operated TLSs in order to shed new light on their individual properties and environmental interactions. We identify a frequency-dependence of TLS energy relaxation rates that can be explained by a coupling to phononic modes rather than by anticipated mutual TLS interactions. Most investigated TLSs are found to be free of pure dephasing at their energy degeneracy points, around which their Ramsey and spin-echo dephasing rates scale linearly and quadratically with asymmetry energy, respectively. We provide an explanation based on the standard tunneling model, and identify interaction with incoherent low-frequency (thermal) TLSs as the major mechanism of the pure dephasing in coherent high-frequency TLS. PMID:27030167

  7. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  8. Individual Effects of Agenda-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ahern, Thomas J.

    The agenda setting hypothesis of mass media effects, which maintains that the mass media set the agenda of public discussion and determine which items are to be discussed and which ignored, was tested. Agenda was defined as an attribute of individual respondents to be compared with those of various media. In a preliminary study, a group of 59…

  9. [Individual differences in analgesic effects of narcotics].

    PubMed

    Ide, Soichiro; Kasai, Shinya; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2008-02-01

    Narcotic analgesics have been widely used for management of severe pain, especially for cancer pain. Most of these drugs are opioids, and they show their analgesic effects by acting through opioid receptors. Significant individual differences in opioid sensitivity can hamper effective pain treatments and increase side effects, which is associated with decreased quality of life. It is thought that genetic factors may affect individual differences in opioid sensitivity. Recent studies using various inbred and knockout mice have revealed that the mu-opioid receptor (MOP) plays a mandatory role in the analgesic properties of opioids. There is also increasing evidence that differences in the sequence of the MOP gene might significantly affect the amount of MOP gene mRNA expression and sensitivity to opioids. Furthermore, it can be thought that individual differences in opioid sensitivity are caused by genetic differences in not only MOP but other biomolecules, such as endogenous opioid peptides, molecules related with metabolic process and second messenger systems. Rapid advances in this research field are leading to a better understanding of relationships between gene polymorphisms and opioid sensitivities, which, in turn, will allow us to more accurately predict opioid sensitivity and opioid requirements in individual patients.

  10. Effects of family connection and family individuation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda G; Bell, David C

    2009-09-01

    This prospective longitudinal study explores the differential effects of family connection and family individuation measured during adolescence on later midlife well-being. Home interviews were held in the 1970s with 99 families of 245 adolescents. Connection and individuation in the family system were measured by self-report, a projective exercise, and coding of taped family interactions. Twenty-five years later, telephone interviews were conducted with 54 men and 120 women (representing 82 families) who had been adolescents in the 1970s interviews. Family connection (measured during adolescence) was associated with self-acceptance and positive relationships at midlife partially mediated by marriage. Family individuation (measured during adolescence) was associated with personal autonomy at midlife.

  11. Expenditures and Postsecondary Graduation: An Investigation Using Individual-Level Data from the State of Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Using detailed individual-level data from public universities in the state of Ohio, I estimate the effect of various institutional expenditures on the probability of graduating from college. Using a competing risks regression framework, I find differential impacts of expenditure categories across student characteristics. I estimate that student…

  12. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  13. Individual Variations in Serum Melatonin Levels through Time: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Leticia M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chu, Lisa W.; Yu, Kai; Andriole, Gerald; Church, Timothy; Stanczyk, Frank Z.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin, a marker for the circadian rhythm with serum levels peaking between 2AM and 5AM, is hypothesized to possess anti-cancer properties, making it a mechanistic candidate for the probable carcinogenic effect of circadian rhythm disruption. In order to weigh epidemiologic evidence on the association of melatonin with cancer, we must first understand the laboratory and biological sources of variability in melatonin levels measured in samples. Participants for this methodological study were men enrolled in the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). We measured serum melatonin levels over a five year period in 97 individuals to test if melatonin levels are steady over time. The Pearson correlation coefficient between two measures separated by 1 year was 0.87, while the correlation between two measures separated by 5 years was to 0.70. In an additional cross-sectional study of 292 individuals, we used Analysis of Variance to identify differences in melatonin levels between different lifestyle and environmental characteristics. Serum melatonin levels were slightly higher in samples collected from 130 individuals during the winter, (6.36±0.59 pg/ml) than in samples collected from 119 individuals during the summer (4.83±0.62 pg/ml). Serum melatonin levels were lowest in current smokers (3.02±1.25 pg/ml, p = 0.007) compared to never (6.66±0.66 pg/ml) and former (5.59±0.50 pg/ml) smokers whereas BMI did not significantly affect serum melatonin levels in this study. In conclusion, the high 5 year correlation of melatonin levels implies that single measurements may be used to detect population level associations between melatonin and risk of cancer. Furthermore, our results reiterate the need to record season of sample collection, and individual characteristics in order to maximize study power and prevent confounding. PMID:24376664

  14. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  15. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  16. Understanding exclusionary mechanisms at the individual level: a theoretical proposal.

    PubMed

    Adam, Caroline; Potvin, Louise

    2016-04-20

    On the basis of the social exclusion framework put forth by the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN), we propose a framework that conceives social exclusion as a mechanism that limits access to rights, resources and capabilities needed for a healthy life. While it is widely accepted that drivers of social exclusion are structural, the consequences are experienced by individuals in their everyday lives. This article proposes an adaptation of the SEKN framework, illustrating additional basic elements that should be considered in the study of exclusionary mechanisms. We argue that studying access to rights, resources and capabilities is one way to capture the relational aspect of exclusion mechanisms. In doing so, we shift the focus away from the individual and direct the analysis towards contextual conditions that cause the emergence of certain individual attributes. We use the example of food insecurity experienced by individuals to illustrate how a specific problem can be the manifestation of different structural exclusion mechanisms that limit access to the rights, resources and capabilities required for a healthy life.

  17. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  18. Corticosterone levels determine individual vulnerability to amphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, P V; Maccari, S; Deminière, J M; Le Moal, M; Mormède, P; Simon, H

    1991-01-01

    Individual vulnerability to the reinforcing properties of drugs appears to be an essential characteristic predisposing humans to addiction. In animals, a greater behavioral reactivity to a mild stress, such as exposure to a novel environment, is an index of the vulnerability to acquire amphetamine self-administration. Biological responses to stress as well as behavioral reactivity may predict such a vulnerability. In the present study, rats with a longer duration of corticosterone secretion after exposure to novelty showed facilitation of acquisition of amphetamine self-administration. Furthermore, corticosterone administration in nonpredisposed individuals increased the reinforcing value of the drug and facilitated the acquisition of amphetamine self-administration. These results indicate that the stress-related activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction. PMID:2006148

  19. Integrating Individual-Based Indices of Contaminant Effects

    DOE PAGES

    Rowe, Christopher L.; Hopkins, William A.; Congdon, Justin D.

    2001-01-01

    Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana) that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element�contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR). These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modificationsmore » to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance) costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage) in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological) may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of

  20. Social Identification as a Determinant of Concerns about Individual-, Group-, and Inclusive-Level Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Extending concepts of micro- and macrojustice, three levels of justice are distinguished. Individual-, group-, and inclusive-level justice are defined in terms of the target of justice concerns: one's individual treatment, one's group's treatment, and the distribution in the collective (e.g., nation). Individual-level justice permits a more…

  1. Individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibited difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level compared to control individuals. These findings suggested that there is a problem with the inhibitory mechanism that influences the output of enhanced local visual processing in Asperger's disorder.

  2. Individual Variability of the System-Level Organization of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Evan M; Laumann, Timothy O; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Petersen, Steven E

    2015-10-13

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging-based resting-state functional connectivity analyses of group average data have characterized large-scale systems that represent a high level in the organizational hierarchy of the human brain. These systems are likely to vary spatially across individuals, even after anatomical alignment, but the characteristics of this variance are unknown. Here, we characterized large-scale brain systems across two independent datasets of young adults. In these individuals, we were able to identify brain systems that were similar to those described in the group average, and we observed that individuals had consistent topological arrangement of the system features present in the group average. However, the size of system features varied across individuals in systematic ways, such that expansion of one feature of a given system predicted expansion of other parts of the system. Individual-specific systems also contained unique topological features not present in group average systems; some of these features were consistent across a minority of individuals. These effects were observed even after controlling for data quality and for the accuracy of anatomical registration. The variability characterized here has important implications for cognitive neuroscience investigations, which often assume the functional equivalence of aligned brain regions across individuals.

  3. In psychiatrically healthy individuals, overweight women but not men have lower tryptophan levels

    PubMed Central

    Raheja, Uttam K.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Giegling, Ina; Brenner, Lisa A.; Rovner, Sergio F.; Mohyuddin, Iqra; Weghuber, Daniel; Mangge, Harald; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in tryptophan (TRP) breakdown in obese individuals have been previously reported. This could be both contributory to, as well as a consequence of, gender differences in mood changes among obese people. To exclude the potential effect of depression on TRP breakdown and its levels in obesity, we replicated analyses in psychiatrically healthy individuals. In 1000 participants, plasma kynurenine (KYN), TRP, and the KYN/TRP ratio were compared between overweight/obese and normal-weight individuals using analysis of covariance, with adjustment for age and gender. Bivariate post hoc tests were also conducted. There were no significant relationships between KYN, TRP, or the KYN/TRP ratio and overall overweight/obese status. However, a significant gender by weight category interaction was identified for TRP only, with overweight/obese women having lower TRP than overweight/obese men (p = 0.02). No gender differences in TRP were found in non-obese participants. Our study in psychiatrically healthy individuals suggested that lower TRP levels in obese women were not secondary to depression, strengthening the possibility that TRP levels could mediate depression in vulnerable women. Thus experimental manipulations of TRP levels could be used to advance theoretical knowledge, prevention, and clinical control of depression in obese women. PMID:26251562

  4. 76 FR 5289 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty...

  5. 76 FR 4550 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty...

  6. 77 FR 4909 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty...

  7. 75 FR 47487 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty...

  8. 78 FR 7679 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty...

  9. Math Anxiety--Contributing School and Individual Level Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radišic, Jelena; Videnovic, Marina; Baucal, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    PISA 2003 survey data indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety among students in Serbia. More than a half of Serbian students are concerned with whether they will have difficulties in a mathematics class or earn poor marks. At the same time, the achievement on the mathematical literacy scale is very poor. Building on control-value theory, the…

  10. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors.

    PubMed

    Cass, Amy I

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.

  11. Individual and culture-level components of survey response styles: A multi-level analysis using cultural models of selfhood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter B; Vignoles, Vivian L; Becker, Maja; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Bourguignon, David; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B; Kreuzbauer, Robert; Cendales Ayala, Boris; Yuki, Masaki; Zhang, Jianxin; Lv, Shaobo; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Fischer, Ronald; Milfont, Taciano L; Gavreliuc, Alin; Baguma, Peter; Bond, Michael Harris; Martin, Mariana; Gausel, Nicolay; Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Tatarko, Alexander; González, Roberto; Didier, Nicolas; Carrasco, Diego; Lay, Siugmin; Nizharadze, George; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Koller, Silvia H; Herman, Ginette; Courtois, Marie; Fritsche, Immo; Espinosa, Agustín; Villamar, Juan A; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Zinkeng, Martina; Jalal, Baland; Kusdil, Ersin; Amponsah, Benjamin; Çağlar, Selinay; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Möller, Bettina; Zhang, Xiao; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Prieto Gil, Paula; Lorente Clemares, Raquel; Campara, Gabriella; Aldhafri, Said; Fülöp, Márta; Pyszczynski, Tom; Kesebir, Pelin; Harb, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-other relatedness that have often been confounded within the broader distinction between independence and interdependence, our analysis yields more specific understandings of both individual- and culture-level variations in response style. When using a Likert-scale response format, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as similar to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour harmony, similarity with others and receptiveness to influence. However, when using Schwartz's (2007) portrait-comparison response procedure, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant but also connected to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour self-reliance and self-consistency. Extreme responding varies less between the two types of response modes, and is most prevalent among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant, and in cultures favouring self-reliance. As both types of response mode elicit distinctive styles of response, it remains important to estimate and control for style effects to ensure valid comparisons.

  12. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and recall in a large sample. A total of 1225 healthy young women and men viewed two different sets of emotional and neutral pictures on two consecutive days. Both sets were recalled after a short delay (10 min). On Day 2, the pictures seen on Day 1 were additionally recalled, resulting in a long-delay (20 hr) recall condition. Cortisol levels were measured three times on Days 1 and 2 via saliva samples before encoding, between encoding and recall as well as after recall testing. We show that stronger decreases in cortisol levels during retrieval testing were associated with better recall performance of pictures, regardless of emotional valence of the pictures or length of the retention interval (i.e., 10 min vs. 20 hr). In contrast, average cortisol levels during retrieval were not related to picture recall. Remarkably during encoding, individual differences in average cortisol levels as well as changes in cortisol did not predict memory recall. Our results support previous findings indicating that higher cortisol levels during retrieval testing hinders recall of episodic memories and extend this view onto interindividual changes in basal cortisol levels.

  13. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees.

    PubMed

    Gill, Richard J; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E

    2012-11-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production. Bees contribute approximately 80% of insect pollination, so it is important to understand and mitigate the causes of current declines in bee populations . Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides in these declines, as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour and reductions in colony queen production. However, the key link between changes in individual behaviour and the consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of many individual workers. Thus, although field-level pesticide concentrations can have subtle or sublethal effects at the individual level, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or whether it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means that bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found that worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail.

  14. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E.

    2012-01-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production1-3. Bees contribute around 80% of insect pollination, so it is imperative we understand and mitigate the causes of current declines4-6. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour7-11 and reductions in colony queen production12. However the key link between changes in individual behaviour and consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of numerous individual workers. So whilst field-level pesticide concentrations can have a subtle/sublethal effect at the individual level8, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or if it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging13-15, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated16,17. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. PMID:23086150

  15. Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Aplin, Lucy M; Farine, Damien R; Mann, Richard P; Sheldon, Ben C

    2014-08-22

    There is increasing evidence that animal groups can maintain coordinated behaviour and make collective decisions based on simple interaction rules. Effective collective action may be further facilitated by individual variation within groups, particularly through leader-follower polymorphisms. Recent studies have suggested that individual-level personality traits influence the degree to which individuals use social information, are attracted to conspecifics, or act as leaders/followers. However, evidence is equivocal and largely limited to laboratory studies. We use an automated data-collection system to conduct an experiment testing the relationship between personality and collective decision-making in the wild. First, we report that foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) show strikingly synchronous behaviour. A predictive model of collective decision-making replicates patterns well, suggesting simple interaction rules are sufficient to explain the observed social behaviour. Second, within groups, individuals with more reactive personalities behave more collectively, moving to within-flock areas of higher density. By contrast, proactive individuals tend to move to and feed at spatial periphery of flocks. Finally, comparing alternative simulations of flocking with empirical data, we demonstrate that variation in personality promotes within-patch movement while maintaining group cohesion. Our results illustrate the importance of incorporating individual variability in models of social behaviour.

  16. Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Aplin, Lucy M.; Farine, Damien R.; Mann, Richard P.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that animal groups can maintain coordinated behaviour and make collective decisions based on simple interaction rules. Effective collective action may be further facilitated by individual variation within groups, particularly through leader–follower polymorphisms. Recent studies have suggested that individual-level personality traits influence the degree to which individuals use social information, are attracted to conspecifics, or act as leaders/followers. However, evidence is equivocal and largely limited to laboratory studies. We use an automated data-collection system to conduct an experiment testing the relationship between personality and collective decision-making in the wild. First, we report that foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) show strikingly synchronous behaviour. A predictive model of collective decision-making replicates patterns well, suggesting simple interaction rules are sufficient to explain the observed social behaviour. Second, within groups, individuals with more reactive personalities behave more collectively, moving to within-flock areas of higher density. By contrast, proactive individuals tend to move to and feed at spatial periphery of flocks. Finally, comparing alternative simulations of flocking with empirical data, we demonstrate that variation in personality promotes within-patch movement while maintaining group cohesion. Our results illustrate the importance of incorporating individual variability in models of social behaviour. PMID:24990682

  17. Selective disappearance of individuals with high levels of glycated haemoglobin in a free-living bird.

    PubMed

    Récapet, Charlotte; Sibeaux, Adélaïde; Cauchard, Laure; Doligez, Blandine; Bize, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Although disruption of glucose homeostasis is a hallmark of ageing in humans and laboratory model organisms, we have little information on the importance of this process in free-living animals. Poor control of blood glucose levels leads to irreversible protein glycation. Hence, levels of protein glycation are hypothesized to increase with age and to be associated with a decline in survival. We tested these predictions by measuring blood glycated haemoglobin in 274 adult collared flycatchers of known age and estimating individual probability of recapture in the following 2 years. Results show a strong decrease in glycated haemoglobin from age 1 to 5 years and an increase thereafter. Individuals with high levels of glycated haemoglobin had a lower probability of recapture, even after controlling for effects of age and dispersal. Altogether, our findings suggest that poor control of glucose homoeostasis is associated with lower survival in this free-living bird population, and that the selective disappearance of individuals with the highest glycation levels could account for the counterintuitive age-related decline in glycated haemoglobin in the early age categories.

  18. Partner Violence During Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Individual and Relationship Level Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Novak, Jamie; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-09-01

    Violence within romantic relationships is a significant public health concern. Previous research largely explores partner violence at one or two time points, and often examines a limited set of risk factors. The present study explored both individual and relationship-level risk factors and their associations with physical victimization and perpetration across more than 10 years using a community sample of 200 participants (50 % female; M age Wave 1 = 15.8). Additionally, we explored the effects of previous partner violence on the likelihood of future partner violence. Survival analysis indicated that externalizing symptoms and negative interactions (e.g., relationship conflict) were associated with both perpetration and victimization. Reporting an experience of partner violence did not significantly alter an individual's risk of future partner violence. Overall, men were significantly more likely to report victimization; perpetration rates did not vary by gender. The results highlight the importance of examining multiple levels of risk.

  19. Neurotrophin levels and behaviour in BALB/c mice: impact of intermittent exposure to individual housing and wheel running.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shun-Wei; Pham, Therese M; Aberg, Elin; Brené, Stefan; Winblad, Bengt; Mohammed, Abdul H; Baumans, Vera

    2006-02-15

    This study assessed the effects of intermittent individual housing on behaviour and brain neurotrophins, and whether physical exercise could influence alternate individual-housing-induced effects. Five-week-old BALB/c mice were either housed in enhanced social (E) or standard social (S) housing conditions for 2 weeks. Thereafter they were divided into six groups and for 6 weeks remained in the following experimental conditions: Control groups remained in their respective housing conditions (E-control, S-control); enhanced individual (E-individual) and standard individual (S-individual) groups were exposed every other day to individual cages without running-wheels; enhanced running-wheel (E-wheel) and standard running-wheel (S-wheel) groups were put on alternate days in individual running-wheel cages. Animals were assessed for activity in an automated individual cage system (LABORAS) and brain neurotrophins analysed. Intermittent individual housing increased behavioural activity and reduced nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in frontal cortex; while it increased BDNF level in the amygdala and BDNF protein and mRNA in hippocampus. Besides normalizing motor activity and regulating BDNF and NGF levels in hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum, physical exercise did not attenuate reduction of cortical NGF and BDNF induced by intermittent individual housing. This study demonstrates that alternate individual housing has significant impact on behaviour and brain neurotrophin levels in mice, which can be partially altered by voluntary physical exercise. Our results also suggest that some changes in neurotrophin levels induced by intermittent individual housing are not similar to those caused by continuous individual housing.

  20. Population- and Individual-Level Dynamics of the Intestinal Microbiota of a Small Primate

    PubMed Central

    Laakkonen, Juha; Jernvall, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Longitudinal sampling for intestinal microbiota in wild animals is difficult, leading to a lack of information on bacterial dynamics occurring in nature. We studied how the composition of microbiota communities changed temporally in free-ranging small primates, rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). We marked and recaptured mouse lemurs during their mating season in Ranomafana National Park in southeastern mountainous rainforests of Madagascar for 2 years and determined the fecal microbiota compositions of these mouse lemurs with MiSeq sequencing. We collected 160 fecal samples from 71 animals and had two or more samples from 39 individuals. We found small, but statistically significant, effects of site and age on microbiota richness and diversity and effects of sex, year, and site on microbiota composition, while the within-year temporal trends were less clear. Within-host microbiota showed pervasive variation in intestinal bacterial community composition, especially during the second study year. We hypothesize that the biological properties of mouse lemurs, including their small body size and fast metabolism, may contribute to the temporal intraindividual-level variation, something that should be testable with more-extensive sampling regimes. IMPORTANCE While microbiome research has blossomed in recent years, there is a lack of longitudinal studies on microbiome dynamics on free-ranging hosts. To fill this gap, we followed mouse lemurs, which are small heterothermic primates, for 2 years. Most studied animals have shown microbiota to be stable over the life span of host individuals, but some previous research also found ample within-host variation in microbiota composition. Our study used a larger sample size than previous studies and a study setting well suited to track within-host variation in free-ranging mammals. Despite the overall microbiota stability at the population level, the microbiota of individual mouse lemurs can show large-scale changes

  1. RISKS OF ENDROCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS TO WILDLIFE EXTRAPOLATED FROM EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATION RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the research conducted on the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been focused on effects at the individual or sub-individual level. The challenge from the point of view of ecological risk assessment is to determine effects on populations and higher level...

  2. Pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes: nurse descriptions of individual and organization level factors.

    PubMed

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Magnabosco, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) in nursing homes has been difficult to achieve. Implementation science researchers suggest that identification of individual staff and organizational factors influencing current practices is essential to the development of an effective and customized plan to implement practice changes in a specific setting. A mixed methods approach was used to describe nurses' perceptions of individual and organization-level factors influencing performance of PUP in two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes prior to implementation of a national VHA initiative on Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers (HAPUs). Individual interviews of 16 nursing staff were conducted. Individual factors influencing practice were a personal sense of responsibility to Veterans and belief in the effectiveness and importance of preventive measures. Organizational factors were existence of cooperative practices between nursing assistants and licensed nurses in assessing risk; teamwork, communication, and a commitment to Veterans' well-being. Integration and reinforcement of such factors in the development and maintenance of customized plans of PUP initiatives is recommended.

  3. Individual-level behavioral responses of immature green turtles to snorkeler disturbance.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Lucas P; Brownscombe, Jacob W; Gagné, Tyler O; Wilson, Alexander D M; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J

    2017-03-01

    Despite many positive benefits of ecotourism, increased human encounters with wildlife may have detrimental effects on wild animals. As charismatic megafauna, nesting and foraging sea turtles are increasingly the focus of ecotourism activities. The purpose of our study was to quantify the behavioral responses of immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) to disturbance by snorkelers, and to investigate whether turtles have individual-level responses to snorkeler disturbance. Using a standardized disturbance stimulus in the field, we recorded turtle behaviors pre- and post-disturbance by snorkelers. Ninety percent of turtles disturbed by snorkeler (n = 192) initiated their flights at distances of ≤3 m. Using principal component analysis, we identified two distinct turtle personality types, 'bold' and 'timid', based upon 145 encounters of 19 individually identified turtles and five disturbance response variables. There was significant intra-individual repeatability in behavioral responses to disturbance, but bolder turtles had more behavioral plasticity and less consistent responses than more timid individuals. Bolder individuals with reduced evasion responses might be at a higher risk of shark predation, while more timid turtles might have greater energetic consequences due to non-lethal predator effects and repeated snorkeler disturbance. Over the longer term, a turtle population with a mix of bold and timid individuals may promote more resilient populations. We recommend that snorkelers maintain >3 m distance from immature green turtles when snorkeling, and that ecotourism activities be temporally and spatially stratified. Further, turtle watching guidelines need to be communicated to both tour operators and independent snorkelers to reduce the disturbance of turtles.

  4. Employing individual measures of baseline glucocorticoids as population-level conservation biomarkers: considering within-individual variation in a breeding passerine

    PubMed Central

    Madliger, Christine L.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals. However, confirmation of consistent responses is of paramount importance to assessing the ease of use of GCs in natural systems and to making valid interpretations regarding population-level change (or lack of change) in GC concentrations. We investigated whether free-ranging female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) display individually specific changes in baseline glucocorticoid concentrations naturally over the breeding season (from incubation to offspring provisioning) and in response to a manipulation of foraging profitability (representing a decrease in access to food resources). We show that baseline GC concentrations are repeatable within individuals over reproduction in natural conditions. However, in response to a reduction in foraging ability, baseline GC concentrations increase at the population level but are not repeatable within individuals, indicating a high level of within-individual variation. Overall, we suggest that baseline GCs measured on a subset of individuals may not provide a representative indication of responses to environmental change at the population level, and multiple within-individual measures may be necessary to determine the fitness correlates of GC concentrations. Further validation should be completed across a variety of taxa and life-history stages. Moving beyond a traditional cross-sectional approach by incorporating repeated-measures methods will be necessary to assess the suitability of baseline GCs as biomarkers of

  5. Analyzing Developmental Processes on an Individual Level Using Nonstationary Time Series Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Sinclair, Katerina O.; Rovine, Michael J.; Ram, Nilam; Corneal, Sherry E.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals change over time, often in complex ways. Generally, studies of change over time have combined individuals into groups for analysis, which is inappropriate in most, if not all, studies of development. The authors explain how to identify appropriate levels of analysis (individual vs. group) and demonstrate how to estimate changes in…

  6. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  7. Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

  8. Alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression: theoretical considerations for individual- and societal-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Miller, Cameron A

    2009-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article (1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression, (2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and (3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses.

  9. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…

  10. Effects of Cooperative Learning and Individualized Instruction on Mainstreamed Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The study examined effects on 117 mainstreamed academically handicapped students (grades 3-5) of an instructional method, Team Assisted Individualization (TAI), that combined cooperative learning with individualized instruction in mathematics. TAI and individualized instruction both had positive effects on social acceptance, attitudes toward math,…

  11. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  12. Perceived Risk of Burglary and Fear of Crime: Individual- and Country-Level Mixed Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chon, Don Soo; Wilson, Mary

    2016-02-01

    Given the scarcity of prior studies, the current research introduced country-level variables, along with individual-level ones, to test how they are related to an individual's perceived risk of burglary (PRB) and fear of crime (FC), separately, by using mixed-level logistic regression analyses. The analyses of 104,218 individuals, residing in 50 countries, showed that country-level poverty was positively associated with FC only. However, individual-level variables, such as prior property crime victimization and female gender, had consistently positive relationships with both PRB and FC. However, age group and socioeconomic status were inconsistent between those two models, suggesting that PRB and FC are two different concepts. Finally, no significant difference in the pattern of PRB and FC was found between a highly developed group of countries and a less developed one.

  13. Individual- and Organization-Level Work-to-Family Spillover Are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D.; Neuendorf, Claudia; Grandey, Alicia; Lam, Chun Bun; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively) at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers' work exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors' leadership style. Design/Methodology/Approach: Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers), beyond job demands supervisors' leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels). Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Findings: Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor's transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. Originality/Value: This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include illuminating organizational work

  14. Effects of methamphetamine abuse beyond individual users.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Ryan, Steve; Hansen, Katherine; Hullsiek, Brad; Muli, Victoria; Malone, A Cate

    2009-09-01

    Since 1997, the use of methamphetamine as a drug of abuse has been widespread in the United States. While several forms of amphetamine are useful in some areas of medicine, methamphetamine as an abused substance is associated with severe and multifaceted consequences. Problems associated with the abuse of amphetamine and its derivatives such as methamphetamine have been well documented. As the manufacture and use of methamphetamine across the United States has increased, the impact of methamphetamine abuse has been felt beyond individual users; families as well as communities can be seriously affected. An increase in child neglect and violence as well as a lack of resources for health care, social services, and law enforcement because of methamphetamine abuse have been reported by many communities. This study examines the historical spread of methamphetamine misuse in the United States and the resulting individual, social, and environmental consequences. A public health perspective on family, community, and social aspects is offered, and ideas for future research and policy changes are explored.

  15. Combining Individual and Group-Level Perspectives for Studying Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvaja, Maarit; Salovaara, Hanna; Hakkinen, Paivi; Jarvela, Sanna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify concepts and methods for studying collaboration in context. The article presents a two-level methodology designed to combine individual and group-level perspectives for the evaluation of collaborative knowledge construction in student groups. The group-level analysis is focused on the students' negotiation…

  16. Individual housing and handling procedures modify anxiety levels of Tg2576 mice assessed in the zero maze test.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Domingo, José L; Colomina, María T

    2012-09-10

    The zero maze is an unconditioned anxiety test for mice, in which a number of environmental variables can modify the anxiety levels of the animals. In the present study, we have assessed how individual housing, handling procedure and interaction between individual housing and handling procedure affect the baseline anxiety of mice. Thirty-seven wild type mice and eighteen Tg2576 mice were used (obtained from crossing APPSWE hemizygous male C57BL6/SJL background with C57BL6/SJL female). Wild type mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: 1) group housed and unhandled, 2) group housed but handled, 3) individually housed, unhandled, and 4) individually housed and handled. In turn, Tg2576 mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: 1) individually housed, unhandled, and 2) individually housed and handled. The results show that individually housed mice exhibited more anxiety-related behaviors over a 5 min testing period than the other experimental groups. Use of the handling procedure was associated with a statistically significant reduction in anxiety-related behaviors among individually housed mice. No effects on anxiety-related behavior levels were observed when group housed animals were handled. When activity levels were significantly increased, a new parameter, "Time by Entries", helped to prevent activity from influencing anxiety parameters such as time in the open section of the zero maze test. This knowledge can help to design more efficient experiments without bias from data obtained by means of unconditioned tests.

  17. The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

  18. How Individual and School Aggregate Baseline Behavior Levels Moderate Response to a Primary Level Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.

    2013-01-01

    In our previous research (Benner, Nelson, Sanders, & Ralston, 2012), elementary schools were randomly assigned to either a primary-level behavior intervention directed at externalizing behavior (treatment, n = 7 schools) or to business-as-usual condition (control, n = 6 schools). A screening procedure was used to identify K through 3-grade…

  19. Individual and group level trajectories of behavioural development in Border collies

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess dogs’ personality changes during ontogeny, a cohort of 69 Border collies was followed up from six to 18–24 months. When the dogs were 6, 12, and 18–24 months old, their owners repeatedly filled in a dog personality questionnaire (DPQ), which yielded five personality factors divided into fifteen facets. All five DPQ factors were highly correlated between the three age classes, indicating that the dogs’ personality remained consistent relative to other individuals. Nonetheless, at the group level significant changes with age were found for four of the five DPQ factors. Fearfulness, Aggression towards People, Responsiveness to Training and Aggression towards Animals increased with age; only Activity/Excitability did not change significantly over time. These changes in DPQ factor scores occurred mainly between the ages of 6 and 12 months, although some facets changed beyond this age. No sex differences were found for any of the tested factors or facets, suggesting that individual variation in personality was greater than male/female differences. There were significant litter effects for the factors Fearfulness, Aggression towards People and Activity/Excitability, indicating either a strong genetic basis for these traits or a high influence of the shared early environment. To conclude, from the age of six months, consistency in personality relative to other individuals can be observed in Border collies. However, at the group level, increases in fearful and aggressive behaviours occur up to 12 months and for some traits up to two years, highlighting the need for early interventions. Follow-up studies are needed to assess trajectories of personality development prior to six months and after two years, and to include a wider variety of breeds. PMID:28184101

  20. Immunomodulatory Effects of Triphala and its Individual Constituents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Belapurkar, Pranoti; Goyal, Pragya; Tiwari-Barua, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators. PMID:25593379

  1. Investigating the causes for decreased levels of glutathione in individuals with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lagman, Minette; Ly, Judy; Saing, Tommy; Kaur Singh, Manpreet; Vera Tudela, Enrique; Morris, Devin; Chi, Po-Ting; Ochoa, Cesar; Sathananthan, Airani; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an eminent global burden with one third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Individuals with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable to M. tb infection. In fact, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are two to three times more susceptible to TB than those without T2DM. In this study, we report that individuals with T2DM have lower levels of glutathione (GSH) due to compromised levels of GSH synthesis and metabolism enzymes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), a cytokine that is known to decrease the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCLC) was found in increased levels in the plasma samples from individuals with T2DM, explaining the possible underlying mechanism that is responsible for decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) were observed in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17 was accompanied by enhanced production of free radicals further indicating an alternative mechanism for the decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Augmenting the levels of GSH in macrophages isolated from individuals with T2DM resulted in improved control of M. tb infection. Furthermore, cytokines that are responsible for controlling M. tb infection at the cellular and granuloma level such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), were found to be compromised in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. On the other hand, interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunosuppressive cytokine was increased in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM lead to their increased susceptibility to M

  2. Investigating the Causes for Decreased Levels of Glutathione in Individuals with Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lagman, Minette; Ly, Judy; Saing, Tommy; Morris, Devin; Chi, Po-Ting; Ochoa, Cesar; Sathananthan, Airani; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an eminent global burden with one third of the world’s population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Individuals with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable to M. tb infection. In fact, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are two to three times more susceptible to TB than those without T2DM. In this study, we report that individuals with T2DM have lower levels of glutathione (GSH) due to compromised levels of GSH synthesis and metabolism enzymes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), a cytokine that is known to decrease the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCLC) was found in increased levels in the plasma samples from individuals with T2DM, explaining the possible underlying mechanism that is responsible for decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) were observed in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17 was accompanied by enhanced production of free radicals further indicating an alternative mechanism for the decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Augmenting the levels of GSH in macrophages isolated from individuals with T2DM resulted in improved control of M. tb infection. Furthermore, cytokines that are responsible for controlling M. tb infection at the cellular and granuloma level such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), were found to be compromised in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. On the other hand, interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunosuppressive cytokine was increased in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM lead to their increased susceptibility to

  3. Parasite resistance and tolerance in honeybees at the individual and social level.

    PubMed

    Kurze, Christoph; Routtu, Jarkko; Moritz, Robin F A

    2016-08-01

    Organisms living in large groups, such as social insects, are particularly vulnerable to parasite transmission. However, they have evolved diverse defence mechanisms which are not only restricted to the individual's immune response, but also include social defences. Here, we review cases of adaptations at the individual and social level in the honeybee Apis mellifera against the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and the endoparasitic microsporidians Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis. They are considered important threats to honeybee health worldwide. We highlight how individual resistance may result in tolerance at the colony level and vice versa.

  4. Level of Perception of Individualized Care and Satisfaction With Nursing in Orthopaedic Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Fatma; Findik, Ummu Yildiz

    2015-01-01

    Lately, individualized nursing care and patient satisfaction are important and current issues being discussed. But there is not enough information for patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the individualized care perception and satisfaction in nursing care levels in orthopaedic surgery patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 156 patients who underwent orthopaedic surgery. Data were collected using the personal information form, the Individualized Care Scale, and the Newcastle Satisfaction With Nursing Scale. The Spearman correlation analysis and descriptive statistics were performed. The mean individualized care and satisfaction with nursing care scores were found to be close to the preset maximum value, and it was determined that an increase in the level of awareness about nursing interventions and the level of perceived individualized care caused an increase in satisfaction levels regarding nursing care. Nurses should recognize the importance of performing individualized care in order to increase the level of satisfaction with nursing care in orthopaedic surgery patients.

  5. Serum albumin levels and their correlates among individuals with motor disorders at five institutions in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Takeo; Kanaya, Yuki; Tanaka, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The level of serum albumin is an index of nourishment care and management. However, the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders have not been reported until now. Therefore, we examined the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders. SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional study on 249 individuals with motor disabilities (144 men, mean age: 51.4 years; 105 women, mean age: 51.4 years) was conducted at five institutions in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan in 2008. The results were compared with data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. RESULTS The mean serum albumin levels were 4.0 ± 0.4 g/dL for men and 3.8 ± 0.5 g/dL for women. Overall, 17 (11.8%) men and 25 (23.8%) women had hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin level ≤ 3.5 g/dL); these proportions were greater than those among healthy Japanese adults (≤ 1%). Low serum albumin level was related with female sex, older age, low calf circumference, low relative daily energy intake, low hemoglobin (Hb), low blood platelet count, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low HbA1c, and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The strongest correlates, based on standardized betas, were Hb (0.321), CRP (-0.279), and HDL-C (0.279) levels. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia is higher in individuals with motor disabilities than in healthy individuals and that inflammation is a strong negative correlate of serum albumin levels. Therefore, inflammation should be examined for the assessment of hypoalbuminemia among institutionalized individuals with motor disabilities. PMID:28194266

  6. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1611 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance A Appendix A to Part 1611 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION FINANCIAL ELIGIBILITY Pt. 1611, App. A Appendix A to Part 1611—Income Level...

  7. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1611 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance A Appendix A to Part 1611 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION FINANCIAL ELIGIBILITY Pt. 1611, App. A Appendix A to Part 1611—Income Level...

  8. Individualized Testing System: Performance Checks, ISCS Level III, WW-CP Form C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one form of three performance checks booklets (A, B, and C) for two texts of Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). These two texts are Winds and Weather (WW), and Crusty Problems (CP). The 12 performance checks booklets for Level III are considered one of four subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation…

  9. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  10. Individual- and Neighborhood-Level Determinants of Fear of Violent Crime Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grinshteyn, Erin G; Eisenman, David P; Cunningham, William E; Andersen, Ronald; Ettner, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Fear of violent crime is common among adolescents in urban settings; however, little is known about individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of fear. A generalized ordered logit model was used to analyze individual- and neighborhood-level variables among 2474 adolescents. Seeing violence significantly reduced the probability of feeling unafraid, as did higher levels of social disorder. The more block faces where police were visible, the higher the probability of feeling unafraid and lower the probability of feeling very afraid. Reducing fear could affect more people than just reducing crime. Fear-reduction strategies should target those most at risk of becoming fearful.

