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Sample records for individual levels effects

  1. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intersexuality in crustaceans: genetic, individual and population level effects.

    PubMed

    Ford, Alex T; Sambles, Christine; Kille, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Scientists investigating toxicants such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) at the cellular at the sub-cellular level are often faced with criticisms as to how these effects can be extrapolated to the level of individuals and their populations. This report aims to provide an overview of the studies undertaken on crustacean model, Echinogammarus marinus LEACH (AMPHIPODA), and intersex phenotypes, at the individual and population levels, and provide additional emergent data at the genomic level. These, normal and intersex, males and females have been investigated by cross-hybridisation microarray analysis and specific sexually dimorphic genes and corresponding properties identified between each sexual phenotype. The morphology, physiology and histology of these intersexes have been investigated in detail and a number of reproductive costs have been identified including reduced fecundity and fertility. These costs have been incorporated into a population model and simulated over a ten-year period to ascertain how different levels of intersexuality affect the stability of populations. Based on the information gained through study of intersex models (with known endocrine dysfunction) together with the substantial quantity of historical data relating to effects of chemicals on amphipod fecundity, growth and mortality, the development of appropriate biomarkers is nearer to being assessed from the level of genes to that of the population.

  3. Group level effects of social versus individual learning.

    PubMed

    Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei

    2013-06-01

    We study the effects of learning by imitating others within the framework of an iterated game in which the members of two complementary populations interact via random pairing at each round. This allows us to compare both the fitness of different strategies within a population and the performance of populations in which members have access to different types of strategies. Previous studies reveal some emergent dynamics at the population level, when players learn individually. We here investigate a different mechanism in which players can choose between two different learning strategies, individual or social. Imitating behavior can spread within a mixed population, with the frequency of imitators varying over generation time. When compared to a pure population with solely individual learners, a mixed population with both individual and social learners can do better, independently of the precise learning scheme employed. We can then search for the best imitating strategy. Imitating the neighbor with the highest payoff turns out to be consistently superior. This is in agreement with findings in experimental and model studies that have been carried out in different settings.

  4. Mathematics Achievement Effects of Three Levels of Individualization: Whole Class, Ability Grouped, and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Karweit, Nancy L.

    This research evaluated mathematics achievement and attitudinal effects of three instructional methods directed in varying degrees toward accommodating diversity in students' prior achievement. Two randomized field experiments of 16 and 18 weeks' duration, respectively, compared an individualized model, Team Assisted Individualization (TAI); an…

  5. Status Effects in Group Problem Solving: Group and Individual Level Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming

    Eighty ninth graders who solved an algebra problem in groups of four showed status effects at the individual level. The students had filled out preactivity questionnaires about mathematical status and social status and a postactivity leadership questionnaire. Hierarchical regressions and path analyses show that, at the group level, solution score…

  6. Contaminant effect endpoints in terrestrial vertebrates at and above the individual level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Golden, N.H.; Albers, P.H.; Heinz, G.H.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Use of biochemical, physiological, anatomical, reproductive and behavioral characteristics of wild terrestrial vertebrates to assess contaminant exposure and effects has become commonplace over the past 3 decades. At the level of the individual organism, response patterns have been associated with and sometimes causally linked to contaminant exposure. However, such responses at the organismal level are rarely associated with or causally linked to effects at the population level. Although the ultimate goal of ecotoxicology is the protection of populations, communities, and ecosystems, most of the existing science and regulatory legislation focus on the level of the individual. Consequently, much of this overview concentrates on contaminant effects at the organismal level, with some extrapolation to higher-level effects. In this chapter, we review the state of the science for the evaluation of biotic end-points used to assess contaminant exposure and effects at or above the level of the individual. In addition, we describe extant contaminant concentration thresholds, guidelines, or standards (toxicant criteria) in environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil, sediment, foods) that have been developed to protect wild terrestrial vertebrates. Suggestions are provided to develop and embellish the use and value of such endpoints and criteria for extrapolation of effects to higher levels of biological organization. Increasing focus on populations, communities, and ecosystems is needed to develop biologically meaningful regulatory guidelines that will protect natural resources.

  7. Effects of State-Level Tobacco Environment on Cigarette Smoking are Stronger Among Those With Individual-Level Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Shmulewitz, Dvora; Stohl, Malka; Keyes, Katherine M; Brown, Qiana; Saha, Tulshi D; Hasin, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    To better understand the impact of the state-level tobacco environment (eg, tobacco control policies, attitudes towards smoking) on cigarette smoking, we examined whether the relationship of state tobacco environments to smoking is modified by individual-level vulnerability factors. In a nationally representative sample of US adults (N = 34 638), past-year smoking and heavy smoking were examined. State-level tobacco environment was defined by tobacco-related control policies and attitudes, ranging from permissive to restrictive; individual vulnerability was defined by childhood maltreatment and/or parental substance problems. Additive interaction tested differences in state-level tobacco environment effects on smoking and heavy smoking by individual-level vulnerability. Significant interactions (P values < .01) indicated that the state tobacco environment had the strongest relationship to smoking outcomes among individuals with greatest individual vulnerability. For example, among respondents with childhood maltreatment and parental substance problems, those in states with permissive tobacco environments had 13.3% greater prevalence of smoking than those in restrictive states. Among respondents with neither individual-level risk factor, those in permissive states had 2.8% greater prevalence than those in restrictive states (interaction P value = .0002). Further restricting states' smoking environments could help reduce the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking, particularly among those at increased individual risk in the general population. This study shows that the protective effect of restrictive state-level tobacco environments on smoking or heavy smoking was stronger among those especially vulnerable due to individual-level risk factors (parental substance problems, childhood maltreatment). Thus, public health campaigns to influence attitudes towards smoking or legislation to strengthen tobacco control could have a broad effect, particularly impacting those

  8. Population-level effects in Amphiascus tenuiremis: contrasting matrix- and individual-based population models.

    PubMed

    Lundström Belleza, Elin; Brinkmann, Markus; Preuss, Thomas G; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2014-12-01

    Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is generally based on individual-level endpoints, even though protection goals in ERA intend higher biological levels. Population models have the potential to translate individual-level endpoints to population-level responses and range from simple demographic equations to highly complex individual based models (IBMs). The aims of the current study were to develop a matrix model (MM) with the structure and parameterization proposed in the draft OECD guideline "Harpacticoid copepod development and reproduction test with Amphiascus tenuiremis", and an IBM with the same data requirements. Experimental data from lindane exposure from validation studies of the OECD guideline was projected to the population level. Lindane does not only cause effects on survival and reproduction, but also on the time it takes to develop from larvae to adults. The two model approaches were contrasted in terms of their ability to properly project these effects on development. The MM projected smaller effects of the lindane treatments on population growth rate compared to the IBM since in its proposed structure, it did not include the delay in development explicitly. Population-level EC10 for population growth rate in the IBM was at the same level as the most sensitive individual-level endpoint, whereas the EC10 from the MM was not as sensitive. Based on these findings, our conclusion is that the IBM (or an improved MM) should be used for datasets including shifts in development, whereas the simpler MM is sufficient for datasets where only mortality and reproduction are affected, or as a screening tool in lower-tier population-level ERA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Contextual and Individual Level Factors on Chinese Adults’ Attitudes towards Social Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we describe Chinese adults’ attitudes towards three specific aspects of social environments: local government performance, severity of major social issues, and social trust. We further explore how county level contextual factors and personal experiences relate to subjective social environments, while controlling for individual demographics. On average, Chinese adults in the CFPS endorsed moderately positive ratings for their local governments, but perceived high severities in various social issues, ranking economic inequality as the most severe. A moderate level of generalized trust (54%) was found, together with very high trust in parents and very low trust in Americans and strangers. Further analyses revealed that variations in subjective social environments at the prefectural level were relatively small compared with individual level variations. At the individual level, personal experiences such as perceived unfair treatment showed consistently negative effects on how people evaluated their social environments. At the contextual level, employment rates appeared more influential than other studied factors. Regional economic inequality, as indicated by prefectural Gini, was not associated with most studied outcomes. PMID:25893142

  10. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child's Gross Motor Coordination Development.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child's motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  11. Effects of subchronic exposure to glyphosate in juvenile oysters (Crassostrea gigas): From molecular to individual levels.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Antoine; Séguin, Alexis; Devos, Alexandre; Pabic, Charles Le; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean Marc; Serpentini, Antoine; Fievet, Bruno; Costil, Katherine

    2015-06-30

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used and can be measured in aquatic ecosystems, including coastal waters. The effect of glyphosate on non-target organisms is an issue of worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to glyphosate in juvenile oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Yearling oysters were exposed to three concentrations of glyphosate (0.1, 1 and 100μgL(-1)) for 56days. Various endpoints were studied, from the individual level (e.g., gametogenesis and tissue alterations) to the molecular level (mRNA quantification), including biochemical endpoints such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities and malondialdehyde content. No mortality and growth occurred during the experiment, and individual biomarkers revealed only slight effects. The levels of gene expression significantly increased in oysters exposed to the highest glyphosate concentration (GST and metallothioneins) or to all concentrations (multi-xenobiotic resistance). These results suggested an activation of defence mechanisms at the molecular level.

  12. Effect of vitamin A administration on free radicals and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Patlar, Suleyman; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to explore the effect of vitamin A administration on Free Radicals production and antioxidant system activity and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion The study registered 10 healthy sedentary males their mean age was 22,85±0,26 years. The subjects were orally administrated with 300 mg vitamin A (retinol) for 4 weeks and engaged in strenuous exercise (using the Bruce protocol) once a week. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at four different times, before and after the supplementation and before and after exercise to analyze Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels using colorimetric ELISA test kits and plasma lactate levels using an autoanalyzer. Exhaustion exercise leaded to an increase in both MDA, NO, and lactate, and GSH, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD levels compared to resting levels both before and after supplementation (p<0.05). Increased NO levels found in pre-supplementation exhaustion showed a significant decrease after the supplementation of vitamin A (p<0.05), but the other parameters were not changed after vitamin A administration. The results of our study demonstrate that the increase caused by 4-week strenuous exercise in the levels of the free radical NO was offset by vitamin A supplementation. It can be suggested that supplementation of vitamin A at physiological doses has a limited effect on lipid peroxidation caused by strenuous exercise.

  13. The effect of socioeconomic and individual factors on acceptance levels of bariatric surgery among Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Liu, Yun; Miao, Yi; Wu, Honghao; Yang, Simei; Guan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing over the past years in China. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment that has been gradually accepted by obese patients. This study explored the effect of different factors on the acceptance levels of bariatric surgery. A total of 186 obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 32 kg/m(2)) answered a questionnaire, including questions about their marital status, income level, education level, health insurance, and obesity-associated co-morbidities; 84 of these patients underwent bariatric surgery. The data was analyzed using the χ(2) test. Univariate analyses found that age, BMI, gluttonous behavior, income level, health insurance, medications, and weight loss expectations were correlated with the acceptance of bariatric surgery. Multivariate analyses found that BMI (P = .034) and weight loss expectations (P = .001) were positively correlated with the acceptance of bariatric surgery. Patients with gluttonous behavior accepted bariatric surgery (P = .003). However, income levels (P<.001) and health insurance (P = .001) were negatively correlated with the acceptance of bariatric surgery. Obesity was more prevalent in families of low social status and income levels; this group requires medical assistance, and education is still necessary for obese individuals of high social status and income levels. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of matrix heterogeneity on animal dispersal: from individual behavior to metapopulation-level parameters.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Eloy; Wiegand, Thorsten; Palomares, Francisco; Ferreras, Pablo; Delibes, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Mounting theoretical and empirical evidence shows that matrix heterogeneity may have contrasting effects on metapopulation dynamics by contributing to patch isolation in nontrivial ways. We analyze the movement properties during interpatch dispersal in a metapopulation of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). On a daily temporal scale, lynx habitat selection defines two types of matrix habitats where individuals may move: open and dispersal habitats (avoided and used as available, respectively). There was a strong and complex impact of matrix heterogeneity on movement properties at several temporal scales (hourly and daily radiolocations and the entire dispersal event). We use the movement properties on the hourly temporal scale to build a simulation model to reconstruct individual dispersal events. The two most important parameters affecting model predictions at both the individual (daily) and metapopulation scales were related to the movement capacity (number of movement steps per day and autocorrelation in dispersal habitat) followed by the parameters representing the habitat selection in the matrix. The model adequately reproduced field estimates of population-level parameters (e.g., interpatch connectivity, maximum and final dispersal distances), and its performance was clearly improved when including the effect of matrix heterogeneity on movement properties. To assume there is a homogeneous matrix results in large errors in the estimate of interpatch connectivity, especially for close patches separated by open habitat or corridors of dispersal habitat, showing how important it is to consider matrix heterogeneity when it is present. Movement properties affect the interaction of dispersing individuals with the landscape and can be used as a mechanistic representation of dispersal at the metapopulation level. This is so when the effect of matrix heterogeneity on movement properties is evaluated under biologically meaningful spatial and temporal scales.

  15. Effects of the polycyclic musk HHCB on individual- and population-level endpoints in Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Signe; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, Daniel; Forbes, Valery

    2009-05-01

    Although the polycyclic musk 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) is frequently detected in aquatic sediments, very little is known about its effects on sediment-feeding organisms. Effects of sediment-associated HHCB on growth, feeding rate, survival and reproduction in the gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum were measured in the laboratory. Snails were exposed to six nominal HHCB concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 and 100microg g(-1) dry weight (dw) sediment. Adult survival and growth were not affected by HHCB. However, juvenile growth and survival, reproduction, time to first reproduction and adult feeding rate were more sensitive endpoints and declined with increasing HHCB concentration. Individual-level endpoints for P. antipodarum were integrated into a population model to investigate the effects of HHCB on population growth rate. Under otherwise favorable laboratory conditions, population growth rate was slightly (by ca. 2%), but not significantly, reduced with increasing HHCB exposure concentration. Model simulations were performed to explore the consequences of HHCB exposure under more ecologically realistic conditions (i.e., survival and reproduction of unexposed snails were markedly reduced relative to the laboratory). The results suggest that despite detectable effects of HHCB on individual-level endpoints measured in the laboratory, impacts on population dynamics of this deposit feeder are not likely to occur at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations.

  16. Effects of chronic low level lead exposure on the physiology of individually identifiable neurons.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T

    1983-01-01

    Although chronic exposure to lead has been correlated with a variety of behavioral and neurochemical deficits in humans and other mammals, little is known of the mechanisms of action of chronic lead at the level of the individual nerve cell. We have used the individually identifiable neurons of the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a model system to investigate the effects of chronic low level (5 microM) lead exposure on neuronal physiology. Thirteen neuronal parameters were measured with intracellular microelectrode recording in each of six different identifiable neurons or homogeneous neuron clusters. Results were analyzed by a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). MANOVA analysis indicates that there is a significant overall effect of lead exposure (p = 0.0001) and a significant interaction between lead and neuron type (p = 0.01). In most neuron types, chronic lead causes an increase in the resting potential, a slowing of recovery of the membrane potential after the undershoot of a spike, a decrease in spontaneous spiking activity, and a decrease in the input resistance. Lead also has differential effects on identifiable neurons, depressing excitability in some neuron types while not altering excitability in others.

  17. Effects of Individual Physician-Level and Practice-Level Financial Incentives on Hypertension Care: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Laura A.; Simpson, Kate; Pietz, Kenneth; Urech, Tracy H.; Hysong, Sylvia J.; Profit, Jochen; Conrad, Douglas A.; Dudley, R. Adams; Woodard, LeChauncy D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Pay for performance is intended to align incentives to promote high quality care, but results have been contradictory. Objective To test the effect of explicit financial incentives to reward guideline-recommended hypertension care. Design, Setting, and Participants Cluster randomized controlled trial of 12 Veterans Affairs hospital-based outpatient clinics with five performance periods and a 12-month washout. We enrolled 83 primary care physicians and 42 non-physician personnel (e.g., nurses, pharmacists) working with physicians to deliver hypertension care. Interventions Clinics randomized to one of four groups: physician-level (individual) incentives; practice-level incentives; individual- plus practice-level incentives (combined); or none. Intervention participants received up to five payments every four months; all participants could access feedback reports. Main outcome measures For each four-month period, the number of hypertensive patients among a random sample who achieved guideline-recommended blood pressure thresholds or received an appropriate response to uncontrolled blood pressure; and/or been prescribed guideline-recommended medications and the number who developed hypotension. Results Mean (standard deviation) total payments over the study were $4,270 ($459), $2,672 ($153), and $1,648 ($248) for the combined, individual, and practice-level interventions, respectively. The adjusted change over the study in patients meeting the combined blood pressure/appropriate response measure was 8.84 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.20–11.80) for the individual-level, 3.70 (95% CI, 0.24–7.68) for the practice-level, 5.54 (95% CI, 1.92–9.52) for the combined, and 0.47 (95% CI, −3.12–4.04) for the control groups. For medications, the change was 9.07 (95% CI, 4.52–13.44), 4.98 (95% CI, 0.64–10.08), 7.26 (95% CI, 2.92–12.48), and 4.35 (95% CI, −0.28–9.28) percentage points, respectively. The adjusted estimated

  18. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  19. Antialgal effects of five individual allelochemicals and their mixtures in low level pollution conditions.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Zhou, Shoubiao; Ye, Liangtao; Ding, Ying; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    An effective, environmentally friendly, and eco-sustainable approach for removing harmful microalgae is exploiting the allelopathic potential of aquatic macrophytes. In this study, we simulated field pollution conditions in the laboratory to investigate algal inhibition by allelochemicals, thereby providing insights into field practices. We tested five allelochemicals, i.e., coumarin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, and a typical green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, under two conditions. In the unpolluted treatment, individual allelochemicals had strong algal inhibition effects, where coumarin and ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid had greater potential for algal inhibition than protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid based on the 50 % inhibitory concentration. However, when two or three allelochemicals were mixed in specific proportions, the algal inhibition rate exceeded 80 %, thereby indicating allelopathic synergistic interactions. Mixtures of four or five allelochemicals had weak effects on algal inhibition, which indicated antagonistic interactions. Furthermore, the presence of low lead pollution significantly reduced the antialgal potential of individual allelochemicals, whereas the allelopathic synergistic interactions with mixtures between two or three allelochemicals were changed into antagonistic effects by low pollution. In particular, the allelopathic antagonistic interactions between four or five allelochemicals were increased by pollution. The allelopathic performance of these five allelochemicals may depend on various factors, such as the chemical species, mixture parameters, and algal strain. Thus, we found that low level pollution reduced the allelopathic inhibition of microalgae by allelochemicals. Therefore, the control of algae by the direct addition of allelochemicals should consider various environmental factors.

  20. Psychosocial effects of an Ebola outbreak at individual, community and international levels.

    PubMed

    Van Bortel, Tine; Basnayake, Anoma; Wurie, Fatou; Jambai, Musu; Koroma, Alimamy Sultan; Muana, Andrew T; Hann, Katrina; Eaton, Julian; Martin, Steven; Nellums, Laura B

    2016-03-01

    The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone was the worst in history with over 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. Here we examine the psychosocial consequences of the epidemic. Ebola is a traumatic illness both in terms of symptom severity and mortality rates. Those affected are likely to experience psychological effects due to the traumatic course of the infection, fear of death and experience of witnessing others dying. Survivors can also experience psychosocial consequences due to feelings of shame or guilt (e.g. from transmitting infection to others) and stigmatization or blame from their communities. At the community level, a cyclical pattern of fear occurs, with a loss of trust in health services and stigma, resulting in disruptions of community interactions and community break down. Health systems in affected countries were severely disrupted and overstretched by the outbreak and their capacities were significantly reduced as almost 900 health-care workers were infected with Ebola and more than 500 died. The outbreak resulted in an increased need for health services, reduced quality of life and economic productivity and social system break down. It is essential that the global response to the outbreak considers both acute and long-term psychosocial needs of individuals and communities. Response efforts should involve communities to address psychosocial need, to rebuild health systems and trust and to limit stigma. The severity of this epidemic and its long-lasting repercussions should spur investment in and development of health systems.

  1. Psychosocial effects of an Ebola outbreak at individual, community and international levels

    PubMed Central

    Basnayake, Anoma; Wurie, Fatou; Jambai, Musu; Koroma, Alimamy Sultan; Muana, Andrew T; Hann, Katrina; Eaton, Julian; Martin, Steven; Nellums, Laura B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2013–2016 Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone was the worst in history with over 28 000 cases and 11 000 deaths. Here we examine the psychosocial consequences of the epidemic. Ebola is a traumatic illness both in terms of symptom severity and mortality rates. Those affected are likely to experience psychological effects due to the traumatic course of the infection, fear of death and experience of witnessing others dying. Survivors can also experience psychosocial consequences due to feelings of shame or guilt (e.g. from transmitting infection to others) and stigmatization or blame from their communities. At the community level, a cyclical pattern of fear occurs, with a loss of trust in health services and stigma, resulting in disruptions of community interactions and community break down. Health systems in affected countries were severely disrupted and overstretched by the outbreak and their capacities were significantly reduced as almost 900 health-care workers were infected with Ebola and more than 500 died. The outbreak resulted in an increased need for health services, reduced quality of life and economic productivity and social system break down. It is essential that the global response to the outbreak considers both acute and long-term psychosocial needs of individuals and communities. Response efforts should involve communities to address psychosocial need, to rebuild health systems and trust and to limit stigma. The severity of this epidemic and its long-lasting repercussions should spur investment in and development of health systems. PMID:26966332

  2. Longitudinal Stability of Friendships in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Individual- and Relationship-level Effects

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Tamara A.R.; Capitanio, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The longevity of children’s friendships is influenced by a multitude of individual- and relationship-level attributes, but little is known about the factors that impact friendship maintenance in nonhuman primate juveniles. We investigated whether the following predicted the longitudinal stability of friendships in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): (a) individual characteristics including sex, dominance rank, matriline size, and temperament; and (b) relationship characteristics including kinship, reciprocity, complexity, and similarity between friends in sex, rank, and temperament. We recorded affiliative interactions of 29 two-year-old rhesus monkeys, previously observed as yearlings, at the California National Primate Research Center. Friends were defined as peers with whom subjects spent more time affiliating than expected by chance. Temperament had been assessed at 3-4 months of age. Sex was the only individual characteristic predicting friendship stability: males maintained more friendships from age one to two than did females. Relationship characteristics predicting friendship stability included similarity between individuals in temperament, kinship, and sex. In addition, reciprocated friendships, rather than unidirectional friendships, were significantly more likely to persist over time. Our findings suggest that the factors influencing friendship maintenance in rhesus monkeys are similar to those impacting human friendship longevity. PMID:22352887

  3. Effect of kava extract and individual kavapyrones on neurotransmitter levels in the nucleus accumbens of rats.

    PubMed

    Baum, S S; Hill, R; Rommelspacher, H

    1998-10-01

    1. Kavapyrones have well-known psychotropic properties. The most common actions of the extract are relaxation and euphoria, depending on the circumstances of ingestion, whereas higher doses cause sleepiness and skeletal muscle relaxation. Several other actions have been reported such as anticonvulsant properties, neuroprotection and analgesia. No interactions with neuroreceptors have yet been found that would explain the multiple actions. 2. To reveal neuronal functions affected by the kavapyrones the authors studied their actions on the mesolimbic reward system using in vivo microdialysis. 3. A small dose of kava extract (20 mg/kg body weight i.p.) caused changes in rat behaviour and concentrations of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Higher doses (120 mg/kg i.p.) increased the levels of dopamine. With respect to the individual compounds, D,L-kawain induced in low doses a decrease in dopamine levels and in higher amounts either an increase or no change in dopamine concentrations. Yangonin resulted in a decrease of dopamine levels to below the detection limit and desmethoxyyangonin in an increase of dopamine levels. Dihydrokawain, methysticin and dihydromethysticin did not produce any significant changes of dopamine levels. D,L-kawain caused a decrease in 5-HT concentrations. Some of the other kavapyrones affected 5-HT levels as well. 4. The results suggest that the relaxing and slightly euphoric actions may be caused by the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic neurones. Changes of the activity of 5-HT neurones could explain the sleep-inducing action.

  4. Individual, population and community level effects of subtle anthropogenic contamination in estuarine meiobenthos.

    PubMed

    Rubal, Marcos; Guilhermino, Lúcia M; Medina, Matías H

    2009-10-01

    The study presented here searched for the level of taxonomic resolution required to detect the effects of low-level chronic pollution on estuarine meiobenthic communities. Meiofauna from two sites, with special attention to harpacticoid copepods, was analysed at different taxonomic levels of aggregation using uni- and multivariate methods. Adaptation processes that could buffer biodiversity disruptions were also considered through the analysis of fitness-related and tolerance traits in the harpacticoid copepod Paronychocamptus nanus. Results showed that uni- and multivariate analyses could be inadequate when assessing subtle anthropogenic contamination. Instead, the assessment of inter-population differences in tolerance to the main source of stress rises as a required procedure if potential effects of this type of contamination are being investigated. Specifically, a 96 h acute toxicity test performed with populations from the affected site appears as a faster and reliable general tool to assess impacts of low-level chronic pollution in estuaries.

  5. The association between individual-level social capital and health: cross-sectional, prospective cohort and fixed-effects models.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that individual-level social capital is positively associated with health, but most preceding studies have not fully controlled for an individual's time-invariant attributes, especially unobserved ones. The current study attempted to address how the association between individual-level social capital and health is confounded by an individual's unobserved time-invariant attributes. Data were collected from six-wave nationwide panel surveys conducted from 2005 to 2010, with 162,720 observations from 30,590 individuals. Individual-level bonding and bridging social capital, as well as their associations with self-rated health (SRH) and psychological distress (measured by Kessler 6 scores), were considered. Estimation results of cross-sectional, prospective cohort and fixed-effects logistic models were compared. The OR of reporting poor SRH responding to high bonding social capital rose from 0.64 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.65) in the pooled cross-sectional model to 0.77 (0.75 to 0.80) in the prospective cohort model and 0.87 (0.82 to 0.92) in the fixed-effects model. Similar patterns were observed for bridging social capital, but the OR of reporting poor SRH became non-significant in the fixed-effects model. Similar results were obtained for psychological distress. The results suggest that the association between individual-level social capital and health is overstated by an individual's unobserved time-invariant attributes. The relevance of health in individual-level social capital should be assessed cautiously. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Effect of Individual and District-level Socioeconomic Disparities on Cognitive Decline in Community-dwelling Elderly in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon Ha; Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Dong Young; Jo, Inho; Choi, Seong Hye; Choi, Kyoung Gyu; Jeong, Jee Hyang

    2017-09-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of individual and district-level socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of cognitive impairment among the elderly. A 3-year retrospective observational analysis (2010-2013) was conducted which included 136,217 community-dwelling healthy elderly who participated in the Seoul Dementia Management Project. Cognitive impairment was defined as 1.5 standard deviations below the norms on the Mini-mental status examination. In the individual lower SES group, the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of cognitive impairment was 8.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.64-8.70), whereas the CIR in the individual higher SES group was 4.1% (95% CI, 4.08-4.10). The CIR for lower district-level SES was 4.7% (95% CI, 4.52-4.86), while that in the higher district-level SES was 4.3% (95% CI, 4.06-4.44). There were no additive or synergistic effects between individual and district-level SES. From this study, the individual SES contributed 1.9 times greater to the development of cognitive impairment than the district-level SES, which suggests that individual SES disparities could be considered as one of the important factors in public health related to cognitive impairment in the elderly. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  7. Plant sterol-fortified orange juice effectively lowers cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Sridevi; Jialal, Ishwarlal; Vega-López, Sonia

    2004-03-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Therapeutic lifestyle changes include dietary modifications such as inclusion of phytosterols, which effectively lowers low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in margarines and other fats. Their effectiveness in nonfat moieties is not yet established. The aim of this study was to examine if phytosterols alter the plasma lipoprotein profile when incorporated into nonfat orange juice. After a 2-week run-in phase with orange juice, 72 mildly hypercholesterolemic healthy subjects were randomized to receive either placebo orange juice (placebo OJ) or plant sterol-fortified orange juice (sterol OJ) (2g/d) for 8 weeks. Fasting blood was obtained at baseline, after 2 weeks of OJ, and after 8 weeks of placebo/sterol-OJ supplementation. Sterol OJ supplementation significantly decreased total (7.2%), LDL (12.4%), and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (7.8%) compared with baseline and compared with placebo OJ (P<0.01). Apolipoprotein B levels were significantly decreased (9.5%) with sterol OJ. There were no significant changes in HDL cholesterol or triglycerides with the sterol OJ. While folate and B12 levels significantly increased, homocysteine levels were unchanged. Orange juice fortified with plant sterols are effective in reducing LDL cholesterol and could easily be incorporated into the therapeutic lifestyle changes dietary regimen.

  8. Ten-Year Trend in SES Effects on Reading Achievement at School and Individual Levels: A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang-Hansen, Kajsa

    2008-01-01

    This study examined changes in the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on reading achievement at individual and school levels between 1991 and 2001. Data from 9 countries that participated in both the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Reading Literacy Study 1991 and the Trend Study in the Progress in…

  9. Explaining the Muslim employment gap in Western Europe: individual-level effects and ethno-religious penalties.

    PubMed

    Connor, Phillip; Koenig, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    It is well-documented that Muslims experience economic disadvantages in Western European labor markets. However, few studies comprehensively test individual-level explanations for the Muslim employment gap. Using data from the European Social Survey, this research note briefly examines the role of individual-level differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in mediating employment differences. Results reveal that human capital, migration background, religiosity, cultural values, and perceptions of discrimination jointly account for about 40% of the employment variance between Muslims and non-Muslims. Model specifications for first- and second-generation Muslim immigrants reveal a similar pattern, with migration background and perceived discrimination being of key relevance in mediating employment difference. While individual-level effects are indeed relevant, unexplained variance suggests that symbolic boundaries against Islam may still translate into tangible ethno-religious penalties.

  10. Domain Knowledge and Individual Interest: The Effects of Academic Level and Specialization in Statistics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Kimberly A.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous research studies have highlighted the significant impact of domain knowledge and individual interest on learning. However, much of this prior research has neglected several important issues regarding the dynamic interplay of domain knowledge and individual interest both within and between domains as well as across developmental stages of…

  11. Domain Knowledge and Individual Interest: The Effects of Academic Level and Specialization in Statistics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Kimberly A.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous research studies have highlighted the significant impact of domain knowledge and individual interest on learning. However, much of this prior research has neglected several important issues regarding the dynamic interplay of domain knowledge and individual interest both within and between domains as well as across developmental stages of…

  12. Racial Bullying and Victimization in Canadian School-Aged Children: Individual and School Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larochette, Anne-Claire; Murphy, Ashley Nicole; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous individual factors, including race, have been identified to date that may place children at risk for bullying involvement. The importance of the school's environment on bullying behaviours has also been highlighted, as the majority of bullying occurs at school. The variables associated with racial bullying and victimization, however, have…

  13. Racial Bullying and Victimization in Canadian School-Aged Children: Individual and School Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larochette, Anne-Claire; Murphy, Ashley Nicole; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous individual factors, including race, have been identified to date that may place children at risk for bullying involvement. The importance of the school's environment on bullying behaviours has also been highlighted, as the majority of bullying occurs at school. The variables associated with racial bullying and victimization, however, have…

  14. Determining mercury levels in anchovy and in individuals with different fish consumption habits, together with their neurological effects.

    PubMed

    Çamur, Derya; Güler, Çağatay; Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Özdilek, Betül

    2016-07-01

    An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul. Mercury levels in samples were measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Participants were examined neurologically and mini mental state examination was applied to evaluate their cognitive functions. Mercury levels in fish were found to be below the national and international permitted levels. There was no statistically significant relation between mercury levels and the sea from which fish were caught. Hair mercury levels for all participants were within permitted ranges. However, hair mercury levels in both cities increased significantly with amount and frequency of fish consumption. A significant correlation was determined at correlation analysis between levels of fish consumption and hair mercury levels in the fishmongers and in the entire group (r = 0.32, p = 0.025; r = 0.23, p = 0.023, respectively). Neurological examination results were normal, except for a decrease in deep tendon reflexes in some participants in both cities. There was no correlation between Standardized Mini Mental State Examination results and hair mercury levels. We conclude that establishing a monitoring system for mercury levels in fish and humans will be useful in terms of evaluating potential neurotoxic effects.

  15. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities. PMID:26264007

  16. INDIVIDUAL EFFECTS OF ESTROGENS ON A MARINE FISH, CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS), EXTRAPOLATED TO POPULATION LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment may alter the population dynamics of wildlife by affecting reproductive output. This study describes a matrix modeling approach to link laboratory studies on endocrine disruption with potential ecological effects. The exper...