  11. Individual Heart Rate Variability Responses to Preseason Training in High Level Female Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Flatt, Andrew A; Esco, Michael R; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2017-02-01

    Flatt, AA, Esco, MR, and Nakamura, FY. Individual heart rate variability responses to preseason training in high level female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 531-538, 2017-The purpose of this study was to track changes in training load (TL) and recovery status indicators throughout a 2-week preseason and to interpret the meaning of these changes on an individual basis among 8 division-1 female soccer players. Weekly averages for heart rate variability (logarithm of the root mean square of successive R-R interval differences [lnRMSSD]), TL, and psychometrics were compared with effect sizes (ESs) and magnitude-based inferences. Relationships were determined with Pearson correlations. Group analysis showed a very likely moderate decrease for total TL (TTL) (TTL week 1 = 1,203 ± 198, TTL week 2 = 977 ± 288; proportion = 1/2/97, ES = -0.93) and a likely small increase in lnRMSSD (week 1 = 74.2 ± 11.1, week 2 = 78.1 ± 10.5; proportion = 81/14/5, ES = 0.35). Fatigue demonstrated a very likely small improvement (week 1 = 5.03 ± 1.09, week 2 = 5.51 ± 1.00; proportion = 95/4/1; ES = 0.45), whereas the other psychometrics did not substantially change. A very large correlation was found between changes in TL and lnRMSSD (r = -0.85), whereas large correlations were found between lnRMSSD and perceived fatigue (r = 0.56) and soreness (r = 0.54). Individual analysis suggests that 2 subjects may benefit from decreased TL, 2 subjects may benefit from increased TL, and 4 subjects may require no intervention based on their psychometric and lnRMSSD responses to the TL. Individual weekly changes in lnRMSSD varied among subjects and related strongly with individual changes in TL. Training intervention based on lnRMSSD and wellness responses may be useful for preventing the accumulation of fatigue in female soccer players.

  12. Education and self-rated health: An individual and neighborhood level analysis of Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; McCubbin, Hamilton; McCubbin, Laurie; Chen, Qi; Foley, Shirley; Strom, Ida; Kehl, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Focusing on Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii, this study contributes to the literature by examining (1) the geographical distributions of education in relation to self-rated general health at neighborhood levels, and (2) the individual variations in self-rated health by ethnicity and education at both individual and neighborhood levels. Using the 2007 Hawaii Health Survey with linked zip-code information, and applying GIS (Geographic Information System) and binary logistic regression models, this study found that (1) there are significant between ethnic differences in self-rated health in Hawaii, with Hawaiians being the most disadvantaged population compared to Japanese, Chinese, and Caucasians; (2) individual socioeconomic characteristics are all related to self-rated health, and education (in particular) mediates the Japanese vs. Hawaiian and Chinese vs. Hawaiian health differences; (3) the neighborhood level of education has an independent effect on self-rated health over and above individual characteristics for the whole sample and it partially mediates the between ethnic health differences; and (4) the relative importance of education to self-rated health is more significant and salient for Caucasians and Japanese/Chinese than for Filipinos and Hawaiians. In sum, this study not only demonstrates a geographical profile of health and education distributions in Hawaii, but also reveals significant mediating effects of education, at both individual and neighborhood levels, in explaining the between and within ethnic differentials in self-rated health.

  13. RISKS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS TO WILDLIFE: EXTRAPOLATING FROM EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATION RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the research conducted on the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been focused on effects at the individual or subindividual level. The challenge from the point of view of ecological risk assessment is to determine effects on populations and higher levels...

  14. Tract- and County-Level Income Inequality and Individual Risk of Obesity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We tested three alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship between income inequality and individual risk of obesity at two geographical scales: U.S. Census tract and county. Methods Income inequality was measured by Gini coefficients, created from the 2000 U.S. Census. Obesity was clinically measured in the 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The individual measures and area measures were geo-linked to estimate three sets of multi-level models: tract only, county only, and tract and county simultaneously. Gender was tested as a moderator. Results At both the tract and county levels, higher income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity. The size of the coefficient was larger for county-level Gini than for tract-level Gini; and controlling income inequality at one level did not reduce the impact of income inequality at the other level. Gender was not a significant moderator for the obesity-income inequality association. Conclusions Higher tract and county income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity, indicating that at least at the tract and county levels and in the context of cross-sectional data, the public health goal of reducing the rate of obesity is in line with anti-poverty policies of addressing poverty through mixed-income development where neighborhood income inequality is likely higher than homogeneous neighborhoods. PMID:26680289

  15. Impact of extreme metal contamination at the supra-individual level in a contaminated bay ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Li, Xuegang; Song, Jinming; Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic stressors impact the global environment and adversely affect the health of organisms and humans. This study was designed as an attempt to evaluate the ecological consequences of severe metal contamination at the supra-individual level based on a field investigation in Jinzhou Bay (JZB), North China in 2010. The chemical results showed high concentrations of metals in the sediment of JZB that were ~129 times greater than the local geochemical background. Furthermore, the measured metals exhibited considerably high toxicity potential indicated by sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). The mean SQGs quotients suggested the overall toxicity incidence was >70% in locations neighboring the Wulihe River mouth. Biomonitoring revealed 116 individuals distributed among a mere 6 species, 4 of which were polychaetes, at 33% of the sampling sites. Thus, few benthic organisms were present in the damaged community structures across the region, which was consistent with the extreme metal contamination. Moreover, the sediment quality assessment, in a weight of evidence framework, demonstrated that the sediment throughout the entire JZB was moderately to severely impaired, especially in the vicinity of the Wulihe River mouth. By synthesizing the present and previous chemical-biological monitoring campaigns, a possible cause-effect relationship between chemical stressors and benthic receptors was established. We also found that the hydrodynamics, sediment sources, and geochemical characteristics of the metals (in addition to the sources of the metals) were responsible for the geochemical distribution of metals in JZB. The significance of the overall finding is that the deleterious responses observed at the community level may possibly be linked to the extreme chemical stress in the sediment of JZB.

  16. TIGIT expression levels on human NK cells correlate with functional heterogeneity among healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hou, Hongyan; Wu, Shiji; Tang, Qing; Liu, Weiyong; Huang, Min; Yin, Botao; Huang, Jing; Mao, Lie; Lu, Yanfang; Sun, Ziyong

    2015-10-01

    Human NK cells display extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among healthy individuals, but the mechanism responsible for this variation is still largely unknown. Here, we show that a novel immune receptor, T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), is expressed preferentially on human NK cells but shows wide variation in its expression levels among healthy individuals. We found that the TIGIT expression level is related to the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of NK cells, and that NK cells from healthy individuals can be divided into three categories according to TIGIT expression. NK cells with low levels of TIGIT expression show higher cytokine secretion capability, degranulation activity, and cytotoxic potential than NK cells with high levels of TIGIT expression. Blockade of the TIGIT pathway significantly increased NK-cell function, particularly in NK cells with high levels of TIGIT expression. We further observed that the TIGIT expression level was inversely correlated with the IFN-γ secretion capability of NK cells in patients with cancers and autoimmune diseases. Importantly, we propose a novel mechanism that links TIGIT expression with NK-cell functional heterogeneity, and this mechanism might partially explain why individuals have different susceptibilities to infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer.

  17. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES. PMID:27938632

  18. Masting promotes individual- and population-level reproduction by increasing pollination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Linhart, Yan B; Mooney, Kailen A

    2014-04-01

    Masting is a reproductive strategy defined as the intermittent and synchronized production of large seed crops by a plant population. The pollination efficiency hypothesis proposes that masting increases pollination success in plants. Despite its general appeal, no previous studies have used long-term data together with population- and individual-level analyses to assess pollination efficiency between mast and non-mast events. Here we rigorously tested the pollination efficiency hypothesis in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a long-lived monoecious, wind-pollinated species, using a data set on 217 trees monitored annually for 20 years. Relative investment in male and female function by individual trees did not vary between mast and non-mast years. At both the population and individual level, the rate of production of mature female cones relative to male strobili production was higher in mast than non-mast years, consistent with the predicted benefit of reproductive synchrony on reproductive success. In addition, at the individual level we found a higher conversion of unfertilized female conelets into mature female cones during a mast year compared to a non-mast year. Collectively, parallel results at the population and individual tree level provide robust evidence for the ecological, and potentially also evolutionary, benefits of masting through increased pollination efficiency.

  19. Predictors of mental and physical health: individual and neighborhood levels of education, social well-being, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; McCubbin, Hamilton; McCubbin, Laurie; Foley, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how education benefits health through social well-being in Hawaii where the centrality of community life is underscored. The 2007 Hawaii Health Survey with linked zip-code information was used to investigate the effects of education at both individual and neighborhood levels using mixed-effects models. Geographic Information System was applied to map the geographical distributions of education, social well-being, and health. It was found that individual-level education benefits mental health and its effects are largely mediated by respondents' employment status and their social well-being (social integration, social contribution, social actualization, and social coherence). Both individual and neighborhood-level education promotes physical health and their effects are partially mediated by economic well-being and two indicators of social well-being (social integration and social coherence). Results of this study suggest the independent effects of two levels of education on physical health and the importance of education and social well-being to both mental and physical health in the State of Hawaii.

  20. Effect of individual blade control on noise radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, S. M.; Jacklin, Stephen A.; Niesl, G.; Blaas, Achim; Kube, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a joint research program of NASA Ames Research Center, ZF Luftfahrttechnik, the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR), and EUROCOPTER Deutschland, a wind tunnel test was performed to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on rotor noise. This test was conducted in the 40x80 ft wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, utilizing a full scale MBB-BO 105 four-bladed rotor system. Three microphones were installed for determination of the radiated noise, two of them on a moveable traverse below the advancing blade side and one in a fixed location below the retreating side. Acoustic results are presented for flight conditions with Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI) noise radiation. High noise level reductions were measured for single harmonic control inputs. In addition to the single harmonic inputs, multi-harmonic inputs were evaluated by superimposing 2/rev to 6/rev harmonics. For the first time the efficiency of sharp wavelets (60 deg and 90 deg width) on acoustic noise were measured. In order to achieve an adequate wavelet shape at the blade tip, corrections were made to account for the blade torsional behavior. In parallel with the acoustic measurements, vibratory loads were measured during the BVI flight condition to correlate the effects of IBC on noise and vibrations. It is shown how noise levels and vibrations are affected by specific IBC control inputs. In addition, correlations are made between noise levels and acoustic time histories with IBC phase and amplitude variations. For one IBC input mode with high noise reducing efficiency, a sweep of the moveable microphone traverse below the advancing side shows the effect on BVI noise directivity.

  1. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C O; Catai, A M; Moura-Tonello, S C G; Lopes, S L B; Benze, B G; Del Vale, A M; Leal, A M O

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3 ± 22.3 vs 135.1 ± 25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149 ± 12 vs 139 ± 10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2 ± 3.2 vs 18.9 ± 2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1 ± 3.4 vs 12.2 ± 2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  4. Worked Example Effects in Individual and Group Work Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retnowati, Endah; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of worked example and problem-solving approaches in individual or group work settings on learning to solve geometry problems. One hundred and one seventh graders from Indonesia were randomly allocated to four experimental groups using a 2 (problem-solving vs. worked examples) x 2 (individual vs. group study) design.…

  5. PLASMA OXYTOCIN LEVELS PREDICT SOCIAL CUE RECOGNITION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Keller, William R.; Koenig, James I.; Gold, James M.; Frost, Katherine H.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Lower endogenous levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin may be an important biological predictor of social cognition impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior studies have demonstrated that lower-level social cognitive processes (e.g., facial affect perception) are significantly associated with reduced plasma oxytocin levels in SZ; however, it is unclear whether higher-level social cognition, which requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in the stimulus, is associated with endogenous oxytocin. The current study explored the association between endogenous oxytocin levels and lower- and higher-level social cognition in 40 individuals diagnosed with SZ and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). All participants received the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT), which presents participants with videotaped interpersonal vignettes and subsequent true/false questions related to concrete or abstract aspects of social interactions in the vignettes. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ and CN did not differ on SCRT hits, but SZ had more false positives and lower sensitivity scores than CN. Higher plasma oxytocin levels were associated with better sensitivity scores for abstract items in CN and fewer false positives for concrete items in individuals with SZ. Findings indicate that endogenous oxytocin levels predict accurate encoding of lower-level socially relevant information in SZ. PMID:25673435

  6. Immediate effects of upper thoracic spine manipulation on hypertensive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John; Tyer, Ken; Coats, Jesse; Williams, Gabbrielle; Kulcak, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine if there were any statistically significant immediate effects of upper thoracic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on cardiovascular physiology in hypertensive individuals. Introduction: Preliminary research suggests that SMT to various regions of the spine may be capable of lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Further studies are warranted to corroborate or refute these findings as well as measure how other attributes of cardiovascular physiology are impacted by SMT. Methods: Fifty hypertensive participants (age = 45.5±13.9 years, height = 1.69±0.10 m, body mass = 93.9±21.5 kg: mean±standard deviation (SD)) were equally randomized into a single-blind, controlled trial involving two study groups: supine diversified anterior upper thoracic SMT of T1–4, or a ‘no T-spine contact’ control. Outcome measures were electrocardiogram, bilateral pulse oximetry, and bilateral blood pressure measurement performed at baseline, post 1-minute intervention, and post 10-minute intervention. An independent samples t-test was used to compare between-group differences at baseline. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare within-group changes over time. Results: Within-group changes in PR interval and QRS duration demonstrated that the atria were transiently less active post-SMT and the ventricles were more active post-SMT, however the changes were clinically minimal. Conclusion: The results of this study, and the limited existing normotensive, thoracic-specific SMT research in this field, suggest that cardiovascular physiology, short-term, is not affected by upper thoracic spine SMT in hypertensive individuals to a clinically relevant level. PMID:26309381

  7. Flexibility in metabolic rate and activity level determines individual variation in overwinter performance.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-11-01

    Energy stores are essential for the overwinter survival of many temperate and polar animals, but individuals within a species often differ in how quickly they deplete their reserves. These disparities in overwinter performance may be explained by differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility in response to food scarcity. However, little is known about whether individuals exhibit correlated or independent changes in these traits, and how these phenotypic changes collectively affect their winter energy use. We examined individual flexibility in both standard metabolic rate and activity level in response to food scarcity and their combined consequences for depletion of lipid stores among overwintering brown trout (Salmo trutta). Metabolism and activity tended to decrease, yet individuals exhibited striking differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility. The rate of lipid depletion was negatively related to decreases in both metabolic and activity rates, with the smallest lipid loss over the simulated winter period occurring in individuals that had the greatest reductions in metabolism and/or activity. However, changes in metabolism and activity were negatively correlated; those individuals that decreased their SMR to a greater extent tended to increase their activity rates, and vice versa, suggesting among-individual variation in strategies for coping with food scarcity.

  8. Creative self-efficacy and individual creativity in team contexts: cross-level interactions with team informational resources.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas W; Hirst, Giles; van Knippenberg, Daan; Baer, Markus

    2012-11-01

    We propose a cross-level perspective on the relation between creative self-efficacy and individual creativity in which team informational resources, comprising both shared "knowledge of who knows what" (KWKW) and functional background diversity, benefit the creativity of individuals more with higher creative self-efficacy. To test our hypotheses, we conducted a multi-level study with 176 employees working in 34 research and development teams of a multinational company in 4 countries. In support of our hypotheses, the link between creative self-efficacy and individual creativity was more positive with greater shared KWKW, and this interactive effect was pronounced for teams of high rather than low functional background diversity. We discuss implications for the study of creative self-efficacy in team contexts.

  9. Genetic diversity confers colony-level benefits due to individual immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several costs and benefits arise as a consequence of eusociality and group-living. With increasing group size, spread of disease among nest-mates poses selective pressure on both individual immunity and group-level mechanisms of disease resistance (social immunity). Another factor known to influence...

  10. Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

  11. Educational Process Quality in Preschools at the Individual Child Level: Findings from a German Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Wilfried; Rossbach, Hans-Günther

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the quality of educational processes in preschools, but it has usually been studied at the group level. Thus, there is a lack of research on the quality of educational processes as experienced by individual children. Therefore, this study investigated the quality of educational processes in preschools at the…

  12. The Importance of Rationales for Internationalization at a Local Level--University and Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Ian; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examines rationales for internationalization at a research intensive university in the UK. Internationalization is often described at a macro level without reaching down to explore the individual motivations that may support or constrain internationalization at a particular institution. The article argues that it is important to…

  13. Discrimination against Latina/os: A Meta-Analysis of Individual-Level Resources and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the findings of 60 independent samples from 51 studies examining racial/ethnic discrimination against Latina/os in the United States. The purpose was to identify individual-level resources and outcomes that most strongly relate to discrimination. Discrimination against Latina/os significantly results in outcomes…

  14. An Analysis of Internet Addiction Levels of Individuals according to Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    The concept of internet addiction refers to the excessive use of internet which in turn causes various problems in individual, social and professional aspects. The aim of this study was to determine internet addiction levels of internet users from all age groups. The study used survey model. Study group of the study consisted of a total of 596…

  15. Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a…

  16. FROM INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING TOXICITY DATA ACROSS LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Raimondo, Sandy and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. In press. From Individuals to Populations: Modeling Toxicity Data Across Levels of Biological Organization (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1012).

    ...

  17. Death Anxiety as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Levels among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Erin

    2004-01-01

    Because the onset of a spinal cord injury may involve a brush with death and because serious injury and disability can act as a reminder of death, death anxiety was examined as a predictor of posttraumatic stress levels among individuals with disabilities. This cross-sectional study used multiple regression and multivariate multiple regression to…

  18. Individual- and School-Level Predictors of Student Office Disciplinary Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Andrew; McMahon, Susan D.; Treger, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Research has widely documented the over-representation of office disciplinary referrals (ODRs) among specific student groups (e.g., African American, boys). Despite extant research documenting individual-level predictors of ODRs, few studies have accounted for the nested structure of the settings in which these events occur. Guided by critical…

  19. Individualizing Instruction in College-Level Spanish: A Study of Student Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimerhanzel-Nestlerode, Samye Ruth Mott; Cooper, James

    This study considers whether the outcomes for students who participated in an individualized instructional approach to language learning in intermediate college-level foreign language courses are different from the outcomes for students who participated in a lecture-recitation aproach. A two-treatment group quasi-experimental design was used. The…

  20. Measuring Oxygen Cost During Level Walking in Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Helen; Collett, Johnathen; Ramsbottom, Roger; Howells, Ken; Sackley, Cath; Wade, Derick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the test-retest reliability of oxygen cost (ml·kg-1·min-1) during level walking in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). Ten individuals with ABI (5 men, 5 women) (Traumatic brain injury, 1, central pontine myelinolysis, 1, stroke 8) and 21 healthy controls (11 men, 10 women). Measurements of gross and net (walking minus resting) oxygen consumption (ml·kg-1·min-1), and oxygen cost (ml·kg-1·min-1) during level walking at self-selected speeds. Measurements were taken on two occasions within one week. Oxygen cost was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in individuals with ABI on the second test versus the first test. Percentage variability in oxygen cost from test to re-test ranged from 14.7 to 17.3% in the control group and from 17.4 to 20.8% in the brain injury group. Clinical populations may demonstrate a significant decrease in oxygen cost between testing occasions. Individuals require at least one period of familiarisation if oxygen cost is used as an outcome measure during level walking in clinical groups. The amount of familiarisation has yet to be investigated in individuals with ABI. Key Points Individuals with brain injury during level walking May demonstrate a significant decrease in oxygen cost between testing occasions. May require at least one period of familiarisation if oxygen cost is used as an outcome measure The degree of familiarisation required in this clinical group needs further investigation PMID:24482582

  1. Factors Associated with D-Dimer Levels in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Álvaro H.; O’Connor, Jemma L.; Phillips, Andrew N.; Baker, Jason V.; Vjecha, Michael J.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Klinker, Hartwig; Lopardo, Gustavo; Williams, Ian; Lundgren, Jens D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher plasma D-dimer levels are strong predictors of mortality in HIV+ individuals. The factors associated with D-dimer levels during HIV infection, however, remain poorly understood. Methods In this cross-sectional study, participants in three randomized controlled trials with measured D-dimer levels were included (N = 9,848). Factors associated with D-dimer were identified by linear regression. Covariates investigated were: age, gender, race, body mass index, nadir and baseline CD4+ count, plasma HIV RNA levels, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, ART regimens, co-morbidities (hepatitis B/C, diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular disease), smoking, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and cystatin C) and cholesterol. Results Women from all age groups had higher D-dimer levels than men, though a steeper increase of D-dimer with age occurred in men. Hepatitis B/C co-infection was the only co-morbidity associated with higher D-dimer levels. In this subgroup, the degree of hepatic fibrosis, as demonstrated by higher hyaluronic acid levels, but not viral load of hepatitis viruses, was positively correlated with D-dimer. Other factors independently associated with higher D-dimer levels were black race, higher plasma HIV RNA levels, being off ART at baseline, and increased levels of CRP, IL-6 and cystatin C. In contrast, higher baseline CD4+ counts and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were negatively correlated with D-dimer levels. Conclusions D-dimer levels increase with age in HIV+ men, but are already elevated in women at an early age due to reasons other than a higher burden of concomitant diseases. In hepatitis B/C co-infected individuals, hepatic fibrosis, but not hepatitis viral load, was associated with higher D-dimer levels. PMID:24626096

  2. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness

    PubMed Central

    Ogihara, Yuji; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB). Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being. PMID:24634663

  3. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Yuji; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB). Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being.

  4. Reducing the prevalence of dysglycemia: is the time ripe to test the effectiveness of intervention in high-risk individuals with elevated 1 h post-load glucose levels?

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael; Jagannathan, Ram; Buysschaert, Martin; Medina, Jose Luis; Sevick, Mary Ann; Katz, Karin; Dorcely, Brenda; Roth, Jesse; Chetrit, Angela; Dankner, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    Identifying the earliest time point on the prediabetic continuum is critical to avoid progressive deterioration in β-cell function. Progressively rising glucose levels even within the "normal range" occur considerably late in the evolution to diabetes thus presenting an important opportunity for earlier diagnosis, treatment, and possible reversal. An elevated 1 h postprandial glucose level, not detected by current diagnostic standards, may provide an opportunity for the early identification of those at risk. When the 1 h post-load glucose level is elevated, lifestyle intervention may have the greatest benefit for preserving β-cell function and prevent further progression to prediabetes and diabetes. In view of the considerable consistent epidemiologic data in large disparate populations supporting the predictive capacity of the1 h post-load value for predicting progression to diabetes and mortality, the time is therefore ripe to evaluate this hypothesis in a large, prospective multicenter randomized trial with lifestyle intervention.

  5. Automated individual-level parcellation of Broca's region based on functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Estrid; Liem, Franziskus; Klados, Manousos A; Bayrak, Şeyma; Petrides, Michael; Margulies, Daniel S

    2016-09-30

    Broca's region can be subdivided into its constituent areas 44 and 45 based on established differences in connectivity to superior temporal and inferior parietal regions. The current study builds on our previous work manually parcellating Broca's area on the individual-level by applying these anatomical criteria to functional connectivity data. Here we present an automated observer-independent and anatomy-informed parcellation pipeline with comparable precision to the manual labels at the individual-level. The method first extracts individualized connectivity templates of areas 44 and 45 by assigning to each surface vertex within the ventrolateral frontal cortex the partial correlation value of its functional connectivity to group-level templates of areas 44 and 45, accounting for other template connectivity patterns. To account for cross-subject variability in connectivity, the partial correlation procedure is then repeated using individual-level network templates, including individual-level connectivity from areas 44 and 45. Each node is finally labeled as area 44, 45, or neither, using a winner-take-all approach. The method also incorporates prior knowledge of anatomical location by weighting the results using spatial probability maps. The resulting area labels show a high degree of spatial overlap with the gold-standard manual labels, and group-average area maps are consistent with cytoarchitectonic probability maps of areas 44 and 45. To facilitate reproducibility and to demonstrate that the method can be applied to resting-state fMRI datasets with varying acquisition and preprocessing parameters, the labeling procedure is applied to two open-source datasets from the Human Connectome Project and the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland Sample. While the current study focuses on Broca's region, the method is adaptable to parcellate other cortical regions with distinct connectivity profiles.

  6. Effectiveness of Simple Individual Psychoeducation for Bipolar II Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Emi; Taketani, Reiko; Yamamoto, Ami

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression. Her perception of mood state, particularly mixed state, was dramatically changed, and her quality of life was improved after the simple individual psychoeducation. This case suggests that the simple individual psychoeducation could be effective for bipolar II disorder by improving understanding of the disease and by meeting different individual needs. PMID:27559486

  7. Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M; Blume, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    Although one of the main reasons for the interest in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) is the potential consequences of these behaviors, no study has been reported that summarizes the research regarding the relationships between OCBs and their outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a meta-analytic examination of the relationships between OCBs and a variety of individual- and organizational-level outcomes. Results, based on 168 independent samples (N = 51,235 individuals), indicated that OCBs are related to a number of individual-level outcomes, including managerial ratings of employee performance, reward allocation decisions, and a variety of withdrawal-related criteria (e.g., employee turnover intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism). In addition, OCBs were found to be related (k = 38; N = 3,611 units) to a number of organizational-level outcomes (e.g., productivity, efficiency, reduced costs, customer satisfaction, and unit-level turnover). Of interest, somewhat stronger relationships were observed between OCBs and unit-level performance measures in longitudinal studies than in cross-sectional studies, providing some evidence that OCBs are causally related to these criteria. The implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Habitat quality from individual- and population-level perspectives and implications for management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boves, Than J.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Wigley, T. Bently; Keyser, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Many wildlife management prescriptions are either implicitly or explicitly designed to improve habitat quality for a focal species, but habitat quality is often difficult to quantify. Depending upon the approach used to define and identify high-quality habitat, management decisions may differ widely. Although individual-level measures of habitat quality based on per capita reproduction (e.g., average nesting success, number of young produced per pair) are most common in the literature, they may not align with population-level measures that reflect number of young produced within a defined area. Using data on the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea) collected in the Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee, USA; 2008–2010) as an example, we illustrate how lack of concordance between individual- and population-level measures of habitat quality can have real-world management implications.

  9. Increased low-level chromosome 21 mosaicism in older individuals with Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, E.C.; Genovese, M.; Ye, Ling Ling

    1997-01-20

    During a study of the familial aggregation of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer disease (AD), we observed an increase in mosaicism for disomy 21 in older individuals with DS. In a total of 213 DS subjects who were studied cytogenetically, only 1 of 121 (0.8%) under age 45 exhibited mosaicism, while 14 of 92 (15.2%) who were age 45 or older had mosaicism. Mosaicism in this report connotes {open_quotes}low-level{close_quotes} mosaicism, where all 15 individuals exhibited a modal chromosome number of 47 (i.e., trisomy 21), and at least two cells lacked one of the three chromosomes 21. The occurrence of aneuploidy for chromosomes 15, 17, and X increased with age, and an inverse correlation between chromosome loss and size was also observed. Because older individuals had not been karyotyped at birth, it was not possible to determine whether our observations were due to either increased survival of mosaic individuals or accumulation of disomy 21 cells via increased chromosome loss with aging of the trisomy 21 individual. Using a modeling approach involving life table methods, we obtained results that suggested acquired mosaicism as the predominant mechanism to explain our findings. These results support the hypothesis that as individuals with DS age, there is an increased loss of chromosome 21. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Are all repeats created equal? Understanding DNA repeats at an individual level.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinpu; Li, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences, comprising up to 50 % of the genome in all eukaryotes, play important roles in a wide range of cellular functions, such as transcriptional regulation, genome stability, and cellular differentiation. However, due to technical difficulties in differentiating their sequences, DNA repeats remain one of the most mysterious parts of eukaryotic genomes. Key questions, such as how repetitive entities behave at individual level and how the internal architecture of these repeats is organized, are still poorly understood. Recent advances from our group reveal unexpected position-dependent variation within tandem DNA repeats in fission yeast. Despite sharing identical DNA sequences, the peri-centromeric repeats are organized into diverse epigenetic states and chromatin structures. We demonstrate that this position-dependent variation requires key heterochromatin factors and condensin. Our works further suggest that the peri-centromeric repeats are organized into distinct higher order structures that ensure a proper positioning of CENP-A, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant, to centromeres. These most recent developments offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the position effect within tandem DNA arrays, and have broad implications in the field of epigenetics and chromatin biology.

  11. Individual-and Setting-Level Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Rape Crisis Center Staff.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sorell, Nicole R; Allen, Nicole E

    2016-02-01

    Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an issue of significant concern among providers who work with survivors of sexual assault. Although STS has been studied in relation to individual-level characteristics of a variety of types of trauma responders, less research has focused specifically on rape crisis centers as environments that might convey risk or protection from STS, and no research to knowledge has modeled setting-level variation in correlates of STS. The current study uses a sample of 164 staff members representing 40 rape crisis centers across a single Midwestern state to investigate the staff member-and agency-level correlates of STS. Results suggest that correlates exist at both levels of analysis. Younger age and greater severity of sexual assault history were statistically significant individual-level predictors of increased STS. Greater frequency of supervision was more strongly related to secondary stress for non-advocates than for advocates. At the setting level, lower levels of supervision and higher client loads agency-wide accounted for unique variance in staff members' STS. These findings suggest that characteristics of both providers and their settings are important to consider when understanding their STS.

  12. Avian haemosporidian persistence and co-infection in great tits at the individual level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies have tracked the distribution and persistence of avian haemosporidian communities across space and time at the population level, but few studies have investigated these aspects of infection at the individual level over time. Important aspects of parasite infection at the individual level can be missed if only trends at the population level are studied. This study aimed to determine how persistent Haemosporida are in great tit individuals recaptured over several years, whether parasitaemia differed by parasite lineage (mitochondrial cytochrome b haplotype) and how co-infection (i.e. concurrent infection with multiple genera of parasites) affects parasitaemia and body mass. Methods Parasite prevalence was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR were used to assess parasitaemia and sequencing was employed to determine the identity of the lineages using the MalAvi database. Results Haemosporidian prevalence was high over sampled years with 98% of 55 recaptured individuals showing infection in at least one year of capture. Eighty-two percent of all positive individuals suffered co-infection, with an overall haemosporidian lineage diversity of seventeen. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites were found to be highly persistent, with lineages from these genera consistently found in individuals across years and with no differences in individual parasitaemia being recorded at subsequent captures. Conversely, Leucocytozoon parasites showed higher turnover with regard to lineage changes or transitions in infection status (infected vs non-infected) across years. Parasitaemia was found to be lineage specific and there was no relationship between Plasmodium parasitaemia or host body condition and the presence of Leucocytozoon parasites. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that different genera of haemosporidian parasites interact differently with their host and other co-infecting parasites, influencing parasite

  13. Comparison of total protein and phospholipase A(2) levels in individual coralsnake venoms.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Randall A; Harper, George R; Zimmerman, Sloane; Hook, Jessica

    2013-12-15

    Studies of differences or changes in venom protein levels or enzymatic activities have significance only if contrasted to the normal variations between individual snakes. This study involves the analysis and comparison of venom from 13 individual Texas coralsnakes (Micrurus tener tener) in order to detect differences in the volume, total protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, and PLA2 enzyme activity. A significant inverse correlation between venom volume and total protein concentration was found. Although the 13 venoms were indistinguishable from their electrophoretic protein profiles, phospholipase A2 enzymatic activities varied considerably.

  14. The Effectiveness of Couple and Individual Relationship Education: Distress as a Moderator.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ryan G; Rappleyea, Damon L; Daire, Andrew P; Harris, Steven M; Liu, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Current literature yields mixed results about the effectiveness of relationship education (RE) with low-income participants and those who experience a high level of individual or relational distress. Scholars have called for research that examines whether initial levels of distress act as a moderator of RE outcomes. To test whether initial levels of relationship and/or individual distress moderate the effectiveness of RE, this study used two samples, one of couples who received couple-oriented relationship education with their partner (n = 192 couples) and one of individuals in a relationship who received individual-oriented RE by themselves (n = 60 individuals). We delivered RE in a community-based setting serving primarily low-income participants. For those attending with a partner, there was a significant interaction between gender, initial distress, and time. Findings indicate that women who were relationally distressed before RE reported the largest pre-postgains. Those who attended an individual-oriented RE program reported significant decreases in individual distress from pre to post, but no significant relationship gains. Findings also suggest that initial levels of distress did not moderate the effectiveness of individual-oriented RE.

  15. Individual-level risk factors for gun victimization in a sample of probationers.

    PubMed

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-07-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level variables uniquely related to the likelihood of experiencing a gun victimization in a sample of probationers, individuals already at a heightened risk for criminal victimization. Self-report data were collected from 235 felony probationers about, for instance, gun and nongun victimization, gang involvement, and drug sales. Results show different variables are related to nongun victimization and gun victimization. In the current sample, involvement in gun crimes are linked to an increased risk of gun victimization. Violent offending and residential stability are associated with an increased chance of crime victimization.

  16. Reasoning in Reference Games: Individual- vs. Population-Level Probabilistic Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Michael; Degen, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in probabilistic pragmatics have achieved considerable success in modeling speakers’ and listeners’ pragmatic reasoning as probabilistic inference. However, these models are usually applied to population-level data, and so implicitly suggest a homogeneous population without individual differences. Here we investigate potential individual differences in Theory-of-Mind related depth of pragmatic reasoning in so-called reference games that require drawing ad hoc Quantity implicatures of varying complexity. We show by Bayesian model comparison that a model that assumes a heterogenous population is a better predictor of our data, especially for comprehension. We discuss the implications for the treatment of individual differences in probabilistic models of language use. PMID:27149675

  17. The Effect of Shared versus Individual Reflection on Team Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domke-Damonte, Darla J.; Keels, J. Kay

    2015-01-01

    In this study, teams in a strategic management classroom were given one of two versions of an assignment related to the development of a team contract: independent individual reflections on desired team behaviors versus team-level reflections on desired behavioral norms. Results of a multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for gender and…

  18. Analysis of gene expression levels in individual bacterial cells without image segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, In Hae; Son, Minjun; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for extracting gene expression data from images of bacterial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method does not employ cell segmentation and does not require high magnification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence and phase contrast images of the cells are correlated through the physics of phase contrast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate the method by characterizing noisy expression of comX in Streptococcus mutans. -- Abstract: Studies of stochasticity in gene expression typically make use of fluorescent protein reporters, which permit the measurement of expression levels within individual cells by fluorescence microscopy. Analysis of such microscopy images is almost invariably based on a segmentation algorithm, where the image of a cell or cluster is analyzed mathematically to delineate individual cell boundaries. However segmentation can be ineffective for studying bacterial cells or clusters, especially at lower magnification, where outlines of individual cells are poorly resolved. Here we demonstrate an alternative method for analyzing such images without segmentation. The method employs a comparison between the pixel brightness in phase contrast vs fluorescence microscopy images. By fitting the correlation between phase contrast and fluorescence intensity to a physical model, we obtain well-defined estimates for the different levels of gene expression that are present in the cell or cluster. The method reveals the boundaries of the individual cells, even if the source images lack the resolution to show these boundaries clearly.

  19. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lana, Raquel de Carvalho; de Araujo, Lysandra Nogueira; Cardoso, Francisco; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP), the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  20. Youth Supplying Tobacco to Other Minors: Evaluating Individual and Town-Level Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Steven B.; Jason, Leonard A.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study employed multilevel random-effects regression analyses to model individual and community correlates of youth supplying tobacco to other minors. Data from 8486 youth in 40 Midwestern junior high and high schools were examined. Results indicate community support for tobacco-possession laws was associated with lower likelihood of…

  1. Individual Differences in Boredom Proneness and Task Effectiveness at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drory, Amos

    1982-01-01

    Studied relationships between boredom at work, personal characteristics, and performance in a sample of truck drivers. Results suggest that boredom was associated negatively with higher mental and physical individual capacity and negatively associated with effectiveness. The relationship between boredom and work effectiveness was significantly…

  2. Individual Effect Modifiers of Dust Exposure Effect on Cardiovascular Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Vodonos, Alina; Friger, Michael; Katra, Itzhak; Krasnov, Helena; Zahger, Doron; Schwartz, Joel; Novack, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been associated with death and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular morbidity. However, it is not clear a) whether high levels of non-anthropogenic PM from dust storms constitute a health risk; and b) whether these health risks are exacerbated in a particular demographic. Methods This study comprised all patients above 18 years old admitted to Soroka University Medical Center (1000 bed tertiary hospital, Be’er- Sheva, Israel, 2001–2010) with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data on meteorological parameters and PM10 (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodiameter) were obtained from monitoring stations in the city of Be'er-Sheva. Data were analyzed using a case crossover analysis to examine the effect of dust exposure on hospitalization due to ACS and the interaction with co-morbidities and demographic factors. Results There were 16,734 hospitalizations due to ACS during the study period. The estimated odds of hospitalization due to ACS was significantly associated with PM10 during non dust storm days at the same day of the exposure (lag0); OR = 1.014 (95%CI 1.001–1.027) for a 10 μg/m3 increase, while a delayed response (lag1) was found during the dust storm days; OR = 1.007 (95%CI 1.002–1.012). The effect size for the dust exposure association was larger for older (above the age of 65), female or Bedouin patients. Conclusions Exposure to non-anthropogenic PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Health risk associated dust exposure is gender and age specific with older women and Bedouin patients being the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26381397

  3. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  4. Speeded Old-New Recognition of Multidimensional Perceptual Stimuli: Modeling Performance at the Individual-Participant and Individual-Item Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Stanton, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    Observers made speeded old-new recognition judgments of color stimuli embedded in a multidimensional similarity space. The paradigm used multiple lists but with the underlying similarity structures repeated across lists, to allow for quantitative modeling of the data at the individual-participant and individual-item levels. Correct rejection…

  5. Electrocardiographic study of the effect of masturbation normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Banerjea, B K; Sen, S C

    1976-01-01

    An electrocardiographic study of 120 normal individuals of age group between 22 years to 38 years was carried out to observe changes manifested in the electrocardiogram under the effect of masturbation. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms was recorded, E.C.G. were taken twice in all the subjects: (i) before ejaculation, and (ii) after ejaculation. After ejaculation, in electrocardiogram, following changes were observed: (i) increase of QRS-amplitude, (ii) increase of T-wave amplitude, (iii) decrease of heart rate, and (iv) elevation of St-segment. Blooe pressure was also estimated in all the subjects before and after ejaculation. Blood pressure levels increased after ejaculation in all the cases. The fact that any sort of stressful condition may induce the discharge of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla as well as adrenergic nerve endings, led us to estimate the concentration of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in plasma before and after ejaculation. The result showed, increase of concentration of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine after ejaculation. Hence epinephrine and nor-epinephrine, were thought to be responsible to cause changes in the electrocardiographic pattern after ejaculation.