  17. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages

    PubMed Central

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; III, Richard Kelly; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague–Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system. PMID:26817976

  18. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; Kelly, Richard; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system.

  19. Effective Leadership Development in Higher Education: Individual and Group Level Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Susanne; Nazlic, Tanja; Weisweiler, Silke; Pawlowska, Beata; Peus, Claudia; Frey, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Research in commercial organizations has provided a multitude of examples on how leadership development can effectively foster employees' performance and work-related attitudes such as commitment or satisfaction. In contrast, to date systematic leadership development is largely lacking for employees in higher education. However, we suggest that…

  20. Temperature, myocardial infarction, and mortality: effect modification by individual- and area-level characteristics.

    PubMed

    Madrigano, Jaime; Mittleman, Murray A; Baccarelli, Andrea; Goldberg, Robert; Melly, Steven; von Klot, Stephanie; Schwartz, Joel

    2013-05-01

    Although several studies have examined associations between temperature and cardiovascular-disease-related mortality, fewer have investigated the association between temperature and the development of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Moreover, little is known about who is most susceptible to the effects of temperature. We analyzed data from the Worcester Heart Attack Study, a community-wide investigation of acute MI in residents of the Worcester (MA) metropolitan area. We used a case-crossover approach to examine the association of apparent temperature with acute MI occurrence and with all-cause in-hospital and postdischarge mortality. We examined effect modification by sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, clinical complications, and physical environment. A decrease in an interquartile range in apparent temperature was associated with an increased risk of acute MI on the same day (hazard ratio = 1.15 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.31]). Extreme cold during the 2 days prior was associated with an increased risk of acute MI (1.36 [1.07-1.74]). Extreme heat during the 2 days prior was also associated with an increased risk of mortality (1.44 [1.06-1.96]). Persons living in areas with greater poverty were more susceptible to heat. Exposure to cold increased the risk of acute MI, and exposure to heat increased the risk of dying after an acute MI. Local area vulnerability should be accounted for as cities prepare to adapt to weather fluctuations as a result of climate change.

  1. Ascertaining effects of nanoscale polymeric interfaces on competitive protein adsorption at the individual protein level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Xie, Tian; Ravensbergen, Kristina; Hahm, Jong-In

    2016-02-01

    With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those occurring in a competitive adsorption environment. Complex sequences of adhesion events in competitive adsorption involving multicomponent protein systems have been extensively investigated, but our understanding is still limited primarily to macroscopic adhesion onto chemically simple surfaces. We examine the competitive adsorption behavior from a binary protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen at the single protein level. We subsequently evaluate a series of adsorption and displacement processes occurring on both the macroscopic homopolymer and nanoscopic diblock copolymer surfaces, while systematically varying the protein concentration and incubation time. We identify the similarities and dissimilarities in competitive protein adsorption behavior between the two polymeric surfaces, the former presenting chemical uniformity at macroscale versus the latter exhibiting periodic nanointerfaces of chemically alternating polymeric segments. We then present our novel experimental finding of a large increase in the nanointerface-engaged residence time of the initially bound proteins and further explain the origin of this phenomenon manifested on nanoscale diblock copolymer surfaces. The outcomes of this study may provide timely insight into nanoscale competitive protein adsorption that is much needed in designing bioimplant and tissue engineering materials. In addition, the fundamental understanding gained from this study can be beneficial for the development of highly miniaturized biodevices and biomaterials fabricated by using nanoscale polymeric materials and interfaces.With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those

  2. Effect of hearing aid release time and presentation level on speech perception in noise in elderly individuals with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pottackal Mathai, Jijo; Mohammed, Hasheem

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of compression time settings and presentation levels on speech perception in noise for elderly individuals with hearing loss. To compare aided speech perception performance in these individuals with age-matched normal hearing subjects. Twenty (normal hearing) participants within the age range of 60-68 years and 20 (mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss) in the age range of 60-70 years were randomly recruited for the study. In the former group, SNR-50 was determined using phonetically balanced sentences that were mixed with speech-shaped noise presented at the most comfortable level. In the SNHL group, aided SNR-50 was determined at three different presentation levels (40, 60, and 80 dB HL) after fitting binaural hearing aids that had different compression time settings (fast and slow). In the SNHL group, slow compression time settings showed significantly better SNR-50 compared to fast release time. In addition, the mean of SNR-50 in the SNHL group was comparable to normal hearing participants while using a slow release time. A hearing aid with slow compression time settings led to significantly better speech perception in noise, compared to that of a hearing aid that had fast compression time settings.

  3. Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals.

    PubMed

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Rezanejad, Saber; Mousavinasab, Firouzeh

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise on the aerobic power, serum lactate level, and cell blood count among active individuals in the environments with similar climatic characteristics differing in their level of air pollution. This trial comprised 20 volunteer students of Physical education in The University of Isfahan, Iran. Two places with the same climate (altitude, temperature, and humidity), but low and high level of air pollutants air were selected in Isfahan, Iran. Participants underwent a field Cooper test with a 12-minute run for fitness assessment. Then the aerobic power, serum lactate, and cell blood counts were measured and compared between the two areas. The study participants had a mean (SD) age of 21.70 (2.10) years and body mass index (BMI) of 24.44 (2.32) Kg/m2. We found a significant decrease in mean Vo2 max, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, as well as significant increase in mean lactate level, white blood cell count and mean corpuscular volume in the higher-polluted than in the lower-polluted area. No significant difference was documented for other parameters as platelet counts or maximum heart rate. Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

  4. Effect of ethnicity on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Priscila Aparecida Correa; Gross, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Disparities in HbA1c levels have been observed among ethnic groups. Most studies were performed in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), which may interfere with results due to the high variability of glucose levels. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of ethnicity on HbA1c levels in individuals without DM. Methods This is a systematic review with meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 2016. Studies published after 1996, performed in adults without DM, reporting HbA1c results measured by certified/standardized methods were included. A random effects model was used and the effect size was presented as weighted HbA1c mean difference (95% CI) between different ethnicities as compared to White ethnicity. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, totalling data from 49,238 individuals. There were significant differences between HbA1c levels in Blacks [0.26% (2.8 mmol/mol); 95% CI 0.18 to 0.33 (2.0 to 3.6), p <0.001; I2 = 90%, p <0.001], Asians [0.24% (2.6 mmol/mol); 95% CI 0.16 to 0.33 (1.7 to 3.6), p <0.001; I2 = 80%, p = 0.0006] and Latinos [0.08% (0.9 mmol/mol); IC 95% 0.06 to 0.10 (0.7 to 1.1); p <0.001; I2 = 0%; p = 0.72] when compared to Whites. Conclusions/Interpretation This meta-analysis shows that, in individuals without DM, HbA1c values are higher in Blacks, Asians, and Latinos when compared to White persons. Although small, these differences might have impact on the use of a sole HbA1c point to diagnose DM in all ethnic populations. PMID:28192447

  5. Variations in observed park physical activity intensity level by gender, race, and age: individual and joint effects.

    PubMed

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Hastmann, Tanis J; Besenyi, Gina M

    2011-09-01

    Parks are important settings for physical activity (PA), but few studies have documented the actual behaviors of park users. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual and joint effects of various park user demographic characteristics on observed PA intensity levels. Four parks were observed using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities. Observers recorded the age group, gender, race, and intensity level of all park users in 83 activity areas over two weekends at each park. Logistic regression examined whether male/White, female/White, and male/non-White users were more likely than female/non-White users to be observed engaging in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) rather than sedentary activity across 4 age groups. In total, 8612 users were observed during the study. In the child age group, male/White users were significantly more likely to be observed in MVPA than female/non-White users. For teens, female/White and male/White users were less likely to engage in MVPA. For both adults and seniors, female/White and male/White users were more likely to be observed in MVPA. Observations revealed significant differences in intensity levels across gender, age, and race groups. Future interventions should emphasize park design that promotes increased MVPA among diverse groups.

  6. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed.

  7. Cognitive reserve and emotional stimuli in older individuals: level of education moderates the age-related positivity effect.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Davide; Brown, Adam D; Kapucu, Aycan; Marmar, Charles R; Pomara, Nunzio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: A frequently observed age-related effect is a preference in older individuals for positive stimuli. The cognitive control model proposes that this positivity effect may be mediated by executive functions. We propose that cognitive reserve, operationally defined as years of education, which tempers cognitive decline and has been linked to executive functions, should also influence the age-related positivity effect, especially as age advances. An emotional free recall test was administered to a group of 84 cognitively intact individuals aged 60 to 88, who varied in years of education. As part of a larger test battery, data were obtained on measures of executive functioning and depression. Multiple regression and moderation analyses were performed, controlling for general cognitive function, severity of depressive symptoms, and executive function. In our data, years of education appeared to moderate the effect of age on the positivity effect; age was negatively associated with recall of positive words in participants with fewer years of education, whereas a nonsignificant positive correlation was observed between age and positivity in participants with more education. Cognitive reserve appears to play a role in explaining individual differences in the positivity effect in healthy older individuals. Future studies should investigate whether cognitive reserve is also implicated in the ability to process a wide range of emotional stimuli and whether greater reserve is reflected in improved emotional regulation.

  8. The Effects of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on Discussion of Cancer Experiences: Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee; Prince, Kort C; Nagelhout, Elizabeth; Wu, Yelena

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to identify young adult Korean cancer survivors' individual- (psychological distress, stigma, sociodemographic variables, and cancer-related variables) and network-level factors (relationship type, social support type) that influence discussion of their cancer experiences. Sixty-eight survivors of childhood cancer who were recruited using snowball sampling nominated 245 individuals from their networks, including family and intimate partners (40%) and friends and acquaintances (60%), as people with whom they most frequently interacted. Results of multilevel modeling analysis indicated that higher levels of internalized shame were a prominent individual-level factor associated with a lack of discussion of cancer experiences. Relationship type and support type at the network-level were also significant correlates of discussion of cancer experiences. Programs for reducing the survivors' shame, improving illness identity, and providing professional training for building social relationships that are intimate and in which they could exchange reciprocal support may help Korean childhood cancer survivors to openly share their cancer experiences with others in their social network and to be successful in the journey of cancer survivorship.

  9. The effect of acute café latte ingestion on fasting serum lipid levels in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Atanaz; Auttapibarn, Clint; Hong, Sung Hee; Larson, Tyler J; Hayworth, Katelyn H; Ito, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Many patients drink café latte as part of their habitual morning routine to start their day and may be unable to skip this step before drawing a fasting blood sample for cholesterol testing. However, it is unknown what the acute effects of consuming a café latte are on fasting serum lipids just before blood sampling. This was a prospective, open-label study with the primary objective of evaluating the acute effect of a 12-oz café latte (2% milk) on calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and secondary objectives of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, and fasting blood glucose (FBG). A 10-hour fasting lipid profile was obtained before and 30 minutes after subjects consumed the café latte. Forty-nine adult participants (34 females; age [mean ± SD] 32.2 ± 13.2 years) were studied. No significant changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C, or non-HDL-C were observed after coffee consumption. Triglyceride significantly decreased from a median of 76.0 to 75.0 mg/dL (P = .002). HDL-C and FBG increased from a mean of 54.4 ± 12.7 to 56.4 ± 14.5 mg/dL (P = .015) and 87.2 ± 7.0 to 97.3 ± 12.9 mg/dL (P < .001), respectively. Consumption of 12 oz. of café latte within one hour of blood draw did not result in a significant change in LDL-C or non-HDL-C in young, nonobese healthy individuals. However, FBG levels increased by almost 12%. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of individual, family and environmental factors on physical activity levels in children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cadogan, Sharon L; Keane, Eimear; Kearney, Patricia M

    2014-04-21

    Physical activity plays an important role in optimising physical and mental health during childhood, adolescence, and throughout adult life. This study aims to identify individual, family and environmental factors that determine physical activity levels in a population sample of children in Ireland. Cross-sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the nationally representative Growing Up in Ireland study. A two-stage clustered sampling method was used where national schools served as the primary sampling unit (response rate: 82%) and age eligible children from participating schools were the secondary units (response rate: 57%). Parent reported child physical activity levels and potential covariates (parent and child reported) include favourite hobby, total screen time, sports participation and child body mass index (measured by trained researcher). Univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression (forward block entry) examined the association between individual, family and environmental level factors and physical activity levels. The children (N = 8,568) were classified as achieving low (25%), moderate (20%) or high (55%) physical activity levels. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 1.64 [95% CI: 1.34-2.01]), having an active favourite hobby (OR 1.65 [95% CI: 1.31-2.08]) and membership of sports or fitness team (OR 1.90 [95% CI: 1.48-2.45]) were significantly associated with being in the high physical activity group. Exceeding two hours total screen time (OR 0.66 [95% CI: 0.52-0.85]), being overweight (OR 0.41 [95%CI: 0.27-0.61]; or obese (OR 0.68 [95%CI: 0.54-0.86]) were significantly associated with decreased odds of being in the high physical activity group. Individual level factors appear to predict PA levels when considered in the multiple domains. Future research should aim to use more robust objective measures to explore the usefulness of the interconnect that exists across these domains. In particular how the family and environmental

  11. Modeling contextual effects using individual-level data and without aggregation: an illustration of multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) with collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Masyn, Katherine E; Johnston, William R; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Population health scientists increasingly study how contextual-level attributes affect individual health. A major challenge in this domain relates to measurement, i.e., how best to measure and create variables that capture characteristics of individuals and their embedded contexts. This paper presents an illustration of multilevel factor analysis (MLFA), an analytic method that enables researchers to model contextual effects using individual-level data without using derived variables. MLFA uses the shared variance in sets of observed items among individuals within the same context to estimate a measurement model for latent constructs; it does this by decomposing the total sample variance-covariance matrix into within-group (e.g., individual-level) and between-group (e.g., contextual-level) matrices and simultaneously modeling distinct latent factor structures at each level. We illustrate the MLFA method using items capturing collective efficacy, which were self-reported by 2,599 adults in 65 census tracts from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS). MLFA identified two latent factors at the individual level and one factor at the neighborhood level. Indicators of collective efficacy performed differently at each level. The ability of MLFA to identify different latent factor structures at each level underscores the utility of this analytic tool to model and identify attributes of contexts relevant to health.

  12. Variation in cadmium uptake, feeding rate, and life-history effects in the gastropod potamopyrgus antipodarum: linking toxicant effects on individuals to the population level.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A; Forbes, V E; Parker, E D

    2001-11-01

    A life-table response experiment was performed to investigate the effects of sediment-bound cadmium on individual life-history traits and feeding rates of four clones of Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Demographic effects were evaluated using a simple two-stage model to estimate population growth rate (lambda). Decomposition analysis was performed to investigate the contributions of each of the affected life-history traits to the effects observed on lambda, and elasticity analysis was applied to examine the relative sensitivity of lambda to changes in each of the life-history traits. Interclonal differences in tolerance to sediment-bound cadmium were statistically significant but were within an order of magnitude. There were no consistent patterns among clones in terms of which individual life-history trait was most or least sensitive to cadmium exposure. The relative performance of clones did not rank consistently across the cadmium gradient and was dependent on which trait was measured. Although lambda was most sensitive to changes in survival terms, the effects of cadmium on time to first reproduction and reproductive output were the major causes of reductions in lambda. Large percent reductions in some of the individual life-history traits were attenuated at the population level, but very small effects on population growth rate were statistically significant.

  13. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Edward; Wood, Robert E; Beckmann, Nadin; Lau, John; Beckmann, Jens F; Cripps, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine whether the patterns of within-person responses on a 12-trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999). ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiraling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of processes at the level of the individual, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques.

  14. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Edward; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin; Lau, John; Beckmann, Jens F.; Cripps, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine whether the patterns of within-person responses on a 12-trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999). ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiraling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of processes at the level of the individual, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques. PMID:27486415

  15. A pilot study on the effect of cognitive training on BDNF serum levels in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Angelucci, Francesco; Peppe, Antonella; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.; Serafini, Francesca; Zabberoni, Silvia; Barban, Francesco; Shofany, Jacob; Caltagirone, Carlo; Costa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, besides motor dysfunctions, may also display mild cognitive deficits (MCI) which increase with disease progression. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and in the regulation of synaptic connectivity. Moreover, the brain and peripheral level of this protein may be significantly reduced in PD patients. These data suggest that a cognitive rehabilitation protocol aimed at restoring cognitive deficits in PD patients may also involve changes in this neurotrophin. Thus, in this pilot study we evaluated the effect of a cognitive rehabilitation protocol focused on the training of executive functioning and measured BDNF serum levels in a group of PD patients with mild cognitive impairment, as compared to the effect of a placebo treatment (n = 7/8 group). The results showed that PD patients undergoing the cognitive rehabilitation, besides improving their cognitive performance as measured with the Zoo Map Test, also displayed increased serum BDNF levels as compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that BDNF serum levels may represent a biomarker of the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in PD patients affected by MCI. However, the functional significance of this increase in PD as well as other neuropathological conditions remains to be determined. PMID:25852518

  16. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone.

  17. The Effects of a Discriminative Stimulus, Paired with Individual and Group Reward Contingencies, on the Decibel Levels in an Elementary School Lunch Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Bryan; Alexander, Melina; Edmonson, Claudia; Stenhoff, Donald; West, Richard P.

    A study examined the effects of using a musical clocklight as discriminative stimulus, paired with individual and group contingency rewards, on the decibel level in an elementary school lunchroom. Subjects were 256 students aged 5-12, who ate lunch in two sessions for younger and older students. The musical clocklight (MCL) apparatus consisted of…

  18. A minimal limit-cycle model to profile movement patterns of individuals during agility drill performance: Effects of skill level.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Identification of control strategies during agility performance is significant in understanding movement behavior. This study aimed at providing a fundamental mathematical model for describing the motion of participants during an agility drill and to determine whether skill level constrained model components. Motion patterns of two groups of skilled and unskilled participants (n=8 in each) during performance of a forward/backward agility drill modeled as limit-cycles. Participant movements were recorded by motion capture of a reflective marker attached to the sacrum of each individual. Graphical and regression analyses of movement kinematics in Hooke's plane, phase plane and velocity profile were performed to determine components of the models. Results showed that the models of both skilled and unskilled groups had terms from Duffing stiffness as well as Van der Pol damping oscillators. Data also indicated that the proposed models captured on average 97% of the variance for both skilled and unskilled groups. Findings from this study revealed the movement patterning associated with skilled and unskilled performance in a typical forward/backward agility drill which might be helpful for trainers and physiotherapists in enhancing agility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does industry take the susceptible subpopulation of asthmatic individuals into consideration when setting derived no‐effect levels?

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mia K. V.; Johanson, Gunnar; Öberg, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, can be aggravated by exposure to certain chemical irritants. The objectives were first to investigate the extent to which experimental observations on asthmatic subjects are taken into consideration in connection with the registration process under the EU REACH regulation, and second, to determine whether asthmatics are provided adequate protection by the derived no‐effect levels (DNELs) for acute inhalation exposure. We identified substances for which experimental data on the pulmonary functions of asthmatics exposed to chemicals under controlled conditions are available. The effect concentrations were then compared with DNELs and other guideline and limit values. As of April 2015, only 2.6% of 269 classified irritants had available experimental data on asthmatics. Fourteen of the 22 identified substances with available data were fully registered under REACH and we retrieved 114 reliable studies related to these. Sixty‐three of these studies, involving nine of the 14 substances, were cited by the REACH registrants. However, only 17 of the 114 studies, involving four substances, were regarded as key studies. Furthermore, many of the DNELs for acute inhalation were higher than estimated effect levels for asthmatics, i.e., lowest observed adverse effect concentrations or no‐observed adverse effect concentrations, indicating low or no safety margin. We conclude that REACH registrants tend to disregard findings on asthmatics when deriving these DNELs. In addition, we found examples of DNELs, particularly among those derived for workers, which likely do not provide adequate protection for asthmatics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27283874

  20. Does industry take the susceptible subpopulation of asthmatic individuals into consideration when setting derived no-effect levels?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Mia K V; Johanson, Gunnar; Öberg, Mattias; Schenk, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, can be aggravated by exposure to certain chemical irritants. The objectives were first to investigate the extent to which experimental observations on asthmatic subjects are taken into consideration in connection with the registration process under the EU REACH regulation, and second, to determine whether asthmatics are provided adequate protection by the derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for acute inhalation exposure. We identified substances for which experimental data on the pulmonary functions of asthmatics exposed to chemicals under controlled conditions are available. The effect concentrations were then compared with DNELs and other guideline and limit values. As of April 2015, only 2.6% of 269 classified irritants had available experimental data on asthmatics. Fourteen of the 22 identified substances with available data were fully registered under REACH and we retrieved 114 reliable studies related to these. Sixty-three of these studies, involving nine of the 14 substances, were cited by the REACH registrants. However, only 17 of the 114 studies, involving four substances, were regarded as key studies. Furthermore, many of the DNELs for acute inhalation were higher than estimated effect levels for asthmatics, i.e., lowest observed adverse effect concentrations or no-observed adverse effect concentrations, indicating low or no safety margin. We conclude that REACH registrants tend to disregard findings on asthmatics when deriving these DNELs. In addition, we found examples of DNELs, particularly among those derived for workers, which likely do not provide adequate protection for asthmatics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of peer nominations of teacher-student support at individual and classroom levels on social and academic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E

    2014-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students' peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students' academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers' perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children's social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Peer Nominations of Teacher-Student Support at Individual and Classroom Levels on Social and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students’ individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students’ peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students’ peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students’ academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers’ perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children’s social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:24930822

  3. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals’ experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone

  4. Error propagation models to examine the effects of geocoding quality on spatial analysis of individual-level datasets.

    PubMed

    Zandbergen, P A; Hart, T C; Lenzer, K E; Camponovo, M E

    2012-04-01

    The quality of geocoding has received substantial attention in recent years. A synthesis of published studies shows that the positional errors of street geocoding are somewhat unique relative to those of other types of spatial data: (1) the magnitude of error varies strongly across urban-rural gradients; (2) the direction of error is not uniform, but strongly associated with the properties of local street segments; (3) the distribution of errors does not follow a normal distribution, but is highly skewed and characterized by a substantial number of very large error values; and (4) the magnitude of error is spatially autocorrelated and is related to properties of the reference data. This makes it difficult to employ analytic approaches or Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation modeling because these rely on generalized statistical characteristics. The current paper describes an alternative empirical approach to error propagation modeling for geocoded data and illustrates its implementation using three different case-studies of geocoded individual-level datasets. The first case-study consists of determining the land cover categories associated with geocoded addresses using a point-in-raster overlay. The second case-study consists of a local hotspot characterization using kernel density analysis of geocoded addresses. The third case-study consists of a spatial data aggregation using enumeration areas of varying spatial resolution. For each case-study a high quality reference scenario based on address points forms the basis for the analysis, which is then compared to the result of various street geocoding techniques. Results show that the unique nature of the positional error of street geocoding introduces substantial noise in the result of spatial analysis, including a substantial amount of bias for some analysis scenarios. This confirms findings from earlier studies, but expands these to a wider range of analytical techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Error propagation models to examine the effects of geocoding quality on spatial analysis of individual-level datasets

    PubMed Central

    Zandbergen, P.A.; Hart, T.C.; Lenzer, K.E.; Camponovo, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of geocoding has received substantial attention in recent years. A synthesis of published studies shows that the positional errors of street geocoding are somewhat unique relative to those of other types of spatial data: 1) the magnitude of error varies strongly across urban-rural gradients; 2) the direction of error is not uniform, but strongly associated with the properties of local street segments; 3) the distribution of errors does not follow a normal distribution, but is highly skewed and characterized by a substantial number of very large error values; and 4) the magnitude of error is spatially autocorrelated and is related to properties of the reference data. This makes it difficult to employ analytic approaches or Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation modeling because these rely on generalized statistical characteristics. The current paper describes an alternative empirical approach to error propagation modeling for geocoded data and illustrates its implementation using three different case-studies of geocoded individual-level datasets. The first case-study consists of determining the land cover categories associated with geocoded addresses using a point-in-raster overlay. The second case-study consists of a local hotspot characterization using kernel density analysis of geocoded addresses. The third case-study consists of a spatial data aggregation using enumeration areas of varying spatial resolution. For each case-study a high quality reference scenario based on address points forms the basis for the analysis, which is then compared to the result of various street geocoding techniques. Results show that the unique nature of the positional error of street geocoding introduces substantial noise in the result of spatial analysis, including a substantial amount of bias for some analysis scenarios. This confirms findings from earlier studies, but expands these to a wider range of analytical techniques. PMID:22469492

  6. Antidepressant Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy Unrelated to the Brain's Functional Network Connectivity alterations at an Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Dong; Ji, Feng; Li, Gong-Ying; Lyu, Bo-Xuan; Hu, Wei; Zhuo, Chuan-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can alleviate the symptoms of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Functional network connectivity (FNC) is a newly developed method to investigate the brain's functional connectivity patterns. The first aim of this study was to investigate FNC alterations between TRD patients and healthy controls. The second aim was to explore the relationship between the ECT treatment response and pre-ECT treatment FNC alterations in individual TRD patients. Methods: This study included 82 TRD patients and 41 controls. Patients were screened at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment with a combination of ECT and antidepressants. Group information guided-independent component analysis (GIG-ICA) was used to compute subject-specific functional networks (FNs). Grassmann manifold and step-wise forward component selection using support vector machines were adopted to perform the FNC measure and extract the functional networks' connectivity patterns (FCP). Pearson's correlation analysis was used to calculate the correlations between the FCP and ECT response. Results: A total of 82 TRD patients in the ECT group were successfully treated. On an average, 8.50 ± 2.00 ECT sessions were conducted. After ECT treatment, only 42 TRD patients had an improved response to ECT (the Hamilton scores reduction rate was more than 50%), response rate 51%. 8 FNs (anterior and posterior default mode network, bilateral frontoparietal network, audio network, visual network, dorsal attention network, and sensorimotor network) were obtained using GIG-ICA. We did not found that FCPs were significantly different between TRD patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the baseline FCP was unrelated to the ECT treatment response. Conclusions: The FNC was not significantly different between the TRD patients and healthy controls, and the baseline FCP was unrelated to the ECT treatment response. These findings will necessitate that we modify the experimental scheme to

  7. Individual- and neighborhood-level education influences the effect of obesity on prostate cancer treatment failure after prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Morales, Knashawn H; Glanz, Karen; Spangler, Elaine; Mitchell, Jonathan; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between obesity and prostate cancer (CaP) treatment failure is complex and may vary by patient- and neighborhood-level educational attainment. We evaluated whether patient- and neighborhood-level education is associated with the effect of obesity on biochemical recurrence. Seven hundred and forty-six CaP cases were classified into four groups: Concordant Low-Low: less educated cases (<4 years college) living in a less educated neighborhood (below-median proportion of college-educated residents; n = 164); Concordant High-High: highly educated cases (≥ 4 years college) living in a highly educated neighborhood (above-median proportion of college-educated residents; n = 326); Discordant Low-High: less educated cases living in a highly educated neighborhood (n = 69); and Discordant High-Low: highly educated cases living in a less educated neighborhood (n = 187). Cox regression models were used to examine associations between obesity and biochemical (PSA) failure after prostatectomy stratified by the concordant/discordant groups. The association of obesity with biochemical failure varied significantly by educational concordance/discordance (p = 0.007). Obesity was associated with risk of biochemical failure for less educated cases residing in less educated neighborhoods (HR 3.72, 95% CI 1.30-10.65). The relationship was not significant for other concordant/discordant groups. Obesity effects on CaP outcomes vary by multilevel educational discordance/concordance. Strategies to decrease prostate cancer risk of progression may focus on reduction in obesity, particularly for less educated cases residing in less educated neighborhoods.

  8. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal-level interventions at reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Bambra, C L; Cairns, J-M; Kasim, A; Moore, H J; Summerbell, C D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity are well established in high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence of the types of intervention that are effective in reducing these inequalities among adults. Objectives: To systematically review studies of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal interventions in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults. Methods: Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence (both experimental and observational) of interventions at an individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults (aged 18 years or over) in any setting and country. Studies were included if they reported a body fatness-related outcome and if they included a measure of socio-economic status. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The ‘best available' international evidence was provided by 20 studies. At the individual level, there was evidence of the effectiveness of primary care delivered tailored weight loss programmes among deprived groups. Community based behavioural weight loss interventions and community diet clubs (including workplace ones) also had some evidence of effectiveness—at least in the short term. Societal level evaluations were few, low quality and inconclusive. Further, there was little evidence of long term effectiveness, and few studies of men or outside the USA. However, there was no evidence to suggest that interventions increase inequalities. Conclusions: The best available international evidence suggests that some individual and community-based interventions may be effective in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults in the short term. Further research is required particularly of more complex, multi

  9. Effectiveness and sustainability of the ViSC Social Competence Program to prevent cyberbullying and cyber-victimization: Class and individual level moderators.

    PubMed

    Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the general anti-bullying program ViSC sustainably prevents cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. A longitudinal randomized control group design was used to examine (i) program effectiveness immediately after a 1 year implementation phase and (ii) sustainable program effects 6 months later taking several moderators on the class level (class climate and ethnic diversity) and on the individual level (gender, age, internet usage, traditional bullying/victimization) into account. Effectiveness (e.g., the change between waves 2 and 1) was examined in 2,042 students (47.6% girls), aged 11.7 years (SD = 0.88) enrolled in 18 schools and 103 classes. Sustainability (e.g., the change between waves 3 and 2) was examined in a sub-sample of 6 schools and 35 classes comprising 659 students. The self-assessment multiple-item scales showed longitudinal and multiple group invariance. Factor scores were extracted to compute difference scores for effectiveness (Posttest minus Pretest) and sustainability (Follow-up test minus Posttest) for cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. Multilevel Modeling was applied to examine (i) the effectiveness and (ii) the sustainability of the ViSC intervention controlling for several individual and class level variables. Controlling for covariates, it was demonstrated that the ViSC program is effective in preventing cyberbullying and cyber-victimization and that the effects are sustainable after 6 months. The consequences for cyberbullying prevention are discussed.

  10. LINKING INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL RESPONSES AND POPULATION-LEVEL CONSEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection of populations is at the heart of ecological risk assessment, yet most studies measure effects on individuals. In this chapter, we outline the need to enhance our ability to project and interpret the effect of stressors on natural populations and to manage risk mor...

  11. LINKING INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL RESPONSES AND POPULATION-LEVEL CONSEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection of populations is at the heart of ecological risk assessment, yet most studies measure effects on individuals. In this chapter, we outline the need to enhance our ability to project and interpret the effect of stressors on natural populations and to manage risk mor...

  12. The Emergence of Family-specific Support Constructs: Cross-level Effects of Family-supportive Supervision and Family-Supportive Organization Perceptions on Individual Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rachel T; Matthews, Russell A; Walsh, Benjamin M

    2016-12-01

    Implicit to the definitions of both family-supportive supervision (FSS) and family-supportive organization perceptions (FSOP) is the argument that these constructs may manifest at a higher (e.g. group or organizational) level. In line with these conceptualizations, grounded in tenants of conservation of resources theory, we argue that FSS and FSOP, as universal resources, are emergent constructs at the organizational level, which have cross-level effects on work-family conflict and turnover intentions. To test our theoretically derived hypotheses, a multilevel model was examined in which FSS and FSOP at the unit level predict individual work-to-family conflict, which in turn predicts turnover intentions. Our hypothesized model was generally supported. Collectively, our results point to FSOP serving as an explanatory mechanism of the effects that mutual perceptions of FSS have on individual experiences of work-to-family conflict and turnover intentions. Lagged (i.e. overtime) cross-level effects of the model were also confirmed in supplementary analyses. Our results extend our theoretical understanding of FSS and FSOP by demonstrating the utility of conceptualizing them as universal resources, opening up a variety of avenues for future research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Selective toxin effects on faster and slower growing individuals in the formation of hormesis at the population level - A case study with Lactuca sativa and PCIB.