  6. Impact of Individual-Level Social Capital on Quality of Life among AIDS Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Chen, Ruoling; Li, Niannian; Chen, Ren; Hu, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Background With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL) among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV) questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. Results The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS) score of 50.13±9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS) score of 41.64±11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02) or PHS score (OR = 6.90). Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR = 2.30, OR = 4.17, respectively). Conclusions This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration. PMID:23139823

  7. Similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels.

    PubMed

    William Domhoff, G; Schneider, Adam

    2008-12-01

    The similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels provide one starting point for carrying out studies that attempt to discover correspondences between dream content and various types of waking cognition. Hobson and Kahn's (Hobson, J. A., & Kahn, D. (2007). Dream content: Individual and generic aspects. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 850-858.) conclusion that dream content may be more generic than most researchers realize, and that individual differences are less salient than usually thought, provides the occasion for a review of findings based on the Hall and Van de Castle (Hall, C., & Van de Castle, R. (1966). The content analysis of dreams. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.) coding system for the study of dream content. Then new findings based on a computationally intensive randomization strategy are presented to show the minimum sample sizes needed to detect gender and individual differences in dream content. Generally speaking, sample sizes of 100-125 dream reports are needed because most dream elements appear in less than 50% of dream reports and the magnitude of the differences usually is not large.

  8. Individuals in the crowd: studying bacterial quorum-sensing at the single-cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino Perez, Pablo; Young, Jonathan; Johnson, Elaine L.; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2009-03-01

    Like many bacterial species, the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri can detect its own population density through a quorum sensing (QS) mechanism. The bacterium releases a small molecule signal -- the autoinducer (AI) -- into its environment: high AI concentration indicates high population density and triggers a genetic switch that, in V.fischeri, leads to bioluminescence. Although the QS behavior of bulk cultures of V.fischeri has been extensively studied, little is known about either the response of individual cells to AI signal levels or the role of noise and local diffusion in QS signaling. We have used a photon-counting camera to record the luminescence of individual V.fischeri cells immobilized in a flow cell and subject to varying concentrations of AI. We observe that light output by individual cells varies not only with bulk AI concentration, but also over time, between cells, with local (micron-scale) population density, and even with the flow rate of the medium. Most of these variations would not be evident in a bulk culture. We will present an analysis of this heterogeneity at the cell level and its implications for the role of noise in QS signaling.

  9. Higher precision level at individual laying performance tests in noncage housing systems.

    PubMed

    Icken, W; Thurner, S; Heinrich, A; Kaiser, A; Cavero, D; Wendl, G; Fries, R; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R

    2013-09-01

    With the Weihenstephan funnel nest box, 12 laying hen flocks were tested for their individual laying performance, egg quality, and nesting behavior in a noncage environment. During the whole observation period of 8 yr, a transponder-based data recording system was continuously improved and resulted in a recording accuracy of 97%. At peak production, heritabilities for the number of eggs laid are in some flocks higher than expected. With improved data accuracy, heritability estimates on individual egg weights are more stable. Heritabilities for nesting behavior traits range between a low to moderate level, providing very useful information for laying hen selection to help improve traits that cannot be recorded in cages. Over the years, the benefits of the Weihenstephan funnel nest box for laying hen breeders have grown. This is due to higher data recording accuracies and extended testing capacities, which result in more reliable genetic parameters.

  10. Individual increase in inbreeding allows estimating effective sizes from pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Cervantes, Isabel; Molina, Antonio; Valera, Mercedes; Goyache, Félix

    2008-01-01

    We present here a simple approach to obtain reliable estimates of the effective population size in real world populations via the computation of the increase in inbreeding for each individual (delta Fi) in a given population. The values of delta Fi are computed as t-root of 1 - (1 - Fi) where Fi is the inbreeding coefficient and t is the equivalent complete generations for each individual. The values of delta F computed for a pre-defined reference subset can be averaged and used to estimate effective size. A standard error of this estimate of Ne can be further computed from the standard deviation of the individual increase in inbreeding. The methodology is demonstrated by applying it to several simulated examples and to a real pedigree in which other methodologies fail when considering reference subpopulations. The main characteristics of the approach and its possible use are discussed both for predictive purposes and for analyzing genealogies. PMID:18558071

  11. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  12. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  13. Individual and district-level predictors of alcohol use: cross sectional findings from a rural mental health survey in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    potential adverse health effects of district or community level adversity across rural regions, our study found relatively few district-level factors contributing to at-risk alcohol consumption after controlling for individual-level factors. Population-based prevention strategies may be most beneficial in rural areas with a higher socio-economic ranking, while individual attention should be focused towards rural residents with multiple recent adverse life events, and people who have spent less time residing in a rural area. PMID:22853803

  14. Tightening up the performance-pay linkage: roles of contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing in the cross-level influence of individual pay-for-performance.

    PubMed

    Han, Joo Hun; Bartol, Kathryn M; Kim, Seongsu

    2015-03-01

    Drawing upon line-of-sight (Lawler, 1990, 2000; Murphy, 1999) as a unifying concept, we examine the cross-level influence of organizational use of individual pay-for-performance (PFP), theorizing that its impact on individual employees' performance-reward expectancy is boosted by the moderating effects of immediate group managers' contingent reward leadership and organizational use of profit-sharing. Performance-reward expectancy is then expected to mediate the interactive effects of individual PFP with contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing on employee job performance. Analyses of cross-organizational and cross-level data from 912 employees in 194 workgroups from 45 companies reveal that organizations' individual PFP was positively related to employees' performance-reward expectancy, which was strengthened when it was accompanied by higher levels of contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing. Also, performance-reward expectancy significantly transmitted the effects of individual PFP onto job performance under higher levels of contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing, thus delineating cross-level mediating and moderating processes by which organizations' individual PFP is linked to important individual-level employee outcomes. Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. HIV infection duration, social support and the level of trauma symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive Polish individuals.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Żebrowska, Magdalena; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms.

  16. Testing for evidence of maternal effects among individuals and populations of white crappie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Scantland, M.A.; Stein, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    For an increasing number of species, maternal characteristics have been correlated with the characteristics of their eggs or larvae at the individual level. Documenting these maternal effects at the population level, however, is uncommon. For white crappies Pomoxis annularis, we evaluated whether individual maternal effects on eggs existed and then explored whether incorporating maternal effects explained additional variation in recruitment, a population-level response. Individual egg quality (measured as ovary energy density) increased with maternal length among individuals from seven Ohio reservoirs in 1999 and three in 2000. Among these same individuals, egg quality increased with maternal condition factor (measured as residual wet mass for a given length) in 1999 but not in 2000. In 2000 we estimated somatic energy density, an improved measure of condition; egg quality increased with somatic energy density, but somatic energy density was also strongly correlated with maternal length. Hence, we could not determine whether maternal length or condition was the primary factor influencing white crappie egg quality. Across seven populations, the relative population fecundity (i.e., stock size) of the 1999 year-class was unable to explain the variation in recruitment to age 2 (Ricker model r2 = 0.04 and Beverton and Holt model r2 = 0.02). Mean ovary energy density (i.e., egg quality), however, was unable to explain additional recruitment variability in either model. Hence, we documented evidence of maternal effects on individual ovaries but not on population-level recruitment. Nonetheless, we recommend that future studies seeking to understand white crappie recruitment continue to consider maternal effects as a potential factor, especially those studies that may have greater sample sizes at the population level and, in turn, a greater probability of documenting a population-level effect. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  17. Phenotypic and evolutionary consequences of social behaviours: interactions among individuals affect direct genetic effects.

    PubMed

    Trubenová, Barbora; Hager, Reinmar

    2012-01-01

    Traditional quantitative genetics assumes that an individual's phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. For many animals, part of the environment is social and provided by parents and other interacting partners. When expression of genes in social partners affects trait expression in a focal individual, indirect genetic effects occur. In this study, we explore the effects of indirect genetic effects on the magnitude and range of phenotypic values in a focal individual in a multi-member model analyzing three possible classes of interactions between individuals. We show that social interactions may not only cause indirect genetic effects but can also modify direct genetic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both direct and indirect genetic effects substantially alter the range of phenotypic values, particularly when a focal trait can influence its own expression via interactions with traits in other individuals. We derive a function predicting the relative importance of direct versus indirect genetic effects. Our model reveals that both direct and indirect genetic effects can depend to a large extent on both group size and interaction strength, altering group mean phenotype and variance. This may lead to scenarios where between group variation is much higher than within group variation despite similar underlying genetic properties, potentially affecting the level of selection. Our analysis highlights key properties of indirect genetic effects with important consequences for trait evolution, the level of selection and potentially speciation.

  18. Individual, unit and vocal clan level identity cues in sperm whale codas

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Shane; Whitehead, Hal; Rendell, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The ‘social complexity hypothesis’ suggests that complex social structure is a driver of diversity in animal communication systems. Sperm whales have a hierarchically structured society in which the largest affiliative structures, the vocal clans, are marked on ocean-basin scales by culturally transmitted dialects of acoustic signals known as ‘codas’. We examined variation in coda repertoires among both individual whales and social units—the basic element of sperm whale society—using data from nine Caribbean social units across six years. Codas were assigned to individuals using photo-identification and acoustic size measurement, and we calculated similarity between repertoires using both continuous and categorical methods. We identified 21 coda types. Two of those (‘1+1+3’ and ‘5R1’) made up 65% of the codas recorded, were shared across all units and have dominated repertoires in this population for at least 30 years. Individuals appear to differ in the way they produce ‘5R1’ but not ‘1+1+3’ coda. Units use distinct 4-click coda types which contribute to making unit repertoires distinctive. Our results support the social complexity hypothesis in a marine species as different patterns of variation between coda types suggest divergent functions, perhaps representing selection for identity signals at several levels of social structure. PMID:26909165

  19. Individual, unit and vocal clan level identity cues in sperm whale codas.

    PubMed

    Gero, Shane; Whitehead, Hal; Rendell, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The 'social complexity hypothesis' suggests that complex social structure is a driver of diversity in animal communication systems. Sperm whales have a hierarchically structured society in which the largest affiliative structures, the vocal clans, are marked on ocean-basin scales by culturally transmitted dialects of acoustic signals known as 'codas'. We examined variation in coda repertoires among both individual whales and social units-the basic element of sperm whale society-using data from nine Caribbean social units across six years. Codas were assigned to individuals using photo-identification and acoustic size measurement, and we calculated similarity between repertoires using both continuous and categorical methods. We identified 21 coda types. Two of those ('1+1+3' and '5R1') made up 65% of the codas recorded, were shared across all units and have dominated repertoires in this population for at least 30 years. Individuals appear to differ in the way they produce '5R1' but not '1+1+3' coda. Units use distinct 4-click coda types which contribute to making unit repertoires distinctive. Our results support the social complexity hypothesis in a marine species as different patterns of variation between coda types suggest divergent functions, perhaps representing selection for identity signals at several levels of social structure.

  20. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  1. When nasty breeds nice: threats of violence amplify agreeableness at national, individual, and situational levels.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew Edward; Kenrick, Douglas T; Li, Yexin Jessica; Mortensen, Chad R; Neuberg, Steven L; Cohen, Adam B

    2012-10-01

    Humans have perennially faced threats of violence from other humans and have developed functional strategies for surviving those threats. Five studies examined the relation between threats of violence and agreeableness at the level of nations, individuals, and situations. People living in countries with higher military spending (Study 1) and those who chronically perceive threats from others (Study 2) were more agreeable. However, this threat-linked agreeableness was selective (Studies 3-5). Participants primed with threat were more agreeable and willing to help familiar others but were less agreeable and willing to help unfamiliar others. Additionally, people from large families, for whom affiliation may be a salient response to threat, were more likely than people from small families to shift in agreeableness. Returning to the national level, military spending was associated with increased trust in ingroup members but decreased trust in outgroups. Together, these findings demonstrate that agreeableness is selectively modulated by threats of violence.

  2. EVALUATING EFFECTS ACROSS BIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION: EDCS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge in ecological risk assessments is to obtain, in a resource-effective manner, information that provides insight both into chemical mode/mechanism of action (MOA) and adverse effects in individual animals, which are indicative of potential population-level responses. T...

  3. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kanchika, Masaru; Nakao, Takehisa; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Inoue, Koki

    2016-10-08

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the "depressive group." We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers' work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers' work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers' depressive symptoms.

  4. Use of Individual-level Covariates to Improve Latent Class Analysis of Trypanosoma Cruzi Diagnostic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Tustin, Aaron W.; Small, Dylan S.; Delgado, Stephen; Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Ancca Juárez, Jenny M.; Quispe Machaca, Víctor R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical methods such as latent class analysis can estimate the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests when no perfect reference test exists. Traditional latent class methods assume a constant disease prevalence in one or more tested populations. When the risk of disease varies in a known way, these models fail to take advantage of additional information that can be obtained by measuring risk factors at the level of the individual. We show that by incorporating complex field-based epidemiologic data, in which the disease prevalence varies as a continuous function of individual-level covariates, our model produces more accurate sensitivity and specificity estimates than previous methods. We apply this technique to a simulated population and to actual Chagas disease test data from a community near Arequipa, Peru. Results from our model estimate that the first-line enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI: 62–100%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 99–100%). The confirmatory immunofluorescence assay is estimated to be 73% sensitive (95% CI: 65–81%) and 99% specific (95% CI: 96–100%). PMID:24083130

  5. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers

    PubMed Central

    NAKADA, Akihiro; IWASAKI, Shinichi; KANCHIKA, Masaru; NAKAO, Takehisa; DEGUCHI, Yasuhiko; KONISHI, Akihito; ISHIMOTO, Hideyuki; INOUE, Koki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the “depressive group.” We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers’ work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers’ work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers’ depressive symptoms. PMID:27021060

  6. Microsatellites: Evolutionary and methodological background and empirical applications at individual, population, and phylogenetic levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Kim T.; Pearce, John M.; Baker, Allan J.

    2000-01-01

    The recent proliferation and greater accessibility of molecular genetic markers has led to a growing appreciation of the ecological and evolutionary inferences that can be drawn from molecular characterizations of individuals and populations (Burke et al. 1992, Avise 1994). Different techniques have the ability to target DNA sequences which have different patterns of inheritance, different modes and rates of evolution and, concomitantly, different levels of variation. In the quest for 'the right marker for the right job', microsatellites have been widely embraced as the marker of choice for many empirical genetic studies. The proliferation of microsatellite loci for various species and the voluminous literature compiled in very few years associated with their evolution and use in various research applications, exemplifies their growing importance as a research tool in the biological sciences.The ability to define allelic states based on variation at the nucleotide level has afforded unparalleled opportunities to document the actual mutational process and rates of evolution at individual microsatellite loci. The scrutiny to which these loci have been subjected has resulted in data that raise issues pertaining to assumptions formerly stated, but largely untestable for other marker classes. Indeed this is an active arena for theoretical and empirical work. Given the extensive and ever-increasing literature on various statistical methodologies and cautionary notes regarding the uses of microsatellites, some consideration should be given to the unique characteristics of these loci when determining how and under what conditions they can be employed.

  7. Use of Individual-level Covariates to Improve Latent Class Analysis of Trypanosoma Cruzi Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Tustin, Aaron W; Small, Dylan S; Delgado, Stephen; Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Verastegui, Manuela R; Ancca Juárez, Jenny M; Quispe Machaca, Víctor R; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z

    2012-08-01

    Statistical methods such as latent class analysis can estimate the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests when no perfect reference test exists. Traditional latent class methods assume a constant disease prevalence in one or more tested populations. When the risk of disease varies in a known way, these models fail to take advantage of additional information that can be obtained by measuring risk factors at the level of the individual. We show that by incorporating complex field-based epidemiologic data, in which the disease prevalence varies as a continuous function of individual-level covariates, our model produces more accurate sensitivity and specificity estimates than previous methods. We apply this technique to a simulated population and to actual Chagas disease test data from a community near Arequipa, Peru. Results from our model estimate that the first-line enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI: 62-100%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 99-100%). The confirmatory immunofluorescence assay is estimated to be 73% sensitive (95% CI: 65-81%) and 99% specific (95% CI: 96-100%).

  8. Tools for quantifying isotopic niche space and dietary variation at the individual and population level.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsome, Seth D.; Yeakel, Justin D.; Wheatley, Patrick V.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly using stable isotope analysis to inform questions about variation in resource and habitat use from the individual to community level. In this study we investigate data sets from 2 California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) populations to illustrate the advantages and potential pitfalls of applying various statistical and quantitative approaches to isotopic data. We have subdivided these tools, or metrics, into 3 categories: IsoSpace metrics, stable isotope mixing models, and DietSpace metrics. IsoSpace metrics are used to quantify the spatial attributes of isotopic data that are typically presented in bivariate (e.g., δ13C versus δ15N) 2-dimensional space. We review IsoSpace metrics currently in use and present a technique by which uncertainty can be included to calculate the convex hull area of consumers or prey, or both. We then apply a Bayesian-based mixing model to quantify the proportion of potential dietary sources to the diet of each sea otter population and compare this to observational foraging data. Finally, we assess individual dietary specialization by comparing a previously published technique, variance components analysis, to 2 novel DietSpace metrics that are based on mixing model output. As the use of stable isotope analysis in ecology continues to grow, the field will need a set of quantitative tools for assessing isotopic variance at the individual to community level. Along with recent advances in Bayesian-based mixing models, we hope that the IsoSpace and DietSpace metrics described here will provide another set of interpretive tools for ecologists.

  9. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR≥1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this

  10. Associations Between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent incarcerated) and family level (number of relationships that have borne children) characteristics were significantly associated with their parenting practices. Based on canonical correlation analysis, on function one, responsive parenting was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Restrictive parenting was negatively associated with education level and positively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Function 2 capitalized on variance in the restrictive parenting predictor that was not utilized in function 1, and likely captured lack of opportunity to parent. On function 2, restrictive parenting was negatively associated with cumulative time spent incarcerated and more numerous partner fertility. In all, results suggest that prison-based education programs should be part of an overall response to incarcerated fathers. These results add to the growing body of research on incarcerated fathers and fragile families. PMID:19802371

  11. Individual predictors of the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Mathur, Deepan; Newton, Thomas F; Desouza, Cherilyn

    2013-08-15

    The subjective and reinforcing effects of addictive substances can vary greatly between individuals. This study compared the relative contributions of baseline drug use, craving, stressful life events, and social factors in determining the subjective effects of cocaine in individual participants. Twelve veterans meeting criteria for cocaine dependence were evaluated in a laboratory setting. Self-report of the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine was recorded following single- and double-blind, placebo-controlled injections. Increased positive subjective effects of cocaine, including drug-induced 'good' effects and the value of intravenous injections, were most strongly correlated with greater family and social dysfunction measured through the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Social dysfunction was the strongest predictor of cocaine-induced euphoria, accounting for approximately one-half of its variability. Participants who were dissatisfied with their current marital status reported almost no 'bad' effects of cocaine but instead reported increased drug-induced 'high', euphoria, and injection value. Although further research is required to determine the generalizability of this association, our findings are parallel to recent preclinical results showing that social interaction can attenuate psychostimulant reward. Effects of substance abuse treatment that rely on improved social function may be mediated through changes in the brain's reinforcement system that modify the rewarding effects of cocaine.

  12. Ant groups optimally amplify the effect of transiently informed individuals.

    PubMed

    Gelblum, Aviram; Pinkoviezky, Itai; Fonio, Ehud; Ghosh, Abhijit; Gov, Nir; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-07-28

    To cooperatively transport a large load, it is important that carriers conform in their efforts and align their forces. A downside of behavioural conformism is that it may decrease the group's responsiveness to external information. Combining experiment and theory, we show how ants optimize collective transport. On the single-ant scale, optimization stems from decision rules that balance individuality and compliance. Macroscopically, these rules poise the system at the transition between random walk and ballistic motion where the collective response to the steering of a single informed ant is maximized. We relate this peak in response to the divergence of susceptibility at a phase transition. Our theoretical models predict that the ant-load system can be transitioned through the critical point of this mesoscopic system by varying its size; we present experiments supporting these predictions. Our findings show that efficient group-level processes can arise from transient amplification of individual-based knowledge.

  13. Ant groups optimally amplify the effect of transiently informed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gelblum, Aviram; Pinkoviezky, Itai; Fonio, Ehud; Ghosh, Abhijit; Gov, Nir; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    To cooperatively transport a large load, it is important that carriers conform in their efforts and align their forces. A downside of behavioural conformism is that it may decrease the group's responsiveness to external information. Combining experiment and theory, we show how ants optimize collective transport. On the single-ant scale, optimization stems from decision rules that balance individuality and compliance. Macroscopically, these rules poise the system at the transition between random walk and ballistic motion where the collective response to the steering of a single informed ant is maximized. We relate this peak in response to the divergence of susceptibility at a phase transition. Our theoretical models predict that the ant-load system can be transitioned through the critical point of this mesoscopic system by varying its size; we present experiments supporting these predictions. Our findings show that efficient group-level processes can arise from transient amplification of individual-based knowledge. PMID:26218613

  14. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  15. Strategic differentiation and integration of genomic-level heritabilities facilitate individual differences in preparedness and plasticity of human life history

    PubMed Central

    Woodley of Menie, Michael A.; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Fernandes, Heitor B. F.; Madison, Guy; Wolf, Pedro S. A.; Black, Candace J.

    2015-01-01

    Life history (LH) strategies refer to the pattern of allocations of bioenergetic and material resources into different domains of fitness. While LH is known to have moderate to high population-level heritability in humans, both at the level of the high-order factor (Super-K) and the lower-order factors (K, Covitality, and the General Factor of Personality), several important questions remain unexplored. Here, we apply the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model to measure individual genomic-level heritabilities (termed transmissibilities). These transmissibility values were computed for the latent hierarchical structure and developmental dynamics of LH strategy, and demonstrate; (1) moderate to high heritability of factor loadings of Super-K on its lower-order factors, evidencing biological preparedness, genetic accommodation, and the gene-culture coevolution of biased epigenetic rules of development; (2) moderate to high heritability of the magnitudes of the effect of the higher-order factors upon their loadings on their constituent factors, evidencing genetic constraints upon phenotypic plasticity; and (3) that heritability of the LH factors, their factor loadings, and the magnitudes of the correlations among factors, are weaker among individuals with slower LH speeds. The results were obtained from an American sample of 316 monozygotic (MZ) and 274 dizygotic (DZ) twin dyads and a Swedish sample of 863 MZ and 475 DZ twin dyads, and indicate that inter-individual variation in transmissibility is a function of individual socioecological selection pressures. Our novel technique, opens new avenues for analyzing complex interactions among heritable traits inaccessible to standard structural equation methods. PMID:25954216

  16. Strategic differentiation and integration of genomic-level heritabilities facilitate individual differences in preparedness and plasticity of human life history.

    PubMed

    Woodley Of Menie, Michael A; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Fernandes, Heitor B F; Madison, Guy; Wolf, Pedro S A; Black, Candace J

    2015-01-01

    Life history (LH) strategies refer to the pattern of allocations of bioenergetic and material resources into different domains of fitness. While LH is known to have moderate to high population-level heritability in humans, both at the level of the high-order factor (Super-K) and the lower-order factors (K, Covitality, and the General Factor of Personality), several important questions remain unexplored. Here, we apply the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model to measure individual genomic-level heritabilities (termed transmissibilities). These transmissibility values were computed for the latent hierarchical structure and developmental dynamics of LH strategy, and demonstrate; (1) moderate to high heritability of factor loadings of Super-K on its lower-order factors, evidencing biological preparedness, genetic accommodation, and the gene-culture coevolution of biased epigenetic rules of development; (2) moderate to high heritability of the magnitudes of the effect of the higher-order factors upon their loadings on their constituent factors, evidencing genetic constraints upon phenotypic plasticity; and (3) that heritability of the LH factors, their factor loadings, and the magnitudes of the correlations among factors, are weaker among individuals with slower LH speeds. The results were obtained from an American sample of 316 monozygotic (MZ) and 274 dizygotic (DZ) twin dyads and a Swedish sample of 863 MZ and 475 DZ twin dyads, and indicate that inter-individual variation in transmissibility is a function of individual socioecological selection pressures. Our novel technique, opens new avenues for analyzing complex interactions among heritable traits inaccessible to standard structural equation methods.

  17. Size, sex and individual-level behaviour drive intrapopulation variation in cross-ecosystem foraging of a top-predator.

    PubMed

    Nifong, James C; Layman, Craig A; Silliman, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Large-bodied, top-predators are often highly mobile, with the potential to provide important linkages between spatially distinct food webs. What biological factors contribute to variation in cross-ecosystem movements, however, have rarely been examined. Here, we investigated how ontogeny (body size), sex and individual-level behaviour impacts intrapopulation variation in cross-ecosystem foraging (i.e. between freshwater and marine systems), by the top-predator Alligator mississippiensis. Field surveys revealed A. mississippiensis uses marine ecosystems regularly and are abundant in estuarine tidal creeks (from 0·3 to 6·3 individuals per km of creek, n = 45 surveys). Alligator mississippiensis captured in marine/estuarine habitats were significantly larger than individuals captured in freshwater and intermediate habitats. Stomach content analysis (SCA) showed that small juveniles consumed marine/estuarine prey less frequently (6·7% of individuals) than did large juveniles (57·8%), subadult (73%), and adult (78%) size classes. Isotopic mixing model analysis (SIAR) also suggests substantial variation in use of marine/estuarine prey resources with differences among and within size classes between sexes and individuals (range of median estimates for marine/estuarine diet contribution = 0·05-0·76). These results demonstrate the importance of intrapopulation characteristics (body size, sex and individual specialization) as key determinants of the strength of predator-driven ecosystem connectivity resulting from cross-ecosystem foraging behaviours. Understanding the factors, which contribute to variation in cross-ecosystem foraging behaviours, will improve our predictive understanding of the effects of top-predators on community structure and ecosystem function.

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of phenotype-structured populations: from individual-level mechanisms to population-level consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Rebecca H.; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Desvillettes, Laurent; Hughes, Barry D.

    2016-08-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are increasingly recognised as integral to the adaptation of species that face environmental changes. In particular, empirical work has provided important insights into the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the persistence of clonal species, from which a number of verbal explanations have emerged that are suited to logical testing by proof-of-concept mathematical models. Here, we present a stochastic agent-based model and a related deterministic integrodifferential equation model for the evolution of a phenotype-structured population composed of asexually-reproducing and competing organisms which are exposed to novel environmental conditions. This setting has relevance to the study of biological systems where colonising asexual populations must survive and rapidly adapt to hostile environments, like pathogenesis, invasion and tumour metastasis. We explore how evolution might proceed when epigenetic variation in gene expression can change the reproductive capacity of individuals within the population in the new environment. Simulations and analyses of our models clarify the conditions under which certain evolutionary paths are possible and illustrate that while epigenetic mechanisms may facilitate adaptation in asexual species faced with environmental change, they can also lead to a type of "epigenetic load" and contribute to extinction. Moreover, our results offer a formal basis for the claim that constant environments favour individuals with low rates of stochastic phenotypic variation. Finally, our model provides a "proof of concept" of the verbal hypothesis that phenotypic stability is a key driver in rescuing the adaptive potential of an asexual lineage and supports the notion that intense selection pressure can, to an extent, offset the deleterious effects of high phenotypic instability and biased epimutations, and steer an asexual population back from the brink of an evolutionary dead end.

  19. Multilevel Selection and Neighbourhood Effects from Individual to Metapopulation in a Wild Passerine

    PubMed Central

    Laiolo, Paola; Obeso, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel selection has rarely been studied in the ecological context of animal populations, in which neighbourhood effects range from competition among territorial neighbours to source-sink effects among local populations. By studying a Dupont’s lark Chersophilus duponti metapopulation, we analyze neighbourhood effects mediated by song repertoires on fitness components at the individual level (life-span) and population level (growth rate). As a sexual/aggressive signal with strong effects on fitness, birdsong creates an opportunity for group selection via neighbour interactions, but may also have population-wide effects by conveying information on habitat suitability to dispersing individuals. Within populations, we found a disruptive pattern of selection at the individual level and an opposite, stabilizing pattern at the group level. Males singing the most complex songs had the longest life-span, but individuals with the poorest repertoires lived longer than ‘average’ males, a finding that likely reflects two male strategies with respect to fitness and sexual trait expression. Individuals from groups with intermediate repertoires had the longest life-span, likely benefitting from conspecific signalling to attract females up to the detrimental spread of competitive interactions in groups with superior vocal skills. Within the metapopulation selection was directional but again followed opposite patterns at the two levels: Populations had the highest growth rate when inhabiting local patches with complex repertoires surrounded by patches with simple repertoires. Here the song may impact metapopulation dynamics by guiding prospecting individuals towards populations advertising habitat quality. Two fitness components linked to viability were therefore influenced by the properties of the group, and birdsong was the target of selection, contributing to linking social/sexual processes at the local scale with regional population dynamics. PMID:22745665

  20. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bockting, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed individual (i.e., internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including: density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion towards homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N=1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  1. Reconnect on Facebook: The Role of Information Seeking Behavior and Individual- and Relationship-Level Factors.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Artemio; Sumner, Erin M; Hayes, Jameson

    2016-08-01

    Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook function as both venues for reconnecting with associates from a user's past and sources of social information about them. Yet, little is known about what factors influence the initial decision to reconnect with a past associate. This oversight is significant given that SNSs and other platforms provide an abundance of social information that may be utilized for reaching such decisions. The present study investigated the links among relational reconnection, information seeking (IS) behavior, and individual- and relationship-level factors in user decisions to reconnect on Facebook. A national survey of 244 Facebook users reported on their most recent experience of receiving a friend request from someone with whom they had been out of contact for an extended period. Results indicated that uncertainty about the potential reconnection partner and forecast about the reconnection's potential reward level significantly predicted IS behavior (passive on both target and mutual friends' SNS pages as well as active). However, the emergence of their two-way interaction revealed that the forecasts moderated the IS-uncertainty link on three of the strategies (extractive, both passive approaches). Moreover, social anxiety, sociability, uncertainty about the partner, the forecast about the reconnection's reward level, and extractive and passive (target SNS pages) strategies significantly predicted user decisions to reconnect. Future directions for research on relational reconnection on SNSs are offered.

  2. Probability Weighting Functions Derived from Hyperbolic Time Discounting: Psychophysical Models and Their Individual Level Testing.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    A probability weighting function (w(p)) is considered to be a nonlinear function of probability (p) in behavioral decision theory. This study proposes a psychophysical model of probability weighting functions derived from a hyperbolic time discounting model and a geometric distribution. The aim of the study is to show probability weighting functions from the point of view of waiting time for a decision maker. Since the expected value of a geometrically distributed random variable X is 1/p, we formulized the probability weighting function of the expected value model for hyperbolic time discounting as w(p) = (1 - k log p)(-1). Moreover, the probability weighting function is derived from Loewenstein and Prelec's (1992) generalized hyperbolic time discounting model. The latter model is proved to be equivalent to the hyperbolic-logarithmic weighting function considered by Prelec (1998) and Luce (2001). In this study, we derive a model from the generalized hyperbolic time discounting model assuming Fechner's (1860) psychophysical law of time and a geometric distribution of trials. In addition, we develop median models of hyperbolic time discounting and generalized hyperbolic time discounting. To illustrate the fitness of each model, a psychological experiment was conducted to assess the probability weighting and value functions at the level of the individual participant. The participants were 50 university students. The results of individual analysis indicated that the expected value model of generalized hyperbolic discounting fitted better than previous probability weighting decision-making models. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  3. Projected Dipole Moments of Individual Two-Level Defects Extracted Using Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sarabi, B; Ramanayaka, A N; Burin, A L; Wellstood, F C; Osborn, K D

    2016-04-22

    Material-based two-level systems (TLSs), appearing as defects in low-temperature devices including superconducting qubits and photon detectors, are difficult to characterize. In this study we apply a uniform dc electric field across a film to tune the energies of TLSs within. The film is embedded in a superconducting resonator such that it forms a circuit quantum electrodynamical system. The energy of individual TLSs is observed as a function of the known tuning field. By studying TLSs for which we can determine the tunneling energy, the actual p_{z}, dipole moments projected along the uniform field direction, are individually obtained. A distribution is created with 60 p_{z}. We describe the distribution using a model with two dipole moment magnitudes, and a fit yields the corresponding values p=p_{1}=2.8±0.2  D and p=p_{2}=8.3±0.4  D. For a strong-coupled TLS the vacuum-Rabi splitting can be obtained with p_{z} and tunneling energy. This allows a measurement of the circuit's zero-point electric-field fluctuations, in a method that does not need the electric-field volume.

  4. Influence of low-level laser therapy on vertical jump in sedentary individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Higa, Jessica Yumie; Errero, Tatiane Kamada; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of low intensity laser (660nm), on the surae triceps muscle fatigue and power, during vertical jump in sedentary individuals, in addition to delayed onset muscle soreness. Methods We included 22 sedentary volunteers in the study, who were divided into three groups: G1 (n=8) without performing low intensity laser (control); G2 (n=7) subjected to 6 days of low intensity laser applications; and G3 (n=7) subjected to 10 days of low intensity laser applications. All subjects were evaluated by means of six evaluations of vertical jumps lasting 60 seconds each. In G2 and G3, laser applications in eight points, uniformly distributed directly to the skin in the region of the triceps surae were performed. Another variable analyzed was the delayed onset muscle soreness using the Visual Analog Scale of Pain. Results There was no significant difference in fatigue and mechanical power. In the evaluation of delayed onset muscle soreness, there was significant difference, being the first evaluation higher than the others. Conclusion The low intensity laser on the triceps surae, in sedentary individuals, had no significant effects on the variables evaluated. PMID:25993067

  5. Best Practices for Ethical Sharing of Individual-Level Health Research Data From Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    PubMed

    Bull, Susan; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Denny, Spencer; Jao, Irene; Marsh, Vicki; Merson, Laura; Shah More, Neena; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Osrin, David; Tangseefa, Decha; Wassenaar, Douglas; Parker, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Sharing individual-level data from clinical and public health research is increasingly being seen as a core requirement for effective and efficient biomedical research. This article discusses the results of a systematic review and multisite qualitative study of key stakeholders' perspectives on best practices in ethical data sharing in low- and middle-income settings. Our research suggests that for data sharing to be effective and sustainable, multiple social and ethical requirements need to be met. An effective model of data sharing will be one in which considered judgments will need to be made about how best to achieve scientific progress, minimize risks of harm, promote fairness and reciprocity, and build and sustain trust.

  6. Arterial Indices and Serum Cystatin C Level in Individuals With Occupational Wide Band Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Ali R.; Mousavi-Asl, Benyamin; Shekarchi, Babak; Amini, Kazem; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM) proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN) exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: <40 and >40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI) for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA). CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Results: Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66) and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77) revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145) but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019). Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P value < 0.001) both in younger and older groups. Conclusion: We could

  7. [Urbanization mechanisms in bird species: population systems transformations or adaptations at the individual level?].

    PubMed

    Fridman, V S; Eremkin, G S; Zakharova-Kubareva, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    The present research deals with urbanization of wild bird and mammal species. Forms and mechanisms of population steadiness in the urban landscape have been examined. The urbanization process turned out to be a directed change of the population system forming de novo in the urbolandscape leading to a sustainable organization peculiar for the particular environment. The population organization of different types in urbolandscape is found to provide its stability under conditions of directed and fast changes accompanied with instability and heterogenous structure of habitats. It is shown that the same type of population organization meets the corresponding demands among different species settling in the urban environment. Its features are "openness" and "flowage" of the groups, far order of settlement levels and other units of population system, constant movements of the individuals between the groups as a respond to the signals of urboenvironment significant changes. The "urban" variant of the population system organization turns out to be opposite to that of the same species in the non-urban habitats. After formation of the urban types by the species and successful developing of the town, the urban population becomes separated from the maternal local population and begins to exist independently in the urban landscape. The variety of adaptation aberrations in ecology, behavior, and mode of life of urban birds is the population system stability function in the urban landscape and is not a results of individual selection. It is shown that the urbanization process of the species goes firstly on the population level being the system structure transformation developed by the species towards the most stable state in the town (city) territory. Only after the appearance of stable urban population, the urban individuals show the rapid growth of different changes in ecology, behavior, mode of life that was traditionally described by naturalists as species adaptation to the

  8. The Implications of Teacher Selection and Teacher Effects in Individually Randomized Group Treatment Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Randomized experiments have become an increasingly popular design to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in education (Spybrook, 2008). Many of the interventions evaluated in education are delivered to groups of students, rather than to individuals. Experiments designed to evaluate programs delivered at the group level often…

  9. Neural correlates of plasma acylated ghrelin level in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Nakano, Masayuki; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Egashira, Kazuteru; Matsubara, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2012-09-14

    Anhedonic symptoms, which include loss of pleasure, appetite and motivation, are key symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and are thought to depend on a neural circuit of the mesolimbic system. The neuropeptide ghrelin plays a crucial role in appetite and reward. Little is known, however, about the role of ghrelin in MDD. We examined the association between morphometric change and plasma ghrelin levels in patients with MDD. Twenty-four patients with MDD and 24 healthy control subjects were studied. Plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin was measured after a period of fasting. Using voxel-based morphometry, we found a main effect of ghrelin on the volume of several brain regions. We then compared these regional volumes in patients with MDD versus healthy subjects. We also compared brain volumes between the two groups, controlling for ghrelin level. There was no significant difference in plasma acylated ghrelin level between patients with MDD and healthy subjects. In the MDD group, ghrelin levels positively correlated with the severity of reduced appetite. Ghrelin levels negatively correlated with gray matter volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the total sample. The patients with MDD showed significantly smaller VTA gray matter volume compared to healthy subjects. Controlling for the plasma acylated ghrelin level, patients with MDD showed significantly smaller gray matter volume of right substantia nigra compared to healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that plasma acylated ghrelin is associated with neural abnormalities of the pleasure/reward system and may be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD.

  10. Effect of occlusion on joint sounds in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Zuim, Paulo R Junqueira; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Paulo H; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Flacón-Antenucci, Rosse M

    2008-01-01

    Occlusion is a predisposing factor for Temporomandibular Dysfunctions (TMD) of the joint, whose first sign and/or symptom is usually joint sound. To verify the effect of occlusion on joint sounds, temporomandibular joints (TMJ) were analyzed in 78 asymptomatic individuals with various dental conditions. Electrosonography was used to determine the intensity of the vibration in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on opening and closing the mouth. Transducers (piezoelectric accelerometer) were placed on the right and left joints. Results were tabled and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (a=0.05). It was concluded that TMJ vibration in partly edentulous individuals from Kennedy classes I, II and III is statistically higher than in dentate and fully edentulous subjects.

  11. Effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The effects of low-level radiation inhumans are usually estimated by extrapolation from high-level effects. Biological radiation effects from low-level radiation can be defined as those from doses below which no deterministic or graded biological responses will occur. In addition, the health consequences are almost all probabilistic. There is incomplete knowledge regarding the role of sex, age at exposure, co-factors, or environmental pollutants.

  12. Genetic diversity confers colony-level benefits due to individual immunity

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Megan; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Several costs and benefits arise as a consequence of eusociality and group-living. With increasing group size, spread of disease among nest-mates poses selective pressure on both individual immunity and group-level mechanisms of disease resistance (social immunity). Another factor known to influence colony-level expression of disease is intracolony genetic diversity, which in honeybees (Apis mellifera) is a direct function of the number of mates of the queen. Colonies headed by queens with higher mating numbers have less variable infections of decreased intensity, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. By pathogen-challenging larvae in vitro, we decoupled larval immune response from mechanisms of social immunity. Our results show that baseline immunity and degree of immune response do not vary with genetic diversity. However, intracolony variance in antimicrobial peptide production after pathogen challenge decreases with increasing genetic diversity. This reduction in variability of the larval immune response could drive the mitigation of disease observed in genetically diverse colonies. PMID:26961896

  13. HBV-DNA levels predict overall mortality in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Psichogiou, Mina; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2016-03-01

    The coinfection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with increased death rates. However, the relevant research has mostly relied on serologic HBV testing [HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)]. The aim of this work was to explore the relationship of HBV viraemia with overall mortality among HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. The analysis included 1,609 HIV seropositives of a previously described cohort (1984-2003) with limited exposure to tenofovir (12%) and a median follow-up of approximately 5 years. Those with persistent expression of HBsAg were further tested for HBV-DNA. The data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. Totally, 101 participants were chronic carriers of HBsAg (6.28%). Of these, 81 were tested for HBV-DNA. The median HBV-DNA levels were 3.81 log (base-10) International Units (IU)/ml. A third (31%) of those tested for HBV-DNA had received tenofovir. Before developing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for all-cause mortality of coinfected patients with HBV viraemia above the median value versus the HIV monoinfected group was 3.44 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-11.27]. Multivariable regressions in the coinfected group only (n = 81) showed that one log-10 increase in HBV-DNA levels was associated with an elevated risk for death (IRR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.03-1.49). HBV-DNA levels predict overall mortality in the setting of HIV/HBV coinfection, especially during the period before developing AIDS, and could thus help prioritize needs and determine the frequency of medical monitoring.

  14. Human exposure to metals: levels in autopsy tissues of individuals living near a hazardous waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Barbería, Eneko; García, Francisco; Domingo, José L

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of a number of metals were determined in the brain, bone, kidney, liver, and lung of 20 autopsied subjects who had lived, at least 10 years, in the neighborhood of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). Results were compared with those obtained in 1998 (baseline survey) and previous surveys (2003 and 2007). Arsenic, Be, Ni, Tl, and V showed concentrations below the corresponding detection limits in all tissues. Cadmium showed the highest levels in the kidney, with a mean value of 21.15 μg/g. However, Cd was found below the detection limit in the brain and bone. Chromium showed similar concentrations in the kidney, brain, and lung (range of mean values, 0.57-0.66 μg/g) and higher in the bone (1.38 μg/g). In turn, Hg was below the detection limit in all tissues with the exception of the kidney, where the mean concentration was 0.15 μg/g (range, <0.05-0.58 μg/g). On the other hand, Mn could be detected in all tissues showing the highest levels in the liver and kidney (1.45 and 1.09 μg/g, respectively). Moreover, Pb showed the highest concentrations in bone (mean, 1.39 μg/g; range, <0.025-4.88 μg/g). Finally, Sn could be detected only in some tissue samples, reaching the highest values in the bone (0.17 μg/g). The current metal levels in human tissues from individuals living near the HWI of Tarragona are comparable and of a similar magnitude to previously reported results corresponding to general populations, as well as those of our previous surveys.

  15. The third individuation. The effect of biological parenthood on separation-individuation processes in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, C A

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the Third Individuation, the continuous process of elaboration of the self and differentiation from objects which occurs in the developmental phases of early (20 to 40) and middle (40 to 60) adulthood. Although it is influenced by all important adult object ties, at its core are involvements with children, spouse, and parents, i.e., the family, the same psychological constellation that shaped the first (Mahler) and second (Blos) individuations.

  16. Light Effects on Behavioural Performance Depend on the Individual State of Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Barba, Antonio; Padilla, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that exposure to bright white light or blue-enriched light enhances alertness, but this effect is not consistently observed in tasks demanding high-level cognition (e.g., Sustained Attention to Response Task—SART, which measures inhibitory control). Individual differences in sensitivity to light effects might be mediated by variations in the basal level of arousal. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the participants’ behavioural state of vigilance before light exposure, through the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Then we compared the effects of a blue-enriched vs. dim light at nighttime on the performance of the auditory SART, by controlling for individual differences in basal arousal. The results replicated the alerting effects of blue-enriched light, as indexed by lower values of both proximal temperature and distal-proximal gradient. The main finding was that lighting effects on SART performance were highly variable across individuals and depended on their prior state of vigilance. Specifically, participants with higher levels of basal vigilance before light exposure benefited most from blue-enriched lighting, responding faster in the SART. These results highlight the importance of considering basal vigilance to define the boundary conditions of light effects on cognitive performance. Our study adds to current research delineating the complex and reciprocal interactions between lighting effects, arousal, cognitive task demands and behavioural performance. PMID:27820822

  17. Light Effects on Behavioural Performance Depend on the Individual State of Vigilance.

    PubMed

    Correa, Ángel; Barba, Antonio; Padilla, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that exposure to bright white light or blue-enriched light enhances alertness, but this effect is not consistently observed in tasks demanding high-level cognition (e.g., Sustained Attention to Response Task-SART, which measures inhibitory control). Individual differences in sensitivity to light effects might be mediated by variations in the basal level of arousal. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the participants' behavioural state of vigilance before light exposure, through the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Then we compared the effects of a blue-enriched vs. dim light at nighttime on the performance of the auditory SART, by controlling for individual differences in basal arousal. The results replicated the alerting effects of blue-enriched light, as indexed by lower values of both proximal temperature and distal-proximal gradient. The main finding was that lighting effects on SART performance were highly variable across individuals and depended on their prior state of vigilance. Specifically, participants with higher levels of basal vigilance before light exposure benefited most from blue-enriched lighting, responding faster in the SART. These results highlight the importance of considering basal vigilance to define the boundary conditions of light effects on cognitive performance. Our study adds to current research delineating the complex and reciprocal interactions between lighting effects, arousal, cognitive task demands and behavioural performance.

  18. The individual level cost of pregnancy termination in Zambia: a comparison of safe and unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Parmar, Divya; Vwalika, Bellington

    2016-09-01

    Zambia has one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa. However, rates of unsafe abortion remain high with negative health and economic consequences. Little is known about the economic burden on women of abortion care-seeking in low income countries. The majority of studies focus on direct costs (e.g. hospital fees). This article estimates the individual-level economic burden of safe and unsafe abortion care-seeking in Zambia, incorporating all indirect and direct costs. It uses data collected in 2013 from a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, (n = 112) with women who had an abortion. Three treatment routes are identified: (1) safe abortion at the hospital, (2) unsafe clandestine medical abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital and (3) unsafe abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital. Based on these three typologies, we use descriptive analysis and linear regression to estimate the costs for women of seeking safe and unsafe abortion and to establish whether the burden of abortion care-seeking costs is equally distributed across the sample. Around 39% of women had an unsafe abortion, incurring substantial economic costs before seeking post-abortion care. Adolescents and poorer women are more likely to use unsafe abortion. Unsafe abortion requiring post-abortion care costs women 27% more than a safe abortion. When accounting for uncertainty this figure increases dramatically. For safe and unsafe abortions, unofficial provider payments represent a major cost to women.This study demonstrates that despite a liberal legislation, Zambia still needs better dissemination of the law to women and providers and resources to ensure abortion service access. The policy implications of this study include: the role of pharmacists and mid-level providers in the provision of medical abortion services; increased access to contraception, especially for adolescents; and elimination of demands for unofficial provider

  19. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  20. Cortisol-dependent stress effects on cell distribution in healthy individuals and individuals suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Ashley M; Pitts, Kenneth P; Feldkamp, Joachim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production due to destroyed adrenal cortex cells. However, elevated cortisol secretion is thought to be a central part in a well-orchestrated immune response to stress. This raises the question to what extent lack of cortisol in CAI affects stress-related changes in immune processes. To address this question, 28 CAI patients (20 females) and 18 healthy individuals (11 females) (age: 44.3 ± 8.4 years) were exposed to a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Half the patients received a 0.03 mg/kg body weight injection of hydrocortisone (HC) post-TSST to mimic a healthy cortisol stress response. Catecholamines and immune cell composition were assessed in peripheral blood and free cortisol measured in saliva collected before and repeatedly after TSST. CAI patients showed norepinephrine (NE) stress responses similar to healthy participants, however, epinephrine (E) as well as cortisol levels were significantly lower. HC treatment post-TSST resulted in cortisol increases comparable to those observed in healthy participants (interaction effects--NE: F=1.05, p=.41; E: F=2.56, p=.045; cortisol: F=13.28, p<.001). Healthy individuals showed the expected pattern of stress-related early lymphocyte increase with subsequent decrease below baseline. The opposite pattern was observed in granulocytes. While exhibiting a similar initial increase, lymphocytes kept increasing over the following 2h in untreated patients. HC treatment buffered this effect (interaction effects--lymphocyte%: F=7.31, p<.001; granulocyte%: F=7.71, p<.001). Using CAI in humans as a model confirms cortisol's central involvement in post-stress lymphocyte migration from blood into immune-relevant body compartments. As such, future studies should investigate whether psychosocial stress exposure may put CAI patients at an increased health risk due to attenuated immune responses to pathogens.

  1. Photovoltaic effect in individual asymmetrically contacted lead sulfide nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Sedat; Bielewicz, Thomas; Lebedeva, Vera; Klinke, Christian

    2015-03-21

    Solution-processable, two-dimensional semiconductors are promising optoelectronic materials which could find application in low-cost solar cells. Lead sulfide nanocrystals raised attention since the effective band gap can be adapted over a wide range by electronic confinement and observed multi-exciton generation promises higher efficiencies. We report on the influence of the contact metal work function on the properties of transistors based on individual two-dimensional lead sulfide nanosheets. Using palladium we observed mobilities of up to 31 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Furthermore, we demonstrate that asymmetrically contacted nanosheets show photovoltaic effect and that the nanosheets' height has a decisive impact on the device performance. Nanosheets with a thickness of 5.4 nm contacted with platinum and titanium show a power conversion efficiency of up to 0.94% (EQE 75.70%). The results underline the high hopes put on such materials.

  2. Individual and combined effects of foods on Helicobacter pylori growth.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jacqueline I; Salm, Nina; Hampton, Mark B; Wallace, Alison J

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of H. pylori can reduce the risk of non-cardia gastric cancer developing in infected humans. Thus, the consumption of foods that inhibit the growth of these bacteria may provide an alternative to current therapies that include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and/or bismuth salts. This study describes a simple broth dilution assay developed to screen a range of foods for their individual and combined effects on H. pylori growth. It was found that foods with measurable anti-H. pylori activity have an effect greater in combination than the sum of foods tested singly, and that this was most noticeable with a combination of broccoli sprouts and blackcurrant oil. The results suggest that food synergy should be considered in any nutraceutical approach to H. pylori infection.

  3. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  4. Production of individualized V gene databases reveals high levels of immunoglobulin genetic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Martin M.; Phad, Ganesh E.; Bernat, Néstor Vázquez; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Sumida, Noriyuki; Persson, Mats A. A.; Martin, Marcel; Hedestam, Gunilla B. Karlsson

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of immunoglobulin genetics is required to advance our understanding of B cell biology. Validated immunoglobulin variable (V) gene databases are close to completion only for human and mouse. We present a novel computational approach, IgDiscover, that identifies germline V genes from expressed repertoires to a specificity of 100%. IgDiscover uses a cluster identification process to produce candidate sequences that, once filtered, results in individualized germline V gene databases. IgDiscover was tested in multiple species, validated by genomic cloning and cross library comparisons and produces comprehensive gene databases even where limited genomic sequence is available. IgDiscover analysis of the allelic content of the Indian and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques reveals high levels of immunoglobulin gene diversity in this species. Further, we describe a novel human IGHV3-21 allele and confirm significant gene differences between Balb/c and C57BL6 mouse strains, demonstrating the power of IgDiscover as a germline V gene discovery tool.

  5. Production of individualized V gene databases reveals high levels of immunoglobulin genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Martin M.; Phad, Ganesh E.; Bernat, Néstor Vázquez; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Sumida, Noriyuki; Persson, Mats A.A.; Martin, Marcel; Hedestam, Gunilla B. Karlsson

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of immunoglobulin genetics is required to advance our understanding of B cell biology. Validated immunoglobulin variable (V) gene databases are close to completion only for human and mouse. We present a novel computational approach, IgDiscover, that identifies germline V genes from expressed repertoires to a specificity of 100%. IgDiscover uses a cluster identification process to produce candidate sequences that, once filtered, results in individualized germline V gene databases. IgDiscover was tested in multiple species, validated by genomic cloning and cross library comparisons and produces comprehensive gene databases even where limited genomic sequence is available. IgDiscover analysis of the allelic content of the Indian and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques reveals high levels of immunoglobulin gene diversity in this species. Further, we describe a novel human IGHV3-21 allele and confirm significant gene differences between Balb/c and C57BL6 mouse strains, demonstrating the power of IgDiscover as a germline V gene discovery tool. PMID:27995928

  6. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  7. Changes in speed distribution: Applying aggregated safety effect models to individual vehicle speeds.

    PubMed

    Vadeby, Anna; Forsman, Åsa

    2017-03-31

    This study investigated the effect of applying two aggregated models (the Power model and the Exponential model) to individual vehicle speeds instead of mean speeds. This is of particular interest when the measure introduced affects different parts of the speed distribution differently. The aim was to examine how the estimated overall risk was affected when assuming the models are valid on an individual vehicle level. Speed data from two applications of speed measurements were used in the study: an evaluation of movable speed cameras and a national evaluation of new speed limits in Sweden. The results showed that when applied on individual vehicle speed level compared with aggregated level, there was essentially no difference between these for the Power model in the case of injury accidents. However, for fatalities the difference was greater, especially for roads with new cameras where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. For the case with new speed limits, the individual approach estimated a somewhat smaller effect, reflecting that changes in the 15th percentile (P15) were somewhat larger than changes in P85 in this case. For the Exponential model there was also a clear, although small, difference between applying the model to mean speed changes and individual vehicle speed changes when speed cameras were used. This applied both for injury accidents and fatalities. There were also larger effects for the Exponential model than for the Power model, especially for injury accidents. In conclusion, applying the Power or Exponential model to individual vehicle speeds is an alternative that provides reasonable results in relation to the original Power and Exponential models, but more research is needed to clarify the shape of the individual risk curve. It is not surprising that the impact on severe traffic crashes was larger in situations where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. Further investigations on use of the Power and/or the

  8. Intracage ammonia levels in static and individually ventilated cages housing C57BL/6 mice on 4 bedding substrates.

    PubMed

    Ferrecchia, Christie E; Jensen, Kelly; Van Andel, Roger

    2014-03-01

    The relationship among ammonia levels, cage-changing frequency, and bedding types is an important and potentially controversial topic in the laboratory animal science community. Some bedding options may not provide sufficient urine absorption and bacterial regulation to minimize ammonia production during the interval between cage changes. High intracage ammonia levels can cause subclinical degeneration and inflammation of nasal passages, rhinitis and olfactory epithelial necrosis in exposed mice. Here we sought to compare the effects of 4 commonly used bedding substrates (1/4-in. irradiated corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, aspen wood chips, and recycled newspaper) on ammonia generation when housing female C57BL/6 mice in static and individually ventilated caging. Intracage ammonia levels were measured daily for 1 wk (static cage experiment) or 2 wk (IVC experiment). The results of this study suggest that the corncob, aspen wood chip, and recycled newspaper beddings that we tested are suitable for once-weekly cage changing for static cages and for changing every 2 wk for IVC. However, ammonia levels were not controlled appropriately in cages containing reclaimed wood pulp bedding, and pathologic changes occurred within 1 wk in the nares of mice housed on this bedding in static cages.

  9. Factoring the brain signatures of anesthesia concentration and level of arousal across individuals.

    PubMed

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Salles, Alejo; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Adapa, Ram; Menon, David K; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) connectivity and behavioral analysis during sedation, we factored out general effects of the anesthetic drug propofol and a specific index of conscious report, participants' level of responsiveness. The factorial analysis shows that increasing concentration of propofol in blood specifically decreases the connectivity strength of fronto-parietal cortical loops. In contrast, loss of responsiveness is indexed by a functional disconnection between the thalamus and the frontal cortex, balanced by an increase in connectivity strength of the thalamus to the occipital and temporal regions of the cortex.

  10. Factoring the brain signatures of anesthesia concentration and level of arousal across individuals

    PubMed Central

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.; Salles, Alejo; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Adapa, Ram; Menon, David K.; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) connectivity and behavioral analysis during sedation, we factored out general effects of the anesthetic drug propofol and a specific index of conscious report, participants’ level of responsiveness. The factorial analysis shows that increasing concentration of propofol in blood specifically decreases the connectivity strength of fronto-parietal cortical loops. In contrast, loss of responsiveness is indexed by a functional disconnection between the thalamus and the frontal cortex, balanced by an increase in connectivity strength of the thalamus to the occipital and temporal regions of the cortex. PMID:26509121

  11. Ecological impacts of umbrella effects of radiation on the individual members.

    PubMed

    Doi, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Isao

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the interactions in a model aquatic microcosm, an individual-based computer simulation model was developed. The microcosm consists of Euglena gracilis as an autotroph algae, Tetrahymena thermophila as a heterotroph protozoa and Escherichia coli as a saprotroph bacteria. There exists a strong interaction between Tetrahymena and E. coli as the first is the predator of the second. Ecological toxicity tests were conducted to test the population level impacts of the biological effects of radiation and toxicants on the lethality and mobility factors that influence directly or indirectly growth and reproduction. Radiological effects on lethality of E. coli individuals were translated to the reduction of the equilibrium population of Tetrahymena. A synergistic effect at the community level was also observed by the simulation of a combined exposure of radiation and a toxicant which reduced the feeding efficiency of Tetrahymena.

  12. Estimated effects of ionizing radiation upon military task performance: individual combat crewmember assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anno, G.H.; Wilson, D.B.

    1984-04-01

    Quantitative estimates are developed of the performance levels for selected individual Army combat crewmembers exposed to prompt ionizing radiation from nuclear weapons. The performance levels, expressed in percent of normal (baseline) task performance, provide information for military operations planning, combat training, and computer simulation modeling of combat crew and unit effectiveness. The methodology is described where data from two separate bodies of information: acute radiation sickness symptomatology, and judgment of task performance time from Army combat crew questionnaires - are integrated to compute performance levels as a function of dose (free-in-air) and post-exposure time.

  13. Age-Related Differences of Individuals' Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  14. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Caroline; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance). In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex). We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odor conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks) positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the “no fragrance” condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the “own fragrance” condition than the “assigned fragrance” condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an individual’s own body odor

  15. Individual-Level Influences on Perceptions of Neighborhood Disorder: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latkin, Carl A.; German, Danielle; Hua, Wei; Curry, Aaron D.

    2009-01-01

    Health outcomes are associated with aggregate neighborhood measures and individual neighborhood perceptions. In this study, the authors sought to delineate individual, social network, and spatial factors that may influence perceptions of neighborhood disorder. Multilevel regression analysis showed that neighborhood perceptions were more negative…

  16. Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level…

  17. Individual and Group Contingencies in Cooperative Learning at the Collegiate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Erin; Williams, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Six sections of an undergraduate human development course (N = 317) taught across two semesters were exposed to one of three cooperative learning arrangements awarding bonus credit for individual and/or group improvement in exam performance: (1) individual improvement first required to earn group bonus credit, (2) group improvement first required…

  18. Student Victimization by Peers in Elementary Schools: Individual, Teacher-Class, and School-Level Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined individual and contextual factors that explain students' victimization by peers among 4th- through 6th-grade Jewish and Arab students. Method: A total of 120 homeroom teachers and 3,375 students from 47 schools participated. The study explored how students' reports of violence are influenced by individual factors…

  19. Predicting Group-Level Outcome Variables from Variables Measured at the Individual Level: A Latent Variable Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croon, Marcel A.; van Veldhoven, Marc J. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    In multilevel modeling, one often distinguishes between macro-micro and micro-macro situations. In a macro-micro multilevel situation, a dependent variable measured at the lower level is predicted or explained by variables measured at that lower or a higher level. In a micro-macro multilevel situation, a dependent variable defined at the higher…

  20. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    PubMed Central

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Gerritsen, Lonne; Cornelissen, Bram; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; van Langevelde, Frank; Blacquière, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. Methodology/Principal Findings Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated). We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts) increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. PMID:22558421

  1. Train the trainer effectiveness trials of behavioral intervention for individuals with autism: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie

    2014-09-01

    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak quality quasi-experimental studies, 2 single-subject experimental design studies of moderate and weak quality, and 1 high quality randomized control trial were included. Overall, author reported effect sizes and calculation of improvement rate difference for SSRDs indicate positive effects of intervention across participant outcomes including cognition, language, and autism symptoms postcommunity delivered interventions primarily based in applied behavior analysis. Effects varied by children's developmental level.

  2. Determining Effective Methadone Doses for Individual Opioid-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Trafton, Jodie A; Minkel, Jared; Humphreys, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Background Randomized clinical trials of methadone maintenance have found that on average high daily doses are more effective for reducing heroin use, and clinical practice guidelines recommend 60 mg/d as a minimum dosage. Nevertheless, many clinicians report that some patients can be stably maintained on lower methadone dosages to optimal effect, and clinic dosing practices vary substantially. Studies of individual responses to methadone treatment may be more easily translated into clinical practice. Methods and Findings A volunteer sample of 222 opioid-dependent US veterans initiating methadone treatment was prospectively observed over the year after treatment entry. In the 168 who achieved at least 1 mo of heroin abstinence, methadone dosages on which patients maintained heroin-free urine samples ranged from 1.5 mg to 191.2 mg (median = 69 mg). Among patients who achieved heroin abstinence, higher methadone dosages were predicted by having a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder or depression, having a greater number of previous opioid detoxifications, living in a region with lower average heroin purity, attending a clinic where counselors discourage dosage reductions, and staying in treatment longer. These factors predicted 42% of the variance in dosage associated with heroin abstinence. Conclusions Effective and ineffective methadone dosages overlap substantially. Dosing guidelines should focus more heavily on appropriate processes of dosage determination rather than solely specifying recommended dosages. To optimize therapy, methadone dosages must be titrated until heroin abstinence is achieved. PMID:16448216

  3. Does state-level context matter for individuals' knowledge about abortion, legality and health? Challenging the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bessett, Danielle; Gerdts, Caitlin; Littman, Lisa L; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that state-level political context influences individuals' cultural values--the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis--has been invoked to explain the hyper-polarisation of politics in the USA. To test this hypothesis, we examined individuals' knowledge about abortion in relation to the political context of their current state of residence. Drawing from an internet-survey of 586 reproductive-age individuals in the USA, we assessed two types of abortion knowledge: health-related and legality. We found that state-level conservatism does not modify the existing relationships between individual predictors and each of the two types of abortion knowledge. Hence, our findings do not support the 'red states' versus 'blue states' hypothesis. Additionally, we find that knowledge about abortion's health effects in the USA is low: 7% of our sample thought abortion before 12 weeks gestation was illegal.

  4. Factors Affecting Parent’s Perception on Air Quality—From the Individual to the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents’ perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan’s environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170–9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244–25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212–21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents’ perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public’s perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  5. Multigeneration reproduction ratios and the effects of clustered unvaccinated individuals on epidemic outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hiebeler, David E; Michaud, Isaac J; Ackerman, Hamilton Hoxie; Reed Iosevich, Shannon; Robinson, Andre

    2011-12-01

    An SIR epidemiological community-structured model is constructed to investigate the effects of clustered distributions of unvaccinated individuals and the distribution of the primary case relative to vaccination levels. The communities here represent groups such as neighborhoods within a city or cities within a region. The model contains two levels of mixing, where individuals make more intra-group than inter-group contacts. Stochastic simulations and analytical results are utilized to explore the model. An extension of the effective reproduction ratio that incorporates more spatial information by predicting the average number of tertiary infections caused by a single infected individual is introduced to characterize the system. Using these methods, we show that both the vaccination coverage and the variation in vaccination levels among communities affect the likelihood and severity of epidemics. The location of the primary infectious case and the degree of mixing between communities are also important factors in determining the dynamics of outbreaks. In some cases, increasing the efficacy of a vaccine can in fact increase the effective reproduction ratio in early generations, due to the effects of population structure on the likely initial location of an infection.

  6. Associations between community-level disaster exposure and individual-level changes in disability and risk of death for older Americans.

    PubMed

    Brilleman, Samuel L; Wolfe, Rory; Moreno-Betancur, Margarita; Sales, Anne E; Langa, Kenneth M; Li, Yun; Daugherty Biddison, Elizabeth L; Rubinson, Lewis; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2017-01-01

    Disasters occur frequently in the United States (US) and their impact on acute morbidity, mortality and short-term increased health needs has been well described. However, barring mental health, little is known about the medium or longer-term health impacts of disasters. This study sought to determine if there is an association between community-level disaster exposure and individual-level changes in disability and/or the risk of death for older Americans. Using the US Federal Emergency Management Agency's database of disaster declarations, 602 disasters occurred between August 1998 and December 2010 and were characterized by their presence, intensity, duration and type. Repeated measurements of a disability score (based on activities of daily living) and dates of death were observed between January 2000 and November 2010 for 18,102 American individuals aged 50-89 years, who were participating in the national longitudinal Health and Retirement Study. Longitudinal (disability) and time-to-event (death) data were modelled simultaneously using a 'joint modelling' approach. There was no evidence of an association between community-level disaster exposure and individual-level changes in disability or the risk of death. Our results suggest that future research should focus on individual-level disaster exposures, moderate to severe disaster events, or higher-risk groups of individuals.

  7. Association between alendronate, serum alkaline phosphatase level, and heterotopic ossification in individuals with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ploumis, Avraam; Donovan, Jayne M.; Olurinde, Mobolaji O.; Clark, Dana M.; Wu, Jason C.; Sohn, Douglas J.; O'Connor, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Context/objective Only sparse evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of oral alendronate (ALN) in the prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of oral ALN intake on the appearance of HO in patients with SCI. Study design Retrospective database review. Setting A Spinal Cord Unit at a Rehabilitation Hospital. Participants Two hundred and ninety-nine patients with SCI during acute inpatient rehabilitation. Interventions Administration of oral ALN. Outcome measures The incidence of HO during rehabilitation was compared between patients with SCI receiving oral ALN (n = 125) and patients with SCI not receiving oral ALN (n = 174). The association between HO and/or ALN intake with HO risk factors and biochemical markers of bone metabolism were also explored. Results HO developed in 19 male patients (6.35%), however there was no significant difference in the incidence of HO in patients receiving oral ALN or not. The mean odds ratio of not developing versus developing HO given ALN exposure was 0.8. Significant correlation was found between abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and HO appearance (P < 0.001) as well as normal serum ALP and ALN intake (P < 0.05). Conclusion Even though there was no direct prevention of HO in patients with SCI by oral ALN intake, abnormal serum ALP was found more frequently in patients with HO development and without oral ALN intake. This evidence could suggest that ALN may play a role in preventing HO, especially in patients with acute SCI with increasing levels of serum ALP. PMID:24820653

  8. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  9. Estimating Individual Influences of Behavioral Intentions: An Application of Random-Effects Modeling to the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedeker, Donald; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Methods are proposed and described for estimating the degree to which relations among variables vary at the individual level. As an example, M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen's theory of reasoned action is examined. This article illustrates the use of empirical Bayes methods based on a random-effects regression model to estimate individual influences…

  10. Use of a digital camera onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle to monitor spring phenology at individual tree level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, Elias; Gaulton, Rachel; Barr, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of forest phenology, in a cost-effective manner, at a fine spatial scale and over relatively large areas remains a significant challenge. To address this issue, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) appear as a potential new option for forest phenology monitoring. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of imagery acquired from a UAV to track seasonal changes in leaf canopy at individual tree level. UAV flights, deploying consumer-grade standard and near-infrared modified cameras, were carried out over a deciduous woodland during the spring season of 2015, from which a temporal series of calibrated and georeferenced 5 cm spatial resolution orthophotos was generated. Initial results from a subset of trees are presented in this paper. Four trees with different observed Start of Season (SOS) dates were selected to monitor UAV-derived Green Chromatic Coordinate (GCC), as a measure of canopy greenness. Mean GCC values were extracted from within the four individual tree crowns and were plotted against the day of year (DOY) when the data were acquired. The temporal GCC trajectory of each tree was associated with the visual observations of leaf canopy phenology (SOS) and also with the development of understory vegetation. The chronological order when sudden increases of GCC values occurred matched with the chronological order of observed SOS: the first sudden increase in GCC was detected in the tree which first reached SOS; 18.5 days later (on average) the last sudden increase of GCC was detected in the tree which last reached SOS (18 days later than the first one). Trees with later observed SOS presented GCC values increasing slowly over time, which were associated with development of understory vegetation. Ongoing work is dealing with: 1) testing different indices; 2) radiometric calibration (retrieving of spectral reflectance); 3) expanding the analysis to more tree individuals, more tree species and over larger forest areas, and; 4) deriving

  11. Genome-health nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics: nutritional requirements or 'nutriomes' for chromosomal stability and telomere maintenance at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Bull, Caroline; Fenech, Michael

    2008-05-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that (a) risk for developmental and degenerative disease increases with more DNA damage, which in turn is dependent on nutritional status, and (b) the optimal concentration of micronutrients for prevention of genome damage is also dependent on genetic polymorphisms that alter the function of genes involved directly or indirectly in the uptake and metabolism of micronutrients required for DNA repair and DNA replication. The development of dietary patterns, functional foods and supplements that are designed to improve genome-health maintenance in individuals with specific genetic backgrounds may provide an important contribution to an optimum health strategy based on the diagnosis and individualised nutritional prevention of genome damage, i.e. genome health clinics. The present review summarises some of the recent knowledge relating to micronutrients that are associated with chromosomal stability and provides some initial insights into the likely nutritional factors that may be expected to have an impact on the maintenance of telomeres. It is evident that developing effective strategies for defining nutrient doses and combinations or 'nutriomes' for genome-health maintenance at the individual level is essential for further progress in this research field.

  12. Quantifying Population-Level Risks Using an Individual-Based Model: Sea Otters, Harlequin Ducks, and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Parker, Keith R

    2012-01-01

    Ecological risk assessments need to advance beyond evaluating risks to individuals that are largely based on toxicity studies conducted on a few species under laboratory conditions, to assessing population-level risks to the environment, including considerations of variability and uncertainty. Two individual-based models (IBMs), recently developed to assess current risks to sea otters and seaducks in Prince William Sound more than 2 decades after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are used to explore population-level risks. In each case, the models had previously shown that there were essentially no remaining risks to individuals from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the EVOS. New sensitivity analyses are reported here in which hypothetical environmental exposures to PAHs were heuristically increased until assimilated doses reached toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived at the no-observed-adverse-effects and lowest-observed-adverse-effects levels (NOAEL and LOAEL, respectively). For the sea otters, this was accomplished by artificially increasing the number of sea otter pits that would intersect remaining patches of subsurface oil residues by orders of magnitude over actual estimated rates. Similarly, in the seaduck assessment, the PAH concentrations in the constituents of diet, sediments, and seawater were increased in proportion to their relative contributions to the assimilated doses by orders of magnitude over measured environmental concentrations, to reach the NOAEL and LOAEL thresholds. The stochastic IBMs simulated millions of individuals. From these outputs, frequency distributions were derived of assimilated doses for populations of 500 000 sea otters or seaducks in each of 7 or 8 classes, respectively. Doses to several selected quantiles were analyzed, ranging from the 1-in-1000th most-exposed individuals (99.9% quantile) to the median-exposed individuals (50% quantile). The resulting families of quantile curves provide the basis for

  13. Quantifying population-level risks using an individual-based model: sea otters, Harlequin Ducks, and the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Parker, Keith R

    2012-07-01

    Ecological risk assessments need to advance beyond evaluating risks to individuals that are largely based on toxicity studies conducted on a few species under laboratory conditions, to assessing population-level risks to the environment, including considerations of variability and uncertainty. Two individual-based models (IBMs), recently developed to assess current risks to sea otters and seaducks in Prince William Sound more than 2 decades after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are used to explore population-level risks. In each case, the models had previously shown that there were essentially no remaining risks to individuals from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the EVOS. New sensitivity analyses are reported here in which hypothetical environmental exposures to PAHs were heuristically increased until assimilated doses reached toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived at the no-observed-adverse-effects and lowest-observed-adverse-effects levels (NOAEL and LOAEL, respectively). For the sea otters, this was accomplished by artificially increasing the number of sea otter pits that would intersect remaining patches of subsurface oil residues by orders of magnitude over actual estimated rates. Similarly, in the seaduck assessment, the PAH concentrations in the constituents of diet, sediments, and seawater were increased in proportion to their relative contributions to the assimilated doses by orders of magnitude over measured environmental concentrations, to reach the NOAEL and LOAEL thresholds. The stochastic IBMs simulated millions of individuals. From these outputs, frequency distributions were derived of assimilated doses for populations of 500,000 sea otters or seaducks in each of 7 or 8 classes, respectively. Doses to several selected quantiles were analyzed, ranging from the 1-in-1000th most-exposed individuals (99.9% quantile) to the median-exposed individuals (50% quantile). The resulting families of quantile curves provide the basis for

  14. Effects of Vojta method on trunk stability in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sun-Young; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-12-01

    Vojta reflex locomotion is important to main upright posture through stimulation of breast zone to patient with cerebral palsy. However, application in other diseases is no investigated. So, we determined the effects of stimulation of the breast zone on trunk stability in healthy individuals. Fourteen young healthy adults (7 males and 7 females) voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group (breast zone) and control group (arbitrary point). All groups were stimulated for 5 min on the left and right sides, respectively, for a total 10 times. We used the thickness of the external oblique abdominal muscle (EO), the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the transversus abdominis muscle (TrA), and the rectus abdominis muscles, as well as the area of the diaphragm by using ultrasonography. In the experimental group, the thickness of the TrA significantly increased during stimulation (P<0.05) while the thickness of the EO significantly decreased (P<0.05). Also, the area of diaphragm in inspiration was significantly different (P<0.05). Therefore, stimulation of the breast zone may be effective to improve trunk stability through activation of the TrA muscle and the diaphragm.