    PubMed

    Belz, Regina G; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-10-01

    Natural plant populations have large phenotypic plasticity that enhances acclimation to local stress factors such as toxin exposures. While consequences of high toxin exposures are well addressed, effects of low-dose toxin exposures on plant populations are seldom investigated. In particular, the importance of 'selective low-dose toxicity' and hormesis, i.e. stimulatory effects, has not been studied simultaneously. Since selective toxicity can change the size distribution of populations, we assumed that hormesis alters the size distribution at the population level, and investigated whether and how these two low-dose phenomena coexist. The study was conducted with Lactuca sativa L. exposed to the auxin-inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB) in vitro. In two separate experiments, L. sativa was exposed to 12 PCIB doses in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate). Shoot/root growth responses at the population level were compared to the fast-growing (≥90% percentile) and the slow-growing subpopulations (≤10% percentile) by Mann-Whitney U testing and dose-response modelling. In the formation of pronounced PCIB hormesis at the population level, low-dose effects proved selective, but widely stimulatory which seems to counteract low-dose selective toxicity. The selectivity of hormesis was dose- and growth rate-dependent. Stimulation occurred at lower concentrations and stimulation percentage was higher among slow-growing individuals, but partly or entirely masked at the population level by moderate or negligible stimulation among the faster growing individuals. We conclude that the hormetic effect up to the maximum stimulation may be primarily facilitated by an increase in size of the most slow-growing individuals, while thereafter it seems that mainly the fast-growing individuals contributed to the observed hormesis at the population level. As size distribution within a population is related to survival, our study hints that selective effects on slow

  14. The individual-level and societal-level effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Rupp, Agnes E.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Wang, Philip S.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To update estimates of the associations between mental disorders and earnings from those of Rice et al. for 1985 and Harwood et al. for 1992. Current estimates, for 2002, are based on data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Methods The NCS-R is a nationally representative survey of the US household population administered in 2001–03. Following the same basic approach as the prior studies, with some modifications to improve model-fitting, we predicted personal earnings in the 12 months before interview from information about 12-month and lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders among respondents ages 18–64, controlling for socio-demographics and substance disorders. We used conventional demographic rate standardization methods to distinguish predictive effects of mental disorders on amount earned by people with earnings from predictive effects on probability of having any earnings. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV serious mental illness (SMI) significantly predicted reduced earnings. Other 12-month and lifetime DSM-IV/CIDI disorders did not. Respondents with SMI had 12-month earnings averaging $16,306 less than other respondents with the same values on control variables ($26,435 among males; $9,302 among females), for a societal-level total of $193.2 billion. Of this total, 75.4% was due to reduced earnings among mentally ill people with any earnings (79.6% males; 69.6% females). The remaining 24.6% was due to reduced probability of having any earnings. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders are associated with substantial societal-level impairments that should be taken into consideration in making decisions about the allocation of treatment and research resources. PMID:18463104

  15. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal level interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity amongst children.

    PubMed

    Hillier-Brown, Frances C; Bambra, Clare L; Cairns, Joanne-Marie; Kasim, Adetayo; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2014-08-11

    Tackling childhood obesity is one of the major contemporary public health policy challenges and vital in terms of addressing socioeconomic health inequalities.We aimed to systematically review studies of the effectiveness of interventions (individual, community and societal) operating via different approaches (targeted or universal) in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity-related outcomes amongst children. Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence from interventions that aimed to prevent obesity, treat obesity, or improve obesity-related behaviours (diet and/or physical activity) amongst children (aged 0-18 years) in any setting and country, so long as they provided relevant information and analysis on both socioeconomic status and obesity-related outcomes. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. We located 23 studies that provided the 'best available' (strongest methodologically) international evidence. At the individual level (n = 4), there was indicative evidence that screen time reduction and mentoring health promotion interventions could be effective in reducing inequalities in obesity. For the community level interventions (n = 17), evidence was inconclusive - with some studies suggesting that school-based health promotion activities and community-based group-based programmes were effective in reducing obesity - others not. Societal level evaluations were few (n = 1). However, there was no evidence to suggest that any of these intervention types increase inequalities and several studies found that interventions could at least prevent the widening of inequalities in obesity. The majority of studies were from America and were of 6-12 year old children. The review has found only limited evidence although some individual

  16. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies.

  17. Mediation and causality at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lars R

    2009-09-01

    Within a person-oriented research paradigm the focus is on individuals characterized by patterns of information that are regarded as indivisible wholes. It is then not sufficient to carry out standard variable-oriented mediation analysis. The procedure suggested by von Eye, Mun, and Mair (2009) for pattern-oriented mediation analysis is much better aligned to this person-oriented framework. An important new feature in their approach is that it can detect mediator configurations that prohibit predictor and outcome connections at a pattern level. Two extensions of their procedure are suggested, namely (1) the use of cluster analysis to arrive at the categories and (2) the use of other models for estimating the expected frequencies. It is pointed out that in their context a functional relations perspective might be more relevant than the standard causality perspective.

  18. Type 2 diabetes in Asians: prevalence, risk factors, and effectiveness of behavioral intervention at individual and population levels.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mary Beth; Oza-Frank, Reena; Staimez, Lisa R; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2012-08-21

    This review summarizes the current data on diabetes risk factors, prevalence, and prevention efforts in Asia and Asian migrant populations. Studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a large and growing threat to public health in Asian populations. Furthermore, Asian subgroups (e.g., South Asians/Asian Indians, Chinese) have unique risk factor profiles for developing diabetes, which differ from other populations and between Asian ethnic groups. Lifestyle intervention programs are effective in preventing diabetes in Asians, as with other ethnicities. The strength of these findings is lessened by the lack of systematically collected data using objective measurements. Large epidemiologic studies of diabetes prevalence and risk factor profiles and translational trials identifying sustainable and culturally acceptable lifestyle programs for Asian subgroups are needed.

  19. Modeling the population-level effects of hypoxia on a coastal fish: implications of a spatially-explicit individual-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, K.; Creekmore, S.; Thomas, P.; Craig, K.; Neilan, R.; Rahman, S.; Wang, L.; Justic, D.

    2016-02-01

    The northwestern Gulf of Mexico (USA) currently experiences a large hypoxic area ("dead zone") during the summer. The population-level effects of hypoxia on coastal fish are largely unknown. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model to analyze how hypoxia effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of individual Atlantic croaker could lead to population-level responses. The model follows the hourly growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement of individuals on a 300 x 800 spatial grid of 1 km2 cells for 140 years. Chlorophyll-a concentration and water temperature were specified daily for each grid cell. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was obtained from a 3-D water quality model for four years that differed in their severity of hypoxia. A bioenergetics model was used to represent growth, mortality was assumed stage- and age-dependent, and movement behavior was based on temperature preferences and avoidance of low DO. Hypoxia effects were imposed using exposure-effects sub-models that converted time-varying exposure to DO to reductions in growth and fecundity, and increases in mortality. Using sequences of mild, intermediate, and severe hypoxia years, the model predicted a 20% decrease in population abundance. Additional simulations were performed under the assumption that river-based nutrients loadings that lead to more hypoxia also lead to higher primary production and more food for croaker. Twenty-five percent and 50% nutrient reduction scenarios were simulated by adjusting the cholorphyll-a concentrations used as food proxy for the croaker. We then incrementally increased the DO concentrations to determine how much hypoxia would need to be reduced to offset the lower food production resulting from reduced nutrients. We discuss the generality of our results, the hidden effects of hypoxia on fish, and our overall strategy of combining laboratory and field studies with modeling to produce robust predictions of population responses to stressors under

  20. Short-term Effects of Tolvaptan in Individuals With Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease at Various Levels of Kidney Function.

    PubMed

    Boertien, Wendy E; Meijer, Esther; de Jong, Paul E; ter Horst, Gert J; Renken, Remco J; van der Jagt, Eric J; Kappert, Peter; Ouyang, John; Engels, Gerwin E; van Oeveren, Willem; Struck, Joachim; Czerwiec, Frank S; Oberdhan, Dorothee; Krasa, Holly B; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2015-06-01

    A recent study showed that tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, decreased total kidney volume (TKV) growth and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) loss in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) with creatinine clearance≥60mL/min. The aim of our study was to determine whether the renal hemodynamic effects and pharmacodynamic efficacy of tolvaptan in ADPKD are dependent on GFR. Clinical trial with comparisons before and after treatment. Patients with ADPKD with a wide range of measured GFRs (mGFRs; 18-148 mL/min) in a hospital setting. Participants were studied at baseline and after 3 weeks of treatment with tolvaptan given in increasing dosages, if tolerated (doses of 60, 90, and 120mg/d in weeks 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Change in markers for aquaresis (free-water clearance, urine and plasma osmolality, 24-hour urine volume, and plasma copeptin) and kidney injury (TKV and kidney injury biomarkers). GFR was measured by (125)I-iothalamate clearance; TKV, by magnetic resonance imaging; biomarker excretion, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and osmolality, by freezing point depression. In 27 participants (52% men; aged 46±10 years; mGFR, 69±39mL/min; TKV, 2.15 [IQR, 1.10-2.77] L), treatment with tolvaptan led to an increase in urine volume and free-water clearance and a decrease in urine osmolality, TKV, and kidney injury marker excretion. Changes in urine volume and osmolality with treatment were less in participants with lower baseline mGFRs (both P<0.01). However, change in fractional free-water clearance was greater at lower baseline mGFRs (P=0.001), suggesting that participants with decreased GFRs responded more to tolvaptan per functioning nephron. Limited sample size, no control group. In patients with ADPKD with decreased kidney function, response to tolvaptan is lower for TKV, urinary volume, and osmolality, but larger for fractional free-water clearance. This latter finding suggests that patients with ADPKD with

  1. Victimization and its associations with peer rejection and fear of victimization: Moderating effects of individual-level and classroom-level characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip

    2016-12-01

    Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by multiple characteristics, including aspects of peer ecology. The study tested whether the links between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by gender, peer support, and two features of classroom peer ecology: classroom victimization rate and classroom hierarchy (the variability of popularity among students). The sample included 512 early adolescents attending sixth grade retrieved from 25 elementary school classrooms. Participants completed a set of self-report and peer nomination instruments in classroom settings. Multilevel linear modelling showed that higher levels of peer rejection were associated with higher victimization, male gender, and lower peer support. The association between victimization and peer rejection was attenuated for females and when the classroom victimization rate was higher. A higher fear of victimization was related to higher victimization, female gender, lower peer support, and a higher classroom victimization rate. The link between victimization and fear of victimization was strengthened by female gender and higher levels of classroom hierarchy. The results indicate the relevance of the interplay between victimization and gender and between victimization and classroom peer ecology in understanding peer rejection and fear of victimization. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Population Characteristics May Reduce the Levels of Individual Call Identity

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, María del Mar; Caferri, Eleonora; Méndez, Maria; Godoy, José A.; Campioni, Letizia; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo), we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success) among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1) similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2) high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other’s vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network. PMID:24204869

  3. Individualized Instruction at Levels I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Gisela

    An experimental approach to individualized instruction in German 1 and 2, based on the A-LM series revised edition, is described. The program neither prescribes behavioral objectives nor requires contracting for work to be performed for specific grades. Procedures followed in the preparation of instructional materials are reviewed. Results of the…

  4. Individual Innovativeness Levels of Educational Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coklar, Ahmet Naci

    2012-01-01

    In the present study carried out with 190 educational administrators, the individual innovativeness of educational administrators was examined. As a result of the study, it was found out that the educational administrators considered themselves as early adaptors. It was also revealed that professional seniority was not important in terms of…

  5. Improving climato-economic theorizing at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    Using representative data from 55 nations, I show that individual level wealth interacts with climate in predicting individual happiness but not postmaterialism values. I propose that more research is needed to identify (a) the specific mechanisms of how wealth buffers climatic demands at the individual level and (b) the neurocognitive and physiological reactions of individuals situated in different ecological niches.

  6. Effect of Folic Acid therapy on Homocysteine Level in patients with Atherosclerosis or Buerger’s Disease and in Healthy individuals: A clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Modaghegh, Mohammad Hadi Saeed; Ravari, Hassan; Haghighi, Mohammad Zare; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis and some other vascular diseases such as Buerger’s disease. Objective The aim of this study was to measure the Homocysteine levels in 3 different groups of participants (Buerger’s disease, atherosclerosis patients, and healthy cases) and determine the therapeutic effect of folic acid therapy on homocysteine levels for these three groups Methods This nonrandomized clinical trial study was conducted in the vascular and endovascular surgery research center of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Mashhad, Iran. This interventional study consisted of 44 participants of which 22 patients had Buerger’s disease and a control group of 22 healthy individuals, all of which were enrolled in this study. All of the study’s participants had their serum homocysteine levels measured both before and after 12 weeks of folic acid (5mg/day) therapy. The data analysis used fo data analysis was a Chi square and t-test or their non-parametrical equivalents for data analysis by means of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 Results The homocysteine levels were found to be significantly higher in patients with Buerger’s disease as compared to other groups before treatment with folic acid (Buerger = 21.8 ± 8.5 Mm/L, atherosclerosis = 17.3 ± 6.9, healthy = 13.8 ± 3.1; p < 0.001). After treatment with folic acid at 5 mg/daily for 12 weeks, the new plasma homocysteine levels did not show any significant difference (p = 0.38) between the Buerger’s disease group (14.6 ± 4.5 Mm/L) and atherosclerosis group (13.9 ± 4.7), but it was found to besignificantly higher in both groups when compared to the healthy group (10.7 ± 3.9, p<0.05). The plasma homocysteine level was reduced significantly when compared to its initial level in all 3 groups. The comparison of differences among three groups was found not to be significant (p=0.41) Conclusions It seems that supplementary

  7. Retrieval of effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area density (LAD) profile at individual tree level using high density multi-return airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; West, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    As an important canopy structure indicator, leaf area index (LAI) proved to be of considerable implications for forest ecosystem and ecological studies, and efficient techniques for accurate LAI acquisitions have long been highlighted. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), often termed as airborne laser scanning (ALS), once was extensively investigated for this task but showed limited performance due to its low sampling density. Now, ALS systems exhibit more competing capacities such as high density and multi-return sampling, and hence, people began to ask the questions like-"can ALS now work better on the task of LAI prediction?" As a re-examination, this study investigated the feasibility of LAI retrievals at the individual tree level based on high density and multi-return ALS, by directly considering the vertical distributions of laser points lying within each tree crown instead of by proposing feature variables such as quantiles involving laser point distribution modes at the plot level. The examination was operated in the case of four tree species (i.e. Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula and Quercus robur) in a mixed forest, with their LAI-related reference data collected by using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). In light of the differences between ALS- and TLS-based LAI characterizations, the methods of voxelization of 3D scattered laser points, effective LAI (LAIe) that does not distinguish branches from canopies and unified cumulative LAI (ucLAI) that is often used to characterize the vertical profiles of crown leaf area densities (LADs) was used; then, the relationships between the ALS- and TLS-derived LAIes were determined, and so did ucLAIs. Tests indicated that the tree-level LAIes for the four tree species can be estimated based on the used airborne LiDAR (R2 = 0.07, 0.26, 0.43 and 0.21, respectively) and their ucLAIs can also be derived. Overall, this study has validated the usage of the contemporary high density multi

  8. The different effects of neighbourhood and individual social capital on health-compromising behaviours in women during pregnancy: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Tofani, Andrea Almeida; Lamarca, Gabriela de Almeida; Sheiham, Aubrey; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-09-14

    This study assessed clustering of three health-compromising behaviours and explored the association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with simultaneous health-compromising behaviours and patterns of those behaviours in women in the first trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (follow-up). A longitudinal study was conducted on a representative sample of women recruited in antenatal care units grouped in 46 neighbourhoods from Brazil. Neighbourhood-level measures (social capital and socioeconomic status), individual social capital (social support and social networks) and socio-demographic variables were collected at baseline. Smoking, alcohol consumption and inadequate diet were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Clustering was assessed using an observed to expected ratio method. The association of contextual and individual social capital with the health-compromising behaviours outcomes was analyzed through multilevel multivariate regression models. Clustering of the three health-compromising behaviours as well as of smoking and alcohol consumption were identified at both baseline and follow-up periods. Neighbourhood social capital did not influence the occurrence of simultaneous health-compromising behaviours. More health-compromising behaviours in both periods was inversely associated with low levels of individual social capital. Low individual social capital predicted smoking during whole pregnancy, while high individual social capital increased the likelihood of stopping smoking and improving diet during pregnancy. Maintaining an inadequate diet during pregnancy was influenced by low individual and neighbourhood social capital. Three health-compromising behaviours are relatively common and cluster in Brazilian women throughout pregnancy. Low individual social capital significantly predicted simultaneous health-compromising behaviours and patterns of smoking and inadequate diet during pregnancy while

  9. Effects of departing individuals on collective behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Yuta; Okuda, Shoma; Migita, Masao; Murakami, Hisashi; Tomaru, Takenori

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing living organisms' abilities is an effective approach to realize flexible and unconventional computing. One possible bio-inspired computer might be developed from animal collective research by clarifying collective behaviors. Therefore, it is important to reveal how collective animal behaviors emerge. In many studies, individuals departing from the other individualsare generally ignored. Is it not possible that such departing individuals contribute to the organization of such collectives? To investigate the effects of individuals departing from a collective against collective behaviors, we observed and analyzed the behaviors of 40 soldier crabs in four types of experimental arenas. The recorded behaviors demonstrate a temporally changing pattern and the existence of departing individuals. We analyzed the relationship between global activity and cohesion levels and verified the features of departing individuals. The results imply that departing individuals contribute to collective behaviors.

  10. Individual, peer, and family factor modification of neighborhood-level effects on adolescent alcohol, cigarette, e-cigarette, and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Shih, Regina A; Parast, Layla; Pedersen, Eric R; Troxel, Wendy M; Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V; Kraus, Lisa; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2017-08-08

    Neighborhood factors reported subjectively by residents and measured objectively at the census tract are both associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco (cigarette and electronic cigarette), and other drug (marijuana) (ATOD) use. Less clear is how these neighborhood factors are longitudinally associated with each substance. Equivocal findings may be due to lack of consideration of individual, peer, and family effect modifiers, which could help adolescents overcome exposure to stressful neighborhood environments. We used multivariate logistic regressions with interaction terms to test whether parental monitoring, resistance self-efficacy (RSE) and being around peers who use ATOD modified the association between four subjective and objective neighborhood measures and odds of using each substance measured one year later among 2539 high school students and college freshmen originally recruited from middle schools in Southern California. Census tract-level disadvantage was not longitudinally associated with ATOD use. However, perceptions of higher neighborhood disorganization, less social cohesion, and more neighborhood problems with alcohol and drug use were associated with higher odds of ATOD use. Higher RSE and weaker affiliations with peers who use ATOD consistently buffered negative effects of neighborhood disorganization and neighborhood problems with alcohol and drugs on past year ATOD use. Community-level programs that increase social cohesion among neighbors, neighborhood monitoring of deviant behaviors, and better policing of open drug selling may prevent ATOD use. Programs should also target RSE and minimize affiliations with peers who use ATOD, which could reduce the magnitude of the association with ATOD, even for adolescents living in the most at-risk neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben P; McKeown, Niall J; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W; Small, Daniel P; Moore, Pippa J

    2016-01-29

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories.

  12. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ben P.; McKeown, Niall J.; Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W.; Small, Daniel P.; Moore, Pippa J.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories. PMID:26822220

  13. The biological effects of individual-level PM(2.5) exposure on systemic immunity and inflammatory response in traffic policemen.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinzhuo; Gao, Zhiyi; Tian, Zhenyong; Xie, Yuquan; Xin, Feng; Jiang, Rongfang; Kan, Haidong; Song, Weimin

    2013-06-01

    Ambient fine-particle particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is associated with the decline in pulmonary function, prevalence of coronary heart disease and incidence of myocardial infarction. The study is to observe the effects of ambient PM2.5 on the cardiovascular system and to explore the potential inflammatory and immune mechanisms. The subjects included 110 traffic policemen in Shanghai, China, who were aged 25-55 years. Two-times continuous 24 h individual-level PM2.5 measurements were performed in winter and summer, respectively. The inflammatory marker (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP), immune parameters (IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE) and lymphocyte profiles (CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, CD4/CD8 T cells) were measured in blood. The associations between individual-level PM2.5 and inflammatory marker and immune parameters were analysed by multiple linear regression. The average concentration of 24 h personal PM2.5 for participants was 116.98 μg/m(3) and 86.48 μg/m(3) in winter and summer, respectively. In the main analysis, PM2.5 exposure is associated with the increases in hs-CRP of 1.1%, IgG of 6.7%, IgM of 11.2% and IgE of 3.3% in participants, and decreases in IgA of 4.7% and CD8 of 0.7%, whereas we found no statistical association in CD4 T cells and CD4/CD8 T cells. In the adjusted model, the results showed that the increase of PM2.5 was associated with the changes of inflammatory markers and immune markers both in winter and summer. Traffic policeman have been a high-risk group suffering inflammatory response or immune injury because of the high exposure to PM2.5. These findings provided new insight into the mechanisms linking ambient PM2.5 and inflammatory and immune response.

  14. Mixed treatment comparisons using aggregate and individual participant level data.

    PubMed

    Saramago, Pedro; Sutton, Alex J; Cooper, Nicola J; Manca, Andrea

    2012-12-10

    Mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) extend the traditional pair-wise meta-analytic framework to synthesize information on more than two interventions. Although most MTCs use aggregate data (AD), a proportion of the evidence base might be available at the individual level (IPD). We develop a series of novel Bayesian statistical MTC models to allow for the simultaneous synthesis of IPD and AD, potentially incorporating study and individual level covariates. The effectiveness of different interventions to increase the provision of functioning smoke alarms in households with children was used as a motivating dataset. This included 20 studies (11 AD and 9 IPD), including 11 500 participants. Incorporating the IPD into the network allowed the inclusion of information on subject level covariates, which produced markedly more accurate treatment-covariate interaction estimates than an analysis solely on the AD from all studies. Including evidence at the IPD level in the MTC is desirable when exploring participant level covariates; even when IPD is available only for a fraction of the studies. Such modelling may not only reduce inconsistencies within networks of trials but also assist the estimation of intervention subgroup effects to guide more individualised treatment decisions.

  15. Effects of emotion recognition training on mood among individuals with high levels of depressive symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sally; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Harmer, Catherine J; Holmes, Emily A; Munafò, Marcus R

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a new paradigm that targets the recognition of facial expression of emotions. Here we report the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the effects of emotion recognition training on mood in a sample of individuals with depressive symptoms over a 6-week follow-up period. We will recruit 190 adults from the general population who report high levels of depressive symptoms (defined as a score ≥ 14 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Participants will attend a screening session and will be randomised to intervention or control procedures, repeated five times over consecutive days (Monday to Friday). A follow-up session will take place at end-of -treatment, 2-weeks and 6-weeks after training. Our primary study outcome will be depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory- II (rated over the past two weeks). Our secondary outcomes are: depressive symptoms, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; anxiety symptoms, Beck Anxiety Inventory (rated over the past month); positive affect, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (rated as 'how you feel right now'); negative affect, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (rated as 'how you feel right now'); emotion sensitivity, Emotion Recognition Task (test phase); approach motivation and persistence, the Fishing Game; and depressive interpretation bias, Scrambled Sentences Test. This study is of a novel cognitive bias modification technique that targets biases in emotional processing characteristic of depression, and can be delivered automatically via computer, Internet or Smartphone. It therefore has potential to be a valuable cost-effective adjunctive treatment for depression which may be used together with more traditional psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy and pharmacotherapy. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN17767674.

  16. Cultural Diversity in Online Learning: A Study of the Perceived Effects of Dissonance in Levels of Individualism/Collectivism and Tolerance of Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapanes, Marie A.; Smith, Glenn G.; White, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Online learning courses are hypothesized to be influenced by the instructors' and students' cultural values. This study collected survey data from online instructors and students to analyze the effects that Hofstede's individualism/collectivism and ambiguity (in)tolerance cultural dimensions exert on online courses offered from an…

  17. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement.

    PubMed

    Füllemann, Désirée; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Bauer, Georg F

    2016-06-16

    This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability within groups. Data of 1,219 employees nested in 103 work groups were obtained from a baseline employee survey of a large stress management intervention project implemented in six medium and large-sized organizations in diverse sectors. A variety of important job resources were assessed and grouped to an overall job resource factor with three subfactors (manager behavior, peer behavior, and task-related resources). Data were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling. The results indicated that job resources cluster within work groups and can be aggregated to a group-level job resources construct. However, a resource-rich environment, indicated by high group-level job resources, did not additionally benefit employee work engagement but on the contrary, was negatively related to it. On the basis of this unexpected result, replication studies are encouraged and suggestions for future studies on possible underlying within-group processes are discussed. The study supports the presumed value of integrating work group as a relevant psychosocial environment into the motivational process and indicates a need to further investigate emergent processes involved in aggregation procedures across levels.

  18. Individual relocation decisions after tornadoes: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhen; Nejat, Ali; Liang, Daan; Pei, Yaolin; Javid, Roxana J

    2017-08-02

    This study examines how multi-level factors affected individuals' relocation decisions after EF4 and EF5 (Enhanced Fujita Tornado Intensity Scale) tornadoes struck the United States in 2013. A telephone survey was conducted with 536 respondents, including oversampled older adults, one year after these two disaster events. Respondents' addresses were used to associate individual information with block group-level variables recorded by the American Community Survey. Logistic regression revealed that residential damage and homeownership are important predictors of relocation. There was also significant interaction between these two variables, indicating less difference between homeowners and renters at higher damage levels. Homeownership diminished the likelihood of relocation among younger respondents. Random effects logistic regression found that the percentage of homeownership and of higher income households in the community buffered the effect of damage on relocation; the percentage of older adults reduced the likelihood of this group relocating. The findings are assessed from the standpoint of age difference, policy implications, and social capital and vulnerability. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  19. [Effects of individualized nutritional education programs on the level of nutrient intake and nutritional status of colorectal cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Park, Kwi Ock; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individualized nutritional education programs on nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Forty patients with colorectal cancer (19 experimental and 21 control patients) were recruited from a chemotherapy ward at S University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The experimental group received two individualized nutritional counseling sessions and two telephone counseling sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received nutritional counseling after completion of data collection. Nutritional education included general guidelines for food intake while receiving chemotherapy, dietary guidelines for patients with colorectal cancer, daily meal schedules to overcome cancer, and dietary guideline for each chemotherapy side effect. Data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program 17.0. Two group comparison revealed that the experimental group had significantly improved calorie (p=.038) and total protein intake (p=.001), and serum albumin percentage change (p=.040). Body weight did not increase but remained the same as the baseline in both groups. Study results indicate that this individualized nutritional education programs are effective in enhancing nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy.

  20. Effect of population breast screening on breast cancer mortality up to 2005 in England and Wales: an individual-level cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Louise E; Coleman, Derek A; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Moss, Susan M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Population breast screening has been implemented in the UK for over 25 years, but the size of benefit attributable to such programmes remains controversial. We have conducted the first individual-based cohort evaluation of population breast screening in the UK, to estimate the impact of the NHS breast screening programme (NHSBSP) on breast cancer mortality. Methods: We followed 988 090 women aged 49–64 years in 1991 resident in England and Wales, who because of the staggered implementation of the NHSBSP, included both invited subjects and an uninvited control group. Individual-level breast screening histories were linked to individual-level mortality and breast cancer incidence data from national registers. Risk of death from breast cancer was investigated by incidence-based mortality analyses in relation to intention to screen and first round attendance. Overdiagnosis of breast cancer following a single screening round was also investigated. Results: Invitation to NHSBSP screening was associated with a reduction in breast cancer mortality in 1991–2005 of 21% (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.73–0.84, P<0·001) after adjustment for age, socioeconomic status and lead-time. Breast cancer deaths among first invitation attenders were 46% lower than among non-attenders (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.51–0·57, P<0.001) and 32% lower following adjustment for age, socioeconomic status and self-selection bias (RR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.63–0·73, P<0.001). There was little evidence of overdiagnosis associated with invitation to first screen. Conclusions: The results indicate a substantial, statistically significant reduction in breast cancer mortality between 1991 and 2005 associated with NHSBSP activity. This is important in public health terms. PMID:27931047

  1. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement

    PubMed Central

    Füllemann, Désirée; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability within groups. Methods: Data of 1,219 employees nested in 103 work groups were obtained from a baseline employee survey of a large stress management intervention project implemented in six medium and large-sized organizations in diverse sectors. A variety of important job resources were assessed and grouped to an overall job resource factor with three subfactors (manager behavior, peer behavior, and task-related resources). Data were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling. Results: The results indicated that job resources cluster within work groups and can be aggregated to a group-level job resources construct. However, a resource-rich environment, indicated by high group-level job resources, did not additionally benefit employee work engagement but on the contrary, was negatively related to it. Conclusions: On the basis of this unexpected result, replication studies are encouraged and suggestions for future studies on possible underlying within-group processes are discussed. The study supports the presumed value of integrating work group as a relevant psychosocial environment into the motivational process and indicates a need to further investigate emergent processes involved in aggregation procedures across levels. PMID:27108639

  2. Individual- and community-level social gradients of edentulousness.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kanade; Aida, Jun; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Ohtsuka, Rika; Nakade, Miyo; Suzuki, Kayo; Kondo, Katsunori; Osaka, Ken

    2015-03-11

    Community-level factors as well as individual-level factors affect individual health. To date, no studies have examined the association between community-level social gradient and edentulousness. The aim of this study was to investigate individual- and community-level social inequalities in edentulousness and to determine any explanatory factors in this association. We analyzed the data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). In 2010-2012, 112,123 subjects aged 65 or older responded to the questionnaire survey (response rate = 66.3%). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the association between community-level income and edentulousness after accounting for individual-level income and demographic covariates. Then, we estimated the probability of edentulousness by individual- and community-level incomes after adjusted for covariates. Of 79,563 valid participants, the prevalence of edentulousness among 39,550 men (49.7%) and 40,013 women (50.3%) were both 13.8%. Living in communities with higher mean incomes and having higher individual-level incomes were significantly associated with a lower risk of edentulousness (odds ratios [ORs] by 10,000 USD increments were 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.22-0.63]) for community-level and 0.85 (95% CI [0.84-0.86]) for individual-level income). Individual- and community-level social factors, including density of dental clinics, partially explained the social gradients. However, in the fully adjusted model, both community- and individual-level social gradients of edentulousness remained significant (ORs = 0.43 (95% CI [0.27-0.67]) and 0.90 (95% CI [0.88-0.91]), respectively). One standard deviation changes in community- and individual-level incomes were associated with 0.78 and 0.84 times lower odds of edentulousness, respectively. In addition, compared to men, women living in communities with higher average incomes had a significantly lower risk of edentulousness (p-value for

  3. The independent contribution of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level socioeconomic position on attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel model of direct and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Uthman, Olalekan Abdulrahman; Moradi, Tahereh; Lawoko, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    We examined associations between country, neighbourhood, and individual socioeconomic position (SEP) and attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 165,983 women and 68,501 men nested within 7465 communities from 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected between 2003 and 2007. Contrary to expectation women were 34% more likely to justify IPVAW than men. We found that sex moderates associations of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVAW. There was a significant positive interaction effect between sex and education attainment; women with no education were more likely to justify IPVAW than men with no education. Negative sex interaction with household wealth status indicates that differences in attitude are less pronounced among women. Unemployed men were more likely to justify IPVAW. Interaction effects indicate that the association of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage with attitudes was more pronounced among women than among men. The association of country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVWA was inconclusive. There was some evidence that neighbourhood modified the association between individual SEP and attitudes towards IPV. Also, there was cross-level interaction between country and neighbourhood SEP. Neighbourhood and individual SEP were independently associated with attitudes towards IPVAW. The relationship with country-level SEP was inconclusive. The findings underscore the need to implement public health prevention/intervention strategies not only at the level of individual SEP but also at the neighbourhood level.

  4. Selection for fitness at the individual or population levels: modelling effects of genetic modifications in microalgae on productivity and environmental safety.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Kevin J; Greenwell, H Christopher; Lovitt, Robert W; Shields, Robin J

    2010-04-07

    A mechanistic model of microalgae is used to explore the implications of modifying microalgal chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency with an aim to optimising commercial biomass production. The models show the potential for a 10 fold increase in microalgae productivity in genetically modified versus unmodified configurations, while also enabling the use of bioreactors of greater optical depth operating at lower dilution rates. Analysis suggests that natural selection of a trait benefiting the individual (high Chl:C(max), i.e., high antennae size) conflicts with artificial selection of a trait (low Chl:C(max)) of most benefit to production at the population level. The implication is that GM strains rather than strains selected from nature will be most beneficial for commercial algal biofuels production. Further, escaped GM algae populations may, depending on the specific nature of the modification, be quickly out-competed by the natural forms because individually a high Chl:C is beneficial in low light environments. However, it remains possible that changes in biochemical composition associated with genetic modification of photosystem competence, or with other selection processes to enhance commercial gain, may adversely affect the value of such organisms as prey for zooplankton, leading to the unwanted generation of future harmful algae.

  5. Effect of the method to measure levels of glycated hemoglobin on individual clinical decisions: comparison of an immunoassay with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-Alcalá, Héctor; Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; Cedillo-Carvallo, Beatriz

    2009-09-01

    Our objective was to compare in a prospective study the clinical performance of the reference and an alternative method to measure blood levels of glycated hemoglobin. A total of 178 samples from patients with diabetes were tested by both methods, and results were analyzed for correlation and comparison of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to classify patients according to glycemic control. There was a significant linear correlation between methods (r = 0.645; P < .0001); the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the alternative method to identify patients with controlled and uncontrolled status were as follows: controlled, 88%, 78%, 77%, and 88%; and uncontrolled, 78%, 88%, 88%, and 77%, respectively. Results show that although the results of both methods show a statistically significant correlation, the ability of the alternative method to correctly classify individual patients according to glycemic control status is far from optimal.

  6. Effects of individual and combined exposure to sodium arsenite and sodium fluoride on tissue oxidative stress, arsenic and fluoride levels in male mice.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Megha; Flora, S J S

    2006-08-25

    Arsenic and fluoride are potent toxicants, widely distributed through drinking water and food and often result in adverse health effects. The present study examined the effects of sodium meta-arsenite (100 mg/l in drinking water) and sodium fluoride (5 mg/kg, oral, once daily), administered either alone or in combination for 8 weeks, on various biochemical variables indicative of tissue oxidative stress and cell injury in Swiss albino male mice. A separate group was first exposed to arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride exposure. Exposure to arsenic or fluoride led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by increased level of blood and tissues reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. An increase in the level of liver and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced GSH content were observed in both arsenic and fluoride administered mice. The changes were significantly more pronounced in arsenic exposed animals than in fluoride. It was interesting to observe that during combined exposure the toxic effects were less pronounced compared to the effects of arsenic or fluoride alone. In some cases antagonistic effects were noted following co-exposure to arsenic and fluoride. Arsenic and fluoride concentration increased significantly on exposure. Interestingly, their concentration decreased significantly on concomitant exposure for 8 weeks. However, the group which was administered arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride administration showed no such protection suggesting that the antagonistic effect of fluoride on arsenic or vice versa is possible only during interaction at the gastro intestinal sites. These results are new and interesting and require further exploration.

  7. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  8. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  9. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Kirkby, Nikolai; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce J.; Bardow, Allan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from 85 individuals with low levels of caries experience (healthy group) and 79 individuals with high levels of caries experience (caries group) were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbiome Identification Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique. Subsequently, saliva samples from caries-free individuals in the healthy group (n = 57) and the caries group (n = 31) were compared. A significantly higher α-diversity (p < 0.0001) and a twofold higher relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Fusobacterium were recorded in saliva samples from the healthy group compared with the caries group. Differences observed were more pronounced when limiting the analyses to caries-free individuals in each group. Data from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that low levels of caries experience might associate with a characteristic salivary bacterial composition different from that in individuals with high caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level. PMID:28326153

  10. Rabi noise spectroscopy of individual two-level tunneling defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Lisenfeld, Jürgen; Bilmes, Alexander; Shnirman, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Schechter, Moshe

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the nature of two-level tunneling defects is important for minimizing their disruptive effects in various nanodevices. By exploiting the resonant coupling of these defects to a superconducting qubit, one can probe and coherently manipulate them individually. In this work, we utilize a phase qubit to induce Rabi oscillations of single tunneling defects and measure their dephasing rates as a function of the defect's asymmetry energy, which is tuned by an applied strain. The dephasing rates scale quadratically with the external strain and are inversely proportional to the Rabi frequency. These results are analyzed and explained within a model of interacting defects, in which pure dephasing of coherent high-frequency (gigahertz) defects is caused by interaction with incoherent low-frequency thermally excited defects. Our analysis sets an upper bound for the relaxation rates of thermally excited defects interacting strongly with strain fields.

  11. Examining the Moderating Effect of Individual-Level Cultural Values on Users' Acceptance of E-Learning in Developing Countries: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Hone, Kate; Liu, Xiaohui; Tarhini, Takwa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examine the effects of individual-level culture on the adoption and acceptance of e-learning tools by students in Lebanon using a theoretical framework based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). To overcome possible limitations of using TAM in developing countries, we extend TAM to include "subjective norms" (SN)…

  12. A computational approach to studying ageing at the individual level

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Márcio A.; Schnell, Santiago; Pletcher, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The ageing process is actively regulated throughout an organism's life, but studying the rate of ageing in individuals is difficult with conventional methods. Consequently, ageing studies typically make biological inference based on population mortality rates, which often do not accurately reflect the probabilities of death at the individual level. To study the relationship between individual and population mortality rates, we integrated in vivo switch experiments with in silico stochastic simulations to elucidate how carefully designed experiments allow key aspects of individual ageing to be deduced from group mortality measurements. As our case study, we used the recent report demonstrating that pheromones of the opposite sex decrease lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster by reversibly increasing population mortality rates. We showed that the population mortality reversal following pheromone removal was almost surely occurring in individuals, albeit more slowly than suggested by population measures. Furthermore, heterogeneity among individuals due to the inherent stochasticity of behavioural interactions skewed population mortality rates in middle-age away from the individual-level trajectories of which they are comprised. This article exemplifies how computational models function as important predictive tools for designing wet-laboratory experiments to use population mortality rates to understand how genetic and environmental manipulations affect ageing in the individual. PMID:26865300

  13. Individual differences in activity levels in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Steven; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences and variation in behavioural responses have been identified in many animal species. These differences may be the result of genetic or environmental factors or the interaction between them. Analysis of individual differences in behaviour may be important for many reasons. The zebrafish is a powerful model organism that is rapidly gaining popularity in behavioural brain research. However, individual differences have rarely been explored in zebrafish although significant variation in their performance has been reported. In the current study we identified individual differences in activity levels of zebrafish using a genetically heterogeneous population. Groups of zebrafish classified as high, medium, or low activity performers demonstrated consistent activity levels over a period of 7 days, and also in a subsequent open field task, suggesting stable individual differences as opposed to stochastic variation among subjects. We also uncovered a sex dependent relationship between behavioural measures. Female zebrafish in the high activity group preferred the top portion of the tank, whereas low activity females preferred the lower portion but males did not show such a relationship. The relationship between these two behaviours in females implies the potential existence of a behavioural syndrome persisting between contexts. Furthermore, females demonstrated a higher level of consistency in their behaviour as compared to males, and the behavioural differences were found to be independent of both body size and weight of the tested subjects. The identification of individual differences in activity levels in zebrafish will allow the investigation of underlying genetic and/or environmental underpinnings. PMID:24084583

  14. Individual and combined effects of crude protein, methionine, and probiotic levels on laying hen productive performance and nitrogen pollution in the manure.

    PubMed

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Arif, Muhammad; Ashour, Elwy A

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the dietary levels of protein, methionine (Met), as well as probiotic on productive performance, feed utilization, and environmental pollution by N in Lohmann Brown laying hens. A total number of 160 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 20 weeks of age were randomly divided into 8 treatment groups using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design experiment. The experiment involved two levels of crude protein (16 and 18 %), two levels of Met (0.45 and 0.50 %), and two concentrations of probiotic (0 or 1 g/kg diet, with a concentration of 10(10) CFU/g of Lactobacillus acidophilus) within 20-42 weeks of age. Results revealed that egg production parameters were significantly (P < 0.01) improved for hens fed diets of 18 % CP comparing with that of 16 % protein within the period from 26 to 30 weeks of age. Protein utilization and feed efficiency values were enhanced with 0.67 and 0.72 % Met during the period of 26-30 weeks of the age. For the N pollution, results showed that increasing crude protein in the diet from 16 to 18 % caused significant (P < 0.01) increase in the excreted N from 0.349 to 0.492 g/d. The methionine level of 0.72 % recorded the highest values of total consumed N being 3.98 g/d and excreted N being 0.527 g/d comparing with the other levels. It could be concluded that the best productive performance could be given by using 0.72 % total sulfur amino acids (TSAA). Furthermore, the dietary level of 18 % CP with 0.72 % Met is preferred in feeding laying hens through the whole experimental period. Ecologically, reducing the level of crude protein in layer diets to be 16 % along with the supplementation of Met can play an important role in minimizing the pollution with N from poultry excretion.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination of Infants in Malawi: A Postintroduction Analysis Using Individual Patient–Level Costing Data

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Pecenka, Clint; Chikafa, Jean; Mvula, Hazzie; Wachepa, Richard; Mwansambo, Charles; Mhango, Themba; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Crampin, Amelia C.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Costello, Anthony; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Atherly, Deborah; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rotavirus vaccination reduces childhood hospitalization in Africa, but cost-effectiveness has not been determined using real-world effectiveness and costing data. We sought to determine monovalent rotavirus vaccine cost-effectiveness in Malawi, one of Africa's poorest countries and the first Gavi-eligible country to report disease reduction following introduction in 2012. Methods. This was a prospective cohort study of children with acute gastroenteritis at a rural primary health center, a rural first referral–level hospital and an urban regional referral hospital in Malawi. For each participant we itemized household costs of illness and direct medical expenditures incurred. We also collected Ministry of Health vaccine implementation costs. Using a standard tool (TRIVAC), we derived cost-effectiveness. Results. Between 1 January 2013 and 21 November 2014, we recruited 530 children aged <5 years with gastroenteritis. Costs did not differ by rotavirus test result, but were significantly higher for admitted children and those with increased severity on Vesikari scale. Adding rotavirus vaccine to the national schedule costs Malawi $0.42 per dose in system costs. Vaccine copayment is an additional $0.20. Over 20 years, the vaccine program will avert 1 026 000 cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis, 78 000 inpatient admissions, 4300 deaths, and 136 000 disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs). For this year's birth cohort, it will avert 54 000 cases of rotavirus and 281 deaths in children aged <5 years. The program will cost $10.5 million and save $8.0 million in averted healthcare costs. Societal cost per DALY averted was $10, and the cost per rotavirus case averted was $1. Conclusions. Gastroenteritis causes substantial economic burden to Malawi. The rotavirus vaccine program is highly cost-effective. Together with the demonstrated impact of rotavirus vaccine in reducing population hospitalization burden, its cost-effectiveness makes a strong argument

  16. Gingival crevicular fluid adrenomedullin level in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus type 2.

    PubMed

    Ertugrul, A S; Dikilitas, A; Sahin, H; Alpaslan, N Z; Bozoglan, A

    2013-06-01

    Adrenomedullin, an antimicrobial peptide, has biological applications in many tissues, but its main attribute is its ability to lower arterial pressure. The plasma adrenomedullin level is elevated in pathophysiological conditions such as arterial hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, renal diseases, diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the amounts of adrenomedullin in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontally healthy individuals, individuals with chronic periodontitis, periodontally healthy individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 and individuals with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus type 2. Eighty-four individuals were included in this study: 21 periodontally healthy individuals; 21 individuals with chronic periodontitis; 21 periodontally healthy individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2; and 21 individuals with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus type 2. An ELISA was performed to measure the adrenomedullin levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Groups with diabetes mellitus type 2 (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis) had significantly higher periodontal clinical indices than did nondiabetes mellitus groups (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis). The group of individuals with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus type 2 had a significantly higher total adrenomedullin level compared with the other groups. Also, a significantly higher total adrenomedullin level was found in diabetes mellitus type 2 groups (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis) compared with nondiabetes mellitus groups (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis). An increased adrenomedullin level was found in individuals with chronic periodontitis and also in individuals with diabetes mellitus. It is thought that the effect of diabetes mellitus on the pathogenesis of

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination of Infants in Malawi: A Postintroduction Analysis Using Individual Patient-Level Costing Data.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Pecenka, Clint; Chikafa, Jean; Mvula, Hazzie; Wachepa, Richard; Mwansambo, Charles; Mhango, Themba; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Crampin, Amelia C; Parashar, Umesh D; Costello, Anthony; Heyderman, Robert S; French, Neil; Atherly, Deborah; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus vaccination reduces childhood hospitalization in Africa, but cost-effectiveness has not been determined using real-world effectiveness and costing data. We sought to determine monovalent rotavirus vaccine cost-effectiveness in Malawi, one of Africa's poorest countries and the first Gavi-eligible country to report disease reduction following introduction in 2012. This was a prospective cohort study of children with acute gastroenteritis at a rural primary health center, a rural first referral-level hospital and an urban regional referral hospital in Malawi. For each participant we itemized household costs of illness and direct medical expenditures incurred. We also collected Ministry of Health vaccine implementation costs. Using a standard tool (TRIVAC), we derived cost-effectiveness. Between 1 January 2013 and 21 November 2014, we recruited 530 children aged <5 years with gastroenteritis. Costs did not differ by rotavirus test result, but were significantly higher for admitted children and those with increased severity on Vesikari scale. Adding rotavirus vaccine to the national schedule costs Malawi $0.42 per dose in system costs. Vaccine copayment is an additional $0.20. Over 20 years, the vaccine program will avert 1 026 000 cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis, 78 000 inpatient admissions, 4300 deaths, and 136 000 disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs). For this year's birth cohort, it will avert 54 000 cases of rotavirus and 281 deaths in children aged <5 years. The program will cost $10.5 million and save $8.0 million in averted healthcare costs. Societal cost per DALY averted was $10, and the cost per rotavirus case averted was $1. Gastroenteritis causes substantial economic burden to Malawi. The rotavirus vaccine program is highly cost-effective. Together with the demonstrated impact of rotavirus vaccine in reducing population hospitalization burden, its cost-effectiveness makes a strong argument for widespread utilization in other low-income, high

  18. Where There Is a (Collective) Will, There Are (Effective) Ways: Integrating Individual- and Group-Level Factors in Explaining Humanitarian Collective Action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig; Reese, Gerhard; Berndsen, Mariette; Bliuc, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The 21st century has borne witness to catastrophic natural and human-induced tragedies. These disasters necessitate humanitarian responses; however, the individual and collective bases of support are not well understood. Drawing on Duncan's motivational model of collective action, we focus on how individual differences position a person to adopt group memberships and develop a "group consciousness" that provides the basis for humanitarian action. Longitudinal mediation analyses involving supporters of international humanitarian action (N = 384) sampled annually for 3 years provided support for the hypothesized model, with some twists. The results revealed that within time point, a set of individual differences (together, the "pro-social orientation") promoted a humanitarian group consciousness that, in turn, facilitated collective action. However, longitudinally, there was evidence that a more general pro-social orientation undermined subsequent identification with, and engagement in, the humanitarian cause. Results are discussed in terms of understanding the interplay between individual and group in collective actions.

  19. The Role of Hofstede's Individualism in National-Level Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Tiffany; Steel, G. Daniel; Fairweather, John

    2013-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that culture is a factor that influences creativity. The influence of culture on creativity is, however, relatively understudied and the majority of creativity research focuses on creativity at the level of the individual or organization. In this article, the relationship between Hofstede's cultural values…

  20. The Role of Hofstede's Individualism in National-Level Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Tiffany; Steel, G. Daniel; Fairweather, John

    2013-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that culture is a factor that influences creativity. The influence of culture on creativity is, however, relatively understudied and the majority of creativity research focuses on creativity at the level of the individual or organization. In this article, the relationship between Hofstede's cultural values…

  1. Artificial cybernetic living individuals based on supramolecular-level organization as dispersed individuals.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    One of the most characteristic features of spontaneously originating biological systems is that their most fundamental structure and especially functioning is based on molecular-level organization. This property is particularly important when natural living individuals composed of organic compounds of carbon are compared with (hypothetical) artificial living individuals based on metals, plastic, glass, silicon, and so on, whose most basic structural and functional units appear at the supramolecular level. The cybernetic definition of a living individual I proposed previously is used in the present work. I argue that artificial, supramolecular living individuals existing self-dependently in the environment of some distant planet must have the form of dispersed individuals composed of several separate subindividuals that are integrated functionally, but not structurally. These subindividuals would be analogous to such modules of human technical civilization as machines, robots, steelworks, chemical plants, electronic factories, power stations, and mines. Such dispersed individuals would resemble colonies of social insects and moles, which are also composed of separate subindividuals (particular insects and moles) carrying out different specialized functions.

  2. Neighborhood and Individual-Level Violence and Unintended Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Uscher-Pines, Lori

    2010-01-01

    As many as half of all pregnancies are unintended, and unintended pregnancy has been linked to a variety of adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes. Our aim was to determine if urban women who experience high levels of neighborhood and/or individual-level violence are at an increased risk of reporting an unintended pregnancy. One thousand five hundred thirty-six pregnant women seeking care in an emergency department in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania were recruited in their first or second trimester and completed in-person interviews. Information on demographic characteristics, social support, substance abuse, current experience and history of interpersonal violence, perceptions of current neighborhood-level violence, and the intendedness of their current pregnancy were gathered. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between violence indicators and pregnancy intendedness. Six hundred twenty-seven women (41%) reported an unintended pregnancy. Not feeling safe in one's neighborhood was significantly associated with reporting an unintended pregnancy (odds ratio (OR), 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.61) when demographic, other neighborhood, and individual-level violence indicators were accounted for. Furthermore, history of sexual abuse (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.11–2.04), violence in previous pregnancy (OR = 1.7, 95% CI, 1.15–2.51), and a high index of spousal abuse score (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.32–2.04) were also associated with unintended pregnancy in multiple logistic regression models. These findings indicate that neighborhood-level violence and other individual-level violence indicators may be important when examining factors related to unintended pregnancy among young, urban women. PMID:20559892

  3. Productivity, individual-level and colony-level flexibility, and organization of work as consequences of colony size

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, István; Wenzel, John W.

    1998-01-01

    In social insects, colony-level complexity may emerge from simple individual-level behaviors and interactions. Emergent global properties such as colony size, which can be viewed as a consequence of life history traits, may influence individual-level behaviors themselves. The effects of colony size on productivity, body size, behavioral flexibility, and colony organization are examined here by considering colony size as an independent variable. Large colony size commonly corresponds with complex colony-level performance, small body size, and lower per capita productivity. Analyzing the construction behavior of various wasp societies reveals that complexity of individual behavior is inversely related to colony size. Parallel processing by specialists in large colonies provides flexible and efficient colony-level functioning. On the other hand, individual behavioral flexibility of jack-of-all trades workers ensures success of the small and early societies. PMID:9671735

  4. A multilevel analysis of neighborhood and individual effects on individual smoking and drinking in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Hua; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2007-01-01

    Background We assessed direct effects of neighborhood-level characteristics and interactive effects of neighborhood-level characteristics and individual socioeconomic position on adult smoking and drinking, after consideration of individual-level characteristics in Taiwan. Methods Data on individual sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and drinking were obtained from Taiwan Social Change Survey conducted in 1990, 1995, and 2000. The overall response rate was 67%. A total of 5883 women and men aged over 20 living in 434 neighborhoods were interviewed. Participants' addresses were geocoded and linked with Taiwan census data for measuring neighborhood-level characteristics including neighborhood education, neighborhood concentration of elderly people, and neighborhood social disorganization. The data were analyzed with multilevel binomial regression models. Results Several interaction effects between neighborhood characteristics and individual socioeconomic status (SES) were found in multilevel analyses. Our results indicated that different neighborhood characteristics led to different interaction patterns. For example, neighborhood education had a positive effect on smoking for low SES women, in contrast to a negative effect on smoking for high SES women. This result supports the hypothesis of "relative deprivation," suggesting that poor people living in affluent neighborhoods suffer from relative deprivation and relative standing. On the other hand, neighborhood social disorganization has positive effects on drinking for low SES individuals, but not for high SES individuals. These interactive effects support the hypothesis of the double jeopardy theory, suggesting that living in neighborhoods with high social disorganization will intensify the effects of individual low SES. Conclusion The findings of this study show new evidence for the effects of neighborhood characteristics on individual smoking and drinking in Taiwan, suggesting that more studies are needed

  5. Evaluating Bang for the Buck: A Cost-Effectiveness Comparison Between Individual Interviews and Focus Groups Based on Thematic Saturation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namey, Emily; Guest, Greg; McKenna, Kevin; Chen, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Evaluators often use qualitative research methods, yet there is little evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of the two most commonly employed qualitative methods--in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus groups (FGs). We performed an inductive thematic analysis of data from 40 IDIs and 40 FGs on the health-seeking behaviors of African…

  6. Evaluating Bang for the Buck: A Cost-Effectiveness Comparison Between Individual Interviews and Focus Groups Based on Thematic Saturation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namey, Emily; Guest, Greg; McKenna, Kevin; Chen, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Evaluators often use qualitative research methods, yet there is little evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of the two most commonly employed qualitative methods--in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus groups (FGs). We performed an inductive thematic analysis of data from 40 IDIs and 40 FGs on the health-seeking behaviors of African…

  7. Sound pressure level generated by individual portable sound equipment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Izabella dos; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca; Couto, Christiane Marques do

    2014-01-01

    The use of Personal Digital Audio Players can cause hearing injuries, as the sound is generated directly in the ear canal. It is believed that different types of headphones can cause different amplifications, since they cause changes in the volume and resonance of the ear canal according to their depth. This study aimed to determine the sound pressure to which young individuals are exposed when using Personal Digital Audio Players with two types of headphones: insertion earphones and anatomical insertion earphones. This was an experimental study. The probe microphone measurements were made with different headphones in 54 ears (27 young individuals). The resonance peaks were also recorded. A statistically significant difference was observed between the evaluated headphones, showing that anatomical insertion earphones had higher levels of sound pressure than insertion earphones for all frequencies measured. There was no correlation between the resonance peak of the closed canal and the frequency where the highest sound pressure level was obtained. There was a significant difference between ears at some frequencies with the different headphones. It was concluded that anatomical insertion earphones generate a higher sound pressure level than insertion earphones.

  8. Quantifying purported competition with individual- and population-level metrics.

    PubMed

    Walters, Eric L; James, Frances C

    2010-12-01

    Competitive species interactions may contribute to population declines. Purportedly, Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus), a common species, and Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), an endangered species, compete for roosting and nesting cavities in living pine trees. To determine whether behavioral interactions measured at the individual level manifest themselves at the population level, we conducted field experiments designed to test whether the presence of Red-bellied Woodpeckers resulted in a decrease in fitness to Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. As part of a 4-year study examining the nature of interspecific interactions in two populations of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (one stable, the Apalachicola Ranger District; one declining, the Wakulla Ranger District) in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, we conducted a set of Red-bellied Woodpecker removal experiments. Paradoxically, following the removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers, we observed decreases in Red-cockaded Woodpecker group size, proportion of nests that were successful, and proportion of individuals remaining on territories. Removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers may have exaggerated the immigration rate of Red-bellied Woodpeckers to Red-cockaded Woodpecker territories. The Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in the Apalachicola Ranger District likely can withstand pressure from immigrating Red-bellied Woodpeckers given that their population has remained relatively stable despite the presence of Red-bellied Woodpeckers. A major factor of population persistence in the Wakulla Ranger District was the high turnover rate of adult female Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, a phenomenon that was exacerbated by removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers. Relying solely on observations of apparently competitive interactions between individuals may not necessarily provide information about population-level outcomes. Paradoxically, removing species that appear to be competitors may harm species of concern.

  9. Tertiary educational assessment with mean individual level knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, C A; Paull, J D

    1981-01-01

    It is proposed that Tertiary Educational Assessment should be made using a Curve-Unifying Paradigm with its Scientific And Ultra-Conservative Experiment Ratio. Central Ranking Evaluation And Marking was used to process examination results, generating the Mean Individual Level Knowledge for the group. The concept of MILK grew from the need to encourage the average examination candidate and with it came the need for a Judgmental Understanding Goal. The results of some candidates required further handling by the addition of Student's Universal Grade Averaging Regimen. PMID:6797610

  10. Tertiary educational assessment with mean individual level knowledge.

    PubMed

    Shanks, C A; Paull, J D

    It is proposed that Tertiary Educational Assessment should be made using a Curve-Unifying Paradigm with its Scientific And Ultra-Conservative Experiment Ratio. Central Ranking Evaluation And Marking was used to process examination results, generating the Mean Individual Level Knowledge for the group. The concept of MILK grew from the need to encourage the average examination candidate and with it came the need for a Judgmental Understanding Goal. The results of some candidates required further handling by the addition of Student's Universal Grade Averaging Regimen.

  11. Effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home.

    PubMed

    Park, Heeok; Pringle Specht, Janet K

    2009-08-01

    This pilot study investigated the effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home. Fifteen individuals listened to their preferred music for 30 minutes prior to peak agitation time, two times per week for 2 weeks, followed by no music intervention for 2 weeks. The process was repeated once. The findings showed that mean agitation levels were significantly lower while listening to music than before listening to the music. The findings of this pilot study suggest the importance of music intervention for individuals with dementia who live at home.

  12. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income.

    PubMed

    Cramm, J M; Møller, V; Nieboer, A P

    2012-02-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level differences in socioeconomic status determined individual-level subjective well-being. Crime experience, health status, social capital, and demographic variables were assessed at the individual level. The indicators of subjective well-being were estimated with a two-level random-intercepts and fixed slopes model. Social capital, health and marital status (all p < .001), followed by income level (p < .01) and the Townsend score (p < .05) were significantly related to individual-level subjective well-being outcomes. Our findings showed that individual-level subjective well-being is influenced by neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status as measured by the Townsend deprivation score. Individuals reported higher levels of subjective well-being in less deprived neighbourhoods. Here we wish to highlight the role of context for subjective well-being, and to suggest that subjective well-being outcomes may also be defined in ecological terms. We hope the findings are useful for implementing programs and interventions designed to achieve greater subjective well-being for people living in deprived areas.

  13. Hepcidin level predicts hemoglobin concentration in individuals undergoing repeated phlebotomy.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E; Schlumpf, Karen S; Wright, David J; Johnson, Bryce; Glynn, Simone A; Busch, Michael P; Olbina, Gordana; Westerman, Mark; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2013-08-01

    Dietary iron absorption is regulated by hepcidin, an iron regulatory protein produced by the liver. Hepcidin production is regulated by iron stores, erythropoiesis and inflammation, but its physiology when repeated blood loss occurs has not been characterized. Hepcidin was assayed in plasma samples obtained from 114 first-time/reactivated (no blood donations in preceding 2 years) female donors and 34 frequent (≥3 red blood cell donations in preceding 12 months) male donors as they were phlebotomized ≥4 times over 18-24 months. Hepcidin levels were compared to ferritin and hemoglobin levels using multivariable repeated measures regression models. Hepcidin, ferritin and hemoglobin levels declined with increasing frequency of donation in the first-time/reactivated females. Hepcidin and ferritin levels correlated well with each other (Spearman's correlation of 0.74), but on average hepcidin varied more between donations for a given donor relative to ferritin. In a multivariable repeated measures regression model the predicted inter-donation decline in hemoglobin varied as a function of hepcidin and ferritin; hemoglobin was 0.51 g/dL lower for subjects with low (>45.7 ng/mL) or decreasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL), and was essentially zero for other subjects including those with high (>45.7 ng/mL) or increasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL) levels (P<0.001). In conclusion, hepcidin levels change rapidly in response to dietary iron needed for erythropoiesis. The dynamic regulation of hepcidin in the presence of a low levels of ferritin suggests that plasma hepcidin concentration may provide clinically useful information about an individual's iron status (and hence capacity to tolerate repeated blood donations) beyond that of ferritin alone. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00097006.

  14. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…

  15. A population-based randomized controlled trial of the effect of combining a pedometer with an intervention toolkit on physical activity among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Severin, Maria; Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2012-02-01

    To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness. The intervention was nested in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES) and carried out in 2008. Participants were randomly assigned to either a pedometer group (n=326) or a control group (n=329). Physical activity, aerobic fitness, and self-rated health were measured at baseline and at 3-month follow-up, and differences were tested by Wilcoxons signed rank tests and Chi-squared tests. At follow-up, no significant differences in physical activity, aerobic fitness and self-rated health were found between the groups. However, the oldest participants in the pedometer group reported significantly more walking time compared to the controls (controls=368 min/week, pedometer group=680 min/week, P=0.05). Among participants who completed the intervention, a significant effect on total walking time was observed (median difference=225 min/week, P=0.04). The results suggest that receiving a pedometer and along with an intervention toolkit can increase walking time in older individuals, but not in younger individuals. Thus, this type of intervention offers great potential for promoting physical activity in older individuals. NCT01071811. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beverage consumption and individual-level associations in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few previous studies investigated consumption distributions of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations in Asia despite the recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control. This study aimed to provide recent evidence on beverage consumption trends from 2001 to 2009 for overall and subtypes of SSBs and for milk as a comparable healthy beverage in South Korea, as well as associations with individual-level socioeconomic status (SES). Methods The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2001 to 2009 were used. Consumption prevalence and average caloric intake by SSB type were examined. Associations of SES with consumption were assessed in a multivariate logistic regression model (consumption prevalence) and in a multivariate two-part regression model (overall caloric intake adjusting for consumption probability). Results SSB consumption prevalence increased to 38%, 69%, 70%, and 50% by 2009 up from 31%, 66%, 63%, and 32% in 2001 among adolescents, young adults, adults, and the elderly, respectively. Miscellaneous SSBs (sports/energy drinks, coffee/tea products, flavored milk, and others) were the most prevalent and their prevalence increased among adults (from 62% to 69%) and the elderly (from 30% to 47%) between 2001 and 2009. Adolescents consumed the most calories from miscellaneous SSBs among all beverage types although its prevalence was lower than regular soda and milk in both 2001 and 2009. Women (top- income group only) and men in higher income groups showed higher odds of consuming total SSBs (OR = 1.18-1.25), soda (OR = 1.18, men only), fruit drinks (OR = 1.18, the top-income only for both genders), and miscellaneous SSBs (OR = 1.1-1.2). Men with higher-education showed higher odds of total SSB consumption (OR = 1.14-1.20), and all subtypes of SSBs (OR = 1.18, 1.29, 1.19 for soda, fruit drinks, and miscellaneous SSBs, respectively for the top-education group only

  17. Susceptible-infectious-recovered models revisited: from the individual level to the population level.

    PubMed

    Magal, Pierre; Ruan, Shigui

    2014-04-01

    The classical susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model, originated from the seminal papers of Ross [51] and Ross and Hudson [52,53] in 1916-1917 and the fundamental contributions of Kermack and McKendrick [36-38] in 1927-1932, describes the transmission of infectious diseases between susceptible and infective individuals and provides the basic framework for almost all later epidemic models, including stochastic epidemic models using Monte Carlo simulations or individual-based models (IBM). In this paper, by defining the rules of contacts between susceptible and infective individuals, the rules of transmission of diseases through these contacts, and the time of transmission during contacts, we provide detailed comparisons between the classical deterministic SIR model and the IBM stochastic simulations of the model. More specifically, for the purpose of numerical and stochastic simulations we distinguish two types of transmission processes: that initiated by susceptible individuals and that driven by infective individuals. Our analysis and simulations demonstrate that in both cases the IBM converges to the classical SIR model only in some particular situations. In general, the classical and individual-based SIR models are significantly different. Our study reveals that the timing of transmission in a contact at the individual level plays a crucial role in determining the transmission dynamics of an infectious disease at the population level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial data aggregation for spatio-temporal individual-level models of infectious disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Deeth, Lorna E; Deardon, Rob

    2016-05-01

    A class of complex statistical models, known as individual-level models, have been effectively used to model the spread of infectious diseases. These models are often fitted within a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework, which can have a sig nificant computational expense due to the complex nature of the likelihood function associated with this class of models. Increases in population size or duration of the modeled epidemic can contribute to this computational burden. Here, we explore the effect of reducing this computational expense by aggregating the data into spatial clusters, and therefore reducing the overall population size. Individual-level models, reparameterized to account for this aggregation effect, may then be fitted to the spatially aggregated data. The ability of two reparameterized individual-level models, when fitted to this reduced data set, to identify a covariate effect is investigated through a simulation study.

  19. Organizational- and individual-level correlates of posttreatment substance use: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Toorjo

    2008-03-01

    In addressing the need to study the effects of organizational factors on individual-level treatment outcomes, this study used hierarchical models to examine the organizational- and individual-level correlates of posttreatment substance use. Risk for posttreatment use varied significantly across organizations. Factors in the external institutional environment of facilities significantly influenced risk for use: managed care regulation increased the risk, whereas Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations accreditation decreased it (p < .01 for both). On the individual level, longer treatment episodes and treatment completion reduced the risk (p < .01 for both) after controlling for client characteristics. The benefits of length of stay in treatment were modified by elements of the external institutional environment and organizational treatment technology. The ameliorative effects of prolonged treatment were reduced by higher levels of managed care regulation, organizational monitoring, caseload size (p < .01 for all), and proportion of degreed staff (p < .05). The results highlight the influence of organizational factors on posttreatment use.