  15. Hormonally mediated maternal effects, individual strategy and global change

    PubMed Central

    Meylan, Sandrine; Miles, Donald B.; Clobert, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists is predicting organismal responses to the anticipated changes to global ecosystems through climate change. Most evidence suggests that short-term global change may involve increasing occurrences of extreme events, therefore the immediate response of individuals will be determined by physiological capacities and life-history adaptations to cope with extreme environmental conditions. Here, we consider the role of hormones and maternal effects in determining the persistence of species in altered environments. Hormones, specifically steroids, are critical for patterning the behaviour and morphology of parents and their offspring. Hence, steroids have a pervasive influence on multiple aspects of the offspring phenotype over its lifespan. Stress hormones, e.g. glucocorticoids, modulate and perturb phenotypes both early in development and later into adulthood. Females exposed to abiotic stressors during reproduction may alter the phenotypes by manipulation of hormones to the embryos. Thus, hormone-mediated maternal effects, which generate phenotypic plasticity, may be one avenue for coping with global change. Variation in exposure to hormones during development influences both the propensity to disperse, which alters metapopulation dynamics, and population dynamics, by affecting either recruitment to the population or subsequent life-history characteristics of the offspring. We suggest that hormones may be an informative index to the potential for populations to adapt to changing environments. PMID:22566673

  16. Mindfulness Training among Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: Neurobehavioral Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pickut, Barbara; Hirsch, Mark A.; Van Hecke, Wim; Mariën, Peter; Parizel, Paul M.; Crosiers, David; Cras, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate possible neurobehavioral changes secondary to a mindfulness based intervention (MBI) training for individuals living with Parkinson's disease (PD). Background. In the context of complementary medicine, MBIs are increasingly being used for stress reduction and in patient populations coping with chronic illness. The use of alternative and complementary medicine may be higher in patients with chronic conditions such as PD. However, behavioral effects of mindfulness training in PD have not yet been reported in the literature and this points to an unmet need and warrants further examination. Methods. A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Questionnaires and the UPDRS I–IV were obtained at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Results. Significant changes after the MBI were found including a 5.5 point decrease on the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative analysis of neurobehavioral effects of MBI in PD. PMID:26101690

  17. Effects of Vojta method on trunk stability in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sun-Young; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Vojta reflex locomotion is important to main upright posture through stimulation of breast zone to patient with cerebral palsy. However, application in other diseases is no investigated. So, we determined the effects of stimulation of the breast zone on trunk stability in healthy individuals. Fourteen young healthy adults (7 males and 7 females) voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group (breast zone) and control group (arbitrary point). All groups were stimulated for 5 min on the left and right sides, respectively, for a total 10 times. We used the thickness of the external oblique abdominal muscle (EO), the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the transversus abdominis muscle (TrA), and the rectus abdominis muscles, as well as the area of the diaphragm by using ultrasonography. In the experimental group, the thickness of the TrA significantly increased during stimulation (P<0.05) while the thickness of the EO significantly decreased (P<0.05). Also, the area of diaphragm in inspiration was significantly different (P<0.05). Therefore, stimulation of the breast zone may be effective to improve trunk stability through activation of the TrA muscle and the diaphragm. PMID:28119875

  18. Fasting Blood Glucose and Insulin Level in Opium Addict versus Non-Addict Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Yazdi, Farzaneh; Salajegheh, Pouria; Dehesh, Mohammad Moein; Divsalar, Kouros

    2015-01-01

    Background Many of lay person believe that opium lowers blood glucose. However some studies show the opposite results. In this study, we tried to evaluate the effect of opium on blood glucose and insulin resistance. Methods This comparative study including 53 addicts in case groups who used opium just in the form of smoking and 55 non-addicts in a control group, took part in the study, after proving not to be opium users. After taking blood samples, their fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin and lipid profiles were evaluated. Furthermore, insulin resistance index was analyzed via the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula with the cut-off points of 7.2 and 7.1. Findings Age and gender were not significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of insulin resistance between the two groups, according to the cut-off points of 7.1 and 7.2 (P = 0.196 and P = 0.248, respectively). Mean insulin resistance index was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.325). In the case group, fasting blood insulin was considerably lower (P = 0.025) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was significantly higher (P = 0.016) than the control group. Conclusion According to the level of insulin and FBS in addicts, it does not seem that opium has a significant effect on reducing the blood glucose and insulin resistance. PMID:26322211

  19. The clustering effects of surfaces within the tooth and teeth within individuals.

    PubMed

    Masood, M; Masood, Y; Newton, J T

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to provide an estimate of the value of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for dental caries data at tooth and surface level, 2) to provide an estimate of the design effect (DE) to be used in the determination of sample size estimates for future dental surveys, and 3) to explore the usefulness of multilevel modeling of cross-sectional survey data by comparing the model estimates derived from multilevel and single-level models. Using data from the United Kingdom Adult Dental Health Survey 2009, the ICC and DE were calculated for surfaces within a tooth, teeth within the individual, and surfaces within the individual. Simple and multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed with the outcome variables carious tooth or surface. ICC estimated that 10% of the variance in surface caries is attributable to the individual level and 30% of the variance in surfaces caries is attributable to variation between teeth within individuals. When comparing multilevel with simple logistic models, β values were 4 to 5 times lower and the standard error 2 to 3 times lower in multilevel models. All the fit indices showed multilevel models were a better fit than simple models. The DE was 1.4 for the clustering of carious surfaces within teeth, 6.0 for carious teeth within an individual, and 38.0 for carious surfaces within the individual. The ICC for dental caries data was 0.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.204-0.220) at the tooth level and 0.30 (95% CI, 0.284-0.305) at the surface level. The DE used for sample size calculation for future dental surveys will vary on the level of clustering, which is important in the analysis-the DE is greatest when exploring the clustering of surfaces within individuals. Failure to consider the effect of clustering on the design and analysis of epidemiological trials leads to an overestimation of the impact of interventions and the importance of risk factors in predicting caries outcome.

  20. Attitudes Towards School, Teacher, and Classmates at Classroom and Individual Levels: An Application of Two-Level Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2005-01-01

    Pupils' responses in Grade 6 to a 40-item questionnaire originally constructed to reveal different school attitudes were re-analysed using recently developed techniques for latent variable analysis of two-level data. One aim was to test a model for investigation of classroom environment and another aim was to compare exploratory factor analysis…

  1. Estimation of Potential Population Level Effects of Contaminants on Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.

    2001-06-11

    The objective of this project is to provide DOE with improved methods to assess risks from contaminants to wildlife populations. The current approach for wildlife risk assessment consists of comparison of contaminant exposure estimates for individual animals to literature-derived toxicity test endpoints. These test endpoints are assumed to estimate thresholds for population-level effects. Moreover, species sensitivities to contaminants is one of several criteria to be considered when selecting assessment endpoints (EPA 1997 and 1998), yet data on the sensitivities of many birds and mammals are lacking. The uncertainties associated with this approach are considerable. First, because toxicity data are not available for most potential wildlife endpoint species, extrapolation of toxicity data from test species to the species of interest is required. There is no consensus on the most appropriate extrapolation method. Second, toxicity data are represented as statistical measures (e.g., NOAEL s or LOAELs) that provide no information on the nature or magnitude of effects. The level of effect is an artifact of the replication and dosing regime employed, and does not indicate how effects might increase with increasing exposure. Consequently, slight exceedance of a LOAEL is not distinguished from greatly exceeding it. Third, the relationship of toxic effects on individuals to effects on populations is poorly estimated by existing methods. It is assumed that if the exposure of individuals exceeds levels associated with impaired reproduction, then population level effects are likely. Uncertainty associated with this assumption is large because depending on the reproductive strategy of a given species, comparable levels of reproductive impairment may result in dramatically different population-level responses. This project included several tasks to address these problems: (1) investigation of the validity of the current allometric scaling approach for interspecies extrapolation

  2. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C.; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N.; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H.; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3–5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7–96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins’ moult. PMID:26352664

  3. Comparison of total protein and enzyme levels in successive regenerations of venom from individual coralsnakes.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Randall A; Harper, George R; Occidental, Michael; Gamalie, Vlad; Spradley, Ples

    2015-07-01

    Coralsnakes produce highly potent neurotoxic venoms, but little is known about variations in specific enzyme components within a species or from one replenishment of venom to the next within the same animal. Since published studies are often conducted using venom pools from multiple snakes, individual differences are masked and variations among individual snakes and between subsequent venom regenerations from the same snake have rarely been documented. This study involves the analysis and comparison of four successive venom collections from each of nine individual coralsnakes in order to detect these differences. Significant variation was found within the successive re-synthesis of venom components. Even greater differences were observed between the venoms from similar individual snakes. Since studies of variation in enzymatic activity would be significant only if they were above these normal variations, it is important to be aware of these differences. These results suggest the importance of understanding the variations present within and between individuals of the same species when interpreting the potential significance of differences found as the result of genetic, environmental or ecological factors.

  4. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  5. Assessing the consistency assumption by exploring treatment by covariate interactions in mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis: individual patient-level covariates versus aggregate trial-level covariates.

    PubMed

    Donegan, Sarah; Williamson, Paula; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2012-12-20

    Mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analysis allows several treatments to be compared in a single analysis while utilising direct and indirect evidence. Treatment by covariate interactions can be included in MTC models to explore how the covariate modifies the treatment effects. If interactions exist, the assumptions underlying MTCs may be invalidated. For conventional pair-wise meta-analysis, important benefits regarding the investigation of such interactions, gained from using individual patient data (IPD) rather than aggregate data (AD), have been described. We aim to compare IPD MTC models including patient-level covariates with AD MTC models including study-level covariates. IPD and AD random-effects MTC models for dichotomous outcomes are specified. Three assumptions are made regarding the interactions (i.e. independent, exchangeable and common interactions). The models are applied to a dataset to compare four drugs for treating malaria (i.e. amodiaquine-artesunate, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ), artemether-lumefantrine and chlorproguanil-dapsone plus artesunate) using the outcome unadjusted treatment success at day 28. The treatment effects and regression coefficients for interactions from the IPD models were more precise than those from AD models. Using IPD, assuming independent or exchangeable interactions, the regression coefficient for chlorproguanil-dapsone plus artesunate versus DHAPQ was statistically significant and assuming common interactions, the common coefficient was significant; whereas using AD, no coefficients were significant. Using IPD, DHAPQ was the best drug; whereas using AD, the best drug varied. Using AD models, there was no evidence that the consistency assumption was invalid; whereas, the assumption was questionable based on the IPD models. The AD analyses were misleading.

  6. Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

    PubMed

    Wasfi, Rania A; Ross, Nancy A; El-Geneidy, Ahmed M

    2013-09-01

    This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs.

  7. Association Between Neighborhood-Level Smoking and Individual Smoking Risk: Maternal Smoking Among Latina Women in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    French, Benjamin; Weibe, Douglas; Camenga, Deepa R.; Yun, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether or not high maternal smoking rates at the neighborhood level increase the likelihood of individual smoking by Latina women in the three months prior to and during pregnancy, independent of other individual and neighborhood factors. Methods This study was observational in nature, using linked vital statistics records for 24,443 Latina women in Pennsylvania (2009–2010) and U.S. Census data for 2,398 census tracts. We used multilevel logistic regression models to determine the individual odds of self-reported maternal smoking given different census tract-level rates of maternal smoking in the previous three years (2006–2008), adjusting for maternal and census-tract characteristics, including ethnic density, population density, and poverty. Results Higher levels of maternal smoking at the census-tract level were associated with increased individual odds of smoking among Latina mothers. In the fully adjusted model, a 10% increase in the neighborhood smoking rate was associated with a 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.22, 1.34) increase in the individual odds of smoking. Conclusion Latina women living in census tracts where more women have smoked during or immediately prior to pregnancy are themselves at higher risk of smoking during this period. PMID:26556939

  8. Cooperative vs. Individual Learning Effects on Vocabulary Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Georgene

    A study examined the relative merits of individual and cooperative methods of vocabulary instruction in the seventh grade. It was hypothesized that socialization would act as a motivating force among these adolescents, and that those involved in paired instruction would show increased vocabulary retention. Students in both control (individual) and…

  9. Radio-adaptive response in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals residing in high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala in the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, E N; Karuppasamy, C V; Kumar, V Anil; Soren, D C; Kumar, P R Vivek; Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-11-09

    The present study investigates whether the chronic low-dose radiation exposure induces an in vivo radio-adaptive response in individuals from high-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of the Kerala coast. Peripheral blood samples from 54 adult male individuals aged between 26 and 65 years were collected for the study with written informed consent. Each of the whole blood sample was divided into three, one was sham irradiated, second and third was exposed to challenging doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma radiation, respectively. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was employed to study the radio-adaptive response. Seventeen individuals were from normal-level natural radiation area (NLNRA ≤1.5 mGy/year) and 37 from HLNRA (> 1.5 mGy/year). Based on the annual dose received, individuals from HLNRA were further classified into low-dose group (LDG, 1.51-5.0 mGy/year, N = 19) and high-dose group (HDG >5.0 mGy/year, N = 18). Basal frequency of micronucleus (MN) was comparable across the three dose groups (NLNRA, LDG and HDG, P = 0.64). Age of the individuals showed a significant effect on the frequency of MN after challenging dose exposures. The mean frequency of MN was significantly lower in elder (>40 years) individuals from HDG of HLNRA as compared to the young (≤40 years) individuals after 1.0 Gy (P < 0.001) and 2.0 Gy (P = 0.002) of challenging doses. However, young and elder individuals within NLNRA and LDG of HLNRA showed similar frequency of MN after the challenging dose exposures. Thus, increased level of chronic low-dose radiation (>5.0 mGy/year) seems to act as a priming dose resulting in the induction of an in vivo radio-adaptive response in elder individuals of the Kerala coast.

  10. Married Women's Justification of Intimate Partner Violence in Bangladesh: Examining Community Norm and Individual-Level Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S

    2015-01-01

    One-third of the women worldwide experience intimate partner violence (IPV) that increases their vulnerability to both short- and long-term physical, sexual, reproductive, and mental health problems. Surprisingly, IPV is justified by many women globally. Although the IPV literature to date is mostly focused on risk factors associated with actual occurrences, little is known on attitudinal acceptance of such violence. Also, despite the growing scholarship of community influence and health link, IPV research has relatively overlooked the effects of norms at the community level. Using a representative national sample of 13,611 married women in Bangladesh, this study examined the association of community attitudes and women's individual attitudes toward wife beating. The results revealed that women living in communities with permissive attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to justify husbands' beating (OR=4.5). Women married at a younger age, who had less than primary-level education, lived in households categorized as poor or middle class, and did not consume media appeared to be at higher risk for justifying wife beating. This research adds to a growing research body on community influences on health by examining IPV attitudes and community norms link.

  11. Effects of compression and individual variability on face recognition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarry, Delia P.; Arndt, Craig M.; McCabe, Steven A.; D'Amato, Donald P.

    2004-08-01

    The Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 requires that the Visa Waiver Program be available only to countries that have a program to issue to their nationals machine-readable passports incorporating biometric identifiers complying with applicable standards established by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). In June 2002, the New Technologies Working Group of ICAO unanimously endorsed the use of face recognition (FR) as the globally interoperable biometric for machine-assisted identity confirmation with machine-readable travel documents (MRTDs), although Member States may elect to use fingerprint and/or iris recognition as additional biometric technologies. The means and formats are still being developed through which biometric information might be stored in the constrained space of integrated circuit chips embedded within travel documents. Such information will be stored in an open, yet unalterable and very compact format, probably as digitally signed and efficiently compressed images. The objective of this research is to characterize the many factors that affect FR system performance with respect to the legislated mandates concerning FR. A photograph acquisition environment and a commercial face recognition system have been installed at Mitretek, and over 1,400 images have been collected of volunteers. The image database and FR system are being used to analyze the effects of lossy image compression, individual differences, such as eyeglasses and facial hair, and the acquisition environment on FR system performance. Images are compressed by varying ratios using JPEG2000 to determine the trade-off points between recognition accuracy and compression ratio. The various acquisition factors that contribute to differences in FR system performance among individuals are also being measured. The results of this study will be used to refine and test efficient face image interchange standards that ensure highly accurate recognition, both

  12. Group-Level Analysis on Multiplayer Game Collaboration: How Do the Individuals Shape the Group Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluemink, Johanna; Hamalainen, Raija; Manninen, Tony; Jarvela, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to examine how small-group collaboration is shaped by individuals interacting in a virtual multiplayer game. The data were collected from a design experiment in which six randomly divided groups of four university students played a voice-enhanced game lasting about 1 h. The "eScape" game was a social action adventure…

  13. Adult Educators and Cultural Competence within Health Care Systems: Change at the Individual and Structural Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegahn, Linda; Ton, Hendry

    2011-01-01

    Goals of cultural competence are commonly described as creation of a health care system and workforce capable of delivering high-quality care to all patients regardless of race, ethnicity, culture, or language. While this "system" is made up of individuals, it also has a life of its own, as with all institutions. In this chapter, the…

  14. Welfare Policy and Subjective Well-Being across Nations: An Individual-Level Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacek, Alexander C.; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    In the vast and diverse literature on determinants of life-satisfaction and happiness, there is a relative dearth of empirical research on the role of specifically political factors. We identify one such possible factor, the industrial welfare state, and assess its impact on how individuals perceive their well-being. The voluminous literature on…

  15. No simple answers for ecological immunology: relationships among immune indices at the individual level break down at the species level in waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Kevin D; Cohen, Alan A; Klasing, Kirk C; Ricklefs, Robert E; Scheuerlein, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Understanding immune function in the context of other life-history traits is crucial to understand the evolution of life histories, at both the individual and species levels. As the interest in assessing immune function for these comparative purposes grows, an important question remains unanswered: can immune function be broadly characterized using one or two simple measures? Often, interpretation of individual assays is ambiguous and relationships among different measures of immune function remain poorly understood. Thus, we employed five protocols to measure 13 variables of immune function in ten species of waterfowl (Anseriformes). All assays were based on a single blood sample subdivided into leukocyte (blood smear) and plasma (frozen until analysis) components. All assays were run using samples from every individual, and a nested analysis was used to partition variation/covariation at the levels of species and individuals within species. We detected positive correlations between functionally related measures of immunity within species, but these were absent from comparisons between species. A canonical correlation analysis revealed no significant relationships between the plasma and leukocyte assays at the levels of both individual and species, suggesting that these measures of immunity are neither competitive nor synergistic. We conclude that one measure of each assay type may be required to maximally characterize immune function in studies of a single species, while the same is not true in studies among species. PMID:16618674

  16. Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.

  17. Individual- and Area-level Unemployment Influence Smoking Cessation Among African Americans Participating in a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S.; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  18. Relationships of Community and Individual Level Social Capital with Activities of Daily Living and Death by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Haruhiko; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Michikawa, Takehiro; Takeda-Imai, Fujimi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takebayashi, Toru; Nishiwaki, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    This study determined whether there is an association between social capital and a composite outcome of decline in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and death by gender. A prospective 3.5 year cohort study was conducted in a rural town in Japan. The study participants were 984 individuals aged 65 years and older with not impaired on ADL at 2010 baseline survey. Social participation and generalized trust were measured as social capital. The individual level responses were dichotomized and aggregated into the community level (eight areas). Multilevel logistic regression adjusting for covariates revealed that social participation at the individual level was significantly associated with higher odds of composite outcome (OR of “not participate” = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.38–2.81). Regarding generalized trust, only in men, there was an inverse association at the community level (OR of “low” = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32–0.96), and a positive association at the individual level (OR of “tend to be careful” = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.27–3.90). These results suggest that social capital were associated with a decline in ADL and death and that the association may differ by gender. PMID:27589773

  19. Individual, social and community-level predictors of wellbeing in a US sample of transgender and gender non-conforming individuals.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Megan C; Ali, Samira; Chaudhuri, Sambuddha

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, increased attention has been paid to the physical and mental health needs of transgender and gender non-conforming individuals. However, despite this surge of research, scant literature addresses factors associated with wellbeing among members of this population. Using data from the US Social Justice Sexuality Survey, this study examines predictors of wellbeing in a sample of transgender and gender non-conforming individuals. Results indicate that higher levels of wellbeing are predicted by education, older age and a greater sense of connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. Additionally, although health insurance did not have a significant impact on wellbeing, increased general health was associated with greater wellbeing, as was perceived comfort of the healthcare provider regarding the respondent's sexual identity. These findings can inform multi-level intervention with transgender and gender non-conforming persons to promote their wellbeing, as well as guide policies and practices around healthcare provider training. Future research should further examine the interconnected predictors of wellbeing among members of this population.

  20. A Comparison of Individual-Level and Community-Level Predictors of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among a Sample of Newly Arrested Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Kristina; Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2011-01-01

    Variations in drug use have been found across individual-level factors and community characteristics, and by type of drug used. Relatively little research, however, has examined this variation among juvenile offenders. Based on a sample of 924 newly arrested juvenile offenders, two multilevel logistic regression models predicting marijuana test…

  1. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    PubMed

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  2. The Impact of ADH1B Alleles and Educational Status on Levels and Modes of Alcohol Consumption in Russian Male Individuals.

    PubMed

    Borinskaya, S A; Kim, A A; Rubanovich, A V; Yankovsky, N K

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the main reasons behind the low life span in Russia. Both social and genetic factors affect the alcohol consumption level. The genetic factors are alleles of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B and aldehyde dehydrogenaseALDH2 genes. We have typed and found frequencies for the alleles in a cohort of 642 men, ethnic Russians. The individuals of the cohort were asked to complete a questionnaire in the framework of the Izhevsk Family Study (Leon et al., 2007, 2009) regarding the amount of alcohol consumed and on the type of hazardous alcohol consumption (nonbeverage alcohol consumption and the so-called "zapoï" which is a Russian term for a heavy drinking bout lasting for at least 2 days, when an individual is withdrawn from the normal social life). The ADH1B*48His allele was found among heterozygous individuals only (N=68, 10.6% of the cohort). The ALDH2*504Lys allele was also found among heterozygous individuals only (N=2, 0.3%) The effect of ADH1B alleles and the influence of the education level on the amount and type of alcohol consumed had not previously been studied in Russians. We have found that the amount of consumed alcohol is 21.6% lower (1733 g of ethanol per year) for ADH1B*48His allele carriers in the cohort of Russian men. The amount of consumed alcohol was found to be 9.8% lower (793 g of ethanol per year) in the case when individuals had a higher education as compared to those who had a secondary- or elementary school education level in the same cohort. Hence, the protective effect of the genetic factor (ADH1B*48His allele carriage) has proven to be more pronounced than the influence of the social factor (education level) at the individual level in the cohort of Russian men. Both factors have also proven to have a protective effect against hazardous types of alcohol consumption. Zapoï was not scored among individuals of the cohort with ADH1B*48His allele carriage (OR=12.6, P=0.006), as compared to 8.4% of "zapoï" individuals who

  3. Association of low C2 and C4 serum levels with the HLA-DW2 allele in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    HLA typed unrelated healthy individuals (HLA-DW2 positive n = 64, and HLA-DW2 negative n = 72) were investigated for their C2 functional activity and C4 serum protein levels. For the C2 and C4 levels a bimodal distribution was found in HLA-DW2 positive and HLA-DW2 negative individuals. HLA-DW2 positive persons had a significantly higher incidence of low C2 and C4 serum levels. Our data support the concept that genes governing C2 as well as C4 serum levels are in linkage disequilibrium with the HLA-DW2 allele of the major histocompatibility complex. PMID:702053

  4. [Effects of situational and individual variables on critical thinking expression].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuko; Kusumi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined when people decide to choose an expression that is based on critical thinking, and how situational and individual variables affect such a decision process. Given a conversation scenario including overgeneralization with two friends, participants decided whether to follow the conversation by a critical-thinking expression or not. The authors controlled purpose and topic as situational variables, and measured critical-thinking ability, critical-thinking disposition, and self-monitoring as individual variables. We conducted an experiment in which the situational variables were counterbalanced in a within-subject design with 60 university students. The results of logistic regression analysis showed differences within individuals in the decision process whether to choose a critical-thinking expression, and that some situational factors and some subscales of the individual measurements were related to the differences.

  5. Validity of Aggregating Individual-Level Survey Data for Macrosociological Research Using U.S. States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    The feasibility of employing survey data that uses the states of the United States as the societal units in macro-level sociological research was studied. The range of issues available for research opened to investigation would be greatly expanded if it were possible to aggregate national survey data to produce state-level statistics for variables…

  6. Individualized Testing System: Performance Checks, ISCS Level III, WW-CP Form A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one form of three performance checks booklets (A, B, and C) for two texts of Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). These two texts are Winds and Weather (WW), and Crusty Problems (CP). The 12 performance checks booklets for Level III are considered one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized…

  7. Individualized Testing System: Performance Checks, ISCS Level III, WW-CP Form B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one form of three performance checks booklets (A, B, and C) for two texts of Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). These two texts are Winds and Weather (WW), and Crusty Problems (CP). The 12 performance checks booklets for Level III are considered one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized…

  8. Heavy alcohol consumption in individuals with HIV infection: Effects on neuropsychological performance

    PubMed Central

    ROTHLIND, JOHANNES C.; GREENFIELD, TANYA M.; BRUCE, ANNE V.; MEYERHOFF, DIETER J.; FLENNIKEN, DEREK L.; LINDGREN, JOSELYN A.; WEINER, MICHAEL W.

    2008-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use have been reported in HIV+ individuals compared to the general population. Both heavy alcohol use and HIV infection are associated with increased risk of neuropsychological (NP) impairment. We examined effects of heavy active alcohol use and HIV on NP functioning in a large sample of community-residing HIV+ individuals and HIV− controls. The four main study groups included 72 HIV− light/non-drinkers, 70 HIV− heavy drinkers (>100 drinks per month), 70 HIV+ light/non-drinkers, and 56 HIV+ heavy drinkers. The heavy drinking group was further subdivided to assess effects of the heaviest levels of active alcohol use (>6 drinks per day) on NP functioning. A comprehensive NP battery was administered. Multivariate analysis of covariance was employed to examine the effect of HIV and alcohol on NP functioning after adjusting for group differences in age and estimated premorbid verbal intellectual functioning. The analyses identified main effects of heavy drinking and HIV on NP function, with greatest effects involving the contrast of HIV+ heavy drinkers and the HIV− light drinkers. Synergistic effects of heaviest current drinking and HIV infection were identified in analyses of motor and visuomotor speed. Supplementary analyses also revealed better NP function in the HIV+ group with antiretroviral treatment (ART) and lower level of viral burden, a finding that was consistent across levels of alcohol consumption. Finally, heavy alcohol use and executive functioning difficulties were associated with lower levels of self-reported medication adherence in the HIV+ group. The findings suggest that active heavy alcohol use and HIV infection have additive adverse effects on NP function, that they may show synergistic effects in circumstances of very heavy active alcohol use, and that heavy drinking and executive functioning may mediate health-related behaviors in HIV disease. PMID:15686610

  9. Heavy alcohol consumption in individuals with HIV infection: effects on neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Rothlind, Johannes C; Greenfield, Tanya M; Bruce, Anne V; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Flenniken, Derek L; Lindgren, Joselyn A; Weiner, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use have been reported in HIV+ individuals compared to the general population. Both heavy alcohol use and HIV infection are associated with increased risk of neuropsychological (NP) impairment. We examined effects of heavy active alcohol use and HIV on NP functioning in a large sample of community-residing HIV+ individuals and HIV- controls. The four main study groups included 72 HIV- light/non-drinkers, 70 HIV- heavy drinkers (>100 drinks per month), 70 HIV+ light/non-drinkers, and 56 HIV+ heavy drinkers. The heavy drinking group was further subdivided to assess effects of the heaviest levels of active alcohol use (>6 drinks per day) on NP functioning. A comprehensive NP battery was administered. Multivariate analysis of covariance was employed to examine the effect of HIV and alcohol on NP functioning after adjusting for group differences in age and estimated premorbid verbal intellectual functioning. The analyses identified main effects of heavy drinking and HIV on NP function, with greatest effects involving the contrast of HIV+ heavy drinkers and the HIV- light drinkers. Synergistic effects of heaviest current drinking and HIV infection were identified in analyses of motor and visuomotor speed. Supplementary analyses also revealed better NP function in the HIV+ group with antiretroviral treatment (ART) and lower level of viral burden, a finding that was consistent across levels of alcohol consumption. Finally, heavy alcohol use and executive functioning difficulties were associated with lower levels of self-reported medication adherence in the HIV+ group. The findings suggest that active heavy alcohol use and HIV infection have additive adverse effects on NP function, that they may show synergistic effects in circumstances of very heavy active alcohol use, and that heavy drinking and executive functioning may mediate health-related behaviors in HIV disease.

  10. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheelock, C.E.; Eder, K.J.; Werner, I.; Huang, H.; Jones, P.D.; Brammell, B.F.; Elskus, A.A.; Hammock, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 ??g/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 ??g/l), but not a low dose (1.2 ??g/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were ???30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases hydrolysis activity was

  11. The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behaviour scale to how long they remain within a group

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Jonathan N.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here ‘keystone individuals’. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy effects on collective prey capture following their removal. We found that bolder keystones caused more aggressive collective foraging behaviour and catalysed greater inter-individual variation in boldness within their colonies. The longer keystones remained in a colony, the longer both of these effects lingered after their departure. Our data demonstrate that, long after their disappearance, keystones have large and lasting effects on social dynamics at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26336171

  12. Is health workforce planning recognising the dynamic interplay between health literacy at an individual, organisation and system level?

    PubMed

    Naccarella, Lucio; Wraighe, Brenda; Gorman, Des

    2016-02-01

    The growing demands on the health system to adapt to constant change has led to investment in health workforce planning agencies and approaches. Health workforce planning approaches focusing on identifying, predicting and modelling workforce supply and demand are criticised as being simplistic and not contributing to system-level resiliency. Alternative evidence- and needs-based health workforce planning approaches are being suggested. However, to contribute to system-level resiliency, workforce planning approaches need to also adopt system-based approaches. The increased complexity and fragmentation of the healthcare system, especially for patients with complex and chronic conditions, has also led to a focus on health literacy not simply as an individual trait, but also as a dynamic product of the interaction between individual (patients, workforce)-, organisational- and system-level health literacy. Although it is absolutely essential that patients have a level of health literacy that enables them to navigate and make decisions, so too the health workforce, organisations and indeed the system also needs to be health literate. Herein we explore whether health workforce planning is recognising the dynamic interplay between health literacy at an individual, organisation and system level, and the potential for strengthening resiliency across all those levels.

  13. Effects of road traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane noises. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of road-traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane flyover noises. In the first experiment, 27 subjects judged a set of 16 airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 30-min duration consisting of the combinations of 3 traffic-noise types and 3 noise levels. In the second experiment, 24 subjects judged the same airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 10-min duration consisting of the combinations of 2 traffic-noise types and 4 noise levels. In both experiments the airplane noises were judged less annoying in the presence of high traffic-noise levels than in the presence of low traffic-noise levels.

  14. Individual to community-level faunal responses to environmental change from a marine fossil record of Early Miocene global warming.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Christina L

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (≈ 20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1-4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability.

  15. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  16. How Does Early Developmental Assessment Predict Academic and Attentional-Behavioural Skills at Group and Individual Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Riitta; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to explore the ability of a brief developmental assessment to predict teacher-rated learning and attentional and behavioural skills in the first grade of school at both the group and individual levels. A sample of 394 children (181 males, 213 females) aged 4 years were followed to the age of 6 years, and 283 of the…

  17. LGB of Color and White Individuals' Perceptions of Heterosexist Stigma, Internalized Homophobia, and Outness: Comparisons of Levels and Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; Wiseman, Marcie C.; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Goodman, Melinda B.; Sarkees, Anthony; Brewster, Melanie E.; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual discussions about LGB people of color suggest that, compared with White LGB individuals, LGB people of color may be exposed to greater levels of heterosexist stigma and its deleterious correlates (greater risk) or may be more resilient to such stigma (resilience). This study tested tenets of these two perspectives with a sample of 178…

  18. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  19. History. Predrafted Individual Short-Term Plan/Records (Secondary Level): Directions for Resource Teachers, Teachers and Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Merced, Comp.

    Developed by experienced migrant education teachers using several Sight and Sound Program concepts, this volume presents approximately 120 predrafted individual short-term Plan/Records for secondary level students in the subject area of United States history, and step-by-step directions for their use by Oregon resource teachers, secondary…

  20. How Multi-Levels of Individual and Team Learning Interact in a Public Healthcare Organisation: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Louise; Kelliher, Felicity; Harrington, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the relevant literature on organisational learning and offer a preliminary conceptual framework as a basis to explore how the multi-levels of individual learning and team learning interact in a public healthcare organisation. The organisational learning literature highlights a need for further understanding of…

  1. Associations of Social-Environmental and Individual-Level Factors with Adolescent Soft Drink Consumption: Results from the SMILE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…

  2. Science. Predrafted Individual Short-Term Plan/Records (Secondary Level): Directions for Resource Teachers, Teachers and Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Merced, Comp.

    Developed by experienced migrant education teachers incorporating Sight and Sound Program concepts, this volume presents predrafted individual short-term Plan/Records for secondary level chemistry, biology, and physics, plus step-by-step directions for their use by Oregon resource teachers, classroom teachers, and aides. The approach assumes that…

  3. What Links Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance and Vocabulary Level? Evidence of Changing Relationships among Individuals with Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Hewes, Alexa K.; Leeke, Tansy C.; Phillips, Caroline E.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies are presented that adopt a novel approach to determining whether verbal short-term memory performance is causally related to vocabulary acquisition in childhood. This involves examining whether verbal short-term memory measures are more closely related to the absolute level of individuals' vocabulary, or the rate at which vocabulary…

  4. Individual-level social capital and self-rated health in Japan: an application of the Resource Generator.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Kawachi, Ichiro; Iwase, Toshihide; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi

    2013-05-01

    Despite accumulating evidence of associations between social capital and health in public health research, a criticism of the field has been that researchers have exclusively focused on concepts of social cohesion to the exclusion of individual-level approaches. In the present study, we evaluated the association between social capital measured by the Resource Generator (an individual-level assessment of access to social capital) and self-rated health among Japanese population in a cross-sectional study. A postal survey of 4000 randomly selected residents in Okayama City (western Japan) was conducted in February 2009. We divided the overall scores from the Resource Generator Japan scale into quartiles. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self-rated health were calculated separately by sex. Individuals with the highest quartile of scores had significantly lower odds of poor health compared to the lowest group after covariate adjustment among both men and women (men; OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.86, women; OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25-0.79, respectively) and there were also significant dose-response relationships. In the sub-domains of Resource Generator Japan scale, a differential pattern was observed by sex. Women showed a clear dose-response relationship with health across all four sub-scales (domestic resources, expert advice, personal skills, and problem solving resources). In contrast, only the domain of expert advice exhibited a strong association with men's health. Among both men and women individual-level social capital measured by the Resource Generator was related to reduced odds of poor health even after taking into account individual confounders. Although we cannot exclude reverse causation due to the cross-sectional design, our study adds to the accumulating evidence of the potential utility of the Resource Generator for evaluating the relationship between individual-level access to social capital and health.

  5. Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Fuemmeler, Bernard; Lee, Chien-Ti; Ranby, Krista W.; Clark, Trenette; McClernon, F. Joseph; Yang, Chongming; Kollins, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Characterizing smoking behavior is important for informing etiologic models and targeting prevention efforts. This study explored the effects of both individual- and community-level variables in predicting cigarette use vs. non-use and level of use among adolescents as they transition into adulthood. Methods Data on 14,779 youths (53% female) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. A cohort sequential design allowed for examining trajectories of smoking typologies from age 13 to 32 years. Smoking trajectories were evaluated by using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth analysis and latent class growth analysis modeling approach. Results Significant relationships emerged between both individual- and community-level variables and smoking outcomes. Maternal and peer smoking predicted increases in smoking over development and were associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to any of the four identified smoking groups versus Non-Users. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms during adolescence were related to cigarette use versus non-use. State-level prevalence of adolescent smoking was related to greater cigarette use during adolescence. Conclusions Individual- and community-level variables that distinguish smoking patterns within the population aid in understanding cigarette use versus non-use and the quantity of cigarette use into adulthood. Our findings suggest that efforts to prevent cigarette use would benefit from attention to both parental and peer smoking and individual well-being. Future work is needed to better understand the role of variables in the context of multiple levels (individual and community-level) on smoking trajectories. PMID:23499056

  6. Lifestyle/environmental factors and blood cadmium levels in hypertensive and normotensive individuals.

    PubMed

    Fontana, S A; Boulos, B M

    1986-12-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential trace metal presently found at environmental concentration far exceeding its natural occurrence, to which human populations are exposed form diverse sources. Animals exposed chronically to subtoxic cadmium levels develop hypertension, yet human studies are inconclusive. In the present study, the relationship between lifestyle/environment factors and blood cadmium levels was investigated. Black females aged 50-75 years were chosen from university clinics and community settings (30 normotensives and 32 hypertensives). Questionnaires giving environmental, lifestyle and other date were collected. Cadmium blood levels were determined by atomic absorption spectophotometry; and results indicated a high degree of precision and accuracy for the cadmium analytical technique which was used. No significant differences were found in cadmium blood levels between groups.