  20. Building obesity in Canada: understanding the individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants using a multi-level approach.

    PubMed

    Pouliou, Theodora; Elliott, Susan J; Paez, Antonio; Newbold, K Bruce

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify heterogeneities associated with the relationships between the body mass index (BMI) and individual as well as socio-environmental correlates at the individual- and area-levels. The data sources used were: (i) the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey; (ii) the 2001 Canadian Census; and (iii) the Enhanced Points of Interest (EPOI) database from the Desktop Mapping Technologies Inc. Participants were adults (≥ 20 years; n = 12,836; based on a survey weight scheme N(weighted) = 5,418,218) from Toronto and Vancouver census metropolitan areas with no missing BMI records. In addition to conventional 1 km-buffers, we constructed activity-space-buffers to better assess the walkability and potentially increased BMI of individuals. Multi-level analysis was then applied to estimate the relative effects of both individual- and area-level risk-factors for increased BMI. The findings demonstrate a negative association between BMI and energy expenditure, mixed land uses, residential density and average value of dwellings, while a positive association was found with low educational attainment. Relationships were independent of individual characteristics such as age and ethnicity. Although the majority of the variation in these outcomes was found to be due to individual-level differences, this study did show significant differences at the area-level as well. The activity-space-buffers presented a vast improvement compared to the conventional 1 km-buffers. The results presented support the rationale that targeting high-risk individuals will only address a portion of the increasing BMI problem; it is essential to also address the characteristics of places that compel individuals to make unhealthy choices.

  1. Decoherence spectroscopy with individual two-level tunneling defects

    PubMed Central

    Lisenfeld, Jürgen; Bilmes, Alexander; Matityahu, Shlomi; Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schechter, Moshe; Schön, Gerd; Shnirman, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress with microfabricated quantum devices has revealed that an ubiquitous source of noise originates in tunneling material defects that give rise to a sparse bath of parasitic two-level systems (TLSs). For superconducting qubits, TLSs residing on electrode surfaces and in tunnel junctions account for a major part of decoherence and thus pose a serious roadblock to the realization of solid-state quantum processors. Here, we utilize a superconducting qubit to explore the quantum state evolution of coherently operated TLSs in order to shed new light on their individual properties and environmental interactions. We identify a frequency-dependence of TLS energy relaxation rates that can be explained by a coupling to phononic modes rather than by anticipated mutual TLS interactions. Most investigated TLSs are found to be free of pure dephasing at their energy degeneracy points, around which their Ramsey and spin-echo dephasing rates scale linearly and quadratically with asymmetry energy, respectively. We provide an explanation based on the standard tunneling model, and identify interaction with incoherent low-frequency (thermal) TLSs as the major mechanism of the pure dephasing in coherent high-frequency TLS. PMID:27030167

  2. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59-9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95-6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31-2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05-2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17-2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06-3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25-0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40-0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood.

  3. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  4. Individual Effects of Agenda-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ahern, Thomas J.

    The agenda setting hypothesis of mass media effects, which maintains that the mass media set the agenda of public discussion and determine which items are to be discussed and which ignored, was tested. Agenda was defined as an attribute of individual respondents to be compared with those of various media. In a preliminary study, a group of 59…

  5. Individual Effects of Agenda-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ahern, Thomas J.

    The agenda setting hypothesis of mass media effects, which maintains that the mass media set the agenda of public discussion and determine which items are to be discussed and which ignored, was tested. Agenda was defined as an attribute of individual respondents to be compared with those of various media. In a preliminary study, a group of 59…

  6. [Individual differences in analgesic effects of narcotics].

    PubMed

    Ide, Soichiro; Kasai, Shinya; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2008-02-01

    Narcotic analgesics have been widely used for management of severe pain, especially for cancer pain. Most of these drugs are opioids, and they show their analgesic effects by acting through opioid receptors. Significant individual differences in opioid sensitivity can hamper effective pain treatments and increase side effects, which is associated with decreased quality of life. It is thought that genetic factors may affect individual differences in opioid sensitivity. Recent studies using various inbred and knockout mice have revealed that the mu-opioid receptor (MOP) plays a mandatory role in the analgesic properties of opioids. There is also increasing evidence that differences in the sequence of the MOP gene might significantly affect the amount of MOP gene mRNA expression and sensitivity to opioids. Furthermore, it can be thought that individual differences in opioid sensitivity are caused by genetic differences in not only MOP but other biomolecules, such as endogenous opioid peptides, molecules related with metabolic process and second messenger systems. Rapid advances in this research field are leading to a better understanding of relationships between gene polymorphisms and opioid sensitivities, which, in turn, will allow us to more accurately predict opioid sensitivity and opioid requirements in individual patients.

  7. Effects of family connection and family individuation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda G; Bell, David C

    2009-09-01

    This prospective longitudinal study explores the differential effects of family connection and family individuation measured during adolescence on later midlife well-being. Home interviews were held in the 1970s with 99 families of 245 adolescents. Connection and individuation in the family system were measured by self-report, a projective exercise, and coding of taped family interactions. Twenty-five years later, telephone interviews were conducted with 54 men and 120 women (representing 82 families) who had been adolescents in the 1970s interviews. Family connection (measured during adolescence) was associated with self-acceptance and positive relationships at midlife partially mediated by marriage. Family individuation (measured during adolescence) was associated with personal autonomy at midlife.

  8. Expenditures and Postsecondary Graduation: An Investigation Using Individual-Level Data from the State of Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Using detailed individual-level data from public universities in the state of Ohio, I estimate the effect of various institutional expenditures on the probability of graduating from college. Using a competing risks regression framework, I find differential impacts of expenditure categories across student characteristics. I estimate that student…

  9. Expenditures and Postsecondary Graduation: An Investigation Using Individual-Level Data from the State of Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Using detailed individual-level data from public universities in the state of Ohio, I estimate the effect of various institutional expenditures on the probability of graduating from college. Using a competing risks regression framework, I find differential impacts of expenditure categories across student characteristics. I estimate that student…

  10. Expenditures and Postsecondary Graduation: An Investigation Using Individual-Level Data from the State of Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Using detailed individual-level data from public universities in the state of Ohio, I estimate the effect of various institutional expenditures on the probability of graduating from college. Using a competing risks regression framework, I find differential impacts of expenditure categories across student characteristics. I estimate that student…

  11. Examining the lag time between state-level income inequality and individual disabilities: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Tahany M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2008-12-01

    State-level income inequality has been found to have an effect on individual health outcomes, even when controlled for important individual-level variables such as income, education, age, and gender. The effect of income inequality on health may not be immediate and may, in fact, have a substantial lag time between exposure to inequality and eventual health outcome. We used the 2006 American Community Survey to examine the association of state-level income inequality and 2 types of physical disabilities. We used 6 different lag times, ranging between 0 and 25 years, on the total sample and on those who resided in their state of birth. Income inequality in 1986 had the strongest correlation with 2006 disability levels. Odds ratios were consistently 10% higher for those born in the same state compared with the total population.

  12. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  13. Individual Variations in Serum Melatonin Levels through Time: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Leticia M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chu, Lisa W.; Yu, Kai; Andriole, Gerald; Church, Timothy; Stanczyk, Frank Z.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin, a marker for the circadian rhythm with serum levels peaking between 2AM and 5AM, is hypothesized to possess anti-cancer properties, making it a mechanistic candidate for the probable carcinogenic effect of circadian rhythm disruption. In order to weigh epidemiologic evidence on the association of melatonin with cancer, we must first understand the laboratory and biological sources of variability in melatonin levels measured in samples. Participants for this methodological study were men enrolled in the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). We measured serum melatonin levels over a five year period in 97 individuals to test if melatonin levels are steady over time. The Pearson correlation coefficient between two measures separated by 1 year was 0.87, while the correlation between two measures separated by 5 years was to 0.70. In an additional cross-sectional study of 292 individuals, we used Analysis of Variance to identify differences in melatonin levels between different lifestyle and environmental characteristics. Serum melatonin levels were slightly higher in samples collected from 130 individuals during the winter, (6.36±0.59 pg/ml) than in samples collected from 119 individuals during the summer (4.83±0.62 pg/ml). Serum melatonin levels were lowest in current smokers (3.02±1.25 pg/ml, p = 0.007) compared to never (6.66±0.66 pg/ml) and former (5.59±0.50 pg/ml) smokers whereas BMI did not significantly affect serum melatonin levels in this study. In conclusion, the high 5 year correlation of melatonin levels implies that single measurements may be used to detect population level associations between melatonin and risk of cancer. Furthermore, our results reiterate the need to record season of sample collection, and individual characteristics in order to maximize study power and prevent confounding. PMID:24376664

  14. Differential association between affect and somatic symptoms at the between- and within-individual level.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Hendrika M; Bos, Elisabeth H; Slaets, Joris P J; de Jonge, Peter; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2017-05-01

    The established between-subjects associations between affect and somatic symptoms have often been interpreted as indicating a causal effect of affect on somatic symptoms, but it is doubtful whether this is valid. In this study, we evaluate the association between positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and somatic symptoms at both the between- and within-subject level. Diary data were collected in the context of an online study called 'HowNutsAreTheDutch'. Participants filled out an online questionnaire, three times a day for 30 consecutive days. A mixed linear model was used to test the contemporaneous and lagged associations between affect and somatic symptoms. Five hundred and eighty-six participants (481 females, median age 39.6 years [range 18.1-71.4]) were included with a total number of 28,264 completed questionnaires. At the between-subjects level, a positive association between NA and somatic symptoms was found (B = .60, p < .001), whereas the negative association between PA and somatic symptoms was much smaller (B = -.14, p = .062). At the within-subject level, PA (B = -.33, p < .001) was more strongly associated with somatic symptoms than NA (B = .13, p < .001). The lagged analyses showed a negative association between previous-day PA and somatic symptoms (B = -.05, p = .001). The results suggest that NA is more important for differences in symptom levels between subjects, whereas PA is more important for variations in symptom levels within subjects. Moreover, our results suggest that an increase in PA is followed by a decrease in somatic symptoms after 24 hr, which suggests a causal effect. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Affect and somatic processes are closely linked. Cross-sectional studies show, for example, that people with higher levels of negative affect tend to report more somatic symptoms. Findings between individuals, though, might camouflage processes at within-individual level, and

  15. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  16. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  17. Understanding exclusionary mechanisms at the individual level: a theoretical proposal.

    PubMed

    Adam, Caroline; Potvin, Louise

    2016-04-20

    On the basis of the social exclusion framework put forth by the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN), we propose a framework that conceives social exclusion as a mechanism that limits access to rights, resources and capabilities needed for a healthy life. While it is widely accepted that drivers of social exclusion are structural, the consequences are experienced by individuals in their everyday lives. This article proposes an adaptation of the SEKN framework, illustrating additional basic elements that should be considered in the study of exclusionary mechanisms. We argue that studying access to rights, resources and capabilities is one way to capture the relational aspect of exclusion mechanisms. In doing so, we shift the focus away from the individual and direct the analysis towards contextual conditions that cause the emergence of certain individual attributes. We use the example of food insecurity experienced by individuals to illustrate how a specific problem can be the manifestation of different structural exclusion mechanisms that limit access to the rights, resources and capabilities required for a healthy life.

  18. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  19. Individual and area-level socioeconomic associations with fast food purchasing.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that those with lower socioeconomic characteristics would be more likely to seek energy-dense food options such as fast food because of cheaper prices; however, to date the evidence has been inconsistent. This study examines both individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics and their independent associations with chain-brand fast food purchasing. Data from the 2003 Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES); a multilevel study of 2,547 adults from 49 small-areas in Melbourne, Australia, were used. Multilevel multinomial models adjusted for confounders were used to assess associations between individual socioeconomic position (education, occupation and income) and area socioeconomic characteristics in relation to fast food purchasing from five major fast food chains with outcome categories: never, at least monthly and at least weekly. The study finally assessed whether any potential area-level associations were mediated by fast food access. Increased fast food purchasing was independently associated with lower education, being a blue-collar employee and decreased household income. Results for area-level disadvantage were marginally insignificant after adjustment for individual-level characteristics, although they were suggestive that living in an area with greater levels of disadvantage increased an individual's odds of more frequent fast food purchasing. This effect was further attenuated when measures of fast food restaurant access were included in the models. Independent effects of lower individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and more frequent fast food purchasing for home consumption are demonstrated. Although evidence was suggestive of an independent association with area-level disadvantage this did not reach statistical significance.

  20. Impact of Institutional - and Individual - Level Discrimination on Medical Care & Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    quantify the prevalence of individual- and contextual-level discrimination across racial/ethnic groups; and 3) assess the effects of individual- and...primarily measured side effects , body image, and worry about cancer in family members. Significant racial/ethnic differences were found for four of the...Y 6. Of side effects ....... .. .............................................................................. Y N N 7. Of financia I or

  1. Population-level coordination of pigment response in individual cyanobacterial cells under altered nitrogen levels

    DOE PAGES

    Murton, Jaclyn; Nagarajan, Aparna; Nguyen, Amelia Y.; ...

    2017-07-21

    Cyanobacterial phycobilisome (PBS) pigment-protein complexes harvest light and transfer the energy to reaction centers. Previous ensemble studies have shown that cyanobacteria respond to changes in nutrient availability by modifying the structure of PBS complexes, but this process has not been visualized for individual pigments at the single-cell level due to spectral overlap. We characterized the response of four key photosynthetic pigments to nitrogen depletion and repletion at the subcellular level in individual, live Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells using hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy and multivariate image analysis. Our results revealed that PBS degradation and re-synthesis comprise a rapid response tomore » nitrogen fluctuations, with coordinated populations of cells undergoing pigment modifications. Chlorophyll fluorescence originating from photosystem I and II decreased during nitrogen starvation, but no alteration in subcellular chlorophyll localization was found. Lastly, we observed differential rod and core pigment responses to nitrogen deprivation, suggesting that PBS complexes undergo a stepwise degradation process.« less

  2. Integrating Individual-Based Indices of Contaminant Effects

    DOE PAGES

    Rowe, Christopher L.; Hopkins, William A.; Congdon, Justin D.

    2001-01-01

    Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana) that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element�contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR). These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modificationsmore » to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance) costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage) in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological) may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of

  3. Influence of municipal- and individual-level socioeconomic conditions on mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Nishi, Nobuo; Nakaya, Tomoki; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tanabe, Naohito; Suzuki, Sadao; Subramanian, S V; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    The health effect of area socioeconomic conditions has been evident especially in Western countries; however, limited research has focused on the effect of municipal-level socioeconomic conditions, especially in Asia. Multilevel research using data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, a large cohort study followed from 1990 to 2006, was conducted to examine individual as well as municipal socioeconomic conditions on risk of death, adjusting for each other. We included 24,460 men and 32,649 women aged 40 to 65 years at baseline in 35 municipalities as our study population. Primary predictors were municipal socioeconomic conditions (proportion of college graduates, per capita income, unemployment rate, and proportion of households receiving public assistance) and individual socioeconomic conditions (education level and occupation). Among men, the multilevel logistic estimate (standard errors) of proportion of college graduates and unemployment rate for mortality from cardiovascular disease were -0.399 (0.094) and -0.343 (0.122), respectively. Among women, the multilevel logistic estimate (standard errors) of proportion of college graduates and per capita annual income for mortality from injuries were -0.386 (0.171) and -1.069 (0.407). Individual education level and occupation were associated with all-cause mortality, in particular, mortality from cardiovascular disease or injuries. Interactions between individual education level and indicators of municipal socioeconomic conditions were observed for mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease among men and mortality from injuries among women. Municipal and individual socioeconomic conditions were independently and interactively associated with premature death; this suggests that reducing social inequalities in health demands a focus on municipal conditions in addition to those of individuals.

  4. Individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibited difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level compared to control individuals. These findings suggested that there is a problem with the inhibitory mechanism that influences the output of enhanced local visual processing in Asperger's disorder.

  5. Social Identification as a Determinant of Concerns about Individual-, Group-, and Inclusive-Level Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Extending concepts of micro- and macrojustice, three levels of justice are distinguished. Individual-, group-, and inclusive-level justice are defined in terms of the target of justice concerns: one's individual treatment, one's group's treatment, and the distribution in the collective (e.g., nation). Individual-level justice permits a more…

  6. 76 FR 5289 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty Guidelines...

  7. 76 FR 4550 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty Guidelines...

  8. 78 FR 7679 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty Guidelines...

  9. 77 FR 4909 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty Guidelines...

  10. 75 FR 47487 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department of Health and Human Services has been responsible for updating and issuing the Federal Poverty Guidelines...

  11. Math Anxiety--Contributing School and Individual Level Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radišic, Jelena; Videnovic, Marina; Baucal, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    PISA 2003 survey data indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety among students in Serbia. More than a half of Serbian students are concerned with whether they will have difficulties in a mathematics class or earn poor marks. At the same time, the achievement on the mathematical literacy scale is very poor. Building on control-value theory, the…

  12. Math Anxiety--Contributing School and Individual Level Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radišic, Jelena; Videnovic, Marina; Baucal, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    PISA 2003 survey data indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety among students in Serbia. More than a half of Serbian students are concerned with whether they will have difficulties in a mathematics class or earn poor marks. At the same time, the achievement on the mathematical literacy scale is very poor. Building on control-value theory, the…

  13. The Effect of Literature on Personality Development of Individuals Using Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlilioglu, Kasim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate whether literature has effect on the personality development of individuals or not. This works aims to provide answers to the following research questions: "Does literature have effect on individuals' general harmony level, their social cohesion levels, personal harmony level, self-actualization level,…

  14. Individual Variability of the System-Level Organization of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Evan M; Laumann, Timothy O; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Petersen, Steven E

    2015-10-13

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging-based resting-state functional connectivity analyses of group average data have characterized large-scale systems that represent a high level in the organizational hierarchy of the human brain. These systems are likely to vary spatially across individuals, even after anatomical alignment, but the characteristics of this variance are unknown. Here, we characterized large-scale brain systems across two independent datasets of young adults. In these individuals, we were able to identify brain systems that were similar to those described in the group average, and we observed that individuals had consistent topological arrangement of the system features present in the group average. However, the size of system features varied across individuals in systematic ways, such that expansion of one feature of a given system predicted expansion of other parts of the system. Individual-specific systems also contained unique topological features not present in group average systems; some of these features were consistent across a minority of individuals. These effects were observed even after controlling for data quality and for the accuracy of anatomical registration. The variability characterized here has important implications for cognitive neuroscience investigations, which often assume the functional equivalence of aligned brain regions across individuals.

  15. In psychiatrically healthy individuals, overweight women but not men have lower tryptophan levels

    PubMed Central

    Raheja, Uttam K.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Giegling, Ina; Brenner, Lisa A.; Rovner, Sergio F.; Mohyuddin, Iqra; Weghuber, Daniel; Mangge, Harald; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in tryptophan (TRP) breakdown in obese individuals have been previously reported. This could be both contributory to, as well as a consequence of, gender differences in mood changes among obese people. To exclude the potential effect of depression on TRP breakdown and its levels in obesity, we replicated analyses in psychiatrically healthy individuals. In 1000 participants, plasma kynurenine (KYN), TRP, and the KYN/TRP ratio were compared between overweight/obese and normal-weight individuals using analysis of covariance, with adjustment for age and gender. Bivariate post hoc tests were also conducted. There were no significant relationships between KYN, TRP, or the KYN/TRP ratio and overall overweight/obese status. However, a significant gender by weight category interaction was identified for TRP only, with overweight/obese women having lower TRP than overweight/obese men (p = 0.02). No gender differences in TRP were found in non-obese participants. Our study in psychiatrically healthy individuals suggested that lower TRP levels in obese women were not secondary to depression, strengthening the possibility that TRP levels could mediate depression in vulnerable women. Thus experimental manipulations of TRP levels could be used to advance theoretical knowledge, prevention, and clinical control of depression in obese women. PMID:26251562

  16. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors.

    PubMed

    Cass, Amy I

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.

  17. Individual and culture-level components of survey response styles: A multi-level analysis using cultural models of selfhood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter B; Vignoles, Vivian L; Becker, Maja; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Bourguignon, David; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B; Kreuzbauer, Robert; Cendales Ayala, Boris; Yuki, Masaki; Zhang, Jianxin; Lv, Shaobo; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Fischer, Ronald; Milfont, Taciano L; Gavreliuc, Alin; Baguma, Peter; Bond, Michael Harris; Martin, Mariana; Gausel, Nicolay; Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Tatarko, Alexander; González, Roberto; Didier, Nicolas; Carrasco, Diego; Lay, Siugmin; Nizharadze, George; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Koller, Silvia H; Herman, Ginette; Courtois, Marie; Fritsche, Immo; Espinosa, Agustín; Villamar, Juan A; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Zinkeng, Martina; Jalal, Baland; Kusdil, Ersin; Amponsah, Benjamin; Çağlar, Selinay; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Möller, Bettina; Zhang, Xiao; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Prieto Gil, Paula; Lorente Clemares, Raquel; Campara, Gabriella; Aldhafri, Said; Fülöp, Márta; Pyszczynski, Tom; Kesebir, Pelin; Harb, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-other relatedness that have often been confounded within the broader distinction between independence and interdependence, our analysis yields more specific understandings of both individual- and culture-level variations in response style. When using a Likert-scale response format, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as similar to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour harmony, similarity with others and receptiveness to influence. However, when using Schwartz's (2007) portrait-comparison response procedure, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant but also connected to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour self-reliance and self-consistency. Extreme responding varies less between the two types of response modes, and is most prevalent among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant, and in cultures favouring self-reliance. As both types of response mode elicit distinctive styles of response, it remains important to estimate and control for style effects to ensure valid comparisons. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and recall in a large sample. A total of 1225 healthy young women and men viewed two different sets of emotional and neutral pictures on two consecutive days. Both sets were recalled after a short delay (10 min). On Day 2, the pictures seen on Day 1 were additionally recalled, resulting in a long-delay (20 hr) recall condition. Cortisol levels were measured three times on Days 1 and 2 via saliva samples before encoding, between encoding and recall as well as after recall testing. We show that stronger decreases in cortisol levels during retrieval testing were associated with better recall performance of pictures, regardless of emotional valence of the pictures or length of the retention interval (i.e., 10 min vs. 20 hr). In contrast, average cortisol levels during retrieval were not related to picture recall. Remarkably during encoding, individual differences in average cortisol levels as well as changes in cortisol did not predict memory recall. Our results support previous findings indicating that higher cortisol levels during retrieval testing hinders recall of episodic memories and extend this view onto interindividual changes in basal cortisol levels.

  19. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E.

    2012-01-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production1-3. Bees contribute around 80% of insect pollination, so it is imperative we understand and mitigate the causes of current declines4-6. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour7-11 and reductions in colony queen production12. However the key link between changes in individual behaviour and consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of numerous individual workers. So whilst field-level pesticide concentrations can have a subtle/sublethal effect at the individual level8, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or if it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging13-15, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated16,17. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. PMID:23086150

  20. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees.

    PubMed

    Gill, Richard J; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E

    2012-11-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production. Bees contribute approximately 80% of insect pollination, so it is important to understand and mitigate the causes of current declines in bee populations . Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides in these declines, as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour and reductions in colony queen production. However, the key link between changes in individual behaviour and the consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of many individual workers. Thus, although field-level pesticide concentrations can have subtle or sublethal effects at the individual level, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or whether it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means that bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found that worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail.

  1. Individual- and Organization-Level Work-to-Family Spillover Are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; Neuendorf, Claudia; Grandey, Alicia; Lam, Chun Bun; Almeida, David M

    2016-01-01

    Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively) at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers' work exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors' leadership style. Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers), beyond job demands supervisors' leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels). Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor's transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include illuminating organizational work-family climate effects such that coworkers' shared experiences of

  2. Motivating green public procurement in China: an individual level perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinghua; Geng, Yong; Sarkis, Joseph

    2013-09-15

    Green public procurement (GPP) practices have been recognized as an effective policy tool for sustainable production and consumption. However, GPP practices adoption, especially in developing countries, is still an issue. Seeking to help understand these adoption issues, we develop a conceptual model which hypothesizes moderation effects of GPP knowledge on the relationships between GPP drivers and practices. Using primary data collected from 193 Chinese government officials, we find that regulations, rewards & incentive gains, and stakeholders exert pressure to motivate adoption of GPP practices. Knowledge of GPP regulations, responsibilities and experiences in developed countries is found to be limited. The study also found that voluntary regulations may actually be demotivating GPP practices. This study contributes to further theoretical and practical understanding of GPP practices. The findings can be helpful for policy makers, especially those in developing countries, to establish promotion and diffusion mechanisms for GPP practices as an important sustainable development tool. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Levels of physician involvement with psychosocial concerns of individual patients: a developmental model.

    PubMed

    Marvel, M K; Doherty, W J; Baird, M A

    1993-05-01

    Physician involvement in patients' psychosocial concerns is seen as desirable by practicing physicians and family medicine educators. Although the effectiveness of several approaches to psychosocial problems has been demonstrated, the skills required of the physician vary widely. We present a five-level developmental model of physician skills in addressing the psychosocial concerns of individual patients. To validate the model, 171 outpatient office visits in a residency program were videotaped and rated according to the levels. The inter-rater agreement was 88%. Interviews with lower levels of psychosocial involvement occurred much more frequently than interviews rated at higher levels (48%, 34%, 16%, 2%, 0%, respectively). Involvement at each higher level added approximately two minutes to the length of the visit. The development of higher levels of physician involvement between the first and third year of residency training was not found in this sample. These results support the validity of the five-level sequence regarding the depth of physician involvement. Because the hierarchy can be used to reliably assess the degree of physician involvement with the psychosocial concerns of individual patients, the model offers potential applications for resident education and further research on the physician-patient relationship.

  4. Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Aplin, Lucy M.; Farine, Damien R.; Mann, Richard P.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that animal groups can maintain coordinated behaviour and make collective decisions based on simple interaction rules. Effective collective action may be further facilitated by individual variation within groups, particularly through leader–follower polymorphisms. Recent studies have suggested that individual-level personality traits influence the degree to which individuals use social information, are attracted to conspecifics, or act as leaders/followers. However, evidence is equivocal and largely limited to laboratory studies. We use an automated data-collection system to conduct an experiment testing the relationship between personality and collective decision-making in the wild. First, we report that foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) show strikingly synchronous behaviour. A predictive model of collective decision-making replicates patterns well, suggesting simple interaction rules are sufficient to explain the observed social behaviour. Second, within groups, individuals with more reactive personalities behave more collectively, moving to within-flock areas of higher density. By contrast, proactive individuals tend to move to and feed at spatial periphery of flocks. Finally, comparing alternative simulations of flocking with empirical data, we demonstrate that variation in personality promotes within-patch movement while maintaining group cohesion. Our results illustrate the importance of incorporating individual variability in models of social behaviour. PMID:24990682

  5. Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Aplin, Lucy M; Farine, Damien R; Mann, Richard P; Sheldon, Ben C

    2014-08-22

    There is increasing evidence that animal groups can maintain coordinated behaviour and make collective decisions based on simple interaction rules. Effective collective action may be further facilitated by individual variation within groups, particularly through leader-follower polymorphisms. Recent studies have suggested that individual-level personality traits influence the degree to which individuals use social information, are attracted to conspecifics, or act as leaders/followers. However, evidence is equivocal and largely limited to laboratory studies. We use an automated data-collection system to conduct an experiment testing the relationship between personality and collective decision-making in the wild. First, we report that foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) show strikingly synchronous behaviour. A predictive model of collective decision-making replicates patterns well, suggesting simple interaction rules are sufficient to explain the observed social behaviour. Second, within groups, individuals with more reactive personalities behave more collectively, moving to within-flock areas of higher density. By contrast, proactive individuals tend to move to and feed at spatial periphery of flocks. Finally, comparing alternative simulations of flocking with empirical data, we demonstrate that variation in personality promotes within-patch movement while maintaining group cohesion. Our results illustrate the importance of incorporating individual variability in models of social behaviour.

  6. Student victimization by peers in elementary schools: individual, teacher-class, and school-level predictors.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2011-04-01

    This study examined individual and contextual factors that explain students' victimization by peers among 4th- through 6th-grade Jewish and Arab students. A total of 120 homeroom teachers and 3,375 students from 47 schools participated. The study explored how students' reports of violence are influenced by individual factors (gender, age, perception of school climate, victimization by teachers, and fear) teacher-class factors (school climate, homeroom teachers' characteristics such as self-efficacy, and education) and cultural affiliation as a school level factor. The results showed that levels of victimization vary significantly between classes and between schools. However, the vast majority of variation in students' victimization lay at the individual level. Factors such as fear, physical and emotional victimization by teachers, and gender affected levels of students' victimization by peers. Students victimized by peers are more likely to be victimized by their teachers and to miss school because of their fear of violence. Further research should be conducted to investigate additional teacher, class and school factors that can predict levels of students' victimization. Based on the study's results, efforts to deal with school violence should be targeted to students and school staff. It is essential to design and implement a "whole school" approach that includes participation of the entire school community. Furthermore, intensive individual treatment should be given to victimized students to improve their sense of safety and protection on school property. In addition, the findings emphasized the need to design and implement school intervention programs in a sensitive way that takes into consideration children's developmental stages and other factors that affect their levels of victimization. The results showed that younger children do not take advantage of the many positive effects that can be achieved from positive school policy and good relationships with staff

  7. Ara h2 levels in dust from homes of individuals with peanut allergy and individuals with peanut tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shroba, Jodi; Barnes, Charles; Nanda, Maya; Dinakar, Chitra; Ciaccio, Christina

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 1% of the U.S. population has a peanut allergy. Previous studies that measured peanut protein in house dust support the hypothesis that household peanut consumption may lead to clinical sensitization through transdermal exposure. The aim of this pilot study was to characterize Ara h2 levels in house dust from homes with and without individuals with peanut allergy. Household dust was obtained from homes with an individual with peanut allergy and from homes with no individual with peanut allergy. Ara h2 levels were determined by using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay with a level of determination of 150 ng per gram of dust. Peanut consumption information was obtained by questionnaire. A total of 85 dust samples were collected: 38 from homes with a individual with peanut allergy and 47 from control homes. The median Ara h2 level in homes with an individual with peanut allergy was 1236 ng/g (interquartile range [IQR], 256-1342 ng/g), whereas the median Ara h2 level in homes without an individual with peanut allergy was 650 ng/g (IQR, 163-2201 ng/g). Ara h2 levels in dust from homes of individuals with peanut allergy were not significantly lower than in dust from control homes. Of the homes with an individual with peanut allergy, 15 reported complete avoidance of peanut in the home (39%). Ara h2 levels in homes that completely avoided peanuts were not significantly lower than Ara h2 levels in homes that did not restrict peanuts (p = 0.531). Although families may restrict peanuts and peanut products in the home, there was still detectable Ara h2 levels found in homes. Each subject's definition of restriction may vary, there seemed to be peanut protein entering the home, although the protein origin is not known. Possibilities include cross-reactivity with another antigen or transport into the home on some vector. Further investigation of hypotheses regarding cross-reactivity and environmental exposure to Ara h2 is necessary.

  8. Assessing geographic and individual level factors associated with arrests among injection drug users in California.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alexis N; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Neilands, Torsten; Kral, Alex H

    2011-11-01

    Law enforcement strategies to reduce street-based drug activity are often concentrated in neighborhoods with high levels of social and economic disadvantage. Intensive street-level policing is associated with fear and reluctance on the part of injection drug users (IDUs) to utilize syringe exchange programs (SEPs). We aim to build on previous research by analyzing the influence of zip code and individual level factors on the probability of arrest among IDUs in California. Individual characteristics and behaviors were more strongly associated with arrest than zip code characteristics. However, living in a disadvantaged zip code exerted a protective effect against arrest after adjusting for individual level factors (AOR 0.7, 95% 0.5, 0.9). Further efforts to contextualize the circumstances surrounding an arrest, including the characteristics of the geographic setting, may be useful for understanding how law enforcement practices impact the success of SEPs and the health of injection drug users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective disappearance of individuals with high levels of glycated haemoglobin in a free-living bird.