  7. Virtual Reality as Means to Improve Physical Fitness of Individuals at a Severe Level of Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, Meir; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are in need of effective and motivating physical fitness training programs. The aim was to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality (VR)-based exercise program in improving the physical fitness of adults with severe IDD when implemented by on-site caregivers. A research group (N…

  8. Higher levels of serum lycopene are associated with reduced mortality in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Guang-Ming; Meza, Jane L; Soliman, Ghada A; Islam, K M Monirul; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of mortality. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation may play an important role in the high mortality of individuals with metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have suggested that lycopene intake might be related to the reduced oxidative stress and decreased inflammation. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the hypothesis that lycopene is associated with mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome. A total of 2499 participants 20 years and older with metabolic syndrome were divided into 3 groups based on their serum concentration of lycopene using the tertile rank method. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from years 2001 to 2006 was linked to the mortality file for mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011, to determine the mortality rate and hazard ratios (HR) for the 3 serum lycopene concentration groups. The mean survival time was significantly higher in the group with the highest serum lycopene concentration (120.6 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 118.8-122.3) and the medium group (116.3 months; 95% CI, 115.2-117.4), compared with the group with lowest serum lycopene concentration (107.4 months; 95% CI, 106.5-108.3). After adjusting for possible confounding factors, participants in the highest (HR, 0.61; P = .0113) and in the second highest (HR, 0.67; P = .0497) serum lycopene concentration groups showed significantly lower HRs of mortality when compared with participants in the lower serum lycopene concentration. The data suggest that higher serum lycopene concentration has a significant association with the reduced risk of mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  9. How do individual-level sociodemographics and neighbourhood-level characteristics influence residential location behaviour in the context of the food and built environment? Findings from 25 years of follow-up in the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Guilkey, David K; Shikany, James M; Reis, Jared P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about how diet-related and activity-related amenities relate to residential location behaviour. Understanding these relationships is essential for addressing residential self-selection bias. Methods Using 25 years (6 examinations) of data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n=11 013 observations) and linked neighbourhood-level data from the 4 CARDIA baseline cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oakland, California, USA), we characterised participants’ neighbourhoods as having low, average or high road connectivity and amenities using non-hierarchical cluster analysis. We then used repeated measures multinomial logistic regression with random effects to examine the associations between individual-level sociodemographics and neighbourhood-level characteristics with residential neighbourhood types over the 25-year period, and whether these associations differed by individual-level income. Results Being female was positively associated with living in neighbourhoods with low (vs high) road connectivity and activity-related and diet-related amenities among high-income individuals only. At all income levels, a higher percentage of neighbourhood white population and neighbourhood population <18 years were associated with living in neighbourhoods with low (vs high) connectivity and amenities. Individual-level race; age; and educational attainment, neighbourhood socioeconomic status and housing prices did not influence residential location behaviour related to neighbourhood connectivity and amenities at any income level. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level factors appeared to play a comparatively greater role in shaping residential location behaviour than individual-level sociodemographics. Our study is an important step in understanding how residential locational behaviour relates to amenities and physical activity opportunities, and may help mitigate residential self

  10. Consumer responses to advertising on the Internet: the effect of individual difference on ambivalence and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chang Hyun; Villegas, Jorge

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effect that individual characteristics have on consumer advertising processing under high- and low-interactivity circumstances on the Web. Tests on the relationship between individual differences and advertising responses form the basis of this empirical study on the Web. The results indicated that consumers have a higher tendency to avoid or experience ambivalence about Internet advertisements under low-interactivity circumstances, and attitudinal ambivalence lead to avoidance when responding to advertisements on the Internet. Personality variables are the main factors in consumer decision-making behaviors and Internet characteristics, such as levels of interactivity, can greatly influence the effectiveness of advertising in online environments. Advertising credibility could influence people's consumer attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors over time on the Web.

  11. DataSHIELD: resolving a conflict in contemporary bioscience—performing a pooled analysis of individual-level data without sharing the data

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Michael; Wallace, Susan E; Masca, Nicholas; Rowe, Geoff; Sheehan, Nuala A; Ferretti, Vincent; LaFlamme, Philippe; Tobin, Martin D; Macleod, John; Little, Julian; Fortier, Isabel; Knoppers, Bartha M; Burton, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    Background Contemporary bioscience sometimes demands vast sample sizes and there is often then no choice but to synthesize data across several studies and to undertake an appropriate pooled analysis. This same need is also faced in health-services and socio-economic research. When a pooled analysis is required, analytic efficiency and flexibility are often best served by combining the individual-level data from all sources and analysing them as a single large data set. But ethico-legal constraints, including the wording of consent forms and privacy legislation, often prohibit or discourage the sharing of individual-level data, particularly across national or other jurisdictional boundaries. This leads to a fundamental conflict in competing public goods: individual-level analysis is desirable from a scientific perspective, but is prevented by ethico-legal considerations that are entirely valid. Methods Data aggregation through anonymous summary-statistics from harmonized individual-level databases (DataSHIELD), provides a simple approach to analysing pooled data that circumvents this conflict. This is achieved via parallelized analysis and modern distributed computing and, in one key setting, takes advantage of the properties of the updating algorithm for generalized linear models (GLMs). Results The conceptual use of DataSHIELD is illustrated in two different settings. Conclusions As the study of the aetiological architecture of chronic diseases advances to encompass more complex causal pathways—e.g. to include the joint effects of genes, lifestyle and environment—sample size requirements will increase further and the analysis of pooled individual-level data will become ever more important. An aim of this conceptual article is to encourage others to address the challenges and opportunities that DataSHIELD presents, and to explore potential extensions, for example to its use when different data sources hold different data on the same individuals. PMID:20630989

  12. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Stark, A D; Costas, K; Chang, H G; Vallet, H L

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure, duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were reinterviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  13. Status of soluble ST2 levels in serum of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Zahedi Avval, Farnaz; Shomali, Shadi; Nadri, Mohammad; Boostani, Reza; Jarahi, Lida; Youssefi, Masoud

    2015-06-01

    ST2 is a member of IL-1 receptor family expressed on Th2 cells and regulates Th2 responces. The gene of ST2 encodes soluble ST2 (sST2) and the transmembrane ST2 (ST2L) isoforms through alternative mRNA splicing. The discovery of IL33/ ST2 signaling pathway, has drawn a great scientific attention to this system. sST2 has been shown to be an indacating factor in various infl ammatory conditions. This study aims to evaluate serum sST2 levels in HTLV-1 infected patients. This study included 49 HTLV-1 seropositive cases of which 14 were sympthomatic. Controls consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. sST2 level was measured using a quantitative ELISA assay and the results of the study groups were compared. Corroborating the previous reports, sST2 was lower in females (P = 0.003). The sST2 levels was slightly increased in HTLV-1 patients, though such increase was not statistically significant (P = 0.91), in addition sST2 level did not correlate significantly to the disease duration (P = 0.78). Despite some other chronic viral infection, HTLV-1 seems not to induce high serum sST2. However owing to relatively high normal variation of sST2 levels and rather small sample size, we stongly recommend further reseach with preferably larger sample size to evalute sST2 in HTLV-1 infected patients.

  14. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, Nitrate, Vitamin B12, and Homocysteine Levels in Individuals with Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Altuntaş, Murat; Atalay, Figen; Can, Murat; Altın, Remzi; Tor, Meltem

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the pre- and posttreatment serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), nitrate (NO3), vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in pulmonary embolism (PTE) patients and to determine the prognostic value of these variables in predicting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This study was conducted in 64 patients. The patients were classified into the two groups: patients with normal pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (group I) and patients with high PAP with persistent lung perfusion defects or who died at the end of 3 months of therapy (group II). We found statistically significant differences between two groups with respect to the partial oxygen pressure, the oxygen saturation, and the PAP, but there was no difference between the two groups with respect to the pretreatment ADMA, NO3, or homocysteine levels. The vitamin B12 levels were higher in group II. The NO3 levels increased and the ADMA and vitamin B12 levels decreased with treatment in both groups. These results suggest that these parameters are not predictive of the development of CTEPH. PMID:21765614

  15. Serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, nitrate, vitamin B(12), and homocysteine levels in individuals with pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, Murat; Atalay, Figen; Can, Murat; Altın, Remzi; Tor, Meltem

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the pre- and posttreatment serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), nitrate (NO(3)), vitamin B(12) and homocysteine levels in pulmonary embolism (PTE) patients and to determine the prognostic value of these variables in predicting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This study was conducted in 64 patients. The patients were classified into the two groups: patients with normal pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (group I) and patients with high PAP with persistent lung perfusion defects or who died at the end of 3 months of therapy (group II). We found statistically significant differences between two groups with respect to the partial oxygen pressure, the oxygen saturation, and the PAP, but there was no difference between the two groups with respect to the pretreatment ADMA, NO(3), or homocysteine levels. The vitamin B(12) levels were higher in group II. The NO(3) levels increased and the ADMA and vitamin B(12) levels decreased with treatment in both groups. These results suggest that these parameters are not predictive of the development of CTEPH.

  16. Angiotensin II Levels in Gingival Tissues from Healthy Individuals, Patients with Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth and Non Responders on Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Anitha; Balaji, Thodur Madapusi

    2015-01-01

    Context The Renin Angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth (DIGO), a fibrotic condition, caused by Phenytoin, Nifedipine and Cyclosporine. Aim This study quantified Angiotensin II levels in gingival tissue samples obtained from healthy individuals, patients on Nifedipine manifesting/not manifesting drug induced gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n=24), patients on nifidipine manifesting gingival overgrowth (n= 18) and patients on nifidipine not manifesting gingival overgrowth (n=8). Angiotensin II levels were estimated in the samples using a commercially available ELISA kit. Results Angiotensin II levels were significantly elevated in patients on Nifedipine manifesting gingival overgrowth compared to the other 2 groups (p<0.01). Conclusion The results of the study give an insight into the role played by Angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:26436057

  17. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-09-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro-macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings--which remains to be proven by future research--is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives.

  18. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence☆

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro–macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings—which remains to be proven by future research—is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  19. Activity level classification algorithm using SHIMMER™ wearable sensors for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Emma; Tierney, Marie; Scanaill, Cliodhna Ni; Bourke, Ala; Kennedy, Norelee; Nelson, John

    2011-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) it is believed that symptoms associated with the progression of the disease result in a reduction in the physical activity level of the patient. One of the key flaws of the research surrounding this hypothesis to date is the use of non-validated physical activity outcomes measures. In this study, an algorithm to estimate physical activity levels in patients as they perform a simulated protocol of typical activities of daily living using SHIMMER kinematic sensors, incorporating tri-axial gyroscopes and accelerometers, is proposed. The results are validated against simultaneously recorded energy expenditure data and the defined activity protocol and demonstrate that SHIMMER can be used to accurately estimate physical activity levels in RA populations.

  20. The Relationship between Aggression and Serum Thyroid Hormone Level in Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    EVRENSEL, Alper; ÜNSALVER, Barış Önen; ÖZŞAHİN, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aggression is one of the leading clinical characteristics of antisocial personality disorder (APD). Studies aiming to clarify and control the biological basis of aggression are ongoing. Thyroid hormones have been indicated to play a role in the development of aggression. The aim of this study was to examine the level of aggression and serum thyroid hormone in a sample of APD and to make contributions to this field with the current findings. Methods The sample consisted of 96 subjects with a diagnosis of APD and 97 subjects as a control group. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis (SCID) 1 and 2 were used for the diagnosis, and the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire was administered. Based on criminal patterns, the APD group was then divided into two subgroups: “criminal” and “noncriminal” APD groups. The day after the interview, after one night of fasting, blood was collected from the subjects between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m.. Thyroid function tests and other biochemical analyses related to the confounding variables were also administered. The study group and the control group were compared in terms of their aggression scores and thyroid hormone levels. Results The mean score of free T3 level in the criminal APD group was found to be significantly higher than that in the noncriminal APD group. APD subjects with higher free T3 levels also had higher aggression scores. In the noncriminal APD group, as serum free T3 and T4 levels increased, there was also an increment in the aggression scores. However, in the criminal APD group, there was no significant correlation between thyroid hormone levels and aggression. Conclusion The findings of this study indicated that criminal and noncriminal APD groups actually show different properties. PMID:28360783

  1. Relationships between changes in leptin and insulin resistance levels in obese individuals following weight loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsu-Nai; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Kun-Der; Cheng, Yu Yao; Su, Yi-Ju; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Huang, Meng-Chuan

    2013-08-01

    Obesity can augment insulin resistance (IR), leading to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Leptin, ghrelin, and various fatty acids present in the cell membrane may modulate IR. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of weight loss on IR, serum leptin/ghrelin levels, and erythrocyte fatty acids, and studied the associations between changes in these variables. A total of 35 obese (body mass index ≥ 27) adults participated in a weight loss program for 3 months. IR was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The obese participants had a mean weight loss of 5.6 ± 3.8 kg followed by a 16.7% and 23.3% reduction in HOMA-IR and leptin (p < 0.001) levels, and an 11.3% increase in ghrelin levels (p = 0.005). The level of erythrocyte saturates decreased by 2.8%, while the level of n-3 polyunsaturates increased by 16.8% (all p < 0.05). The changes in leptin levels (-5.63 vs. -1.57 ng/mL) were significantly different (p = 0.004) in those with improved IR (changes in HOMA-IR < 0) than those without improvement (changes in HOMA-IR ≥ 0), though there were no differences in the changes of ghrelin (p = 0.120) and erythrocyte fatty acids (all p > 0.05) levels. After adjusting for age, gender, changes in ghrelin, and body fat, we found a significant correlation between decreases in leptin and less risk of no improvement in HOMA-IR levels [odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, p = 0.039]. In conclusion, a moderate weight reduction in obese participants over a short period significantly improved IR. This weight reduction concomitantly decreased serum leptin, increased ghrelin, and elevated some erythrocyte unsaturates. Only leptin correlated independently with IR improvement upon multivariable logistic regression analysis, which indicates that leptin may play a role in the modulation of IR following weight loss.

  2. Role of individual and contextual effects in injury mortality: new evidence from small area analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Rodriguez, M; Ferrando, J; Brugal, M; Pasarin, M; Martinez, V; Plasencia, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the role of individual and contextual variables in injury mortality inequalities from a small area analysis perspective, looking at the data for the city of Barcelona (Spain) for 1992–98. Setting: Barcelona (Spain). Methods: All injury deaths in residents older than 19, which occurred in the period 1992–98 were included (n=4393). Age and sex specific mortality rates were calculated for each educational level and each cause of death (traffic injuries, falls, drug overdose, suicide, other injuries). The contextual variables included were the proportion of men unemployed, and the proportion of men in jail, in each neighbourhood. Multilevel Poisson regression models were fitted using data grouped by age, educational level, and neighbourhood for each sex. Results: Death rates were higher in males, at the extremes of the age distribution (under 44 and over 74 years), and for lower educational levels. The results of the Poisson multilevel models indicate that inequalities by educational level follow a gradient, with higher risks for the population with no schooling, after having adjusted for the contextual variables of the neighbourhood. Such inequalities were more important in the youngest age group (20–34 years), as relative risk of 5.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9 to 7.4) for all injury causes in males and 4.38 (95% CI 2.3 to 8.4) in females. The highest relative risks were found for drug overdose. There was a contextual neighbourhood effect (the higher the deprivation, the higher the mortality) after having taken into account individual variables. Conclusion: The findings underscore the need to implement injury prevention strategies not only at the individual level taking into account socioeconomic position, but also at the neighbourhood level. PMID:12460966

  3. Effects of residential mobility on individual versus population risk of radon-related lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E; Courant, P N; Mendez, D

    1995-12-01

    The U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) does not consider the effects of normal patterns of residential mobility in estimating individual radon-related lung cancer risks. As a consequence, the EPA's population risk estimates may have little bearing on individual risks, and remediation of high-radon homes may have only small health benefits for the individual who remediate their homes. Through a stimulation analysis, we examine the effects of residential mobility on random exposure and lung cancer risk. Given normal mobility, only 7% of eventual radon-related mortality among current 30 year old will occur in the 5% currently living in homes above pCi/l (the EPA's action level for remediation) in contrast with you estimate of 31% of deaths when mobility's ignored. About 10 pCi/l the no-mobility assumption implies 10.3% of deaths, compared to only 0.4% when mobility taken into account. We conclude that knowledge of one's current random exposure not necessarily a useful guide to one's risk, especially for residents of the high-radon homes targeted for remediation by the EPA. The risk of such individuals is like to be substantially lower than that implied in the EPA's risk charts. If people currently living in high radon homes remediate their houses, the majority of the resulting health benefits will accrue to future occupants of their homes.

  4. Effects of residential mobility on individual versus population risk of radon-related lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, K E; Courant, P N; Mendez, D

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) does not consider the effects of normal patterns of residential mobility in estimating individual radon-related lung cancer risks. As a consequence, the EPA's population risk estimates may have little bearing on individual risks, and remediation of high-radon homes may have only small health benefits for the individual who remediate their homes. Through a stimulation analysis, we examine the effects of residential mobility on random exposure and lung cancer risk. Given normal mobility, only 7% of eventual radon-related mortality among current 30 year old will occur in the 5% currently living in homes above pCi/l (the EPA's action level for remediation) in contrast with you estimate of 31% of deaths when mobility's ignored. About 10 pCi/l the no-mobility assumption implies 10.3% of deaths, compared to only 0.4% when mobility taken into account. We conclude that knowledge of one's current random exposure not necessarily a useful guide to one's risk, especially for residents of the high-radon homes targeted for remediation by the EPA. The risk of such individuals is like to be substantially lower than that implied in the EPA's risk charts. If people currently living in high radon homes remediate their houses, the majority of the resulting health benefits will accrue to future occupants of their homes. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. PMID:8747021

  5. Effect of Surface Adhesion on Individual and Collective Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losert, Wolfgang; McCann, Colin; Rericha, Erin; Parent, Carole

    2011-03-01

    Cell-surface adhesion plays a critical role in amoeboid cell motion by supplying the traction allowing a cell to move itself forward.~ The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, a model system for individual and collective cell migration, naturally exhibits both cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesion during the aggregation process.~ We used both high- and low-magnification time-lapse microscopy to investigate the individual and collective migration of D. discoideum on substrates of varying adhesiveness, as well as on interfaces between surfaces.~ We find that surface adhesion can affect both individual cell migration as well as the behavior of cell groups.~ At the population scale, non-ideal surfaces slow down the initiation of aggregation and change the aggregation dynamics. At the scale of single cells, we measure both adhesion ability as well as the area of contact between cells and surface for individual cells and cells that are part of groups.~ We find that comparable forces are needed to pull cells off all surfaces, indicating that surface adhesion is actively regulated by migrating cells. Supported by NCI and NSF-PoLS.

  6. Effects of an Individualized Activity Program on Elderly Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Carlota de Lerma; Salter, Charles A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined program of Reality Orientation, Activities of Daily Living, and Recreational Activities, together with environmental stimulation, was applied on an individualized basis to 21 elderly patients suffering from both psychological disorders and long-term physical illness. The motivation to participate in the available activities increased…

  7. Sensitization during Visual Habituation Sequences: Procedural Effects and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, John; Frick, Janet E.; Gorman, Sheila A.

    1997-01-01

    Examined possibility that arousability as manifested in sensitization contributes to individual differences in infants' attentional profiles. Sensitization tended to occur more frequently with more complex than with less complex checkerboards. Infants showing sensitization looked longer and did not habituate as readily as infants who showed no…

  8. The Effect of Ethics Training upon Individual Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Craig; Stump, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Researchers identified two divergent theories concerning ethics education. The first states that ethics education increases an individual's ability to reason critically when confronted with decisions through the identification and analysis of problems and various outcomes. The second suggests that ethics training is about manipulating core values…

  9. Beyond Individual Differences: Exploring School Effects on SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Howard T.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the complex, hierarchical relation among school characteristics, individual differences in academic achievement, extracurricular activities, and socioeconomic background on performance on the verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Using multilevel structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we…

  10. Who Votes by Mail?: A Dynamic Model of the Individual-Level Consequences of Voting-by-Mail Systems.

    PubMed

    Berinsky, A J

    2001-01-01

    Election administrators and public officials often consider changes in electoral laws, hoping that these changes will increase voter turnout and make the electorate more reflective of the voting-age population. The most recent of these innovations is voting-by-mail (VBM), a procedure by which ballots are sent to an address for every registered voter. Over the last 2 decades, VBM has spread across the United States, unaccompanied by much empirical evaluation of its impact on either voter turnout or the stratification of the electorate. In this study, we fill this gap in our knowledge by assessing the impact of VBM in one state, Oregon. We carry out this assessment at the individual level, using data over a range of elections. We argue that VBM does increase voter turnout in the long run, primarily by making it easier for current voters to continue to participate, rather than by mobilizing nonvoters into the electorate. These effects, however, are not uniform across all groups in the electorate. Although VBM in Oregon does not exert any influence on the partisan composition of the electorate, VBM increases, rather than diminishes, the resource stratification of the electorate. Contrary to the expectations of many reformers, VBM advantages the resource-rich by keeping them in the electorate, and VBM does little to change the behavior of the resource-poor. In short, VBM increases turnout, but it does so without making the electorate more descriptively representative of the voting-age population.

  11. Commentary: how individual and profession-level factors influence discussion of disability in prenatal genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jan; Weil, Jon

    2012-02-01

    Hodgson and Weil (Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2011) reports on two interactive workshops in which genetic counselors identified a broad set of counseling issues that may be impediments to promoting an adequate discussion of disability in prenatal genetic counseling. The present commentary discusses two factors that we infer underlie these counseling issues. First, countertransference concerning disability, which is normal and expected, may influence genetic counselors' decisions about raising and exploring the complex topic of disability in prenatal genetic counseling. Second, the limited involvement of the profession of genetic counseling in the complex social and ethical issues of disability provide little guidance to the individual genetic counselor with respect to discussing disability in prenatal diagnosis counseling. We suggest both factors must be acknowledged and addressed in order to adequately implement the recommendations presented in Hodgson and Weil (Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2011) as well as other efforts to increase discussion of disability in prenatal diagnosis counseling in the service of informed decision making.

  12. Enhanced global integration of closed contours in individuals with high levels of autistic-like traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renita A; Dickinson, J Edwin; Maybery, Murray T; Badcock, Johanna C; Badcock, David R

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with autistic traits (measured with Autism-spectrum Quotient, AQ) often excel in detecting shapes hidden within complex structures (e.g. on the Embedded Figures Test, EFT). This facility has been attributed to either weaker global integration of scene elements or enhanced local processing, but 'local' and 'global' have various meanings in the literature. The function of specific global visual mechanisms involved in integrating contours, similar to EFT targets was examined. High AQ scorers produced enhanced performance on the EFT and an alternative Radial Frequency Search Task. Contrary to 'generic' interpretations of weaker global pooling, this group displayed stronger pooling of contour components that was correlated with search ability. This study therefore shows a global contour integration advantage in high AQ observers.

  13. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  14. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  15. Expanding Opportunity through Critical Restorative Justice Portraits of Resilience at the Individual and School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David; Wadhwa, Anita

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we tackle the disadvantaging conditions of zero tolerance policies in school settings and advocate using an alternative approach--critical restorative justice through peacemaking circles--to nurture resilience and open opportunity at the school level. In the process, this article builds on theory and qualitative research and…

  16. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely.

  17. Evaluation of homocysteine levels in individuals having nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Riaz; Tellis, Rouchelle Charmaine; Athikari, Roshan; Kudkuli, Jagadish

    2016-01-01

    Context: Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL ± P) is a genetic predisposition involving defects in shape and makeup of the lip and palate. Elevation of homocysteine (Hcy) levels is seen in medical complications such as developmental anomalies causing neural tube defects, congenital vascular diseases, neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. Evaluation of serum Hcy levels forms an important feature to look further into molecular aspects. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Hcy levels in NSCL ± P cases by comparing with control cases having no orofacial deformities. Settings and Design: This study was performed with a biochemical assay in a research laboratory. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prevalence study was done to compare the concentrations of Hcy between 25 NSCL ± P patients and 15 healthy controls. Blood samples were collected from both the patients and controls and assessed for serum Hcy level using competent chemiluminescent immunoassay technique. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The average Hcy concentration was 9.5 μmol/L in control group. There was an increase in Hcy concentration among the NSCL ± P cases with an average value of 18.4 μmol/L. The results were found to be statistically significant using Student's t-test. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that Hcy concentration has a significant elevation in NSCL ± P patients when compared with that of control cases. PMID:27721602

  18. A Combined IRT and SEM Approach for Individual-Level Assessment in Test-Retest Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2015-01-01

    The standard two-wave multiple-indicator model (2WMIM) commonly used to analyze test-retest data provides information at both the group and item level. Furthermore, when applied to binary and graded item responses, it is related to well-known item response theory (IRT) models. In this article the IRT-2WMIM relations are used to obtain additional…

  19. Effects of Campomanesia xanthocarpa on inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and lipid biomarkers in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Viecili, Paulo Ricardo Nazário; Borges, Diego Olschowsky; Kirsten, Karina; Malheiros, Jênifer; Viecili, Eduardo; Melo, Rodolfo Dahlem; Trevisan, Gabriela; da Silva, Mariane Arnoldi; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, the edible plant Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (Myrtaceae), popularly known as "guavirova," has been studied in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The present work investigated the effects of C. xanthocarpa on inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and lipid biomarkers in hypercholesterolemic individuals. A total of 156 individuals were selected in a double-blind fashion and randomly divided into two groups in accordance with the intervals used in the criteria for hypercholesterolemia: individuals with total cholesterol (TC) levels between 200 and 240 mg/dL (undesirable level individuals - UL) and individuals with TC levels >240 mg/dL (hypercholesterolemic individuals - HL). Both groups had a control group (CG), which received placebo treatment, an encapsulated excipient group (lactose) and an experimental group that received 500 mg (EG 500), 750 mg (EG 750) or 1000 mg (EG 1000) of encapsulated C. xanthocarpa. The inflammatory processes (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein - hs-CRP), oxidative stress (advanced oxidation protein products-AOPPs; ischemia-modified albumin-IMA), endothelial dysfunction (nitric oxide - NOx) and biochemical (TC, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein - HDL, low-density lipoproteins - LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein - VLDL) parameters were measured before and 90 days after the initiation of treatment. A significant decrease in TC and LDL levels was observed in HL individuals from the EG 500 group (reduction of 29 ± 3% and 41 ± 5% to levels before treatment) compared to the CG group individuals. A significant reduction in oxidative stress and inflammatory process components (reduction of 52 ± 11% in AOPPs, 32 ± 10% in IMA and 57 ± 7% in hs-CRP) and a significant increase in NOx (increase of 84 ± 27%) was observed in HL individuals in the EG 1000 group when compared to the CG group individuals. Treatment with encapsulated C. xanthocarpa reduced blood TC and LDL levels in

  20. An exploration of individual- and population-level impact of the 2-dose HPV vaccination schedule in pre-adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Donken, Robine; Bogaards, Johannes A; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Meijer, Chris J L M; de Melker, Hester E

    2016-06-02

    Since 2014, several countries have implemented a 2-dose schedule for Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Licensure of the 2-dose schedule was based on non-inferiority results from immunobridging studies, comparing the antibody levels of the 2-dose schedule in young girls to those of the 3-dose schedule in young adults. Since licensure, additional data on antibody levels and other aspects of the immune response and clinical effectiveness have become available. This review will discuss the current outcomes on immunogenicity and effectiveness together with an exploration on the population impact of 2-dose schedules from a cost-effectiveness perspective. The 2-dose schedule has important benefits, such as easier logistics, reduced expenditure, potentially higher acceptance and fewer side effects. Policymakers and registration authorities should consider whether these benefits outweigh the likely differences on individual- and population-level impact between the 2- and 3-dose schedules.

  1. Persons with unilateral transfemoral amputation experience larger spinal loads during level-ground walking compared to able-bodied individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Iman; Hendershot, Brad D.; Wolf, Erik J.; Bazrgari, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons with lower limb amputation walk with increased and asymmetric trunk motion; a characteristic that is likely to impose distinct demands on trunk muscles to maintain equilibrium and stability of the spine. However, trunk muscle responses to such changes in net mechanical demands, and the resultant effects on spinal loads, have yet to be determined in this population. Methods Building on a prior study, trunk and pelvic kinematics collected during level-ground walking from 40 males (20 with unilateral transfemoral amputation and 20 matched controls) were used as inputs to a kinematics-driven, nonlinear finite element model of the lower back to estimate forces in 10 global (attached to thorax) and 46 local (attached to lumbar vertebrae) trunk muscles, as well as compression, lateral, and antero-posterior shear forces at all spinal levels. Findings Trunk muscle force and spinal load maxima corresponded with heel strike and toe off events, and among persons with amputation, were respectively 10–40% and 17–95% larger during intact vs. prosthetic stance, as well as 6–80% and 26–60% larger during intact stance relative to controls. Interpretation During gait, larger spinal loads with transfemoral amputation appear to be the result of a complex pattern of trunk muscle recruitment, particularly involving co-activation of antagonistic muscles during intact limb stance; a period when these individuals are confident and likely to use the trunk to assist with forward progression. Given the repetitive nature of walking, repeated exposure to such elevated loading likely increases the risk for low back pain in this population. PMID:26682630

  2. Elevated C-reactive protein levels, psychological distress, and depression in 73, 131 individuals.

    PubMed

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress and depression. DESIGN We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses of CRP levels in 4 clinically relevant categories using data from 2 general population studies. SETTING The Copenhagen General Population and the Copenhagen City Heart studies. PARTICIPANTS We examined 73 131 men and women aged 20 to 100 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We ascertained psychological distress with 2 single-item self-reports and depression using self-reported antidepressant use, register-based prescription of antidepressants, and register-based hospitalization with depression. RESULTS In cross-sectional analyses, increasing CRP levels were associated with increasing risk for psychological distress and depression (P = 3 × 10-8 to P = 4 × 10-105 for trend). For self-reported use of antidepressants, the odds ratio was 1.38 (95% CI, 1.23-1.55) for CRP levels of 1.01 to 3.00 mg/L, 2.02 (1.77-2.30) for 3.01 to 10.00 mg/L, and 2.70 (2.25-3.25) for greater than 10.00 mg/L compared with 0.01 to 1.00 mg/L. For prescription of antidepressants, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.99-1.17), 1.47 (1.33-1.62), and 1.77 (1.52-2.05), respectively; for hospitalization with depression, 1.30 (1.01-1.67), 1.84 (1.39-2.43), and 2.27 (1.54-3.32), respectively. In prospective analyses, increasing CRP levels were also associated with increasing risk for hospitalization with depression (P = 4 × 10-8 for trend). CONCLUSIONS Elevated levels of CRP are associated with increased risk for psychological distress and depression in the general population.

  3. Low Level Infrared Irradiance Ocular Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    with a fundus camera reticle before each exposure session and between animals exposed on the same day. The beam was visualized on an IR phosphor excited...means of a fundus camera . The exposure and examination apparatus is shown in Figure 2. If a lesion was detected, the power level was decreased, the beam...Documentation of retinal and lenti- cular effects was provided by fundus and slit lamp photography. Opacities were observed on the posterior poles of the rabbit

  4. Scaling the consequences of interactions between invaders from the individual to the population level.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D

    2016-03-01

    The impact of human-induced stressors, such as invasive species, is often measured at the organismal level, but is much less commonly scaled up to the population level. Interactions with invasive species represent an increasingly common source of stressor in many habitats. However, due to the increasing abundance of invasive species around the globe, invasive species now commonly cause stresses not only for native species in invaded areas, but also for other invasive species. I examine the European green crab Carcinus maenas, an invasive species along the northeast coast of North America, which is known to be negatively impacted in this invaded region by interactions with the invasive Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus. Asian shore crabs are known to negatively impact green crabs via two mechanisms: by directly preying on green crab juveniles and by indirectly reducing green crab fecundity via interference (and potentially exploitative) competition that alters green crab diets. I used life-table analyses to scale these two mechanistic stressors up to the population level in order to examine their relative impacts on green crab populations. I demonstrate that lost fecundity has larger impacts on per capita population growth rates, but that both predation and lost fecundity are capable of reducing population growth sufficiently to produce the declines in green crab populations that have been observed in areas where these two species overlap. By scaling up the impacts of one invader on a second invader, I have demonstrated that multiple documented interactions between these species are capable of having population-level impacts and that both may be contributing to the decline of European green crabs in their invaded range on the east coast of North America.

  5. Interactive and Independent Associations between the Socioeconomic and Objective Built Environment on the Neighbourhood Level and Individual Health: A Systematic Review of Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background The research question how contextual factors of neighbourhood environments influence individual health has gained increasing attention in public health research. Both socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and factors of the built environment play an important role for health and health-related behaviours. However, their reciprocal relationships have not been systematically reviewed so far. This systematic review aims to identify studies applying a multilevel modelling approach which consider both neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and factors of the objective built environment simultaneously in order to disentangle their independent and interactive effects on individual health. Methods The three databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched with terms for title and abstract screening. Grey literature was not included. Observational studies from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Western European countries were considered which analysed simultaneously factors of neighbourhood SEP and the objective built environment with a multilevel modelling approach. Adjustment for individual SEP was a further inclusion criterion. Results Thirty-three studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Twenty-two studies showed an independent association between characteristics of neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual health outcomes or health-related behaviours. Twenty-one studies found cross-level or within-level interactions either between neighbourhood SEP and the built environment, or between neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual characteristics, such as sex, individual SEP or ethnicity. Due to the large variation of study design and heterogeneous reporting of results the identification of consistent findings was problematic and made quantitative analysis not possible. Conclusions There is a need for studies considering multiple neighbourhood dimensions and applying multilevel

  6. Stress for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Age, Gender, and Intelligence Quotient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Kristen Louise

    2009-01-01

    Researchers previously have found that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience higher levels of stress and anxiety than individuals who are typically developing and than those with other disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify the nature and degree of stress reported for individuals with ASD, with particular…

  7. High IP-10 levels decrease T cell function in HIV-1-infected individuals on ART

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, L. A.; Arango, T. A.; Thompson, E.; Naji, M.; Tebas, P.; Boyer, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-infected subjects, despite control of viral replication with ART, have an altered immune cytokine/chemokine milieu. Changes in systemic cytokines and chemokines can alter immune responses. IP-10, in particular, has been associated with pathogenesis in a number of conditions, and we found that IP-10 is increased in serum in subjects who are HIV-1 infected and on stable ART compared with HIV-1-uninfected individuals. In a series of in vitro studies, we found that PBMCs exposed to IP-10 showed a significant decrease in the number of cells capable of secreting IFN-γ, as well as other cytokines, when stimulated with recall antigens. Furthermore, treatment with IP-10 led to decreased antigen-specific calcium signaling and MAPK38 phosphorylation. Importantly, the cytokines, as well as proliferative responses, could be enhanced with an IP-10 Nab. Our findings suggest that IP-10-modulating drugs may potentially enhance T cell responses to vaccination and HIV-1 in HIV+ subjects on ART. PMID:25157027

  8. How to lift a model for individual behaviour to the population level?

    PubMed

    Diekmann, O; Metz, J A J

    2010-11-12

    The quick answer to the title question is: by bookkeeping; introduce as p(opulation)-state a measure telling how the individuals are distributed over their common i(ndividual)-state space, and track how the various i-processes change this measure. Unfortunately, this answer leads to a mathematical theory that is technically complicated as well as immature. Alternatively, one may describe a population in terms of the history of the population birth rate together with the history of any environmental variables affecting i-state changes, reproduction and survival. Thus, a population model leads to delay equations. This delay formulation corresponds to a restriction of the p-dynamics to a forward invariant attracting set, so that no information is lost that is relevant for long-term dynamics. For such equations there exists a well-developed theory. In particular, numerical bifurcation tools work essentially the same as for ordinary differential equations. However, the available tools still need considerable adaptation before they can be practically applied to the dynamic energy budget (DEB) model. For the time being we recommend simplifying the i-dynamics before embarking on a systematic mathematical exploration of the associated p-behaviour. The long-term aim is to extend the tools, with the DEB model as a relevant goal post.