    PubMed

    Récapet, Charlotte; Sibeaux, Adélaïde; Cauchard, Laure; Doligez, Blandine; Bize, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Although disruption of glucose homeostasis is a hallmark of ageing in humans and laboratory model organisms, we have little information on the importance of this process in free-living animals. Poor control of blood glucose levels leads to irreversible protein glycation. Hence, levels of protein glycation are hypothesized to increase with age and to be associated with a decline in survival. We tested these predictions by measuring blood glycated haemoglobin in 274 adult collared flycatchers of known age and estimating individual probability of recapture in the following 2 years. Results show a strong decrease in glycated haemoglobin from age 1 to 5 years and an increase thereafter. Individuals with high levels of glycated haemoglobin had a lower probability of recapture, even after controlling for effects of age and dispersal. Altogether, our findings suggest that poor control of glucose homoeostasis is associated with lower survival in this free-living bird population, and that the selective disappearance of individuals with the highest glycation levels could account for the counterintuitive age-related decline in glycated haemoglobin in the early age categories.

  10. Partner Violence During Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Individual and Relationship Level Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Novak, Jamie; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-09-01

    Violence within romantic relationships is a significant public health concern. Previous research largely explores partner violence at one or two time points, and often examines a limited set of risk factors. The present study explored both individual and relationship-level risk factors and their associations with physical victimization and perpetration across more than 10 years using a community sample of 200 participants (50 % female; M age Wave 1 = 15.8). Additionally, we explored the effects of previous partner violence on the likelihood of future partner violence. Survival analysis indicated that externalizing symptoms and negative interactions (e.g., relationship conflict) were associated with both perpetration and victimization. Reporting an experience of partner violence did not significantly alter an individual's risk of future partner violence. Overall, men were significantly more likely to report victimization; perpetration rates did not vary by gender. The results highlight the importance of examining multiple levels of risk.

  11. The influence of drinking pattern, at individual and aggregate levels, on alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, M; Kuntsche, S; Graham, K; Gmel, G

    2010-01-01

    To determine the extent drinking patterns (at the individual and country level) are associated with alcohol-related consequences over and above the total alcohol the person consumes. Hierarchical linear models were estimated based on general population surveys conducted in 18 countries participating in the GENACIS project. In general, the positive association between drinking pattern scores and alcohol-related consequences was found at both the individual and country levels, independent of volume of drinking. In addition, a significant interaction effect indicated that the more detrimental the country's drinking pattern, the less steep the association between the volume of drinking and its consequences. Drinking patterns have an independent impact on consequences over and above the relationship between volume and consequences. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Neurotrophin levels and behaviour in BALB/c mice: impact of intermittent exposure to individual housing and wheel running.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shun-Wei; Pham, Therese M; Aberg, Elin; Brené, Stefan; Winblad, Bengt; Mohammed, Abdul H; Baumans, Vera

    2006-02-15

    This study assessed the effects of intermittent individual housing on behaviour and brain neurotrophins, and whether physical exercise could influence alternate individual-housing-induced effects. Five-week-old BALB/c mice were either housed in enhanced social (E) or standard social (S) housing conditions for 2 weeks. Thereafter they were divided into six groups and for 6 weeks remained in the following experimental conditions: Control groups remained in their respective housing conditions (E-control, S-control); enhanced individual (E-individual) and standard individual (S-individual) groups were exposed every other day to individual cages without running-wheels; enhanced running-wheel (E-wheel) and standard running-wheel (S-wheel) groups were put on alternate days in individual running-wheel cages. Animals were assessed for activity in an automated individual cage system (LABORAS) and brain neurotrophins analysed. Intermittent individual housing increased behavioural activity and reduced nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in frontal cortex; while it increased BDNF level in the amygdala and BDNF protein and mRNA in hippocampus. Besides normalizing motor activity and regulating BDNF and NGF levels in hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum, physical exercise did not attenuate reduction of cortical NGF and BDNF induced by intermittent individual housing. This study demonstrates that alternate individual housing has significant impact on behaviour and brain neurotrophin levels in mice, which can be partially altered by voluntary physical exercise. Our results also suggest that some changes in neurotrophin levels induced by intermittent individual housing are not similar to those caused by continuous individual housing.

  13. Population- and Individual-Level Dynamics of the Intestinal Microbiota of a Small Primate

    PubMed Central

    Laakkonen, Juha; Jernvall, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Longitudinal sampling for intestinal microbiota in wild animals is difficult, leading to a lack of information on bacterial dynamics occurring in nature. We studied how the composition of microbiota communities changed temporally in free-ranging small primates, rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). We marked and recaptured mouse lemurs during their mating season in Ranomafana National Park in southeastern mountainous rainforests of Madagascar for 2 years and determined the fecal microbiota compositions of these mouse lemurs with MiSeq sequencing. We collected 160 fecal samples from 71 animals and had two or more samples from 39 individuals. We found small, but statistically significant, effects of site and age on microbiota richness and diversity and effects of sex, year, and site on microbiota composition, while the within-year temporal trends were less clear. Within-host microbiota showed pervasive variation in intestinal bacterial community composition, especially during the second study year. We hypothesize that the biological properties of mouse lemurs, including their small body size and fast metabolism, may contribute to the temporal intraindividual-level variation, something that should be testable with more-extensive sampling regimes. IMPORTANCE While microbiome research has blossomed in recent years, there is a lack of longitudinal studies on microbiome dynamics on free-ranging hosts. To fill this gap, we followed mouse lemurs, which are small heterothermic primates, for 2 years. Most studied animals have shown microbiota to be stable over the life span of host individuals, but some previous research also found ample within-host variation in microbiota composition. Our study used a larger sample size than previous studies and a study setting well suited to track within-host variation in free-ranging mammals. Despite the overall microbiota stability at the population level, the microbiota of individual mouse lemurs can show large-scale changes

  14. Estimation of Salmonella prevalence on individual-level based upon pooled swab samples from swine carcasses.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L L; Wachmann, H; Alban, L

    2007-01-31

    Pooling of samples might be an effective means to increase cost-effectiveness in routine surveillance. The present study assessed the effect on the sensitivity of detection of Salmonella when pooling swab samples from swine carcasses compared to individual analyses. A total of 18,984 samples from nine Danish swine abattoirs were collected during 1 year, covering 2017 slaughter days. At each abattoir, swab samples were taken on a daily basis from 10 carcasses randomly selected. From each carcass, an area of 3 cm x 100 cm was swabbed. Five of these samples were analysed individually and the other five were analysed as one pooled sample. Standard culture methods were used. A logistic regression model was built, where the response was whether a sample was Salmonella positive or not. The explanatory factors were abattoir, type of sampling (individual or pooled sample), and season of year 2000 (four quarters). The odds ratio (OR) of the effect of type of sampling in the logistic model accounting for abattoir and season was interpreted as the conversion factor between pooled and individual sample prevalence. The results of the individually analysed samples showed a low prevalence of Salmonella (1.4%). When Salmonella was isolated, mostly only one positive sample was found among the five individually analysed samples per slaughter day. On a few days >1 positive samples' were found (9 out of 2017 days approximately 0.4%). The pooled sample prevalence was 4.1%. Because the individual prevalence was low, the pooled sample prevalence would have been around five times higher than the individual-level prevalence-if there had been no loss of sensitivity. However, we found that due to loss of sensitivity the pooled prevalence was only three times higher (OR = 2.7; CI 2.0-3.7). Therefore, a conversion factor of 3 instead of 5 should be applied to calculate the individual prevalence from a pooled prevalence. This approach has been used in the national surveillance of Danish pork

  15. RISKS OF ENDROCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS TO WILDLIFE EXTRAPOLATED FROM EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATION RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the research conducted on the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been focused on effects at the individual or sub-individual level. The challenge from the point of view of ecological risk assessment is to determine effects on populations and higher level...

  16. Pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes: nurse descriptions of individual and organization level factors.

    PubMed

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Magnabosco, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) in nursing homes has been difficult to achieve. Implementation science researchers suggest that identification of individual staff and organizational factors influencing current practices is essential to the development of an effective and customized plan to implement practice changes in a specific setting. A mixed methods approach was used to describe nurses' perceptions of individual and organization-level factors influencing performance of PUP in two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes prior to implementation of a national VHA initiative on Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers (HAPUs). Individual interviews of 16 nursing staff were conducted. Individual factors influencing practice were a personal sense of responsibility to Veterans and belief in the effectiveness and importance of preventive measures. Organizational factors were existence of cooperative practices between nursing assistants and licensed nurses in assessing risk; teamwork, communication, and a commitment to Veterans' well-being. Integration and reinforcement of such factors in the development and maintenance of customized plans of PUP initiatives is recommended. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Individual-level behavioral responses of immature green turtles to snorkeler disturbance.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Lucas P; Brownscombe, Jacob W; Gagné, Tyler O; Wilson, Alexander D M; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J

    2017-03-01

    Despite many positive benefits of ecotourism, increased human encounters with wildlife may have detrimental effects on wild animals. As charismatic megafauna, nesting and foraging sea turtles are increasingly the focus of ecotourism activities. The purpose of our study was to quantify the behavioral responses of immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) to disturbance by snorkelers, and to investigate whether turtles have individual-level responses to snorkeler disturbance. Using a standardized disturbance stimulus in the field, we recorded turtle behaviors pre- and post-disturbance by snorkelers. Ninety percent of turtles disturbed by snorkeler (n = 192) initiated their flights at distances of ≤3 m. Using principal component analysis, we identified two distinct turtle personality types, 'bold' and 'timid', based upon 145 encounters of 19 individually identified turtles and five disturbance response variables. There was significant intra-individual repeatability in behavioral responses to disturbance, but bolder turtles had more behavioral plasticity and less consistent responses than more timid individuals. Bolder individuals with reduced evasion responses might be at a higher risk of shark predation, while more timid turtles might have greater energetic consequences due to non-lethal predator effects and repeated snorkeler disturbance. Over the longer term, a turtle population with a mix of bold and timid individuals may promote more resilient populations. We recommend that snorkelers maintain >3 m distance from immature green turtles when snorkeling, and that ecotourism activities be temporally and spatially stratified. Further, turtle watching guidelines need to be communicated to both tour operators and independent snorkelers to reduce the disturbance of turtles.

  18. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  19. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  20. Employing individual measures of baseline glucocorticoids as population-level conservation biomarkers: considering within-individual variation in a breeding passerine

    PubMed Central

    Madliger, Christine L.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals. However, confirmation of consistent responses is of paramount importance to assessing the ease of use of GCs in natural systems and to making valid interpretations regarding population-level change (or lack of change) in GC concentrations. We investigated whether free-ranging female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) display individually specific changes in baseline glucocorticoid concentrations naturally over the breeding season (from incubation to offspring provisioning) and in response to a manipulation of foraging profitability (representing a decrease in access to food resources). We show that baseline GC concentrations are repeatable within individuals over reproduction in natural conditions. However, in response to a reduction in foraging ability, baseline GC concentrations increase at the population level but are not repeatable within individuals, indicating a high level of within-individual variation. Overall, we suggest that baseline GCs measured on a subset of individuals may not provide a representative indication of responses to environmental change at the population level, and multiple within-individual measures may be necessary to determine the fitness correlates of GC concentrations. Further validation should be completed across a variety of taxa and life-history stages. Moving beyond a traditional cross-sectional approach by incorporating repeated-measures methods will be necessary to assess the suitability of baseline GCs as biomarkers of

  1. Employing individual measures of baseline glucocorticoids as population-level conservation biomarkers: considering within-individual variation in a breeding passerine.

    PubMed

    Madliger, Christine L; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals. However, confirmation of consistent responses is of paramount importance to assessing the ease of use of GCs in natural systems and to making valid interpretations regarding population-level change (or lack of change) in GC concentrations. We investigated whether free-ranging female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) display individually specific changes in baseline glucocorticoid concentrations naturally over the breeding season (from incubation to offspring provisioning) and in response to a manipulation of foraging profitability (representing a decrease in access to food resources). We show that baseline GC concentrations are repeatable within individuals over reproduction in natural conditions. However, in response to a reduction in foraging ability, baseline GC concentrations increase at the population level but are not repeatable within individuals, indicating a high level of within-individual variation. Overall, we suggest that baseline GCs measured on a subset of individuals may not provide a representative indication of responses to environmental change at the population level, and multiple within-individual measures may be necessary to determine the fitness correlates of GC concentrations. Further validation should be completed across a variety of taxa and life-history stages. Moving beyond a traditional cross-sectional approach by incorporating repeated-measures methods will be necessary to assess the suitability of baseline GCs as biomarkers of

  2. Analyzing Developmental Processes on an Individual Level Using Nonstationary Time Series Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Sinclair, Katerina O.; Rovine, Michael J.; Ram, Nilam; Corneal, Sherry E.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals change over time, often in complex ways. Generally, studies of change over time have combined individuals into groups for analysis, which is inappropriate in most, if not all, studies of development. The authors explain how to identify appropriate levels of analysis (individual vs. group) and demonstrate how to estimate changes in…

  3. Analyzing Developmental Processes on an Individual Level Using Nonstationary Time Series Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Sinclair, Katerina O.; Rovine, Michael J.; Ram, Nilam; Corneal, Sherry E.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals change over time, often in complex ways. Generally, studies of change over time have combined individuals into groups for analysis, which is inappropriate in most, if not all, studies of development. The authors explain how to identify appropriate levels of analysis (individual vs. group) and demonstrate how to estimate changes in…

  4. Neighbourhood level versus individual level correlates of women's body dissatisfaction: toward a multilevel understanding of the role of affluence.

    PubMed

    McLaren, L; Gauvin, L

    2002-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence of body dissatisfaction as a function of individual level and neighbourhood level indicators of affluence. A subset of data from a larger random digit dialling telephone survey was used to obtain individual level data on body dissatisfaction, body weight and height, and income from a group of 895 adult women (age 24-56, 61% English speaking) living in 52 neighbourhoods (census tract areas) within the provinces of Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec, Canada who were selected for their heterogeneity in social class. Aggregated census tract data from 1996 were used to develop neighbourhood indicators of affluence. Using hierarchical linear modelling, body dissatisfaction (dichotomous) was examined as a function of individual body mass index, individual level affluence and neighbourhood level affluence. The impact of body mass index on body dissatisfaction depended on the level of neighbourhood affluence: an average body mass index was associated with higher likelihood of reporting body dissatisfaction in a neighbourhood of above average affluence (71% probability) than in a neighbourhood of average affluence (58% probability), independent of a woman's individual affluence (whether she was low income or not). It is concluded that a clearer understanding of the role of affluence on body dissatisfaction can be achieved by a joint examination of individual and neighbourhood level influences.

  5. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…

  6. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…

  7. It Is Not Only Mentoring: The Combined Influences of Individual-Level and Team-Level Support on Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support resources for two types of performance (i.e. perceptions of individual and team performance). Design/methodology/approach: The associations of individual-level mentoring and…

  8. Transmission-line resonators for the study of individual two-level tunneling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Jan David; Bilmes, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Lisenfeld, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic two-level tunneling systems (TLS) emerge in amorphous dielectrics and constitute a serious nuisance for various microfabricated devices, where they act as a source of noise and decoherence. Here, we demonstrate a new test bed for the study of TLS in various materials which provides access to properties of individual TLS as well as their ensemble response. We terminate a superconducting transmission-line resonator with a capacitor that hosts TLS in its dielectric. By tuning TLS via applied mechanical strain, we observe the signatures of individual TLS strongly coupled to the resonator in its transmission characteristics and extract the coupling components of their dipole moments and energy relaxation rates. The strong and well-defined coupling to the TLS bath results in pronounced resonator frequency fluctuations and excess phase noise, through which we can study TLS ensemble effects such as spectral diffusion, and probe theoretical models of TLS interactions.

  9. Effectiveness of individual-focused interventions to prevent chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sara; Golfam, Mohammad; Beall, Reed F; Ashbury, Fredrick D; Palmer, Lyle J; Little, Julian

    2014-09-01

    The burden of chronic disease is projected to assume crisis proportions in most parts of the world by the middle of the century, focusing attention on the need for preventive interventions. We identify and review published research on primary prevention individual-level interventions in current practice and describe and discuss the limitations of the current evidence. The report facilitates prioritizing a research agenda for potential interventions that might be investigated within cohort studies. This study is a rapid review. Computerized database searches (PubMed and EMBASE) were performed in October 2012 to identify articles on primary prevention interventions that are directed at the individual level. Potentially, relevant International Agency of Research on Cancer handbooks and monographs were also reviewed. The review includes articles reported in English on the efficacy or effectiveness of a preventive intervention in an adult population. It excludes articles on alcohol or tobacco smoking. Many chronic disease interventions directed at individuals report a protective effect in the short term and some evidence for the efficacy of chemoprevention in chronic disease prevention exists. Evidence these effects persist in the longer term is inconsistent. There are currently only limited evidence-based preventions for most chronic diseases, for which a summary is available in Table A1 (see Appendix B). Most individual-level intervention research studies have been conducted using case-control designs and some small, randomized studies. There are fewer impediments to lifestyle modifications when compared to prevention using chemoprevention and vaccination or other methods of prevention of persistent infection. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. Alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression: theoretical considerations for individual- and societal-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Miller, Cameron A

    2009-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article (1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression, (2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and (3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses.

  11. Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

  12. Individual-level and plant-level predictors of acute, traumatic occupational injuries in a manufacturing cohort.

    PubMed

    Souza, Kerry; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Eisen, Ellen A; Christiani, David; Cullen, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Workplace and contextual factors that may affect risk for worker injury are not well described. This study used results from an employee job satisfaction survey to construct aggregate indicators of the work environment and estimate the relative contribution of those factors to injury rates in a manufacturing cohort. Principal components analysis was used to construct four plant-level factors from responses to a 32 question survey of the entire workforce, administered in 2006. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to evaluate the relationship between injury rate, individual-level and plant-level risk factors, unionisation and plant type. Plant-level 'work stress' (incident rate ratio (IRR)=0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90) was significant in the multilevel model, indicating the rate of injury for an average individual in that plant was halved (conditional on plant) when job stress decreased by a tertile. 'Overall satisfaction', 'work environment' and 'perception of supervisor' showed the same trend but were not significant. Unionisation was protective (IRR=0.40, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.95) as was any plant type compared with smelter. We demonstrated utility of data from a human resources survey to construct indicators of the work environment. Our research suggests that aspects of the work environment, particularly work stress and unionisation, may have a significant effect on risk for occupational injury, emphasising the need for further multilevel studies. Our work would suggest monitoring of employee perceptions of job stress and the possible inclusion of stress management as a component of risk reduction programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Individualized Testing System: Performance Assessment Resources, ISCS Level III, WW-CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one of four performance assessment resources booklets for Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). The four booklets are considered one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation materials for Level III developed as a part of the ISCS Individualized Teacher Preparation (ITP) program. Each of…

  14. Cost-Effectiveness in Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiner, Mark; Ng, Guat Tin; Sherraden, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Because resources are limited, the benefits and costs of social-work interventions--like all interventions--must be compared with the benefits and costs of alternatives. Evidence-based practice should ask, What works? How well does it work? And what does it cost? This article analyzes the provision of Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) with a…

  15. Individualization and Diversity: Antecedents to Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Hansel

    1996-01-01

    Argues that if educational institutions wish to achieve the goal of cultural diversity, they must go beyond curricula that transmit culture (that is, the core curriculum) or transform culture (that is, multiculturalism) and embrace a curriculum that enhances individual differences. Maintains that institutions should affirm students' individual…

  16. Individuality and adaptation across levels of selection: How shall we name and generalize the unit of Darwinism?

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Stephen Jay; Lloyd, Elisabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Two major clarifications have greatly abetted the understanding and fruitful expansion of the theory of natural selection in recent years: the acknowledgment that interactors, not replicators, constitute the causal unit of selection; and the recognition that interactors are Darwinian individuals, and that such individuals exist with potency at several levels of organization (genes, organisms, demes, and species in particular), thus engendering a rich hierarchical theory of selection in contrast with Darwin’s own emphasis on the organismic level. But a piece of the argument has been missing, and individuals at levels distinct from organisms have been denied potency (although granted existence within the undeniable logic of the theory), because they do not achieve individuality with the same devices used by organisms and therefore seem weak by comparison. We show here that different features define Darwinian individuality across scales of size and time. In particular, species-individuals may develop few emergent features as direct adaptations. The interactor approach works with emergent fitnesses, not with emergent features; and species, as a consequence of their different mechanism for achieving individuality (reproductive exclusivity among subparts, that is, among organisms), express many effects from other levels. Organisms, by contrast, suppress upwardly cascading effects, because the organismic style of individuality (by functional integration of subparts) does not permit much competition or differential reproduction of parts from within. Species do not suppress the operation of lower levels; such effects therefore become available as exaptations conferring emergent fitness—a primary source of the different strength that species achieve as effective Darwinian individuals in evolution. PMID:10518549

  17. Designs for the combination of group- and individual-level data.

    PubMed

    Haneuse, Sebastien; Bartell, Scott

    2011-05-01

    Studies of ecologic or aggregate data suffer from a broad range of biases when scientific interest lies with individual-level associations. To overcome these biases, epidemiologists can choose from a range of designs that combine these group-level data with individual-level data. The individual-level data provide information to identify, evaluate, and control bias, whereas the group-level data are often readily accessible and provide gains in efficiency and power. Within this context, the literature on developing models, particularly multilevel models, is well-established, but little work has been published to help researchers choose among competing designs and plan additional data collection. We review recently proposed "combined" group- and individual-level designs and methods that collect and analyze data at 2 levels of aggregation. These include aggregate data designs, hierarchical related regression, two-phase designs, and hybrid designs for ecologic inference. The various methods differ in (i) the data elements available at the group and individual levels and (ii) the statistical techniques used to combine the 2 data sources. Implementing these techniques requires care, and it may often be simpler to ignore the group-level data once the individual-level data are collected. A simulation study, based on birth-weight data from North Carolina, is used to illustrate the benefit of incorporating group-level information. Our focus is on settings where there are individual-level data to supplement readily accessible group-level data. In this context, no single design is ideal. Choosing which design to adopt depends primarily on the model of interest and the nature of the available group-level data.

  18. Partner Violence during Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Individual and Relationship Level Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Jamie; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-01-01

    Violence within romantic relationships is a significant public health concern. Previous research largely explores partner violence at one or two time points, and often examines a limited set of risk factors. The present study explored both individual and relationship-level risk factors and their associations with physical victimization and perpetration across more than 10 years using a community sample of 200 participants (50% female; M age Wave 1 = 15.8). Additionally, we explored the effects of previous partner violence on the likelihood of future partner violence. Survival analysis indicated that externalizing symptoms and negative interactions (e.g., relationship conflict) were associated with both perpetration and victimization. Reporting an experience of partner violence did not significantly alter an individual’s risk of future partner violence. Overall, men were significantly more likely to report victimization; perpetration rates did not vary by gender. The results highlight the importance of examining multiple levels of risk. PMID:27099201

  19. Effects of Cooperative Learning and Individualized Instruction on Mainstreamed Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The study examined effects on 117 mainstreamed academically handicapped students (grades 3-5) of an instructional method, Team Assisted Individualization (TAI), that combined cooperative learning with individualized instruction in mathematics. TAI and individualized instruction both had positive effects on social acceptance, attitudes toward math,…

  20. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  1. Perceived Risk of Burglary and Fear of Crime: Individual- and Country-Level Mixed Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chon, Don Soo; Wilson, Mary

    2016-02-01

    Given the scarcity of prior studies, the current research introduced country-level variables, along with individual-level ones, to test how they are related to an individual's perceived risk of burglary (PRB) and fear of crime (FC), separately, by using mixed-level logistic regression analyses. The analyses of 104,218 individuals, residing in 50 countries, showed that country-level poverty was positively associated with FC only. However, individual-level variables, such as prior property crime victimization and female gender, had consistently positive relationships with both PRB and FC. However, age group and socioeconomic status were inconsistent between those two models, suggesting that PRB and FC are two different concepts. Finally, no significant difference in the pattern of PRB and FC was found between a highly developed group of countries and a less developed one. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. County-level environmental quality and associations with individual - and county-level preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human health is influenced by simultaneous exposure to stressors and amenities, but research usually considers single exposures. We constructed a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) using principal components analysis with data from five domains (air, water, land, buil...

  3. Individual- and Organization-Level Work-to-Family Spillover Are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D.; Neuendorf, Claudia; Grandey, Alicia; Lam, Chun Bun; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively) at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers' work exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors' leadership style. Design/Methodology/Approach: Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers), beyond job demands supervisors' leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels). Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Findings: Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor's transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. Originality/Value: This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include illuminating organizational work

  4. Effects of methamphetamine abuse beyond individual users.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Ryan, Steve; Hansen, Katherine; Hullsiek, Brad; Muli, Victoria; Malone, A Cate

    2009-09-01

    Since 1997, the use of methamphetamine as a drug of abuse has been widespread in the United States. While several forms of amphetamine are useful in some areas of medicine, methamphetamine as an abused substance is associated with severe and multifaceted consequences. Problems associated with the abuse of amphetamine and its derivatives such as methamphetamine have been well documented. As the manufacture and use of methamphetamine across the United States has increased, the impact of methamphetamine abuse has been felt beyond individual users; families as well as communities can be seriously affected. An increase in child neglect and violence as well as a lack of resources for health care, social services, and law enforcement because of methamphetamine abuse have been reported by many communities. This study examines the historical spread of methamphetamine misuse in the United States and the resulting individual, social, and environmental consequences. A public health perspective on family, community, and social aspects is offered, and ideas for future research and policy changes are explored.

  5. Combining Individual and Group-Level Perspectives for Studying Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvaja, Maarit; Salovaara, Hanna; Hakkinen, Paivi; Jarvela, Sanna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify concepts and methods for studying collaboration in context. The article presents a two-level methodology designed to combine individual and group-level perspectives for the evaluation of collaborative knowledge construction in student groups. The group-level analysis is focused on the students' negotiation…

  6. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-Level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals.

    PubMed

    Day, Sophia E; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G; Konty, Kevin J

    2016-03-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Using the New York City (NYC) 2009 YRBS, we created school-level poverty quartiles to append to individual YRBS records by ranking schools by %FRPM. We compared this with 2 other school-level poverty measures using students' home and school neighborhood-level poverty and measured the association of these 3 school-level proxies with individual's household income. Last, we evaluated health outcomes by race/ethnicity and poverty to demonstrate the importance of accounting for poverty. The school-level measure that used %FRPM had the strongest association with household income. When the school-level individual poverty proxy was included in illustrative analyses using YRBS data, patterns by poverty within race/ethnicity emerged that were not seen when looking at race/ethnicity alone. Using a poverty measure to analyze school-based data will provide a better understanding of the impact of SES on health outcomes. Based on our evaluation, when individual-level information is not available, we propose using school-level %FRPM, which are publicly available throughout the United States. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  7. Validation of spot urine in predicting 24-h sodium excretion at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Tian, Yu; Fu, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Bai, Ya-Min; Zhang, Zi-Hua; Hu, Xiao-He; Lian, Hong-Wu; Guo, Min; Yang, Zheng-Xiong; Zhao, Lian-Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Background: Evidence for the effect of dietary sodium intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease has been controversial. One of the main explanations for the conflicting results lies in the great variability associated with measurement methods for sodium intake. Spot urine collection is a convenient method commonly used for sodium estimation, but its validity for predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion at the individual level has not been well evaluated among the general population.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Kawasaki, the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT), and the Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion by using spot urine samples in Chinese adults.Design: We analyzed the relative and absolute differences and misclassification at the individual level from 3 commonly used methods for estimating sodium intake among 141 Chinese community residents.Results: The mean measured 24-h sodium excretion was 220.8 mmol/d. The median (95% CIs) differences between measured sodium and those estimated from the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka methods were 6.4 mmol/d (-17.5, 36.8 mmol/d), -67.3 mmol/d (-96.5, -46.9 mmol/d), and -42.9 mmol/d (-59.1, -24.8 mmol/d), respectively. The proportions of relative differences >40% with the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka methods were 31.2%, 41.1%, and 22.0%, respectively; and the absolute difference for the 3 methods was >51.3 mmol/d (3 g salt) in approximately half of the participants. The misclassification rate was 63.1% for the Kawasaki method, 78.7% for the INTERSALT method, and 66.0% for the Tanaka method at the individual level.Conclusion: The results from our study do not support the use of spot urine to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion at the individual level because of its poor performance with respect to misclassification. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org.cn as ChiCTR-IOR-16010278. © 2017 American

  8. How Individual and School Aggregate Baseline Behavior Levels Moderate Response to a Primary Level Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.

    2013-01-01

    In our previous research (Benner, Nelson, Sanders, & Ralston, 2012), elementary schools were randomly assigned to either a primary-level behavior intervention directed at externalizing behavior (treatment, n = 7 schools) or to business-as-usual condition (control, n = 6 schools). A screening procedure was used to identify K through 3-grade…

  9. Individuality in nutritional preferences: a multi-level approach in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang S; Jäger, Heidi Y; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-06-30

    Selection may favour individuals of the same population to differ consistently in nutritional preference, for example, because optimal diets covary with morphology or personality. We provided Southern field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) with two synthetic food sources (carbohydrates and proteins) and quantified repeatedly how much of each macronutrient was consumed by each individual. We then quantified (i) whether individuals were repeatable in carbohydrate and protein intake rate, (ii) whether an individual's average daily intake of carbohydrates was correlated with its average daily intake of protein, and (iii) whether short-term changes in intake of carbohydrates coincided with changes in intake of protein within individuals. Intake rates were individually repeatable for both macronutrients. However, individuals differed in their relative daily intake of carbohydrates versus proteins (i.e., 'nutritional preference'). By contrast, total consumption varied plastically as a function of body weight within individuals. Body weight-but not personality (i.e., aggression, exploration behaviour)-positively predicted nutritional preference at the individual level as large crickets repeatedly consumed a higher carbohydrate to protein ratio compared to small ones. Our finding of level-specific associations between the consumption of distinct nutritional components demonstrates the merit of applying multivariate and multi-level viewpoints to the study of nutritional preference.

  10. The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

  11. Individual housing and handling procedures modify anxiety levels of Tg2576 mice assessed in the zero maze test.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Domingo, José L; Colomina, María T

    2012-09-10

    The zero maze is an unconditioned anxiety test for mice, in which a number of environmental variables can modify the anxiety levels of the animals. In the present study, we have assessed how individual housing, handling procedure and interaction between individual housing and handling procedure affect the baseline anxiety of mice. Thirty-seven wild type mice and eighteen Tg2576 mice were used (obtained from crossing APPSWE hemizygous male C57BL6/SJL background with C57BL6/SJL female). Wild type mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: 1) group housed and unhandled, 2) group housed but handled, 3) individually housed, unhandled, and 4) individually housed and handled. In turn, Tg2576 mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: 1) individually housed, unhandled, and 2) individually housed and handled. The results show that individually housed mice exhibited more anxiety-related behaviors over a 5 min testing period than the other experimental groups. Use of the handling procedure was associated with a statistically significant reduction in anxiety-related behaviors among individually housed mice. No effects on anxiety-related behavior levels were observed when group housed animals were handled. When activity levels were significantly increased, a new parameter, "Time by Entries", helped to prevent activity from influencing anxiety parameters such as time in the open section of the zero maze test. This knowledge can help to design more efficient experiments without bias from data obtained by means of unconditioned tests.

  12. Individual SWCNT based ionic field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Pei; He, Jin; Park, Jae Hyun; Krstic, Predrag; Lindsay, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    Here we report that the ionic current through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) can be effectively gated by a perpendicular electrical field from a top gate electrode, working as ionic field effect transistor. Both our experiment and simulation confirms that the electroosmotic current (EOF) is the main component in the ionic current through the SWCNT and is responsible for the gating effect. We also studied the gating efficiency as a function of solution concentration and pH and demonstrated that the device can work effectively in the physiological relevant condition. This work opens the door to use CNT based nanofluidics for ion and molecule manipulation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01), Arizona Technology Enterprises and the Biodesign Institute.