  9. How to lift a model for individual behaviour to the population level?

    PubMed Central

    Diekmann, O.; Metz, J. A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The quick answer to the title question is: by bookkeeping; introduce as p(opulation)-state a measure telling how the individuals are distributed over their common i(ndividual)-state space, and track how the various i-processes change this measure. Unfortunately, this answer leads to a mathematical theory that is technically complicated as well as immature. Alternatively, one may describe a population in terms of the history of the population birth rate together with the history of any environmental variables affecting i-state changes, reproduction and survival. Thus, a population model leads to delay equations. This delay formulation corresponds to a restriction of the p-dynamics to a forward invariant attracting set, so that no information is lost that is relevant for long-term dynamics. For such equations there exists a well-developed theory. In particular, numerical bifurcation tools work essentially the same as for ordinary differential equations. However, the available tools still need considerable adaptation before they can be practically applied to the dynamic energy budget (DEB) model. For the time being we recommend simplifying the i-dynamics before embarking on a systematic mathematical exploration of the associated p-behaviour. The long-term aim is to extend the tools, with the DEB model as a relevant goal post. PMID:20921050

  10. How landscape dynamics link individual- to population-level movement patterns: A multispecies comparison of ungulate relocation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, T.; Olson, K.A.; Dressler, G.; Leimgruber, P.; Fuller, T.K.; Nicolson, C.; Novaro, A.J.; Bolgeri, M.J.; Wattles, D.; DeStefano, S.; Calabrese, J.M.; Fagan, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To demonstrate how the interrelations of individual movements form large-scale population-level movement patterns and how these patterns are associated with the underlying landscape dynamics by comparing ungulate movements across species. Locations Arctic tundra in Alaska and Canada, temperate forests in Massachusetts, Patagonian Steppes in Argentina, Eastern Steppes in Mongolia. Methods We used relocation data from four ungulate species (barren-ground caribou, Mongolian gazelle, guanaco and moose) to examine individual movements and the interrelation of movements among individuals. We applied and developed a suite of spatial metrics that measure variation in movement among individuals as population dispersion, movement coordination and realized mobility. Taken together, these metrics allowed us to quantify and distinguish among different large-scale population-level movement patterns such as migration, range residency and nomadism. We then related the population-level movement patterns to the underlying landscape vegetation dynamics via long-term remote sensing measurements of the temporal variability, spatial variability and unpredictability of vegetation productivity. Results Moose, which remained in sedentary home ranges, and guanacos, which were partially migratory, exhibited relatively short annual movements associated with landscapes having very little broad-scale variability in vegetation. Caribou and gazelle performed extreme long-distance movements that were associated with broad-scale variability in vegetation productivity during the peak of the growing season. Caribou exhibited regular seasonal migration in which individuals were clustered for most of the year and exhibited coordinated movements. In contrast, gazelle were nomadic, as individuals were independently distributed and moved in an uncoordinated manner that relates to the comparatively unpredictable (yet broad-scale) vegetation dynamics of their landscape. Main conclusions We show how

  11. Identifying Individuals at Risk for Cardiovascular Events Across the Spectrum of Blood Pressure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Kunal N; Ning, Hongyan; Goff, David C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    Background We determined the proportion of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events that occur across the spectrum of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and assessed whether multivariable risk assessment can identify persons who experience ASCVD events at all levels of SBP, including those with goal levels. Methods and Results Participants aged 45 to 64 years from the Framingham Offspring and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities studies were stratified based on treated and untreated SBP levels (<120, 120 to 129, 130 to 139, 140 to 149, 150 to 159, ≥160 mm Hg). We determined the number of excess ASCVD events in each SBP stratum by calculating the difference between observed and expected events (ASCVD event rate in untreated SBP <120 mm Hg was used as the reference). We categorized participants into 10-year ASCVD risk groups using the Pooled Cohort risk equations. There were 18 898 participants (78% white; 22% black) who were followed for 10 years. We estimated 427 excess ASCVD events, of which 56% (109 of 197) and 50% (115 of 230), respectively, occurred among untreated and treated participants with elevated SBP who were not recommended for antihypertensive therapy. Among untreated participants, 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5% identified 64% of those who experienced an ASCVD at 10 years and 30% of those who did not. Multivariable risk assessment was less useful in baseline-treated participants. Conclusions Half of excess ASCVD events occurred in persons with elevated SBP who were not currently recommended for antihypertensive therapy. Multivariable risk assessment may help identify those likely to benefit from further risk-reducing therapies. These findings support consideration of multivariable risk in guiding prevention across the spectrum of SBP. PMID:26391134

  12. Individual and combined effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhen; Ren, Zhihua; Gao, Shuang; Chen, Yun; Yang, Yanyi; Yang, Dan; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Wang, Ya; Shen, Liuhong

    2015-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate the individual and combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on mouse kidney. A total of 360 female mice were divided into nine groups. Each group received intraperitoneal injection of solvent (control), DON, ZEA, or DON+ZEA four times for 12d. Results showed that ZEA and/or DON increased the apoptosis rate in the kidney, as well as the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. DON and/or ZEA also induced renal oxidative stress as indicated by increased malondialdehyde concentration and nitric oxide level and reduced superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and hydroxyl radical inhibiting capacity. The observed changes were dose and time dependent. This study reports that DON and/or ZEA induced apoptosis, dysfunction, and oxidative stress in mouse kidney. Furthermore, the combination of DON+ZEA exhibited a sub-additive nephrotoxic effect.

  13. Effect of culture methods on individual variation in the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus within a cohort and family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianlong; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yucen; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-07-01

    There is substantial individual variation in the growth rates of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus individuals. This necessitates additional work to grade the seed stock and lengthens the production period. We evaluated the influence of three culture methods (free-mixed, isolated-mixed, isolated-alone) on individual variation in growth and assessed the relationship between feeding, energy conversion efficiency, and individual growth variation in individually cultured sea cucumbers. Of the different culture methods, animals grew best when reared in the isolated-mixed treatment (i.e., size classes were held separately), though there was no difference in individual variation in growth between rearing treatment groups. The individual variation in growth was primarily attributed to genetic factors. The difference in food conversion efficiency caused by genetic differences among individuals was thought to be the origin of the variance. The level of individual growth variation may be altered by interactions among individuals and environmental heterogeneity. Our results suggest that, in addition to traditional seed grading, design of a new kind of substrate that changes the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers would effectively enhance growth and reduce individual variation in growth of sea cucumbers in culture.

  14. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads.

    PubMed

    Pilliod, David S; Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D; Bartelt, Paul E; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hossack, Blake R; Lambert, Brad A; McCaffery, Rebecca; Gaughan, Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations.

  15. The effect of an acute bout of exercise on executive function among individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Tremblay, Luc; Grassmann, Viviane; Remington, Gary; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-12-30

    Cognitive impairment represents a significant source of disability among individuals with schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate, at a proof-of-concept level, whether one single bout of exercise can improve executive function among these individuals. In this within-participant, counterbalanced experiment, participants with schizophrenia (n=36) completed two sessions (cycling at moderate-intensity and passively sitting) for 20min, with a one-week washout period between the two sessions. Participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) before and after each session to measure changes in executive function. The inclusion of both sessions completed by each participant in the analyses revealed a significant carryover effect. Consequently, only the WCST scores from the first session completed by each participant was analyzed. There was a significant time by session interaction effect for non-perseverative errors. Post-hoc Tukey's HSD contrasts revealed a significant reduction in non-perseverative errors in the exercise group that was of moderate-to-large effect. Furthermore, there was also a moderate between-group difference at post-testing. Therefore, an acute bout of exercise can improve performance on an executive function task in individuals with schizophrenia. Specifically, the reduction in non-perseverative errors on the WCST may reflect improved attention, inhibition and overall working memory.

  16. Views of Ethical Best Practices in Sharing Individual-Level Data From Medical and Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nia; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing support for sharing individual-level data generated by medical and public health research. This scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature examined stakeholders’ perspectives of ethical best practices in data sharing, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. Sixty-nine empirical and conceptual articles were reviewed, of which, only five were empirical studies and eight were conceptual articles focusing on low- and middle-income settings. We conclude that support for sharing individual-level data is contingent on the development and implementation of international and local policies and processes to support ethical best practices. Further conceptual and empirical research is needed to ensure data sharing policies and processes in low- and middle-income settings are appropriately informed by stakeholders’ perspectives. PMID:26297745

  17. Tropical forest structure characterization using airborne lidar data: an individual tree level approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, A.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Fine scale tropical forest structure characterization has been performed by means of field measurements techniques that record both the specie and the diameter at the breast height (dbh) for every tree within a given area. Due to dense and complex vegetation, additional important ecological variables (e.g. the tree height and crown size) are usually not measured because they are hardly recognized from the ground. The poor knowledge on the 3D tropical forest structure has been a major limitation for the understanding of different ecological issues such as the spatial distribution of carbon stocks, regeneration and competition dynamics and light penetration gradient assessments. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an active remote sensing technique that provides georeferenced distance measurements between the aircraft and the surface. It provides an unstructured 3D point cloud that is a high-resolution model of the forest. This study presents the first approach for tropical forest characterization at a fine scale using remote sensing data. The multi-modal lidar point cloud is decomposed into 3D clusters that correspond to single trees by means of a technique called Adaptive Mean Shift Segmentation (AMS3D). The ability of the corresponding individual tree metrics (tree height, crown area and crown volume) for the estimation of above ground biomass (agb) over the 50 ha CTFS plot in Barro Colorado Island is here assessed. We conclude that our approach is able to map the agb spatial distribution with an error of nearly 12% (RMSE=28 Mg ha-1) compared with field-based estimates over 1ha plots.

  18. Mutual relationship between serum ferroxidase activity and hemoglobin levels in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Romani, Arianna; Trentini, Alessandro; Passaro, Angelina; Bosi, Cristina; Bellini, Tiziana; Ferrari, Carlo; Cervellati, Carlo; Zuliani, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The identification of hemoglobin (Hb) biological determinants is of primary clinical interest, in particular in the elderly because of the well-documented relationship between anemia and cognitive and functional decline. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) and non-Cp ferroxidase activity might influence Hb production because of its role in modulating iron mobilization. This potential connection has never been explored so far. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the possible association between serum ferroxidase activity (sFeOx) and Hb in a sample of 136 apparently healthy older individuals. The results revealed that nonlinear (quadratic) regression explained the relationship between the two variables of interest better than did the linear one (R (2) = 0.09 vs. R (2) = 0.03). The same analysis highlighted a linear behavior for the relationship between Hb and sFeOx, for two separate subsamples stratified on the basis of the Hb value (141 g/L) corresponding to the parabola vertex. In the subset with higher Hb (high Hb), sFeOx was positively associated (r = 0.44, p = 0.003) while in the low Hb subset, the association was negative (r = -0.26, p = 0.01). Notably, we found that the concentration of Cp was significantly higher in Low Hb compared to High Hb subsample (p < 0.05), with this multicopper oxidase selectively contributing to sFeOx in the former group (r = 0.348, p = 0.001). Collectively, this exploratory study suggests that ferroxidases might play a role in dispatching the body's iron toward erythropoietic tissues, with Cp contribution that might become more important in stress-like conditions.

  19. Association analyses of East Asian individuals and trans-ancestry analyses with European individuals reveal new loci associated with cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Chen, Peng; Kim, Young Jin; Wang, Xu; Cai, Hui; Li, Shengxu; Long, Jirong; Wu, Ying; Wang, Ya Xing; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Jung, Keum-Ji; Hu, Cheng; Akiyama, Koichi; Zhang, Yonghong; Moon, Sanghoon; Johnson, Todd A; Li, Huaixing; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; He, Meian; Cannon, Maren E; Roman, Tamara S; Salfati, Elias; Lin, Keng-Hung; Guo, Xiuqing; Sheu, Wayne H H; Absher, Devin; Adair, Linda S; Assimes, Themistocles L; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Du, Shufa; Fan, Qiao; Fann, Cathy S J; Feranil, Alan B; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gu, Dongfeng; Gui, Lixuan; Guo, Zhirong; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hixson, James; Hou, Xuhong; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Hu, Yao; Hwang, Mi Yeong; Hwu, Chii-Min; Isono, Masato; Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Sun-Ju; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lim, Blanche; Lim, Sing-Hui; Liu, Jianjun; Nabika, Toru; Pan, Wen-Harn; Peng, Hao; Quertermous, Thomas; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sandow, Kevin; Shi, Jinxiu; Sun, Liang; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Shu-Pei; Taylor, Kent D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Toh, Sue-Anne; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; van Dam, Rob M; Wang, Aili; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Jie; Wei, Wen Bin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yao, Jie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhang, Rong; Zhao, Wanting; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Wu, Tangchun; Lin, Xu; Han, Bok-Ghee; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Cho, Yoon Shin; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Jia, Weiping; Jee, Sun-Ha; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Kato, Norihiro; Jonas, Jost B; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shu, Xiao-Ou; He, Jiang; Zheng, Wei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Huang, Wei; Kim, Bong-Jo; Tai, E-Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L; Sim, Xueling

    2017-02-21

    Large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >175 loci associated with fasting cholesterol levels, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). With differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure and allele frequencies between ancestry groups, studies in additional large samples may detect new associations. We conducted staged GWAS meta-analyses in up to 69,414 East Asian individuals from 24 studies with participants from Japan, the Philippines, Korea, China, Singapore, and Taiwan. These meta-analyses identified (P < 5 × 10-8) three novel loci associated with HDL-C near CD163-APOBEC1 (P = 7.4 × 10-9), NCOA2 (P = 1.6 × 10-8), and NID2-PTGDR (P = 4.2 × 10-8), and one novel locus associated with TG near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 2.7 × 10-10). Conditional analyses identified a second signal near CD163-APOBEC1. We then combined results from the East Asian meta-analysis with association results from up to 187,365 European individuals from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium in a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. This analysis identified (log10Bayes Factor ≥6.1) eight additional novel lipid loci. Among the twelve total loci identified, the index variants at eight loci have demonstrated at least nominal significance with other metabolic traits in prior studies, and two loci exhibited coincident eQTLs (P < 1 × 10-5) in subcutaneous adipose tissue for BPTF and PDGFC. Taken together, these analyses identified multiple novel lipid loci, providing new potential therapeutic targets.

  20. Individual differences in (non-visual) processing style predict the face inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Wyer, Natalie A; Martin, Douglas; Pickup, Tracey; Macrae, C Neil

    2012-03-01

    Recent research suggests that individuals with relatively weak global precedence (i.e., a smaller propensity to view visual stimuli in a configural manner) show a reduced face inversion effect (FIE). Coupled with such findings, a number of recent studies have demonstrated links between an advantage for feature-based processing and the presentation of traits associated with autism among the general population. The present study sought to bridge these findings by investigating whether a relationship exists between the possession of autism-associated traits (i.e., as indicated by individuals'"autism quotient" [(AQ) and the size of the FIE. Participants completed an on-line study in which the AQ was measured prior to a standard face recognition task where half of the faces were inverted at test. The results confirmed that higher AQ levels were predictive of smaller FIEs. Implications for a common underlying factor relating to processing orientation are discussed.

  1. Individual differences in the effects of mobile phone exposure on human sleep: rethinking the problem.

    PubMed

    Loughran, Sarah P; McKenzie, Raymond J; Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Croft, Rodney J

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phone exposure-related effects on the human electroencephalogram (EEG) have been shown during both waking and sleep states, albeit with slight differences in the frequency affected. This discrepancy, combined with studies that failed to find effects, has led many to conclude that no consistent effects exist. We hypothesised that these differences might partly be due to individual variability in response, and that mobile phone emissions may in fact have large but differential effects on human brain activity. Twenty volunteers from our previous study underwent an adaptation night followed by two experimental nights in which they were randomly exposed to two conditions (Active and Sham), followed by a full-night sleep episode. The EEG spectral power was increased in the sleep spindle frequency range in the first 30 min of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep following Active exposure. This increase was more prominent in the participants that showed an increase in the original study. These results confirm previous findings of mobile phone-like emissions affecting the EEG during non-REM sleep. Importantly, this low-level effect was also shown to be sensitive to individual variability. Furthermore, this indicates that previous negative results are not strong evidence for a lack of an effect and, given the far-reaching implications of mobile phone research, we may need to rethink the interpretation of results and the manner in which research is conducted in this field.

  2. Regional Demand Models for Water-Based Recreation: Combining Aggregate and Individual-Level Choice Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating the effect of changes in water quality on non-market values for recreation involves estimating a change in aggregate consumer surplus. This aggregate value typically involves estimating both a per-person, per-trip change in willingness to pay, as well as defining the m...

  3. Assessing Individual-Level Factors Supporting Student Intrinsic Motivation in Online Discussions: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Vogel, Douglas R.; Coombes, John

    2008-01-01

    Research has established that intrinsic motivation has a positive effect on learning and academic achievement. However, little is known about the impact of different technology-supported learning activities on student intrinsic motivation or whether such learning activities significantly enhance student intrinsic motivation compared to traditional…

  4. The Trail Less Traveled: Individual Decision-Making and Its Effect on Group Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lanan, Michele C.; Dornhaus, Anna; Jones, Emily I.; Waser, Andrew; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    Social insect colonies are complex systems in which the interactions of many individuals lead to colony-level collective behaviors such as foraging. However, the emergent properties of collective behaviors may not necessarily be adaptive. Here, we examine symmetry breaking, an emergent pattern exhibited by some social insects that can lead colonies to focus their foraging effort on only one of several available food patches. Symmetry breaking has been reported to occur in several ant species. However, it is not clear whether it arises as an unavoidable epiphenomenon of pheromone recruitment, or whether it is an adaptive behavior that can be controlled through modification of the individual behavior of workers. In this paper, we used a simulation model to test how symmetry breaking is affected by the degree of non-linearity of recruitment, the specific mechanism used by individuals to choose between patches, patch size, and forager number. The model shows that foraging intensity on different trails becomes increasingly asymmetric as the recruitment response of individuals varies from linear to highly non-linear, supporting the predictions of previous work. Surprisingly, we also found that the direction of the relationship between forager number (i.e., colony size) and asymmetry varied depending on the specific details of the decision rule used by individuals. Limiting the size of the resource produced a damping effect on asymmetry, but only at high forager numbers. Variation in the rule used by individual ants to choose trails is a likely mechanism that could cause variation among the foraging behaviors of species, and is a behavior upon which selection could act. PMID:23112880

  5. Velocity-based movement modeling for individual and population level inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Johnson, Devin S.; Sterling, Jeremy T.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding animal movement and resource selection provides important information about the ecology of the animal, but an animal's movement and behavior are not typically constant in time. We present a velocity-based approach for modeling animal movement in space and time that allows for temporal heterogeneity in an animal's response to the environment, allows for temporal irregularity in telemetry data, and accounts for the uncertainty in the location information. Population-level inference on movement patterns and resource selection can then be made through cluster analysis of the parameters related to movement and behavior. We illustrate this approach through a study of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) movement in the Bering Sea, Alaska, USA. Results show sex differentiation, with female northern fur seals exhibiting stronger response to environmental variables.

  6. Accounting utility for determining individual usage of production level software systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    An accounting package was developed which determines the computer resources utilized by a user during the execution of a particular program and updates a file containing accumulated resource totals. The accounting package is divided into two separate programs. The first program determines the total amount of computer resources utilized by a user during the execution of a particular program. The second program uses these totals to update a file containing accumulated totals of computer resources utilized by a user for a particular program. This package is useful to those persons who have several other users continually accessing and running programs from their accounts. The package provides the ability to determine which users are accessing and running specified programs along with their total level of usage.

  7. Nuisance levels of noise effects radiologists' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Coffey, Amina; Ryan, John; O'Beirne, Aaron; Toomey, Rachel; Evanoff, Micheal; Manning, David; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to measure the sound levels in Irish x-ray departments. The study then established whether these levels of noise have an impact on radiologists performance Noise levels were recorded 10 times within each of 14 environments in 4 hospitals, 11 of which were locations where radiologic images are judged. Thirty chest images were then presented to 26 senior radiologists, who were asked to detect up to three nodular lesions within 30 posteroanterior chest x-ray images in the absence and presence of noise at amplitude demonstrated in the clinical environment. The results demonstrated that noise amplitudes rarely exceeded that encountered with normal conversation with the maximum mean value for an image-viewing environment being 56.1 dB. This level of noise had no impact on the ability of radiologists to identify chest lesions with figure of merits of 0.68, 0.69, and 0.68 with noise and 0.65, 0.68, and 0.67 without noise for chest radiologists, non-chest radiologists, and all radiologists, respectively. the difference in their performance using the DBM MRMC method was significantly better with noise than in the absence of noise at the 90% confidence interval (p=0.077). Further studies are required to establish whether other aspects of diagnosis are impaired such as recall and attention and the effects of more unexpected noise on performance.

  8. Matching effects on eating. Individual differences do make a difference!

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A

    2012-04-01

    Dyads composed of unacquainted females (n=82) watched a cartoon while consuming salty aperitif snacks. The Affective Communication Test was used to measure nonverbal expressiveness. Computing intraclass correlation coefficients, the extent to which participants within dyads matched each other's food intake was analyzed. Food intake matched highly for dyads with two expressive individuals and moderately for dyads with one expressive participant. For dyads with two unexpressive participants, there was no evidence for matching behavior. Highly expressive people seem to be able to synchronize with others and thereby allow for close matching. This is the first study to show an influence of personality on matching consumption behavior.

  9. The effects of electric fields on charged molecules and particles in individual microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, K. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Jamieson, S. S.; Bell, J. N. B.; Yost, M. G.

    Measurements of small air ion concentrations, electrostatic potential and AC electric field strengths were taken in an office setting to investigate the link between electric fields and charged molecule and particle concentrations in individual microenvironments. The results obtained indicate that the electromagnetic environments individuals can be exposed to whilst indoors can often bear little resemblance to those experienced outdoors in nature, and that many individuals may spend large periods of their time in "Faraday cage"-like conditions exposed to inappropriate levels and types of electric fields that can reduce localised concentrations of biologically essential and microbiocidal small air ions. Such conditions may escalate their risk of infection from airborne contaminants, including microbes, whilst increasing localised surface contamination. The degree of "electro-pollution" that individuals are exposed to was shown to be influenced by the type of microenvironment they occupy, with it being possible for very different types of microenvironment to exist within the same room. It is suggested that adopting suitable electromagnetic hygiene/productivity guidelines that seek to replicate the beneficial effects created by natural environments may greatly mitigate such problems.

  10. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  11. Effects of psychosocial and individual psychological factors on the onset of musculoskeletal pain: common and site-specific effects

    PubMed Central

    Nahit, E; Hunt, I; Lunt, M; Dunn, G; Silman, A; Macfarlane, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adverse psychosocial and individual psychological factors increase the risk of pain across regional sites. Methods: A prospective study was conducted of newly employed workers from 12 diverse occupational groups. Near to the beginning of subjects' employment, details of work related psychosocial factors and individual psychological distress were obtained by means of a self completed questionnaire. Questionnaire follow up after 12 months provided data on these same exposures and ascertained pain at any of four anatomical sites: the low back, shoulder, wrist/forearm, and knee. Results: Of the original 1081 subjects, 829 (77%) provided full details at the one year follow up. Psychosocial work demands and high levels of individual psychological distress were found to have a common effect across sites. Psychological distress was associated with a doubling of the risk of reported pain (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.7), while aspects of job demand, poor support from colleagues, and work dissatisfaction were all associated with increased odds of reported pain onset of between 1.4 and 1.7. These effects were almost all common across the four regional pain sites. Conclusions: In cohorts of newly employed workers, certain work related psychosocial factors and individual psychological distress are associated with the subsequent reporting of musculoskeletal pain, and generally this effect is common across anatomical sites. PMID:12860731

  12. The influence of persistent individual differences and age at maturity on effective population size

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aline Magdalena; Engen, Steinar; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Ratios of effective populations size, Ne, to census population size, N, are used as a measure of genetic drift in populations. Several life-history parameters have been shown to affect these ratios, including mating system and age at sexual maturation. Using a stochastic matrix model, we examine how different levels of persistent individual differences in mating success among males may affect Ne/N, and how this relates to generation time. Individual differences of this type are shown to cause a lower Ne/N ratio than would be expected when mating is independent among seasons. Examining the way in which age at maturity affects Ne/N, we find that both the direction and magnitude of the effect depends on the survival rate of juveniles in the population. In particular, when maturation is delayed, lowered juvenile survival causes higher levels of genetic drift. In addition, predicted shifts in Ne/N with changing age at maturity are shown to be dependent on which of the commonly used definitions of census population size, N, is employed. Our results demonstrate that patterns of mating success, as well as juvenile survival probabilities, have substantial effects on rates of genetic drift. PMID:21436183

  13. Effects of Individual Characteristics on Expatriates' Adjustment and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates' adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level and societal level), but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework…

  14. Distribution of elements in individual blood cells in metabolic disorders at the cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Erland; Lindh, Ulf

    1985-08-01

    In comparison with controls neutrophil granulocytes from Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (INCL), Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia (L) and Aplastic Anemia (AA) displayed significant alterations in essential and non-essential elements which might be interpreted as fingerprints of these deseases. The neutrophils from RA patients displayed alterations in the concentrations of iron, calcium, strontium, manganese, zinc and copper. INCL displayed alterations in the concentrations of iron and copper but in the INCL disease the iron concentration was about 2 times higher than in RA. In leukemia, aluminium was observed but not in the controls (< 0.5 μg/ g). The zinc concentration was lowered in leukemia. Aplastic anemia displayed alterations in zirconium, arsenic, molybdenum, iron and zinc. The platelets from RA, INCL, L and AA patients also displayed alterations in the elemental profiles. The platelets from AA patients displayed a unique elemental distribution of arsenic, zirconium and molybdenum. The elemental profiles of the thrombocytes and neutrophils might be used as a complement in the diagnosis of the examined diseases and in therapy the elemental profile might be used to monitor drugs at the cellular level.

  15. Effect of Calcitriol on FGF23 Level in Healthy Adults and its Dependence on Phosphate Level

    PubMed Central

    GEORGIADOU, EFFROSYNI; MARKETOU, HELEN; TROVAS, GEORGE; DONTAS, ISMENE; PAPAIOANNOU, NIKOLAOS; MAKRIS, KONSTANTINOS; GALANOS, ANTONIOS; PAPAVASSILIOU, ATHANASIOS

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the short-term effects of calcitriol and sevelamer hydrochloride on fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) in humans and to determine whether the effect is direct or indirect through calcitriol-induced increased absorption of phosphorus from the intestine. Patients and Methods: A total of 15 healthy individuals were tested at three time points and stages, for 24 h and at 1-week intervals. During each stage, blood samples were taken at three time points (0, 8 and 24 h); baseline stage: under no intervention; second stage, while receiving 0.5 μg calcitriol orally twice daily; and at the third stage, while receiving 0.5 μg calcitriol orally twice daily and sevelamer hydrochloride during meals. The changes in FGF23, parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, Ca, and phosphorus were determined. Results: During calcitriol administration, the FGF23 level changed significantly (p=0.008), with the level at 24 h levels being significantly higher than at 8 h (8.8 pg/ml vs. 13.0 pg/ml, p=0.036). There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage change, among the three stages, at time 8 to 24 h and 0 to 24 h for FGF23 (p=0.014 and p=0.015, respectively), with significant differences between baseline vs. calcitriol for 8 to 24 h FGF23 change (−9.23% vs. 26.98%, p=0.003) and a trend between baseline vs. calcitriol (p=0.061) and calcitriol plus sevelamer (p=0.069) for 0 to 24 h FGF23 change. Conclusion: Administration of calcitriol to healthy individuals increases the circulating level of FGF23 within 24 h. Combined calcitriol and sevelamer administration restrains the increase of FGF23, suggesting that calcitriol-induced increased absorption of phosphate from the intestine might also be involved in the increase of FGF23. PMID:28064234

  16. Individual and Center-Level Factors Affecting Mortality Among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, Brandon W.; Li, Lei; Dagle, John M.; Smith, P. Brian; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Cotten, C. Michael; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Ellsbury, Dan L.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Wallace, Dennis D.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors affecting center differences in mortality for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: We analyzed data for 5418 ELBW infants born at 16 Neonatal Research Network centers during 2006–2009. The primary outcomes of early mortality (≤12 hours after birth) and in-hospital mortality were assessed by using multilevel hierarchical models. Models were developed to investigate associations of center rates of selected interventions with mortality while adjusting for patient-level risk factors. These analyses were performed for all gestational ages (GAs) and separately for GAs <25 weeks and ≥25 weeks. RESULTS: Early and in-hospital mortality rates among centers were 5% to 36% and 11% to 53% for all GAs, 13% to 73% and 28% to 90% for GAs <25 weeks, and 1% to 11% and 7% to 26% for GAs ≥25 weeks, respectively. Center intervention rates significantly predicted both early and in-hospital mortality for infants <25 weeks. For infants ≥25 weeks, intervention rates did not predict mortality. The variance in mortality among centers was significant for all GAs and outcomes. Center use of interventions and patient risk factors explained some but not all of the center variation in mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Center intervention rates explain a portion of the center variation in mortality, especially for infants born at <25 weeks’ GA. This finding suggests that deaths may be prevented by standardizing care for very early GA infants. However, differences in patient characteristics and center intervention rates do not account for all of the observed variability in mortality; and for infants with GA ≥25 weeks these differences account for only a small part of the variation in mortality. PMID:23753096

  17. Monitoring the antiviral effect of alpha interferon on individual cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chon Saeng; Jung, Jong Ha; Wakita, Takaji; Yoon, Seung Kew; Jang, Sung Key

    2007-08-01

    An infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA clone (JFH1) was generated recently. However, quantitative analysis of HCV infection and observation of infected cells have proved to be difficult because the yield of HCV in cell cultures is fairly low. We generated infectious HCV clones containing the convenient reporters green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase in the NS5a-coding sequence. The new viruses responded to antiviral agents in a dose-dependent manner. Responses of individual cells containing HCV to alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were monitored using GFP-tagged HCV and time-lapse confocal microscopy. Marked variations in the response to IFN-alpha were observed among HCV-containing cells.

  18. Graduate School Choice: An Examination of Individual and Institutional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, David Judson

    2012-01-01

    While significant scholarly attention focuses on the development and testing of theoretically grounded models of the college choice process at the undergraduate level, far less research explores the area of graduate school enrollments. Graduate school choice, which is defined for the purposes of this paper as the decision to pursue any…

  19. Camouflage simulation and effectiveness assessment for the individual soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepfinger, Lisa B.

    1990-09-01

    The mission of the Individual Protection Directorate of the U. S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center is to develop clothing and equipment to protect the individual combat soldier against battlefield chemical, ballistic, surveillance, environmental and nuclear hazards. In an effort to meet our countersurveillance mission, the Terrain Analysis Systn was developed by Natick in conjunction with Decilog, Inc., Melville, New York. The Terrain Analysis System was developed to satisfy the need for a scientific method of designing camouflage patterns based on natural terrain reflectance data. It functions as a portable, abridged spectrophotometer to obtain spectral refltance data in the visible and near-infrared on any scene of interest. Data is collected on videotape in the field, digitized into the computer back in the laboratory, and spectral reflectance factors determined for each pixel in the scene. The 1976 CIE L*a*b* color coordinates are calculated and the image is clustered to a user-specific number of color domains. Camouflage patterns can be designed based on these domains, and visual camouflage evaluations can be made by overlaying the designed patterns on any desired background scene. Additional capabilities include calculation of values analogous to the CIE values, which use infrared film or an image intensifier as the observer. The Terrain Analysis System is also capable of analyzing video data taken through an image intensifier or thermal imager and calculating the probability of detection of a user-defined target against the background. "What if" cases can be run to determine the detection probability under other sets of conditions, such as a detector with a different spectral response or under different atmospheric conditions.

  20. Microbiological effects of sublethal levels of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Dan I; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2014-07-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics results in the generation of antibiotic concentration gradients in humans, livestock and the environment. Thus, bacteria are frequently exposed to non-lethal (that is, subinhibitory) concentrations of drugs, and recent evidence suggests that this is likely to have an important role in the evolution of antibiotic resistance. In this Review, we discuss the ecology of antibiotics and the ability of subinhibitory concentrations to select for bacterial resistance. We also consider the effects of low-level drug exposure on bacterial physiology, including the generation of genetic and phenotypic variability, as well as the ability of antibiotics to function as signalling molecules. Together, these effects accelerate the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among humans and animals.

  1. Communication Effectiveness of Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Laura J.; Beukelman, David R.; Pattee, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among speech intelligibility and communication effectiveness as rated by speakers and their listeners. Participants completed procedures to measure (a) speech intelligibility, (b) self-perceptions of communication effectiveness, and (c) listener (spouse or family member) perceptions of…

  2. Priming and Habituation for Faces: Individual Differences and Inversion Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate repetition priming for faces was examined across a range of prime durations in a threshold identification task. Similar to word repetition priming results, short duration face primes produced positive priming whereas long duration face primes eliminated or reversed this effect. A habituation model of such priming effects predicted that…

  3. Short-term booster effect of diphtheria toxoid in initially long-term protected individuals.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Elena; Shiryayev, Alexey; Skogen, Vegard; Kristoffersen, Einar Klaeboe; Sjursen, Haakon

    2005-02-10

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the booster antibody response in individuals with initially high levels of diphtheria antitoxin. Sixty individuals eligible for the routine booster by the age of 18 years each received a single dose of 5 Lf of diphtheria toxoid in diphtheria-tetanus vaccine. A double antigen ELISA was used for the assessment of the antibody levels. Chaotropic disruption in paired ELISA was used to test antibody avidity. The ratio between initial and maximum antibody concentrations after 1 month was >10 times higher and after 6 months still four times higher in those with initial antibody levels <1 IU/ml. In individuals with initial antibody levels >/=1 IU/ml a two-fold decrease was observed after 6 months compared to the initial levels. Thus, vaccination of individuals with initial long-term protection against diphtheria (antibody levels >/=1 IU/ml) is unnecessary and should be avoided.

  4. Measles Virus-Specific Antibody Levels in Individuals in Argentina Who Received a One-Dose Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Argüelles, Marcelo H.; Orellana, Mariana L.; Castello, Alejandro A.; Villegas, Guillermo A.; Masini, Matilde; Belizan, Alejandra L.; González Ayala, Silvia; Vera, Osmar D.; Glikmann, Graciela

    2006-01-01

    In spite of active measles virus (MV) vaccination strategies, reemergence continues to occur, impairing global eradication programs. The immune status against measles was evaluated in 350 vaccinated healthy Argentine children and teenagers who received a single dose of the MV Schwarz strain Lirugen vaccine (Aventis Pasteur). Sera were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Enzygnost; Behring), an in-house EIA, and neutralization EIA. Results obtained with these methods showed a marked decline in IgG level with increasing age. At 1 to 4 years of age, 84% of children had IgG antibodies above 200 mIU/ml, conventionally accepted as protective levels, whereas only 32% of older children and teenagers had antibody levels exceeding 200 mIU/ml. Moreover, the MV IgG content in the teenage group was significantly lower than the IgG antibody level of the group of younger children (P < 0.0001). In contrast, screening for IgG antibody levels to inactivated tetanus vaccine showed that, on average, 80% of this population was fully protected and that this high level of protection remained through the teenage years. This study suggests that within this population a considerable proportion of individuals had low measles antibody levels that may be insufficient to protect against reinfections or clinical disease. PMID:16891485

  5. Measles virus-specific antibody levels in individuals in Argentina who received a one-dose vaccine.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Marcelo H; Orellana, Mariana L; Castello, Alejandro A; Villegas, Guillermo A; Masini, Matilde; Belizan, Alejandra L; González Ayala, Silvia; Vera, Osmar D; Glikmann, Graciela

    2006-08-01

    In spite of active measles virus (MV) vaccination strategies, reemergence continues to occur, impairing global eradication programs. The immune status against measles was evaluated in 350 vaccinated healthy Argentine children and teenagers who received a single dose of the MV Schwarz strain Lirugen vaccine (Aventis Pasteur). Sera were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Enzygnost; Behring), an in-house EIA, and neutralization EIA. Results obtained with these methods showed a marked decline in IgG level with increasing age. At 1 to 4 years of age, 84% of children had IgG antibodies above 200 mIU/ml, conventionally accepted as protective levels, whereas only 32% of older children and teenagers had antibody levels exceeding 200 mIU/ml. Moreover, the MV IgG content in the teenage group was significantly lower than the IgG antibody level of the group of younger children (P < 0.0001). In contrast, screening for IgG antibody levels to inactivated tetanus vaccine showed that, on average, 80% of this population was fully protected and that this high level of protection remained through the teenage years. This study suggests that within this population a considerable proportion of individuals had low measles antibody levels that may be insufficient to protect against reinfections or clinical disease.

  6. Effect of cyproheptadine on serum leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Calka, Omer; Metin, Ahmet; Dülger, Haluk; Erkoç, Reha

    2005-01-01

    Leptin is a 167 amino acid protein encoded by the obesity gene that is synthesized in adipose tissue and interacts with receptors in the hypothalamus linked to the regulation of appetite and metabolism. It is known to suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. Cyproheptadine is a piperidine antihistamine that increases appetite through its antiserotonergic effect on 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. Although both leptin and cyproheptadine are effective in controlling appetite, their interaction has not been addressed in clinical studies. This study evaluated serum leptin concentrations in patients who received cyproheptadine to treat a variety of disorders. Sixteen patients aged 7 to 71 years (mean, 26.25 years) were given cyproheptadine 2 to 6 mg/day for a minimum of 7 days. Body weight was measured and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. Serum leptin levels were determined by leptin radioimmunoassay. The mean body weight at baseline (52.59 kg) did not differ significantly from that at 1 week after treatment (52.84 kg; P > .05), but the mean leptin level after 1 week of treatment with cyproheptadine (3.14 ng/mL) was 14.2% higher than that at baseline (2.75 ng/mL; P < .05). This increase may suggest that both leptin and cyproheptadine may affect appetite via similar receptors and that cyproheptadine does not impair leptin activity through these receptors. Further study will be necessary to clarify this relationship.

  7. Individual responsiveness to shock and colony-level aggression in honey bees: evidence for a genetic component.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Arian; Rodríguez-Cruz, Yoselyn; Giray, Tugrul

    2014-05-01

    The phenotype of the social group is related to phenotypes of individuals that form that society. We examined how honey bee colony aggressiveness relates to individual response of male drones and foraging workers. Although the natural focus in colony aggression has been on the worker caste, the sterile females engaged in colony maintenance and defense, males carry the same genes. We measured aggressiveness scores of colonies and examined components of individual aggressive behavior in workers and haploid sons of workers from the same colony. We describe for the first time, that males, although they have no stinger, do bend their abdomen (abdominal flexion) in a posture similar to stinging behavior of workers in response to electric shock. Individual worker sting response and movement rates in response to shock were significantly correlated with colony scores. In the case of drones, sons of workers from the same colonies, abdominal flexion significantly correlated but their movement rates did not correlate with colony aggressiveness. Furthermore, the number of workers responding at increasing levels of voltage exhibits a threshold-like response, whereas the drones respond in increasing proportion to shock. We conclude that there are common and caste-specific components to aggressive behavior in honey bees. We discuss implications of these results on social and behavioral regulation and genetics of aggressive response.