  13. Individual and group level trajectories of behavioural development in Border collies.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-07-01

    In order to assess dogs' personality changes during ontogeny, a cohort of 69 Border collies was followed up from six to 18-24 months. When the dogs were 6, 12, and 18-24 months old, their owners repeatedly filled in a dog personality questionnaire (DPQ), which yielded five personality factors divided into fifteen facets. All five DPQ factors were highly correlated between the three age classes, indicating that the dogs' personality remained consistent relative to other individuals. Nonetheless, at the group level significant changes with age were found for four of the five DPQ factors. Fearfulness, Aggression towards People, Responsiveness to Training and Aggression towards Animals increased with age; only Activity/Excitability did not change significantly over time. These changes in DPQ factor scores occurred mainly between the ages of 6 and 12 months, although some facets changed beyond this age. No sex differences were found for any of the tested factors or facets, suggesting that individual variation in personality was greater than male/female differences. There were significant litter effects for the factors Fearfulness, Aggression towards People and Activity/Excitability, indicating either a strong genetic basis for these traits or a high influence of the shared early environment. To conclude, from the age of six months, consistency in personality relative to other individuals can be observed in Border collies. However, at the group level, increases in fearful and aggressive behaviours occur up to 12 months and for some traits up to two years, highlighting the need for early interventions. Follow-up studies are needed to assess trajectories of personality development prior to six months and after two years, and to include a wider variety of breeds.

  14. Individual and group level trajectories of behavioural development in Border collies

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess dogs’ personality changes during ontogeny, a cohort of 69 Border collies was followed up from six to 18–24 months. When the dogs were 6, 12, and 18–24 months old, their owners repeatedly filled in a dog personality questionnaire (DPQ), which yielded five personality factors divided into fifteen facets. All five DPQ factors were highly correlated between the three age classes, indicating that the dogs’ personality remained consistent relative to other individuals. Nonetheless, at the group level significant changes with age were found for four of the five DPQ factors. Fearfulness, Aggression towards People, Responsiveness to Training and Aggression towards Animals increased with age; only Activity/Excitability did not change significantly over time. These changes in DPQ factor scores occurred mainly between the ages of 6 and 12 months, although some facets changed beyond this age. No sex differences were found for any of the tested factors or facets, suggesting that individual variation in personality was greater than male/female differences. There were significant litter effects for the factors Fearfulness, Aggression towards People and Activity/Excitability, indicating either a strong genetic basis for these traits or a high influence of the shared early environment. To conclude, from the age of six months, consistency in personality relative to other individuals can be observed in Border collies. However, at the group level, increases in fearful and aggressive behaviours occur up to 12 months and for some traits up to two years, highlighting the need for early interventions. Follow-up studies are needed to assess trajectories of personality development prior to six months and after two years, and to include a wider variety of breeds. PMID:28184101

  15. Investigating the causes for decreased levels of glutathione in individuals with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lagman, Minette; Ly, Judy; Saing, Tommy; Kaur Singh, Manpreet; Vera Tudela, Enrique; Morris, Devin; Chi, Po-Ting; Ochoa, Cesar; Sathananthan, Airani; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an eminent global burden with one third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Individuals with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable to M. tb infection. In fact, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are two to three times more susceptible to TB than those without T2DM. In this study, we report that individuals with T2DM have lower levels of glutathione (GSH) due to compromised levels of GSH synthesis and metabolism enzymes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), a cytokine that is known to decrease the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCLC) was found in increased levels in the plasma samples from individuals with T2DM, explaining the possible underlying mechanism that is responsible for decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) were observed in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17 was accompanied by enhanced production of free radicals further indicating an alternative mechanism for the decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Augmenting the levels of GSH in macrophages isolated from individuals with T2DM resulted in improved control of M. tb infection. Furthermore, cytokines that are responsible for controlling M. tb infection at the cellular and granuloma level such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), were found to be compromised in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. On the other hand, interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunosuppressive cytokine was increased in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM lead to their increased susceptibility to M

  16. Investigating the Causes for Decreased Levels of Glutathione in Individuals with Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lagman, Minette; Ly, Judy; Saing, Tommy; Morris, Devin; Chi, Po-Ting; Ochoa, Cesar; Sathananthan, Airani; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an eminent global burden with one third of the world’s population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Individuals with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable to M. tb infection. In fact, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are two to three times more susceptible to TB than those without T2DM. In this study, we report that individuals with T2DM have lower levels of glutathione (GSH) due to compromised levels of GSH synthesis and metabolism enzymes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), a cytokine that is known to decrease the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCLC) was found in increased levels in the plasma samples from individuals with T2DM, explaining the possible underlying mechanism that is responsible for decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) were observed in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17 was accompanied by enhanced production of free radicals further indicating an alternative mechanism for the decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Augmenting the levels of GSH in macrophages isolated from individuals with T2DM resulted in improved control of M. tb infection. Furthermore, cytokines that are responsible for controlling M. tb infection at the cellular and granuloma level such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), were found to be compromised in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. On the other hand, interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunosuppressive cytokine was increased in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM lead to their increased susceptibility to

  17. Immunomodulatory Effects of Triphala and its Individual Constituents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Belapurkar, Pranoti; Goyal, Pragya; Tiwari-Barua, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators. PMID:25593379

  18. Parasite resistance and tolerance in honeybees at the individual and social level.

    PubMed

    Kurze, Christoph; Routtu, Jarkko; Moritz, Robin F A

    2016-08-01

    Organisms living in large groups, such as social insects, are particularly vulnerable to parasite transmission. However, they have evolved diverse defence mechanisms which are not only restricted to the individual's immune response, but also include social defences. Here, we review cases of adaptations at the individual and social level in the honeybee Apis mellifera against the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and the endoparasitic microsporidians Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis. They are considered important threats to honeybee health worldwide. We highlight how individual resistance may result in tolerance at the colony level and vice versa.

  19. Do individualism and collectivism on three levels (country, individual, and situation) influence theory-of-mind efficiency? A cross-country study

    PubMed Central

    Finkenauer, Catrin; Huizinga, Mariette; Novin, Sheida; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether individualism and collectivism (IC) at country, individual, and situational level influence how quickly and accurately people can infer mental states (i.e. theory of mind, or ToM), indexed by accuracy and reaction time in a ToM task. We hypothesized that collectivism (having an interdependent self and valuing group concerns), compared to individualism (having an independent self and valuing personal concerns), is associated with greater accuracy and speed in recognizing and understanding the thoughts and feelings of others. Students (N = 207) from individualism-representative (the Netherlands) and collectivism-representative (Vietnam) countries (Country IC) answered an individualism-collectivism questionnaire (Individual IC) and were randomly assigned to an individualism-primed, collectivism-primed, or no-prime task (Situational IC) before performing a ToM task. The data showed vast differences between the Dutch and Vietnamese groups that might not be attributable to experimental manipulation. Therefore, we analyzed the data for the groups separately and found that Individual IC did not predict ToM accuracy or reaction time performance. Regarding Situational IC, when primed with individualism, the accuracy performance of Vietnamese participants in affective ToM trials decreased compared to when primed with collectivism and when no prime was used. However, an interesting pattern emerged: Dutch participants were least accurate in affective ToM trials, while Vietnamese participants were quickest in affective ToM trials. Our research also highlights a dilemma faced by cross-cultural researchers who use hard-to-reach populations but face the challenge of disentangling experimental effects from biases that might emerge due to an interaction between cultural differences and experimental settings. We propose suggestions for overcoming such challenges. PMID:28832602

  20. Do individualism and collectivism on three levels (country, individual, and situation) influence theory-of-mind efficiency? A cross-country study.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tuong-Van; Finkenauer, Catrin; Huizinga, Mariette; Novin, Sheida; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether individualism and collectivism (IC) at country, individual, and situational level influence how quickly and accurately people can infer mental states (i.e. theory of mind, or ToM), indexed by accuracy and reaction time in a ToM task. We hypothesized that collectivism (having an interdependent self and valuing group concerns), compared to individualism (having an independent self and valuing personal concerns), is associated with greater accuracy and speed in recognizing and understanding the thoughts and feelings of others. Students (N = 207) from individualism-representative (the Netherlands) and collectivism-representative (Vietnam) countries (Country IC) answered an individualism-collectivism questionnaire (Individual IC) and were randomly assigned to an individualism-primed, collectivism-primed, or no-prime task (Situational IC) before performing a ToM task. The data showed vast differences between the Dutch and Vietnamese groups that might not be attributable to experimental manipulation. Therefore, we analyzed the data for the groups separately and found that Individual IC did not predict ToM accuracy or reaction time performance. Regarding Situational IC, when primed with individualism, the accuracy performance of Vietnamese participants in affective ToM trials decreased compared to when primed with collectivism and when no prime was used. However, an interesting pattern emerged: Dutch participants were least accurate in affective ToM trials, while Vietnamese participants were quickest in affective ToM trials. Our research also highlights a dilemma faced by cross-cultural researchers who use hard-to-reach populations but face the challenge of disentangling experimental effects from biases that might emerge due to an interaction between cultural differences and experimental settings. We propose suggestions for overcoming such challenges.

  1. The Role of Embodiment and Individual Empathy Levels in Gesture Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Jospe, Karine; Flöel, Agnes; Lavidor, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that the action-observation network is involved in both emotional-embodiment (empathy) and action-embodiment (imitation) mechanisms. Here we tested whether empathy modulates action-embodiment, hypothesizing that restricting imitation abilities will impair performance in a hand gesture comprehension task. Moreover, we hypothesized that empathy levels will modulate the imitation restriction effect. One hundred twenty participants with a range of empathy scores performed gesture comprehension under restricted and unrestricted hand conditions. Empathetic participants performed better under the unrestricted compared to the restricted condition, and compared to the low empathy participants. Remarkably however, the latter showed the exactly opposite pattern and performed better under the restricted condition. This pattern was not found in a facial expression recognition task. The selective interaction of embodiment restriction and empathy suggests that empathy modulates the way people employ embodiment in gesture comprehension. We discuss the potential of embodiment-induced therapy to improve empathetic abilities in individuals with low empathy.

  2. Level of Perception of Individualized Care and Satisfaction With Nursing in Orthopaedic Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Fatma; Findik, Ummu Yildiz

    2015-01-01

    Lately, individualized nursing care and patient satisfaction are important and current issues being discussed. But there is not enough information for patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the individualized care perception and satisfaction in nursing care levels in orthopaedic surgery patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 156 patients who underwent orthopaedic surgery. Data were collected using the personal information form, the Individualized Care Scale, and the Newcastle Satisfaction With Nursing Scale. The Spearman correlation analysis and descriptive statistics were performed. The mean individualized care and satisfaction with nursing care scores were found to be close to the preset maximum value, and it was determined that an increase in the level of awareness about nursing interventions and the level of perceived individualized care caused an increase in satisfaction levels regarding nursing care. Nurses should recognize the importance of performing individualized care in order to increase the level of satisfaction with nursing care in orthopaedic surgery patients.

  3. Organizational and Individual Characteristics, Organizational Climate, and Job Attitudes: A Multivariate Investigation of Responses at Individual and Group Levels of Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    demographic and organizational position items, an organizational climate measure and a job attitude instrument. The individual data were aggregated at the work...stronger than those obtained at the individual level. Results are discussed in view of recent work on organizational climate suggested that climate represents a set of shared perceptions at some level above that of the individual.

  4. Serum albumin levels and their correlates among individuals with motor disorders at five institutions in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Takeo; Kanaya, Yuki; Tanaka, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The level of serum albumin is an index of nourishment care and management. However, the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders have not been reported until now. Therefore, we examined the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders. SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional study on 249 individuals with motor disabilities (144 men, mean age: 51.4 years; 105 women, mean age: 51.4 years) was conducted at five institutions in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan in 2008. The results were compared with data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. RESULTS The mean serum albumin levels were 4.0 ± 0.4 g/dL for men and 3.8 ± 0.5 g/dL for women. Overall, 17 (11.8%) men and 25 (23.8%) women had hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin level ≤ 3.5 g/dL); these proportions were greater than those among healthy Japanese adults (≤ 1%). Low serum albumin level was related with female sex, older age, low calf circumference, low relative daily energy intake, low hemoglobin (Hb), low blood platelet count, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low HbA1c, and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The strongest correlates, based on standardized betas, were Hb (0.321), CRP (-0.279), and HDL-C (0.279) levels. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia is higher in individuals with motor disabilities than in healthy individuals and that inflammation is a strong negative correlate of serum albumin levels. Therefore, inflammation should be examined for the assessment of hypoalbuminemia among institutionalized individuals with motor disabilities. PMID:28194266

  5. Animal welfare at the group level: more than the sum of individual welfare?

    PubMed

    Ohl, F; Putman, R J

    2014-03-01

    Currently assessment and management of animal welfare are based on the supposition that welfare status is something experienced identically by each individual animal when exposed to the same conditions. However, many authors argue that individual welfare cannot be seen as an 'objective' state, but is based on the animal's own self-perception; such perception might vary significantly between individuals which appear to be exposed to exactly the same challenges. We argue that this has two implications: (1) actual perceived welfare status of individuals in a population may vary over a wide range even under identical environmental conditions; (2) animals that appear to an external observer to be in better or poorer welfare condition may all in fact perceive their own individual status as the same. This would imply that optimum welfare of a social group might be achieved in situations where individual group members differ markedly in apparent welfare status and perceive their own welfare as being optimal under differing circumstances. Welfare phenotypes may also vary along a continuum between self-regarding and other-regarding behaviour; a variety of situations exist where (social) individuals appear to invest in the welfare of other individuals instead of maximising their own welfare; in such a case it is necessary to re-evaluate individual welfare within the context of a social group and recognise that there may be consequences for the welfare of individuals, of decisions made at the group level or by other group members.

  6. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  7. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Polymorphisms and Nitric Oxide Levels in Individuals with Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel M.; Cera, Flávia F.; Pigossi, Suzane C.; Finoti, Livia S.; Kim, Yeon J.; Viana, Aline C.; Secolin, Rodrigo; Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Tanus-Santos, José E.; Orrico, Silvana R. P.; Cirelli, Joni A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the −1026(A>C)(rs2779249) and +2087(A>G)(2297518) polymorphisms in the NOS2 gene were associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) and with salivary levels of nitrite (NO2−) and/or nitrate + nitrite (NOx). A group of 113 mixed-race patients were subjected to periodontal, genetic, and biochemical evaluations (65 CP/48 periodontally healthy subjects). DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells and used for genotyping by polymerase chain reaction (real-time). Salivary NOx concentrations were determined using an ozone-based chemiluminescence assay. Association of CP with alleles and genotypes of the −1026(A>C) polymorphism was found (X2 test, p = 0.0075; 0.0308), but this was not maintained after multiple logistic regression, performed to estimate the effect of covariates and polymorphisms in CP. This analysis demonstrated, after correction for multiple comparisons, that only the female gender was significantly associated with CP. Polymorphisms analyzed as haplotypes were not associated with CP. NOx levels were significantly higher in the control group of heterozygous individuals for both polymorphisms. In conclusion, the female gender was significantly associated with CP, and higher levels of salivary NOx were found in control subjects and associated with the heterozygous state of the NOS2 polymorphisms, reinforcing the potential of NO metabolites as markers of periodontitis status. PMID:28617311

  8. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1611 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance A Appendix A to Part 1611 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION FINANCIAL ELIGIBILITY Pt. 1611, App. A Appendix A to Part 1611—Income Level...

  9. A Structural Equation Model at the Individual and Group Level for Assessing Faking-Related Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere Joan; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a comprehensive approach based on structural equation modeling for assessing the amount of trait-level change derived from faking-motivating situations. The model is intended for a mixed 2-wave 2-group design, and assesses change at both the group and the individual level. Theoretically the model adopts an integrative…

  10. Individualized Testing System: Performance Checks, ISCS Level III, WW-CP Form C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one form of three performance checks booklets (A, B, and C) for two texts of Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). These two texts are Winds and Weather (WW), and Crusty Problems (CP). The 12 performance checks booklets for Level III are considered one of four subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation…

  11. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1611 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance A Appendix A to Part 1611 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION FINANCIAL ELIGIBILITY Pt. 1611, App. A Appendix A to Part 1611—Income Level...

  12. Individual- and Neighborhood-Level Determinants of Fear of Violent Crime Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grinshteyn, Erin G; Eisenman, David P; Cunningham, William E; Andersen, Ronald; Ettner, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Fear of violent crime is common among adolescents in urban settings; however, little is known about individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of fear. A generalized ordered logit model was used to analyze individual- and neighborhood-level variables among 2474 adolescents. Seeing violence significantly reduced the probability of feeling unafraid, as did higher levels of social disorder. The more block faces where police were visible, the higher the probability of feeling unafraid and lower the probability of feeling very afraid. Reducing fear could affect more people than just reducing crime. Fear-reduction strategies should target those most at risk of becoming fearful.

  13. Physical activity in deprived communities in London: examining individual and neighbourhood-level factors.

    PubMed

    Watts, Paul; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Bottomley, Christian; Yu, Ge; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Moore, Derek; Frostick, Caroline; Lock, Karen; Renton, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine relationships between neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics and physical activity in deprived London neighbourhoods. In 40 of the most deprived neighbourhoods in London (ranked in top 11% in London by Index of Multiple Deprivation) a cross-sectional survey (n = 4107 adults aged > = 16 years), neighbourhood audit tool, GIS measures and routine data measured neighbourhood and individual-level characteristics. The binary outcome was meeting the minimum recommended (CMO, UK) 5 × 30 mins moderate physical activity per week. Multilevel modelling was used to examine associations between physical activity and individual and neighbourhood-level characteristics. Respondents living more than 300 m away from accessible greenspace had lower odds of achieving recommended physical activity levels than those who lived within 300 m; from 301-600 m (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and from 601-900 m (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.8). There was substantial residual between-neighbourhood variance in physical activity (median odds ratio = 1.7). Other objectively measured neighbourhood-level characteristics were not associated with physical activity levels. Distance to nearest greenspace is associated with meeting recommended physical activity levels in deprived London neighbourhoods. Despite residual variance in physical activity levels between neighbourhoods, we found little evidence for the influence of other measured neighbourhood-level characteristics.

  14. Personality, foraging behavior and specialization: integrating behavioral and food web ecology at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Benjamin J; Gownaris, Natasha J; Heerhartz, Sarah M; Monaco, Cristián J

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral traits and diet were traditionally thought to be highly plastic within individuals. This view was espoused in the widespread use of optimality models, which broadly predict that individuals can modify behavioral traits and diet across ecological contexts to maximize fitness. Yet, research conducted over the past 15 years supports an alternative view; fundamental behavioral traits (e.g., activity level, exploration, sociability, boldness and aggressiveness) and diet often vary among individuals and this variation persists over time and across contexts. This phenomenon has been termed animal personality with regard to behavioral traits and individual specialization with regard to diet. While these aspects of individual-level phenotypic variation have been thus far studied in isolation, emerging evidence suggests that personality and individual specialization may covary, or even be causally related. Building on this work, we present the overarching hypothesis that animal personality can drive specialization through individual differences in various aspects of consumer foraging behavior. Specifically, we suggest pathways by which consumer personality traits influence foraging activity, risk-dependent foraging, roles in social foraging groups, spatial aspects of foraging and physiological drivers of foraging, which in turn can lead to consistent individual differences in food resource use. These pathways provide a basis for generating testable hypotheses directly linking animal personality to ecological dynamics, a major goal in contemporary behavioral ecology.

  15. Individual Heart Rate Variability Responses to Preseason Training in High Level Female Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Flatt, Andrew A; Esco, Michael R; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2017-02-01

    Flatt, AA, Esco, MR, and Nakamura, FY. Individual heart rate variability responses to preseason training in high level female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 531-538, 2017-The purpose of this study was to track changes in training load (TL) and recovery status indicators throughout a 2-week preseason and to interpret the meaning of these changes on an individual basis among 8 division-1 female soccer players. Weekly averages for heart rate variability (logarithm of the root mean square of successive R-R interval differences [lnRMSSD]), TL, and psychometrics were compared with effect sizes (ESs) and magnitude-based inferences. Relationships were determined with Pearson correlations. Group analysis showed a very likely moderate decrease for total TL (TTL) (TTL week 1 = 1,203 ± 198, TTL week 2 = 977 ± 288; proportion = 1/2/97, ES = -0.93) and a likely small increase in lnRMSSD (week 1 = 74.2 ± 11.1, week 2 = 78.1 ± 10.5; proportion = 81/14/5, ES = 0.35). Fatigue demonstrated a very likely small improvement (week 1 = 5.03 ± 1.09, week 2 = 5.51 ± 1.00; proportion = 95/4/1; ES = 0.45), whereas the other psychometrics did not substantially change. A very large correlation was found between changes in TL and lnRMSSD (r = -0.85), whereas large correlations were found between lnRMSSD and perceived fatigue (r = 0.56) and soreness (r = 0.54). Individual analysis suggests that 2 subjects may benefit from decreased TL, 2 subjects may benefit from increased TL, and 4 subjects may require no intervention based on their psychometric and lnRMSSD responses to the TL. Individual weekly changes in lnRMSSD varied among subjects and related strongly with individual changes in TL. Training intervention based on lnRMSSD and wellness responses may be useful for preventing the accumulation of fatigue in female soccer players.

  16. Country- and individual-level socioeconomic determinants of depression: multilevel cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Rai, Dheeraj; Zitko, Pedro; Jones, Kelvyn; Lynch, John; Araya, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence and correlates of depression vary across countries. Contextual factors such as country-level income or income inequalities have been hypothesised to contribute to these differences. To investigate associations of depression with socioeconomic factors at the country level (income inequality, gross national income) and individual (education, employment, assets and spending) level, and to investigate their relative contribution in explaining the cross-national variation in the prevalence of depression. Multilevel study using interview data of 187 496 individuals from 53 countries participating in the World Health Organization World Health Surveys. Depression prevalence varied between 0.4 and 15.7% across countries. Individual-level factors were responsible for 86.5% of this variance but there was also reasonable variation at the country level (13.5%), which appeared to increase with decreasing economic development of countries. Gross national income or country-level income inequality had no association with depression. At the individual level, fewer material assets, lower education, female gender, economic inactivity and being divorced or widowed were associated with increased odds of depression. Greater household spending, unlike material assets, was associated with increasing odds of depression (adjusted analysis). The variance of depression prevalence attributable to country-level factors seemed to increase with decreasing economic development of countries. However, country-level income inequality or gross national income explained little of this variation, and individual-level factors appeared more important than contextual factors as determinants of depression. The divergent relationship of assets and spending with depression emphasise that different socioeconomic measures are not interchangeable in their associations with depression.

  17. Effects of individualized assignments on biology achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Philip L.

    A pretest-posttest, randomized, two groups, experimental, factorial design compared effects of detailed and nondetailed assignments on biology achievement over seven and a half months. Detailed assignments (favoring field independence and induction) employed block diagrams and stepwise directions. Nondetailed assignments (favoring field dependence and deduction) virtually lacked these. The accessible population was 101 tenth grade preparatory school male students. The 95 students enrolled in first year biology constituted the sample. Two by three ANOVA was done on residualized posttest score means of the students. Totally, the detailed students achieved significantly higher than the nondetailed students. This significantly higher achievement was only true of detailed students in the middle thirds of the deviation intelligence quotient (DIQ) range and of the grade point average (G.P.A.) range after the breakdown into upper, middle, and lower thirds of intellectual capability (ability and achievement). The upper third detailed DIQ grouping indirectly achieved higher than its peers, whereas the lower detailed DIQ third achieved lower than its peers. Thus, high capability students apparently benefit from flow and block diagrams, inductions, field independence, and high structure, whereas low capability students may be hindered by these.

  18. INDIVIDUALIZED READING VERSUS A BASAL READER PROGRAM AT FIRST GRADE LEVEL, IN RURAL COMMUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOQUIN, L. DORIS; SPENCER, DORIS U.

    THIS STUDY COMPARED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A STANDARD BASAL READING PROGRAM WITH AN INDIVIDUALIZED READING PROGRAM WHICH INCORPORATED (1) A PROGRAM OF PHONETIC SKILLS, (2) WORD RECOGNITION, (3) COMPREHENSION SKILLS, AND (4) A PROGRAM OF STORY READING. TWELVE COMBINATION FIRST- AND SECOND-GRADE INDIVIDUALIZED READING CLASSES WERE PAIRED WITH 12 BASAL…

  19. Education and self-rated health: An individual and neighborhood level analysis of Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; McCubbin, Hamilton; McCubbin, Laurie; Chen, Qi; Foley, Shirley; Strom, Ida; Kehl, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Focusing on Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii, this study contributes to the literature by examining (1) the geographical distributions of education in relation to self-rated general health at neighborhood levels, and (2) the individual variations in self-rated health by ethnicity and education at both individual and neighborhood levels. Using the 2007 Hawaii Health Survey with linked zip-code information, and applying GIS (Geographic Information System) and binary logistic regression models, this study found that (1) there are significant between ethnic differences in self-rated health in Hawaii, with Hawaiians being the most disadvantaged population compared to Japanese, Chinese, and Caucasians; (2) individual socioeconomic characteristics are all related to self-rated health, and education (in particular) mediates the Japanese vs. Hawaiian and Chinese vs. Hawaiian health differences; (3) the neighborhood level of education has an independent effect on self-rated health over and above individual characteristics for the whole sample and it partially mediates the between ethnic health differences; and (4) the relative importance of education to self-rated health is more significant and salient for Caucasians and Japanese/Chinese than for Filipinos and Hawaiians. In sum, this study not only demonstrates a geographical profile of health and education distributions in Hawaii, but also reveals significant mediating effects of education, at both individual and neighborhood levels, in explaining the between and within ethnic differentials in self-rated health.

  20. Inter-Individual Differences in RNA Levels in Human Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Wilfinger, William W.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Kennedy, Amy; Rymaszewski, Michal; Mackey, Karol

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the range of RNA levels in human blood. This report provides assessment of peripheral blood RNA level and its inter-individual differences in a group of 35 healthy humans consisting of 25 females and 10 males ranging in age from 50 to 89 years. In this group, the average total RNA level was 14.59 μg/ml of blood, with no statistically significant difference between females and males. The individual RNA level ranged from 6.7 to 22.7 μg/ml of blood. In healthy subjects, the repeated sampling of an individual’s blood showed that RNA level, whether high or low, was stable. The inter-individual differences in RNA level in blood can be attributed to both, differences in cell number and the amount of RNA per cell. The 3.4-fold range of inter-individual differences in total RNA levels, documented herein, should be taken into account when evaluating the results of quantitative RT-PCR and/or RNA sequencing studies of human blood. Based on the presented results, a comprehensive assessment of gene expression in blood should involve determination of both the amount of mRNA per unit of total RNA (U / ng RNA) and the amount of mRNA per unit of blood (U / ml blood) to assure a thorough interpretation of physiological or pathological relevance of study results. PMID:26863434

  1. Tract- and county-level income inequality and individual risk of obesity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2016-01-01

    We tested three alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship between income inequality and individual risk of obesity at two geographical scales: U.S. Census tract and county. Income inequality was measured by Gini coefficients, created from the 2000 U.S. Census. Obesity was clinically measured in the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The individual measures and area measures were geo-linked to estimate three sets of multi-level models: tract only, county only, and tract and county simultaneously. Gender was tested as a moderator. At both the tract and county levels, higher income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity. The size of the coefficient was larger for county-level Gini than for tract-level Gini; and controlling income inequality at one level did not reduce the impact of income inequality at the other level. Gender was not a significant moderator for the obesity-income inequality association. Higher tract and county income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity, indicating that at least at the tract and county levels and in the context of cross-sectional data, the public health goal of reducing the rate of obesity is in line with anti-poverty policies of addressing poverty through mixed-income development where neighborhood income inequality is likely higher than homogeneous neighborhoods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tract- and County-Level Income Inequality and Individual Risk of Obesity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We tested three alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship between income inequality and individual risk of obesity at two geographical scales: U.S. Census tract and county. Methods Income inequality was measured by Gini coefficients, created from the 2000 U.S. Census. Obesity was clinically measured in the 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The individual measures and area measures were geo-linked to estimate three sets of multi-level models: tract only, county only, and tract and county simultaneously. Gender was tested as a moderator. Results At both the tract and county levels, higher income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity. The size of the coefficient was larger for county-level Gini than for tract-level Gini; and controlling income inequality at one level did not reduce the impact of income inequality at the other level. Gender was not a significant moderator for the obesity-income inequality association. Conclusions Higher tract and county income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity, indicating that at least at the tract and county levels and in the context of cross-sectional data, the public health goal of reducing the rate of obesity is in line with anti-poverty policies of addressing poverty through mixed-income development where neighborhood income inequality is likely higher than homogeneous neighborhoods. PMID:26680289

  3. RISKS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS TO WILDLIFE: EXTRAPOLATING FROM EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATION RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the research conducted on the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been focused on effects at the individual or subindividual level. The challenge from the point of view of ecological risk assessment is to determine effects on populations and higher levels...

  4. The Effect of Supplementary Audio Tapes on the Performance of Seventh-Grade Students Who Read Below Grade Level and Were Enrolled in an Individualized Science Program--ISCS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luttrell, Homer Dale

    Reported is a study to identify the degree to which students with reading difficulties could perform if provided with supplementary audiovisual instruction programs. Fifty-two seventh grade students enrolled in an individualized science program developed by the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) were the participants in the study. The…

  5. Impact of extreme metal contamination at the supra-individual level in a contaminated bay ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Li, Xuegang; Song, Jinming; Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic stressors impact the global environment and adversely affect the health of organisms and humans. This study was designed as an attempt to evaluate the ecological consequences of severe metal contamination at the supra-individual level based on a field investigation in Jinzhou Bay (JZB), North China in 2010. The chemical results showed high concentrations of metals in the sediment of JZB that were ~129 times greater than the local geochemical background. Furthermore, the measured metals exhibited considerably high toxicity potential indicated by sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). The mean SQGs quotients suggested the overall toxicity incidence was >70% in locations neighboring the Wulihe River mouth. Biomonitoring revealed 116 individuals distributed among a mere 6 species, 4 of which were polychaetes, at 33% of the sampling sites. Thus, few benthic organisms were present in the damaged community structures across the region, which was consistent with the extreme metal contamination. Moreover, the sediment quality assessment, in a weight of evidence framework, demonstrated that the sediment throughout the entire JZB was moderately to severely impaired, especially in the vicinity of the Wulihe River mouth. By synthesizing the present and previous chemical-biological monitoring campaigns, a possible cause-effect relationship between chemical stressors and benthic receptors was established. We also found that the hydrodynamics, sediment sources, and geochemical characteristics of the metals (in addition to the sources of the metals) were responsible for the geochemical distribution of metals in JZB. The significance of the overall finding is that the deleterious responses observed at the community level may possibly be linked to the extreme chemical stress in the sediment of JZB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An equation-free computational approach for extracting population-level behavior from individual-based models of biological dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erban, Radek; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Othmer, Hans G.

    2006-03-01

    The movement of many organisms can be described as a random walk at either or both the individual and population level. The rules for this random walk are based on complex biological processes and it may be difficult to develop a tractable, quantitatively-accurate, individual-level model. However, important problems in areas ranging from ecology to medicine involve large collections of individuals, and a further intellectual challenge is to model population-level behavior based on a detailed individual-level model. Because of the large number of interacting individuals and because the individual-level model is complex, classical direct Monte Carlo simulations can be very slow, and often of little practical use. In this case, an equation-free approach [I.G. Kevrekidis, C.W. Gear, J.M. Hyman, P. Kevrekidis, O. Runborg, K. Theodoropoulos, Equation-free, coarse-grained multiscale computation: enabling microscopic simulators to perform system-level analysis, Commun. Math. Sci. 1 (4) (2003) 715-762] may provide effective methods for the analysis and simulation of individual-based models. In this paper we analyze equation-free coarse projective integration. For analytical purposes, we start with known partial differential equations describing biological random walks and we study the projective integration of these equations. In particular, we illustrate how to accelerate explicit numerical methods for solving these equations. Then we present illustrative kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of these random walks and show that a decrease in computational time by as much as a factor of a thousand can be obtained by exploiting the ideas developed by analysis of the closed form PDEs. The illustrative biological example here is chemotaxis, but it could be any random walker that biases its movement in response to environmental cues.

  7. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES. PMID:27938632

  8. TIGIT expression levels on human NK cells correlate with functional heterogeneity among healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hou, Hongyan; Wu, Shiji; Tang, Qing; Liu, Weiyong; Huang, Min; Yin, Botao; Huang, Jing; Mao, Lie; Lu, Yanfang; Sun, Ziyong

    2015-10-01

    Human NK cells display extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among healthy individuals, but the mechanism responsible for this variation is still largely unknown. Here, we show that a novel immune receptor, T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), is expressed preferentially on human NK cells but shows wide variation in its expression levels among healthy individuals. We found that the TIGIT expression level is related to the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of NK cells, and that NK cells from healthy individuals can be divided into three categories according to TIGIT expression. NK cells with low levels of TIGIT expression show higher cytokine secretion capability, degranulation activity, and cytotoxic potential than NK cells with high levels of TIGIT expression. Blockade of the TIGIT pathway significantly increased NK-cell function, particularly in NK cells with high levels of TIGIT expression. We further observed that the TIGIT expression level was inversely correlated with the IFN-γ secretion capability of NK cells in patients with cancers and autoimmune diseases. Importantly, we propose a novel mechanism that links TIGIT expression with NK-cell functional heterogeneity, and this mechanism might partially explain why individuals have different susceptibilities to infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer.