  8. Individual responsiveness to shock and colony-level aggression in honey bees: evidence for a genetic component

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Arian; Rodríguez-Cruz, Yoselyn; Giray, Tugrul

    2015-01-01

    The phenotype of the social group is related to phenotypes of individuals that form that society. We examined how honey bee colony aggressiveness relates to individual response of male drones and foraging workers. Although the natural focus in colony aggression has been on the worker caste, the sterile females engaged in colony maintenance and defense, males carry the same genes. We measured aggressiveness scores of colonies and examined components of individual aggressive behavior in workers and haploid sons of workers from the same colony. We describe for the first time, that males, although they have no stinger, do bend their abdomen (abdominal flexion) in a posture similar to stinging behavior of workers in response to electric shock. Individual worker sting response and movement rates in response to shock were significantly correlated with colony scores. In the case of drones, sons of workers from the same colonies, abdominal flexion significantly correlated but their movement rates did not correlate with colony aggressiveness. Furthermore, the number of workers responding at increasing levels of voltage exhibits a threshold-like response, whereas the drones respond in increasing proportion to shock. We conclude that there are common and caste-specific components to aggressive behavior in honey bees. We discuss implications of these results on social and behavioral regulation and genetics of aggressive response. PMID:25729126

  9. Individual and Community Level Risk-Factors for Alcohol Use Disorder among Conflict-Affected Persons in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in

  10. Investigation of the Effects of Curcumin on Serum Cytokines in Obese Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipour, Elahe; Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh; Torabi, Sepideh; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity is a disorder often accompanied by a heightened state of systemic inflammation and immunoactivation. The present randomized crossover trial aimed to investigate the efficacy of curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol with established anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, on the serum levels of a panel of cytokines and mediators in obese individuals. Methods. Thirty obese individuals were randomized to receive curcumin at a daily dose of 1 g or a matched placebo for 4 weeks. Following a 2-week wash-out period, each group was assigned to the alternate treatment regimen for another 4 weeks. Serum samples were collected at the start and end of each study period. Serum levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, VEGF, IFNγ, EGF, MCP-1, and TNFα were measured using a multiplex Biochip Array Technology based method. Results. Mean serum IL-1β (P = 0.042), IL-4 (P = 0.008), and VEGF (P = 0.01) were found to be significantly reduced by curcumin therapy. In contrast, no significant difference was observed in the concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFNγ, EGF, and MCP-1. Conclusions. The findings of the present trial suggested that curcumin may exert immunomodulatory effects via altering the circulating concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, and VEGF. PMID:24678280

  11. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces reflect more effortful processing at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Grit

    2016-07-01

    The N250 and N250r (r for repetition, signaling a difference measure of priming) has been proposed to reflect the activation of perceptual memory representations for individual faces. Increased N250r and N250 amplitudes have been associated with higher levels of familiarity and expertise, respectively. In contrast to these observations, the N250 amplitude has been found to be larger for other-race than own-race faces in recognition memory tasks. This study investigated if these findings were due to increased identity-specific processing demands for other-race relative to own-race faces and whether or not similar results would be obtained for the N250 in a repetition priming paradigm. Only Caucasian participants were available for testing and completed two tasks with Caucasian, African-American, and Chinese faces. In a repetition priming task, participants decided whether or not sequentially presented faces were of the same identity (individuation task) or same race (categorization task). Increased N250 amplitudes were found for African-American and Chinese faces relative to Caucasian faces, replicating previous results in recognition memory tasks. Contrary to the expectation that increased N250 amplitudes for other-race face would be confined to the individuation task, both tasks showed similar results. This could be due to the fact that face identity information needed to be maintained across the sequential presentation of prime and target in both tasks. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces are taken to represent increased neural demands on the identity-specific processing of other-race faces, which are typically processed less holistically and less on the level of the individual.

  12. Python Executable Script for Estimating Two Effective Parameters to Individualize Brain-Computer Interfaces: Individual Alpha Frequency and Neurophysiological Predictor.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) aims to establish communication between the human brain and a computing system so as to enable the interaction between an individual and his environment without using the brain output pathways. Individuals control a BCI system by modulating their brain signals through mental tasks (e.g., motor imagery or mental calculation) or sensory stimulation (e.g., auditory, visual, or tactile). As users modulate their brain signals at different frequencies and at different levels, the appropriate characterization of those signals is necessary. The modulation of brain signals through mental tasks is furthermore a skill that requires training. Unfortunately, not all the users acquire such skill. A practical solution to this problem is to assess the user probability of controlling a BCI system. Another possible solution is to set the bandwidth of the brain oscillations, which is highly sensitive to the users' age, sex and anatomy. With this in mind, NeuroIndex, a Python executable script, estimates a neurophysiological prediction index and the individual alpha frequency (IAF) of the user in question. These two parameters are useful to characterize the user EEG signals, and decide how to go through the complex process of adapting the human brain and the computing system on the basis of previously proposed methods. NeuroIndeX is not only the implementation of those methods, but it also complements the methods each other and provides an alternative way to obtain the prediction parameter. However, an important limitation of this application is its dependency on the IAF value, and some results should be interpreted with caution. The script along with some electroencephalographic datasets are available on a GitHub repository in order to corroborate the functionality and usability of this application.

  13. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  14. Long-Term Effects of Individual Development Accounts on Postsecondary Education: Follow-Up Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Sherraden, Michael; Gale, William G.; Rohe, William M.; Schreiner, Mark; Key, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a randomized field experiment testing the impact of a 3-year matched savings program on educational outcomes 10 years after the start of the experiment. We examine the effect of an Individual Development Account (IDA) program on (1) educational enrollment, (2) degree completion, and (3) increased education level.…

  15. Adverse Outcome Pathways and Ecological Risk Assessment: Bridging to Population Level Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    The viability of populations of plants and animals is a key focus for environmental regulation. Population-level responses integrate the cumulative effects of chemical stressors on individuals as those individuals interact with and are affected by their con-specifics, competitor...

  16. Adverse Outcome Pathways and Ecological Risk Assessment: Bridging to Population Level Effects, Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    The viability of populations of plants and animals is a key focus for environmental regulation. Population-level responses integrate the cumulative effects of chemical stressors on individuals as those individuals interact with and are affected by their con-specifics, competitor...

  17. The effect of weather and its changes on emotional state - individual characteristics that make us vulnerable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychological and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio tone, working ability, and concentration; hence their significance in various domains of economic life such as health care, education, transportation, and tourism. The present pilot study was conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria over a period of eight months, using five psychological methods: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state, Test for evaluation of moods and Test ''Self-confidence-Activity-Mood''. The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions in order to include a maximal number of meteorological elements in the analysis. Sixteen weather types are defined depending on the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were also considered. The results obtained by t-test showed that the different categories of weather led to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effects on human emotions - but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as ''unfavorable'', has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension ''neuroticism'', has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more ''resistant'' to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence on the impacts of weather.

  18. Vitamin D Levels and Markers of Inflammation and Metabolism in HIV-Infected Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Jordan E.; Wilhalme, Holly M.; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Currier, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on vitamin D insufficiency as a cause of inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals are conflicting. We examined the relationships between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism in stored blood samples from a prospective trial of vitamin D repletion. Blood samples from HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/ml enrolled in a prospective study were analyzed for 25(OH)D levels, a broad panel of cytokines, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, D-dimer, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin. Correlations between markers and 25(OH)D levels were determined. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum test was used to compare markers between individuals 25(OH)D insufficient and sufficient at baseline and before and after repletion among those who were insufficient and repleted to ≥30 ng/ml after 12 weeks. Of 106 subjects with stored plasma [66 with 25(OH)D <30 ng/ml and 40 ≥ 30 ng/ml], the median age was 50, the CD4 count was 515 cells/mm3, 94% were male, and the median baseline 25(OH)D was 27 ng/ml. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (r = −0.20, p = 0.04) and higher adiponectin levels (r = 0.30, p = 0.002). Following successful repletion to 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/ml there were no significant changes in inflammatory or metabolic parameters. Our study found associations between low 25(OH)D levels and TNF-α and adiponectin. Repletion did not result in changes in markers of inflammation or metabolism. These data support continued study of the relationship between vitamin D, inflammation, and metabolism in treated HIV infection. PMID:26569649

  19. Effect of structured visual environments on apparent eye level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoper, A. E.; Cohen, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Each of 12 subjects set a binocularly viewed target to apparent eye level; the target was projected on the rear wall of an open box, the floor of which was horizontal or pitched up and down at angles of 7.5 degrees and 15 degrees. Settings of the target were systematically biased by 60% of the pitch angle when the interior of the box was illuminated, but by only 5% when the interior of the box was darkened. Within-subjects variability of the settings was less under illuminated viewing conditions than in the dark, but was independent of box pitch angle. In a second experiment, 11 subjects were tested with an illuminated pitched box, yielding biases of 53% and 49% for binocular and monocular viewing conditions, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of individual and interactive effects of optical, gravitational, and extraretinal eye-position information in determining judgements of eye level.

  20. Individual lipid encapsulated microbubble radial oscillations: Effects of fluid viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Helfield, Brandon; Chen, Xucai; Qin, Bin; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-stimulated microbubble dynamics have been shown to be dependent on intrinsic bubble properties, including size and shell characteristics. The effect of the surrounding environment on microbubble response, however, has been less investigated. In particular, microbubble optimization studies are generally conducted in water/saline, characterized by a 1 cP viscosity, for application in the vasculature (i.e., 4 cP). In this study, ultra-high speed microscopy was employed to investigate fluid viscosity effects on phospholipid encapsulated microbubble oscillations at 1 MHz, using a single, eight-cycle pulse at peak negative pressures of 100 and 250 kPa. Microbubble oscillations were shown to be affected by fluid viscosity in a size- and pressure-dependent manner. In general, the oscillation amplitudes exhibited by microbubbles between 3 and 6 μm in 1 cP fluid were larger than in 4 cP fluid, reaching a maximum of 1.7-fold at 100 kPa for microbubbles 3.8 μm in diameter and 1.35-fold at 250 kPa for microbubbles 4.8 μm in diameter. Simulation results were in broad agreement at 250 kPa, however generally underestimated the effect of fluid viscosity at 100 kPa. This is the first experimental demonstration documenting the effects of surrounding fluid viscosity on microbubble oscillations, resulting in behavior not entirely predicted by current microbubble models. PMID:26827018

  1. Individual lipid encapsulated microbubble radial oscillations: Effects of fluid viscosity.

    PubMed

    Helfield, Brandon; Chen, Xucai; Qin, Bin; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-stimulated microbubble dynamics have been shown to be dependent on intrinsic bubble properties, including size and shell characteristics. The effect of the surrounding environment on microbubble response, however, has been less investigated. In particular, microbubble optimization studies are generally conducted in water/saline, characterized by a 1 cP viscosity, for application in the vasculature (i.e., 4 cP). In this study, ultra-high speed microscopy was employed to investigate fluid viscosity effects on phospholipid encapsulated microbubble oscillations at 1 MHz, using a single, eight-cycle pulse at peak negative pressures of 100 and 250 kPa. Microbubble oscillations were shown to be affected by fluid viscosity in a size- and pressure-dependent manner. In general, the oscillation amplitudes exhibited by microbubbles between 3 and 6 μm in 1 cP fluid were larger than in 4 cP fluid, reaching a maximum of 1.7-fold at 100 kPa for microbubbles 3.8 μm in diameter and 1.35-fold at 250 kPa for microbubbles 4.8 μm in diameter. Simulation results were in broad agreement at 250 kPa, however generally underestimated the effect of fluid viscosity at 100 kPa. This is the first experimental demonstration documenting the effects of surrounding fluid viscosity on microbubble oscillations, resulting in behavior not entirely predicted by current microbubble models.

  2. Bottom-up and top-down effects influence bruchid beetle individual performance but not population densities in the field.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Isabelle; Benrey, Betty; Bacher, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Plant quality (bottom-up) and natural enemies (top-down) can influence the individual performance of herbivorous insects on their host plants, but few studies measured at the same time the influence on population densities in the field. We investigated if plant quality of different wild common bean populations, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae), affects the performance of the bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and one of its enemies, the ectoparasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), in controlled laboratory experiments. Additionally, we examined if parasitoids influence the beetles' development and if increased individual beetle and parasitoid fitness lead to higher field population densities. We show that bean quality and parasitoids affected individual bean weevil performance under laboratory and field conditions. In the presence of parasitoids, fewer and smaller beetles emerged. However, beetle and parasitoid performance were not correlated. Increased individual performance was not leading to higher population densities; we found no correlations between measured performance components and beetle field infestation levels or parasitism rates. We conclude that bottom-up or top-down effects measured at the individual level do not always translate into population effects; therefore it is important to discriminate between effects acting on individual insects and those acting on populations.

  3. A flexible Bayesian hierarchical approach for analyzing spatial and temporal variation in the fecal corticosterone levels in birds when there is imperfect knowledge of individual identity.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Link, William A; Woods, Rami J; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-12-01

    repetition (i.e., multiple samples collected from the same bird on the same day). After accounting for years and three general periods within breeding seasons, 42% of the residual variation among observations was attributable to differences among individual birds. Thus, we attribute little influence of site on stress level of birds in our study, but disentangling individual from site effects is difficult because site and bird are confounded. Our model structures provided analytical approaches for studying species having different ecologies. Our approach also demonstrates that even incomplete information on individual identity of birds within samples is useful for analyzing these types of data.

  4. Estimation and comparison of serum cortisol levels in periodontally diseased patients and periodontally healthy individuals: A clinical-biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Rohini, G.; Kalaivani, S.; Kumar, Vipin; Rajasekar, S. A.; Tuckaram, Jaishree; Pandey, Vinisha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Psychological conditions, particularly psychosocial stress have been implicated as risk indicators of periodontal disease. Stress increases cortisol production from the adrenal cortex by stimulating an increase in the release of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Increased cortisol production suppresses the immune response and increases the potential of periodontal tissue destruction. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the serum cortisol levels in periodontally diseased patients and periodontally healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Total of 45 subjects were recruited for this study and were categorized into three groups. Group I - Comprised of aggressive periodontitis patients (n = 15), Group II - Chronic periodontitis patients (n = 15), and Group III - Healthy controls (n = 15). Serum samples were collected from each of the groups and cortisol levels were determined using cortisol immunoassay kit. Clinical examination covered probing depth, gingival index (GI), gingival recession, plaque index, and clinical attachment level. The statistical analysis was done using nonparameteric t-test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: With respect to cortisol, the levels were higher in Group-I compared to the other groups. On comparison of mean cortisol levels among the groups, the values were statistically significant between Group-I and Group-III. Group-I showed a significant negative correlation between cortisol levels and GI. Conclusion: Within the limits of the study serum cortisol levels was higher in the chronic periodontitis group compared to the other groups. Positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and other clinical parameters except for the GI. PMID:26538897

  5. Ammonia Levels and Urine-Spot Characteristics as Cage-Change Indicators for High-Density Individually Ventilated Mouse Cages

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Ida M; Payton, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Mouse cage and bedding changes are potentially stressful to mice and are also labor- and resource-intensive. These changes are often performed on a calendar-based schedule to maintain a clean microenvironment and limit the concentrations of ammonia to which mice and workers are exposed. The current study sought to establish a performance-based approach to mouse cage-changing that uses urine spot characteristics as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels. Colorimetric ammonia indicators were used to measure ammonia levels in individually-ventilated cages (IVC) housing male or female mice (n =5 per cage) of various strains at 1 to 16 d after cage change. Urine spot characteristics were correlated with ammonia levels to create a visual indicator of the cage-change criterion of 25 ppm ammonia. Results demonstrated a consistent increase in ammonia levels with days since cage change, with cages reaching the cage-change criterion at approximately 10 d for IVC containing male mice and 16 d for those with female mice. Ammonia levels were higher for male than female mice but were not correlated with mouse age. However, urine spot diameter, color, and edge characteristics were strongly correlated with ammonia levels. Husbandry practices based on using urine spot characteristics as indicators of ammonia levels led to fewer weekly cage changes and concomitant savings in labor and resources. Therefore, urine spot characteristics can be used as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels for use of a performance (urine spot)-based approach to cage-changing frequency that maintains animal health and wellbeing. PMID:27177558

  6. Specific vulnerability of face perception to noise: a similar effect in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel

    2015-02-28

    Face perception plays a foundational role in the social world. This perceptual ability is deficient in schizophrenia. A noise-filtering mechanism is essential for perceptual processing. It remains unclear as to whether a specific noise-filtering mechanism is implicated in the face perception problem or a general noise-filtering mechanism is involved which also mediates non-face visual perception problems associated with this psychiatric disorder. This study examined and compared the effects of external noise on the performance of face discrimination and car discrimination in schizophrenia patients (n=25) and healthy controls (n=27). Superimposing the external visual noise on face or car stimuli elevated perceptual thresholds (i.e. degraded performance levels) for both face and car discrimination. However, the effect of noise was significantly larger on face than on car discrimination, both in patients and controls. This pattern of results suggests specific vulnerability of face processing to noise in healthy individuals and those with schizophrenia.

  7. Effectiveness of immediate verbal feedback on trainer behaviour during communication training with individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    van Vonderen, A

    2004-03-01

    The effect of immediate verbal feedback on trainer behaviour during communication training sessions with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) was assessed. Trainers were six undergraduate university students majoring in psychology. The procedure consisted of interrupting the sequence of trials of training by the supervisor and then giving brief corrective feedback. Feedback was focused on the accuracy of the following procedural aspects: (1) entry behaviour; (2) prompt level and order of presenting response prompts; (3) use of reinforcement; (4) pace of presenting trials; and (5) if this occurred, handling trainee's disruptive behaviour during training. Data were collected in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. Results indicated a statistically significant increase of the percentage correct trainer behaviour as compared to the baseline phase. Maintenance of effect of feedback was recorded during post-training and follow-up.

  8. Estimating Promotion Probabilities of Navy Officers Based on Individual’s Attributes and Other Global Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    incorporates macro economic and policy level information. In the first step the conditional probabilities of staying or leaving the Navy are estimated...accommodates time dependent information, cohort information, censoring problems with the data as well as incorporating macro economic and policy level ...1 Introducing the Individual Level Information (Covariates

  9. [Effectiveness of individual units of aerosol therapy equipment].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, L A; Perel'mutr, A S

    1975-01-01

    Various methods of drug atomization and future prospects for their application in medical practice are considered. On the ground of a research into the influence produced by the administered doses and the density of the aerosol on the therapeutic activity the expediency of employing aerosol generators based upon pneumatic atomization by using the principle of ejecting an additional volume of air, as units yielding a substantial curative effect, is demonstrated. Data which bear proof to economic advantages of the units under review are given.

  10. Sex-Specific Parental Effects on Offspring Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Predazzi, Irene M; Sobota, Rafal S; Sanna, Serena; Bush, William S; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Lilley, Jessica S; Linton, MacRae F; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Fazio, Sergio; Williams, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma lipid levels are highly heritable traits, but known genetic loci can only explain a small portion of their heritability. Methods and Results In this study, we analyzed the role of parental levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs) in explaining the values of the corresponding traits in adult offspring. We also evaluated the contribution of nongenetic factors that influence lipid traits (age, body mass index, smoking, medications, and menopause) alone and in combination with variability at the genetic loci known to associate with TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG levels. We performed comparisons among different sex-specific regression models in 416 families from the Framingham Heart Study and 304 from the SardiNIA cohort. Models including parental lipid levels explain significantly more of the trait variation than models without these measures, explaining up to ≈39% of the total trait variation. Of this variation, the parent-of-origin effect explains as much as ≈15% and it does so in a sex-specific way. This observation is not owing to shared environment, given that spouse-pair correlations were negligible (<1.5% explained variation in all cases) and is distinct from previous genetic and acquired factors that are known to influence serum lipid levels. Conclusions These findings support the concept that unknown genetic and epigenetic contributors are responsible for most of the heritable component of the plasma lipid phenotype, and that, at present, the clinical utility of knowing age-matched parental lipid levels in assessing risk of dyslipidemia supersedes individual locus effects. Our results support the clinical utility of knowing parental lipid levels in assessing future risk of dyslipidemia. PMID:26126546

  11. Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Bonnie G.; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; Barry, Kathryn E.; Becklund, Kristen K.; Dale, Sarah; Gei, Maria G.; Keller, Adrienne B.; Lopez, Omar R.; Markesteijn, Lars; Mangan, Scott; Riggs, Charlotte E.; Rodríguez-Ronderos, María Elizabeth; Segnitz, R. Max; Schnitzer, Stefan A.; Powers, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil properties beneath individual plants differ from those of neighbours by an average of 41%. Although the magnitudes of individual plant effects exhibit weak relationships with climate and latitude, they are significantly stronger in deserts and tundra than forests, and weaker in intensively managed ecosystems. The ubiquitous effects of plant individuals and species on local soil properties imply that individual plant effects have a role in plant–soil feedbacks, linking individual plants with biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale. PMID:26224711

  12. Individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huff, W E; Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Hagler, W M; Swanson, S P; Phillips, T D; Creger, C R

    1986-07-01

    The individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were evaluated in young broiler chickens (Hubbard X Hubbard). The experimental design was a 2 X 2 factorial with treatments of 0 and 2.5 micrograms of aflatoxin/g of feed (ppm) and 0 and 16 micrograms of DON/g of feed. The broilers were maintained on these dietary treatments from hatching to 3 weeks of age in electrically heated batteries with feed and water available ad libitum. The aflatoxin treatment significantly (P less than .05) decreased body weight; weight gain; increased the relative weight of the spleen, liver, and kidney; induced hepatic hyperlipemia; decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase; and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, and phosphorus. The toxicity of DON was expressed through reduced growth rate, increased feed conversion; increased relative weight of the gizzard, anemia, decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum triglycerides. The interaction between aflatoxin and DON was characterized by reduced growth rates; increased feed conversion, increased relative weight of the proventriculus, gizzard, spleen, liver, and kidney, anemia, hepatic hyperlipemia, decreased activity of alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and calcium. These data demonstrate that both aflatoxin and DON can limit broiler performance and adversely effect broiler health. The effects of the combination of aflatoxin and DON on broiler performance and health was more severe than the individual effects of these mycotoxins; however, the interaction was not severe enough to represent toxic synergy and can best be characterized as additive toxicity.

  13. Inhibitory interneuron circuits at cortical and spinal levels are associated with individual differences in corticomuscular coherence during isometric voluntary contraction

    PubMed Central

    Matsuya, Ryosuke; Ushiyama, Junichi; Ushiba, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is an oscillatory synchronization of 15–35 Hz (β-band) between electroencephalogram (EEG) of the sensorimotor cortex and electromyogram of contracting muscles. Although we reported that the magnitude of CMC varies among individuals, the physiological mechanisms underlying this variation are still unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the associations between CMC and intracortical inhibition (ICI) in the primary motor cortex (M1)/recurrent inhibition (RI) in the spinal cord, which probably affect oscillatory neural activities. Firstly, we quantified ICI from changes in motor-evoked potentials induced by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in M1 during tonic isometric voluntary contraction of the first dorsal interosseous. ICI showed a significant, negative correlation with the strength of EEG β-oscillation, but not with the magnitude of CMC across individuals. Next, we quantified RI from changes in H-reflexes induced by paired-pulse electrical nerve stimulation to the posterior tibial nerve during isometric contraction of the soleus muscle. We observed a significant, positive correlation between RI and peak CMC across individuals. These results suggest that the local inhibitory interneuron networks in cortical and spinal levels are associated with the oscillatory activity in corticospinal loop. PMID:28290507

  14. Bridging the gap between individual-level risk for HIV and structural determinants: using root cause analysis in strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Willard, Nancy; Chutuape, Kate; Stines, Stephanie; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevention efforts have expanded beyond individual-level interventions to address structural determinants of risk. Coalitions have been an important vehicle for addressing similar intractable and deeply rooted health-related issues. A root cause analysis process may aid coalitions in identifying fundamental, structural-level contributors to risk and in identifying appropriate solutions. For this article, strategic plans for 13 coalitions were analyzed both before and after a root cause analysis approach was applied to determine the coalitions' strategic plans potential impact and comprehensiveness. After root cause analysis, strategic plans trended toward targeting policies and practices rather than on single agency programmatic changes. Plans expanded to target multiple sectors and several changes within sectors to penetrate deeply into a sector or system. Findings suggest that root cause analysis may be a viable tool to assist coalitions in identifying structural determinants and possible solutions for HIV risk.

  15. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. Objective To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Methods Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Results Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference –0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.27 to –0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference –0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.30 to –0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (>4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk

  16. Effect of individualized goal-setting on college biology students' locus of control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, John E.

    This study investigated the effect of Individualized Goal-Setting A-T, relative to Classic A-T, on a student's locus of control (generalized and academic). This study also examined the effect of pretesting, relative to no pretesting, on a student's locus of control. Sixty students in an introductory, Audio-Tutorial, college zoology course were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Control groups (Classic A-T) completed the course in the usual manner. Treatment groups (IGS A-T) completed the course in the usual manner with one exception. That is, they used a different format for Optional Minicourse mastery. This new format released greater control to students over means as well as ends of minicourse mastery. Data were collected through use of the Solomon Four-Group design, with two levels of treatment (Classic A-T, IGS A-T) and two levels of pretesting (pretest, no pretest). Instruments included the Rotter I-E and Schafer Academic I-E Locus of Control Scales. Posttest scores were analyzed by a 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA).The following conclusions were made (p < 0.10).1IGS A-T, relative to Classic A-T, has no significant effect on a student's locus of control.2Pretesting, relative to no pretesting, has no significant effect on posttest locus of control.

  17. Effects of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, sleep, and cognitive performance in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Trksak, George H; Bracken, Bethany K; Jensen, J Eric; Plante, David T; Penetar, David M; Tartarini, Wendy L; Maywalt, Melissa A; Dorsey, Cynthia M; Renshaw, Perry F; Lukas, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent ³¹P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, ³¹P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse.

  18. Parental Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and College Student Adjustment: A Structural Equation Analysis of Mediational Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Brand, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    Secure parental attachment and healthy levels of separation-individuation have been consistently linked to greater college student adjustment. The present study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and college adjustment is mediated by healthy separation-individuation. The authors gathered data on maternal and paternal…

  19. Limited impact of elevated levels of polyphenol oxidase on tree-feeding caterpillars: assessing individual plant defenses with transgenic poplar.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Jones, Christopher P; Yip, Lynn; Tran, Lan; Constabel, C Peter

    2007-11-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is commonly believed to function as an effective antiherbivore defense in plants. PPO is induced in plants following herbivory, and insect performance is often negatively correlated with PPO levels. However, induced defenses create numerous changes in plants, and very little work has been done to test the direct effects of PPO on insect herbivores separately from other changes. This study examined the impacts of high levels of PPO on the performance of two species of tree-feeding caterpillars (Lymantria dispar and Orgyia leucostigma) on poplar. Transgenic PPO-overexpressing poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) was used as a source of elevated-PPO leaves, thereby controlling for the multiple effects of induction. In addition, the impacts of treating poplar foliage with high levels of purified mushroom PPO were examined on the two caterpillar species. Contrary to expectation, in several cases increased PPO levels had no significant effect on insect consumption or growth rates. Although one of the mechanisms by which PPO is believed to impact herbivores is via increased oxidative stress, the ingestion of large amounts of PPO had little or no effect on semiquinone radical and oxidized protein levels in the gut contents of lymantriid caterpillars. PPO activity in caterpillars is likely limited by the low oxygen and high ascorbate levels commonly found in their gut contents. This study questions whether induced PPO functions as an effective post-ingestive defense against tree-feeding caterpillars, and indicates that controlled, mechanistic studies are needed in other plant-herbivore systems to test for a direct effect of PPO on insect performance.

  20. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, D.S.; Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Bartelt, P.E.; Corn, P.S.; Hossack, B.R.; Lambert, B.A.; Mccaffery, R.; Gaughan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations. Journal compilation. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  1. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Benson, John F.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Riley, Seth P. D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance. PMID:27411098

  2. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Sikich, Jeff A; Riley, Seth P D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance.

  3. Exploring facilitators and barriers to individual and organizational level capacity building: outcomes of participation in a community priority setting workshop.

    PubMed

    Flaman, Laura M; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Raine, Kim

    2010-06-01

    This article explores facilitators and barriers to individual and organizational capacity to address priority strategies for community-level chronic disease prevention. Interviews were conducted with a group of participants who previously participated in a community priority-setting workshop held in two Alberta communities. The goal of the workshop was to bring together key community stakeholders to collaboratively identify action strategies for preventing chronic diseases in their communities. While capacity building was not the specific aim of the workshop, it could be considered an unintended byproduct of bringing together community representatives around a specific issue. One purpose of this study was to examine the participants' capacity to take action on the priority strategies identified at the workshop. Eleven one-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with workshop participants to examine facilitators and barriers to individual and organizational level capacity building. Findings suggest that there were several barriers identified by participants that limited their capacity to take action on the workshop strategies, specifically: (i) organizations' lack of priorities or competing priorities; (ii) priorities secondary to the organizational mandate; (iii) disconnect between organizational and community priorities; (iv) disconnect between community organization priorities; (v) disconnect between organizations and government/funder priorities; (vi) limited resources (i.e. time, money and personnel); and, (vii) bigger community issues. The primary facilitator of individual capacity to take action or priority strategies was supportive organizations. Recognition of these elements will allow practitioners, organizations, governments/funders, and communities to focus on seeking ways to improve capacity for chronic disease prevention.

  4. Pre-GnRH and GnRH-induced testosterone levels do not vary across behavioral contexts: A role for individual variation.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Medhavi; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2017-05-15

    Hormones can facilitate the expression of behavior, but relatively few studies have considered individual variation and repeatability in hormone-behavior relationships. Repeated measures of hormones are valuable because repeatability in hormone levels might be a mechanism that drives repeatability in behavior ("personality"). Testosterone is predicted to promote territorial aggression and suppress parental behaviors. In our population of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis), parental care and nest defense aggression toward a heterospecific are repeatable. We tested the hypothesis that repeatability of testosterone levels within individuals underlies repeatable behaviors observed in our population. We measured nestling provisioning and aggressive nest defense against a heterospecific. After behavioral observations we captured either the male or female bluebird, and determined initial testosterone levels and maximum capacity of the gonads to secrete testosterone by injecting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). We found among-individual variation in initial testosterone levels for males and females. Individual males were repeatable in both initial and GnRH-induced testosterone levels across behavioral contexts, while individual females were repeatable in GnRH-induced testosterone levels. However, testosterone levels were not significantly related to parental or nest defense behaviors, suggesting that repeatable testosterone levels may not drive repeatable parental and heterospecific nest defense behaviors in this population. The absence of a relationship between testosterone and parental and heterospecific nest defense behaviors might be due to among-individual variation in testosterone levels. Considering the sources of variation in testosterone levels may reveal why some populations exhibit high individual variation in hormone levels.

  5. Familiarity Effects on Categorization Levels of Faces and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaki, David; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that faces, in contrast to objects, are categorized as fast or faster at the individual level (e.g., Bill Clinton) than at the basic-level (e.g., human face). This subordinate-shift from basic-level categorization has been considered an outcome of visual expertise with processing faces. However, in the present study we found…

  6. Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…

  7. Combining Cooperative Learning and Individualized Instruction: Effects on Student Mathematics Achievement, Attitudes, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes two studies investigating the effects of Team-Assisted Individualization (TAI), a combination of cooperative learning and individually programed instruction, on third-, fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students' achievement, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that the TAI approach had positive effects on mathematics achievement,…

  8. Preparation for Group Therapy: The Effects of Preparer and Modality on Group Process and Individual Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Vicki E.; DeLucia, Janice L.

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of preparer (leader versus other personnel) and modality (group versus individual) on expectations about therapy, anxiety, group and individual functioning, and leader functioning in group therapy preparation program. Findings from 32 graduate students revealed that preparation can have positive effect on clients' beliefs,…

  9. The Effect of Using Cooperative and Individual Weblog to Enhance Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsak, H. Gulhan Orhan; Fer, Seval; Orhan, Feza

    2014-01-01

    Academic writing, whether individual or cooperative, is an essential skill for today's graduates. However, motivating and helping students to learn to write effectively, either in cooperative or individual scenarios, poses many challenges, many of which can be overcome by technical means. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of using…

  10. Effects of EFL Individual Learner Variables on Foreign Language Reading Anxiety and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use.

    PubMed

    Lien, Hsin-Yi

    2016-08-01

    Past research has shown an association between foreign language reading anxiety and reading strategy. However, individual variables tend to affect foreign language anxiety and strategy use. The present study examined a hypothesized model that specified direct and indirect effects among English and foreign languages readers' distinct variables, including academic level; self-perceived English level; and satisfaction with reading proficiency, reading anxiety, and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. A total of 523 volunteer Taiwanese college students provided 372 valid responses to a written questionnaire (281 women and 91 men; M age = 19.7 years, SD = 1.1) containing the translated versions of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale, Survey of Reading Strategies Inventory, and self-assessment background questionnaire. The results showed that self-evaluation of reading proficiency did not correlate with academic level and readers' perceptions. Satisfaction had a direct effect on foreign language reading anxiety but not on metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Results of path analysis demonstrated that the perception learners who had their own reading proficiency predicted their foreign language reading anxiety and was a mediating variable for metacognitive reading strategy use.

  11. Muscle relaxation for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment: possible effects regarding anxiety and pain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Faye; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Chen, Ching; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lin, Shu-Ching; Tsai, Hsiu-Huang; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Effectively managing pain is vital for the well-being and satisfaction of patients undergoing dermatologic treatments involving lasers. This study investigates the potential outcome of using muscle relaxation techniques to reduce pain among people having their tattoos removed with laser treatment. This study consists of 56 participants (mean age 18.1 ± 2.1 years) that had tattoos removed using the principle of selective photothermolysis. These participants underwent muscle relaxation before receiving the laser treatment. Their peripheral skin temperatures (PST) were measured both at the beginning and the end of the muscle relaxation period. Then, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was applied to evaluate anxiety levels. Once the laser treatment was completed, pain levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. A total of 125 person-sessions of laser treatment and psychometric assessments were performed in this study. The muscle relaxation method significantly increased the PST of the participants while reducing the levels of anxiety and pain throughout the course of the laser treatment procedure. The PST, anxiety scores, and pain scores all showed significant correlations with one another. According to the results obtained, this study proposes that muscle relaxation techniques be considered possibly auxiliary treatment options for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment. Additional studies with a comparison group and a larger sample size are required in the future to confirm the effectiveness of such intervention.

  12. Effects of repeated collaborative retrieval on individual memory vary as a function of recall versus recognition tasks.

    PubMed

    Blumen, Helena M; Rajaram, Suparna

    2009-11-01

    Our research examines how prior group collaboration modulates later individual memory. We recently showed that repeated collaborative recall sessions benefit later individual recall more than a single collaborative recall session (Blumen & Rajaram, 2008). Current research compared the effects of repeated collaborative recall and repeated collaborative recognition on later individual recall and later individual recognition. A total of 192 participants studied a list of nouns and then completed three successive retrieval sessions in one of four conditions. While two collaborative recall sessions and two collaborative recognition sessions generated comparable levels of individual recall (CRecall-CRecall-I Recall approximately CRecognition-CRecognition-I Recall , Experiment 1a), two collaborative recognition sessions generated greater levels of individual recognition than two collaborative recall sessions (CRecognition-CRecognition- IRecognition > CRecall-CRecall- I Recognition , Experiment 1b). These findings are discussed in terms of two opposing mechanisms that operate during collaborative retrieval-re-exposure and retrieval disruption-and in terms of transfer-appropriate processing across collaborative and individual retrieval sessions.

  13. Individual, Family, and Culture Level Contributions to Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: A Longitudinal Study in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,432 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers’ and fathers’ reports of corporal punishment and children’s reports of their parents’ neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers’ and fathers’ use of corporal punishment and children’s perceptions of their parents’ neglect were predicted by parents’ belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents’ perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents’ progressive parenting attitudes, parents’ endorsement of aggression, parents’ education, children’s externalizing problems, and children’s internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect. PMID:26535934

  14. Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Peña Alampay, Liane

    2015-11-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect.

  15. Brief motivational interventions for college student drinking may not be as powerful as we think: An individual participant-level data meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, David; Mun, Eun-Young; Larimer, Mary E.; White, Helene R.; Ray, Anne E.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kim, Su-Young; Jiao, Yang; Atkins, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background For over two decades, brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been implemented on college campuses to reduce heavy drinking and related negative consequences. Such interventions include in-person motivational interviews (MIs), often incorporating personalized feedback (PF), and stand-alone PF interventions delivered via mail, computer, or the Web. Both narrative and meta-analytic reviews using aggregate data from published studies suggest at least short-term efficacy of BMIs, although overall effect sizes have been small. Method The present study was an individual participant-level data (IPD) meta-analysis of 17 randomized clinical trials evaluating BMIs. Unlike typical meta-analysis based on summary data, IPD meta-analysis allows for an analysis that correctly accommodates the sampling, sample characteristics, and distributions of the pooled data. In particular, highly skewed distributions with many zeroes are typical for drinking outcomes, but have not been adequ