  9. Individual and city-level determinants of secondhand smoke exposure in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhang; Barnett, Ross; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2015-12-29

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is a severe public health problem, especially in low and middle countries, but no studies have examined both individual and city-level variables influencing exposure. A cross-sectional multistage sampling design was used to survey subjects from 21 cities in China. Using a standardized questionnaire individual level information was collected. City-level variables were retrieved from the National Bureau of Statistics database. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to assess SHS exposure variation at both the individual and city level. SHS exposure prevalence among non-smokers was 28.1% (95% CI 27.1-29.0). At the individual level lower educational attainment and income and higher exposure to tobacco advertising were associated with higher SHS exposure. On the other hand richer cities, and those with more anti-smoking media news coverage, had less SHS exposure. The presence of city smokefree regulations was unrelated to exposure. Given its human and economic costs, reducing SHS exposure should receive greater priority than it does in China. The results point to the need for the enactment of national smokefree laws in order to combat unacceptably high levels of SHS exposure.

  10. Masting promotes individual- and population-level reproduction by increasing pollination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Linhart, Yan B; Mooney, Kailen A

    2014-04-01

    Masting is a reproductive strategy defined as the intermittent and synchronized production of large seed crops by a plant population. The pollination efficiency hypothesis proposes that masting increases pollination success in plants. Despite its general appeal, no previous studies have used long-term data together with population- and individual-level analyses to assess pollination efficiency between mast and non-mast events. Here we rigorously tested the pollination efficiency hypothesis in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a long-lived monoecious, wind-pollinated species, using a data set on 217 trees monitored annually for 20 years. Relative investment in male and female function by individual trees did not vary between mast and non-mast years. At both the population and individual level, the rate of production of mature female cones relative to male strobili production was higher in mast than non-mast years, consistent with the predicted benefit of reproductive synchrony on reproductive success. In addition, at the individual level we found a higher conversion of unfertilized female conelets into mature female cones during a mast year compared to a non-mast year. Collectively, parallel results at the population and individual tree level provide robust evidence for the ecological, and potentially also evolutionary, benefits of masting through increased pollination efficiency.

  11. Predictors of mental and physical health: individual and neighborhood levels of education, social well-being, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; McCubbin, Hamilton; McCubbin, Laurie; Foley, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how education benefits health through social well-being in Hawaii where the centrality of community life is underscored. The 2007 Hawaii Health Survey with linked zip-code information was used to investigate the effects of education at both individual and neighborhood levels using mixed-effects models. Geographic Information System was applied to map the geographical distributions of education, social well-being, and health. It was found that individual-level education benefits mental health and its effects are largely mediated by respondents' employment status and their social well-being (social integration, social contribution, social actualization, and social coherence). Both individual and neighborhood-level education promotes physical health and their effects are partially mediated by economic well-being and two indicators of social well-being (social integration and social coherence). Results of this study suggest the independent effects of two levels of education on physical health and the importance of education and social well-being to both mental and physical health in the State of Hawaii.

  12. Adiponectin Levels Differentiate Metabolically Healthy vs Unhealthy Among Obese and Nonobese White Individuals.

    PubMed

    Ahl, Scott; Guenther, Mitchell; Zhao, Shi; James, Roland; Marks, Jacqueline; Szabo, Aniko; Kidambi, Srividya

    2015-11-01

    Adiponectin levels (ADPN) are lower in individuals with central obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. Conversely, studies have shown paradoxical hyperadiponectinemia (HA) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals of non-European descent. Moreover, individuals with higher sc to visceral adipose tissue (ie, higher peripheral adiposity) distribution have higher ADPNs. However, it is not known whether metabolically healthy individuals have predominantly peripheral adiposity along with higher ADPNs. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ADPN and adiposity distribution with metabolic health in white individuals. This was a cross-sectional study of members of "Take Off Pounds Sensibly" weight loss club and their relatives. We recruited 2486 (72% women, 61% obese) individuals. They were defined as metabolically healthy by absence of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia; and they were further classified into metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs) were used as markers of adiposity distribution. Insulin resistance was measured using homeostasis model assessment. Among the four groups, MHNO had the lowest WHRs (higher peripheral adiposity) and highest ADPN, and MUO had highest WHRs (higher central adiposity) and lowest ADPN (P < .001). Among both nonobese and obese, metabolically healthy individuals had higher ADPN than metabolically unhealthy individuals (P < .05) after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. MHNO also had lower WHRs compared with MUNO (P < .01). Although WHRs were lower among MHO compared with MUO, the difference was not significant. In addition, nonobese and obese individuals with HA (defined using sex-specific cutoffs) had lower homeostasis model assessment and dyslipidemia compared with individuals without HA. Higher ADPN and lower WHRs (higher peripheral adiposity) are associated with

  13. Association between leisure time, physical activity, and mood disorder levels in individuals with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Cristiano; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Arida, Ricardo Mario; Andersen, Monica Levy; Matos, Gabriela; de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto, Laura Maria; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; de Albuquerque, Marly; Tufik, Sergio; dos Santos Andrade, Marília; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels (occupational, sports, and leisure time activities), depression, anxiety, and epilepsy. The behavioral outcomes of individuals with epilepsy (E) were also compared with healthy control subjects (C). The sample included 31 individuals with epilepsy (12 with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and 19 with partial epilepsy) and 31 control subjects. Self-rating questionnaires were used to assess mood (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory), anxiety, and depression as well as habitual physical activity. Patients with epilepsy were more severely impaired compared to control subjects in both mood questionnaires and presented higher levels of depression (35%), state anxiety (18%), and trait anxiety (12.6%) when compared to the C group. Although physical activity level did not differ significantly between groups, linear regression analyses showed that the physical activity leisure level predicted 31% of depression levels and 26% of anxiety levels in the E group. These data suggest that low levels of physical activity may be considered a risk factor for the development of depression and anxiety and can play an important role in the quality of life of individuals with epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual-level and socio-structural characteristics of violence: an Emergency Department study.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Douglas J; Hassett-Walker, Constance

    2008-08-01

    In this article, the authors present a data collection system to provide information about assault-related injuries within Newark, New Jersey. In 2001, Emergency Department (ED) staff at the six hospitals providing emergency medical care within the city collected data on all assault-related ED visits. Individual-level (n = 1,204) and neighborhood-level (n = 262) analyses were conducted; the latter used data from the 2000 U.S. Census. A hotspots map was also generated. At the individual level, one in three ED patients was assaulted by an intimate partner or other family member. In addition, African American males were disproportionately likely to be treated for assault-related injuries. At the socio-structural level, as hypothesized based on Social Disorganization Theory, hierarchical regression analyses reveal that poorer neighborhoods with more vacant housing units have significantly higher rates of assault-related injuries.

  15. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  16. Individual and county level predictors of asthma related emergency department visits among children on Medicaid: A multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Baltrus, Peter; Xu, Junjun; Immergluck, Lilly; Gaglioti, Anne; Adesokan, Adeola; Rust, George

    2017-01-02

    Disparities in asthma outcomes are well documented in the United States. Interventions to promote equity in asthma outcomes could target factors at the individual and community levels. The objective of this analysis was to understand the effect of individual (race, gender, age, and preventive inhaler use) and county-level factors (demographic, socioeconomic, health care, air-quality) on asthma emergency department (ED) visits among Medicaid-enrolled children. This was a retrospective cohort study of Medicaid-enrolled children with asthma in 29 states in 2009. Multilevel regression models of asthma ED visits were constructed utilizing individual-level variables (race, gender, age, and preventive inhaler use) from the Medicaid enrollment file and county-level variables reflecting population and health system characteristics from the Area Resource File (ARF). County-level measures of air quality were obtained from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data. The primary modifiable risk factor at the individual level was found to be the ratio of long-term controller medications to total asthma medications. County-level factors accounted for roughly 6% of the variance in the asthma ED visit risk. Increasing county-level racial segregation (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.08) was associated with increasing risk of asthma ED visits. Greater supply of pulmonary physicians at the county level (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.68-0.97) was associated with a reduction in risk of asthma ED visits. At the patient care level, proper use of controller medications is the factor most amenable to intervention. There is also a societal imperative to address negative social determinants, such as residential segregation.

  17. Effect of individual blade control on noise radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, S. M.; Jacklin, Stephen A.; Niesl, G.; Blaas, Achim; Kube, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a joint research program of NASA Ames Research Center, ZF Luftfahrttechnik, the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR), and EUROCOPTER Deutschland, a wind tunnel test was performed to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on rotor noise. This test was conducted in the 40x80 ft wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, utilizing a full scale MBB-BO 105 four-bladed rotor system. Three microphones were installed for determination of the radiated noise, two of them on a moveable traverse below the advancing blade side and one in a fixed location below the retreating side. Acoustic results are presented for flight conditions with Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI) noise radiation. High noise level reductions were measured for single harmonic control inputs. In addition to the single harmonic inputs, multi-harmonic inputs were evaluated by superimposing 2/rev to 6/rev harmonics. For the first time the efficiency of sharp wavelets (60 deg and 90 deg width) on acoustic noise were measured. In order to achieve an adequate wavelet shape at the blade tip, corrections were made to account for the blade torsional behavior. In parallel with the acoustic measurements, vibratory loads were measured during the BVI flight condition to correlate the effects of IBC on noise and vibrations. It is shown how noise levels and vibrations are affected by specific IBC control inputs. In addition, correlations are made between noise levels and acoustic time histories with IBC phase and amplitude variations. For one IBC input mode with high noise reducing efficiency, a sweep of the moveable microphone traverse below the advancing side shows the effect on BVI noise directivity.

  18. Individual-level trait diversity predicts phytoplankton community properties better than species richness or evenness.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Simone; Thomas, Mridul Kanianthara; Moldoveanu, Mirela; Spaak, Piet; Pomati, Francesco

    2017-10-03

    Understanding how microbial diversity influences ecosystem properties is of paramount importance. Cellular traits-which determine responses to the abiotic and biotic environment-may help us rigorously link them. However, our capacity to measure traits in natural communities has thus far been limited. Here we compared the predictive power of trait richness (trait space coverage), evenness (regularity in trait distribution) and divergence (prevalence of extreme phenotypes) derived from individual-based measurements with two species-level metrics (taxonomic richness and evenness) when modelling the productivity of natural phytoplankton communities. Using phytoplankton data obtained from 28 lakes sampled at different spatial and temporal scales, we found that the diversity in individual-level morphophysiological traits strongly improved our ability to predict community resource-use and biomass yield. Trait evenness-the regularity in distribution of individual cells/colonies within the trait space-was the strongest predictor, exhibiting a robust negative relationship across scales. Our study suggests that quantifying individual microbial phenotypes in trait space may help us understand how to link physiology to ecosystem-scale processes. Elucidating the mechanisms scaling individual-level trait variation to microbial community dynamics could there improve our ability to forecast changes in ecosystem properties across environmental gradients.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 3 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.160.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C O; Catai, A M; Moura-Tonello, S C G; Lopes, S L B; Benze, B G; Del Vale, A M; Leal, A M O

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3 ± 22.3 vs 135.1 ± 25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149 ± 12 vs 139 ± 10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2 ± 3.2 vs 18.9 ± 2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1 ± 3.4 vs 12.2 ± 2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  1. PLASMA OXYTOCIN LEVELS PREDICT SOCIAL CUE RECOGNITION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Keller, William R.; Koenig, James I.; Gold, James M.; Frost, Katherine H.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Lower endogenous levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin may be an important biological predictor of social cognition impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior studies have demonstrated that lower-level social cognitive processes (e.g., facial affect perception) are significantly associated with reduced plasma oxytocin levels in SZ; however, it is unclear whether higher-level social cognition, which requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in the stimulus, is associated with endogenous oxytocin. The current study explored the association between endogenous oxytocin levels and lower- and higher-level social cognition in 40 individuals diagnosed with SZ and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). All participants received the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT), which presents participants with videotaped interpersonal vignettes and subsequent true/false questions related to concrete or abstract aspects of social interactions in the vignettes. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ and CN did not differ on SCRT hits, but SZ had more false positives and lower sensitivity scores than CN. Higher plasma oxytocin levels were associated with better sensitivity scores for abstract items in CN and fewer false positives for concrete items in individuals with SZ. Findings indicate that endogenous oxytocin levels predict accurate encoding of lower-level socially relevant information in SZ. PMID:25673435

  2. Worked Example Effects in Individual and Group Work Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retnowati, Endah; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of worked example and problem-solving approaches in individual or group work settings on learning to solve geometry problems. One hundred and one seventh graders from Indonesia were randomly allocated to four experimental groups using a 2 (problem-solving vs. worked examples) x 2 (individual vs. group study) design.…

  3. Individual-level influences on perceptions of neighborhood disorder: A multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.; German, Danielle; Hua, Wei; Curry, Aaron D.

    2009-01-01

    Health outcomes are associated with aggregate neighborhood measures and individual neighborhood perceptions. This paper sought to delineate individual, social network, and spatial factors that may influence perceptions of neighborhood disorder. Multilevel regression analysis showed that neighborhood perceptions were more negative in neighborhoods with higher crime reports. Controlling for neighborhood crime, higher perceptions of disorder were associated with younger age, no main partner, non-drug use, higher depression, more network drug use and more time on the street. Results suggest that neighborhood perceptions are based on objective factors, individual differences in experiences and experience of others. Accounting for individual and community-level factors associated with neighborhood perceptions may help clarify associations between neighborhood factors and physical and mental health and assist community-planning efforts. PMID:20027234

  4. The Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task: An Individual Level Betrayal Aversion Measure

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, Jason; Ball, Sheryl; King-Casas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    Research on betrayal aversion shows that individuals’ response to risk depends not only on probabilities and payoffs, but also on whether the risk includes a betrayal of trust. While previous studies focus on measuring aggregate levels of betrayal aversion, the connection between an individual’s own betrayal aversion and other individually varying factors, including risk preferences, are currently unexplored. This paper develops a new task to elicit an individual’s level of betrayal aversion that can then be compared to individual characteristics. We demonstrate the feasibility of our new task and show that our aggregate individual results are consistent with previous studies. We then use this classification to ask whether betrayal aversion is correlated with risk aversion. While we find risk aversion and betrayal aversion have no significant relationship, we do observe that risk aversion is correlated with non-social risk preferences, but not the social, betrayal related, risk component of the new task. PMID:26331944

  5. Reducing the prevalence of dysglycemia: is the time ripe to test the effectiveness of intervention in high-risk individuals with elevated 1 h post-load glucose levels?

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael; Jagannathan, Ram; Buysschaert, Martin; Medina, Jose Luis; Sevick, Mary Ann; Katz, Karin; Dorcely, Brenda; Roth, Jesse; Chetrit, Angela; Dankner, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    Identifying the earliest time point on the prediabetic continuum is critical to avoid progressive deterioration in β-cell function. Progressively rising glucose levels even within the "normal range" occur considerably late in the evolution to diabetes thus presenting an important opportunity for earlier diagnosis, treatment, and possible reversal. An elevated 1 h postprandial glucose level, not detected by current diagnostic standards, may provide an opportunity for the early identification of those at risk. When the 1 h post-load glucose level is elevated, lifestyle intervention may have the greatest benefit for preserving β-cell function and prevent further progression to prediabetes and diabetes. In view of the considerable consistent epidemiologic data in large disparate populations supporting the predictive capacity of the1 h post-load value for predicting progression to diabetes and mortality, the time is therefore ripe to evaluate this hypothesis in a large, prospective multicenter randomized trial with lifestyle intervention.

  6. Flexibility in metabolic rate and activity level determines individual variation in overwinter performance.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-11-01

    Energy stores are essential for the overwinter survival of many temperate and polar animals, but individuals within a species often differ in how quickly they deplete their reserves. These disparities in overwinter performance may be explained by differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility in response to food scarcity. However, little is known about whether individuals exhibit correlated or independent changes in these traits, and how these phenotypic changes collectively affect their winter energy use. We examined individual flexibility in both standard metabolic rate and activity level in response to food scarcity and their combined consequences for depletion of lipid stores among overwintering brown trout (Salmo trutta). Metabolism and activity tended to decrease, yet individuals exhibited striking differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility. The rate of lipid depletion was negatively related to decreases in both metabolic and activity rates, with the smallest lipid loss over the simulated winter period occurring in individuals that had the greatest reductions in metabolism and/or activity. However, changes in metabolism and activity were negatively correlated; those individuals that decreased their SMR to a greater extent tended to increase their activity rates, and vice versa, suggesting among-individual variation in strategies for coping with food scarcity.

  7. Immediate effects of upper thoracic spine manipulation on hypertensive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John; Tyer, Ken; Coats, Jesse; Williams, Gabbrielle; Kulcak, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine if there were any statistically significant immediate effects of upper thoracic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on cardiovascular physiology in hypertensive individuals. Introduction: Preliminary research suggests that SMT to various regions of the spine may be capable of lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Further studies are warranted to corroborate or refute these findings as well as measure how other attributes of cardiovascular physiology are impacted by SMT. Methods: Fifty hypertensive participants (age = 45.5±13.9 years, height = 1.69±0.10 m, body mass = 93.9±21.5 kg: mean±standard deviation (SD)) were equally randomized into a single-blind, controlled trial involving two study groups: supine diversified anterior upper thoracic SMT of T1–4, or a ‘no T-spine contact’ control. Outcome measures were electrocardiogram, bilateral pulse oximetry, and bilateral blood pressure measurement performed at baseline, post 1-minute intervention, and post 10-minute intervention. An independent samples t-test was used to compare between-group differences at baseline. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare within-group changes over time. Results: Within-group changes in PR interval and QRS duration demonstrated that the atria were transiently less active post-SMT and the ventricles were more active post-SMT, however the changes were clinically minimal. Conclusion: The results of this study, and the limited existing normotensive, thoracic-specific SMT research in this field, suggest that cardiovascular physiology, short-term, is not affected by upper thoracic spine SMT in hypertensive individuals to a clinically relevant level. PMID:26309381

  8. Immediate effects of upper thoracic spine manipulation on hypertensive individuals.

    PubMed

    Ward, John; Tyer, Ken; Coats, Jesse; Williams, Gabbrielle; Kulcak, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if there were any statistically significant immediate effects of upper thoracic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on cardiovascular physiology in hypertensive individuals. Preliminary research suggests that SMT to various regions of the spine may be capable of lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Further studies are warranted to corroborate or refute these findings as well as measure how other attributes of cardiovascular physiology are impacted by SMT. Fifty hypertensive participants (age = 45.5±13.9 years, height = 1.69±0.10 m, body mass = 93.9±21.5 kg: mean±standard deviation (SD)) were equally randomized into a single-blind, controlled trial involving two study groups: supine diversified anterior upper thoracic SMT of T1-4, or a 'no T-spine contact' control. Outcome measures were electrocardiogram, bilateral pulse oximetry, and bilateral blood pressure measurement performed at baseline, post 1-minute intervention, and post 10-minute intervention. An independent samples t-test was used to compare between-group differences at baseline. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare within-group changes over time. Within-group changes in PR interval and QRS duration demonstrated that the atria were transiently less active post-SMT and the ventricles were more active post-SMT, however the changes were clinically minimal. The results of this study, and the limited existing normotensive, thoracic-specific SMT research in this field, suggest that cardiovascular physiology, short-term, is not affected by upper thoracic spine SMT in hypertensive individuals to a clinically relevant level.

  9. Death Anxiety as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Levels among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Erin

    2004-01-01

    Because the onset of a spinal cord injury may involve a brush with death and because serious injury and disability can act as a reminder of death, death anxiety was examined as a predictor of posttraumatic stress levels among individuals with disabilities. This cross-sectional study used multiple regression and multivariate multiple regression to…

  10. Individual-Level and Socio-Structural Characteristics of Violence: An Emergency Department Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Douglas J.; Hassett-Walker, Constance

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a data collection system to provide information about assault-related injuries within Newark, New Jersey. In 2001, Emergency Department (ED) staff at the six hospitals providing emergency medical care within the city collected data on all assault-related ED visits. Individual-level (n = 1,204) and…

  11. Discrimination against Latina/os: A Meta-Analysis of Individual-Level Resources and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the findings of 60 independent samples from 51 studies examining racial/ethnic discrimination against Latina/os in the United States. The purpose was to identify individual-level resources and outcomes that most strongly relate to discrimination. Discrimination against Latina/os significantly results in outcomes…

  12. Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a…

  13. Discrimination against Latina/os: A Meta-Analysis of Individual-Level Resources and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the findings of 60 independent samples from 51 studies examining racial/ethnic discrimination against Latina/os in the United States. The purpose was to identify individual-level resources and outcomes that most strongly relate to discrimination. Discrimination against Latina/os significantly results in outcomes…

  14. The Influence of Individual- and Class-Level Fairness-Related Perceptions on Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendorf, Craig A.; Alexander, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This study advances two contributions to the study of student evaluations of teaching: (a) a multilevel conceptualization that allows for the simultaneous analysis of individual- and class-level correlates of evaluations and (b) an application of recent social/organizational psychology theory and research on fairness. Thus, this study examined the…

  15. The Importance of Rationales for Internationalization at a Local Level--University and Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Ian; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examines rationales for internationalization at a research intensive university in the UK. Internationalization is often described at a macro level without reaching down to explore the individual motivations that may support or constrain internationalization at a particular institution. The article argues that it is important to…

  16. Population-level analysis and validation of an individual-based cutthroat trout model

    Treesearch

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Roland H. Lamberson; Derek E. Lee; Claasen Nathan J.; Shuzo Yoshihara

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - An individual-based model of stream trout is analyzed by testing its ability to reproduce patterns of population-level behavior observed in real trout: (1) "self-thinning," a negative power relation between weight and abundance; (2) a "critical period" of density-dependent mortality in young-of-the-year; (3) high and age-speci...

  17. Children's Singing Accuracy as a Function of Grade Level, Gender, and Individual versus Union Singing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between vocal pitch accuracy and gender, grade level, and the presence or absence of an accompanying unison voice. Reveals no significant differences between unison or individual singing or for gender. Fourth and fifth graders exhibited significant differences. (MJP)

  18. Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

  19. Genetic diversity confers colony-level benefits due to individual immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several costs and benefits arise as a consequence of eusociality and group-living. With increasing group size, spread of disease among nest-mates poses selective pressure on both individual immunity and group-level mechanisms of disease resistance (social immunity). Another factor known to influence...

  20. Educational Process Quality in Preschools at the Individual Child Level: Findings from a German Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Wilfried; Rossbach, Hans-Günther

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the quality of educational processes in preschools, but it has usually been studied at the group level. Thus, there is a lack of research on the quality of educational processes as experienced by individual children. Therefore, this study investigated the quality of educational processes in preschools at the…

  1. The Importance of Rationales for Internationalization at a Local Level--University and Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Ian; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examines rationales for internationalization at a research intensive university in the UK. Internationalization is often described at a macro level without reaching down to explore the individual motivations that may support or constrain internationalization at a particular institution. The article argues that it is important to…

  2. Death Anxiety as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Levels among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Erin

    2004-01-01

    Because the onset of a spinal cord injury may involve a brush with death and because serious injury and disability can act as a reminder of death, death anxiety was examined as a predictor of posttraumatic stress levels among individuals with disabilities. This cross-sectional study used multiple regression and multivariate multiple regression to…

  3. Educational Process Quality in Preschools at the Individual Child Level: Findings from a German Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Wilfried; Rossbach, Hans-Günther

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the quality of educational processes in preschools, but it has usually been studied at the group level. Thus, there is a lack of research on the quality of educational processes as experienced by individual children. Therefore, this study investigated the quality of educational processes in preschools at the…

  4. Associations between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modecki, Kathryn L.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent…

  5. Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

  6. Individual- and School-Level Predictors of Student Office Disciplinary Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Andrew; McMahon, Susan D.; Treger, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Research has widely documented the over-representation of office disciplinary referrals (ODRs) among specific student groups (e.g., African American, boys). Despite extant research documenting individual-level predictors of ODRs, few studies have accounted for the nested structure of the settings in which these events occur. Guided by critical…

  7. Individualizing Instruction in College-Level Spanish: A Study of Student Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimerhanzel-Nestlerode, Samye Ruth Mott; Cooper, James

    This study considers whether the outcomes for students who participated in an individualized instructional approach to language learning in intermediate college-level foreign language courses are different from the outcomes for students who participated in a lecture-recitation aproach. A two-treatment group quasi-experimental design was used. The…

  8. An Analysis of Internet Addiction Levels of Individuals according to Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    The concept of internet addiction refers to the excessive use of internet which in turn causes various problems in individual, social and professional aspects. The aim of this study was to determine internet addiction levels of internet users from all age groups. The study used survey model. Study group of the study consisted of a total of 596…

  9. FROM INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING TOXICITY DATA ACROSS LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Raimondo, Sandy and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. In press. From Individuals to Populations: Modeling Toxicity Data Across Levels of Biological Organization (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1012).

    ...

  10. Facultative anadromy in salmonids: linking habitat, individual life history decisions, and population-level consequences

    Treesearch

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and management of facultative anadromous salmonids is complicated by their ability to select anadromous or resident life histories. Conventional theory for this behavior assumes individuals select the strategy offering highest expected reproductive success but does not predict how population-level consequences such as a stream’s smolt production emerge from...

  11. FROM INDIVIDUALS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING TOXICITY DATA ACROSS LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Raimondo, Sandy and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. In press. From Individuals to Populations: Modeling Toxicity Data Across Levels of Biological Organization (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1012).

    ...

  12. Creative self-efficacy and individual creativity in team contexts: cross-level interactions with team informational resources.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas W; Hirst, Giles; van Knippenberg, Daan; Baer, Markus

    2012-11-01

    We propose a cross-level perspective on the relation between creative self-efficacy and individual creativity in which team informational resources, comprising both shared "knowledge of who knows what" (KWKW) and functional background diversity, benefit the creativity of individuals more with higher creative self-efficacy. To test our hypotheses, we conducted a multi-level study with 176 employees working in 34 research and development teams of a multinational company in 4 countries. In support of our hypotheses, the link between creative self-efficacy and individual creativity was more positive with greater shared KWKW, and this interactive effect was pronounced for teams of high rather than low functional background diversity. We discuss implications for the study of creative self-efficacy in team contexts. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Measuring Oxygen Cost During Level Walking in Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Helen; Collett, Johnathen; Ramsbottom, Roger; Howells, Ken; Sackley, Cath; Wade, Derick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the test-retest reliability of oxygen cost (ml·kg-1·min-1) during level walking in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). Ten individuals with ABI (5 men, 5 women) (Traumatic brain injury, 1, central pontine myelinolysis, 1, stroke 8) and 21 healthy controls (11 men, 10 women). Measurements of gross and net (walking minus resting) oxygen consumption (ml·kg-1·min-1), and oxygen cost (ml·kg-1·min-1) during level walking at self-selected speeds. Measurements were taken on two occasions within one week. Oxygen cost was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in individuals with ABI on the second test versus the first test. Percentage variability in oxygen cost from test to re-test ranged from 14.7 to 17.3% in the control group and from 17.4 to 20.8% in the brain injury group. Clinical populations may demonstrate a significant decrease in oxygen cost between testing occasions. Individuals require at least one period of familiarisation if oxygen cost is used as an outcome measure during level walking in clinical groups. The amount of familiarisation has yet to be investigated in individuals with ABI. Key Points Individuals with brain injury during level walking May demonstrate a significant decrease in oxygen cost between testing occasions. May require at least one period of familiarisation if oxygen cost is used as an outcome measure The degree of familiarisation required in this clinical group needs further investigation PMID:24482582

  14. Factors associated with D-dimer levels in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N; Baker, Jason V; Vjecha, Michael J; Losso, Marcelo H; Klinker, Hartwig; Lopardo, Gustavo; Williams, Ian; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    Higher plasma D-dimer levels are strong predictors of mortality in HIV+ individuals. The factors associated with D-dimer levels during HIV infection, however, remain poorly understood. In this cross-sectional study, participants in three randomized controlled trials with measured D-dimer levels were included (N = 9,848). Factors associated with D-dimer were identified by linear regression. Covariates investigated were: age, gender, race, body mass index, nadir and baseline CD4+ count, plasma HIV RNA levels, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, ART regimens, co-morbidities (hepatitis B/C, diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular disease), smoking, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and cystatin C) and cholesterol. Women from all age groups had higher D-dimer levels than men, though a steeper increase of D-dimer with age occurred in men. Hepatitis B/C co-infection was the only co-morbidity associated with higher D-dimer levels. In this subgroup, the degree of hepatic fibrosis, as demonstrated by higher hyaluronic acid levels, but not viral load of hepatitis viruses, was positively correlated with D-dimer. Other factors independently associated with higher D-dimer levels were black race, higher plasma HIV RNA levels, being off ART at baseline, and increased levels of CRP, IL-6 and cystatin C. In contrast, higher baseline CD4+ counts and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were negatively correlated with D-dimer levels. D-dimer levels increase with age in HIV+ men, but are already elevated in women at an early age due to reasons other than a higher burden of concomitant diseases. In hepatitis B/C co-infected individuals, hepatic fibrosis, but not hepatitis viral load, was associated with higher D-dimer levels.

  15. Factors Associated with D-Dimer Levels in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Álvaro H.; O’Connor, Jemma L.; Phillips, Andrew N.; Baker, Jason V.; Vjecha, Michael J.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Klinker, Hartwig; Lopardo, Gustavo; Williams, Ian; Lundgren, Jens D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher plasma D-dimer levels are strong predictors of mortality in HIV+ individuals. The factors associated with D-dimer levels during HIV infection, however, remain poorly understood. Methods In this cross-sectional study, participants in three randomized controlled trials with measured D-dimer levels were included (N = 9,848). Factors associated with D-dimer were identified by linear regression. Covariates investigated were: age, gender, race, body mass index, nadir and baseline CD4+ count, plasma HIV RNA levels, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, ART regimens, co-morbidities (hepatitis B/C, diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular disease), smoking, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and cystatin C) and cholesterol. Results Women from all age groups had higher D-dimer levels than men, though a steeper increase of D-dimer with age occurred in men. Hepatitis B/C co-infection was the only co-morbidity associated with higher D-dimer levels. In this subgroup, the degree of hepatic fibrosis, as demonstrated by higher hyaluronic acid levels, but not viral load of hepatitis viruses, was positively correlated with D-dimer. Other factors independently associated with higher D-dimer levels were black race, higher plasma HIV RNA levels, being off ART at baseline, and increased levels of CRP, IL-6 and cystatin C. In contrast, higher baseline CD4+ counts and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were negatively correlated with D-dimer levels. Conclusions D-dimer levels increase with age in HIV+ men, but are already elevated in women at an early age due to reasons other than a higher burden of concomitant diseases. In hepatitis B/C co-infected individuals, hepatic fibrosis, but not hepatitis viral load, was associated with higher D-dimer levels. PMID:24626096

  16. Automated individual-level parcellation of Broca's region based on functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Estrid; Liem, Franziskus; Klados, Manousos A; Bayrak, Şeyma; Petrides, Michael; Margulies, Daniel S

    2016-09-30

    Broca's region can be subdivided into its constituent areas 44 and 45 based on established differences in connectivity to superior temporal and inferior parietal regions. The current study builds on our previous work manually parcellating Broca's area on the individual-level by applying these anatomical criteria to functional connectivity data. Here we present an automated observer-independent and anatomy-informed parcellation pipeline with comparable precision to the manual labels at the individual-level. The method first extracts individualized connectivity templates of areas 44 and 45 by assigning to each surface vertex within the ventrolateral frontal cortex the partial correlation value of its functional connectivity to group-level templates of areas 44 and 45, accounting for other template connectivity patterns. To account for cross-subject variability in connectivity, the partial correlation procedure is then repeated using individual-level network templates, including individual-level connectivity from areas 44 and 45. Each node is finally labeled as area 44, 45, or neither, using a winner-take-all approach. The method also incorporates prior knowledge of anatomical location by weighting the results using spatial probability maps. The resulting area labels show a high degree of spatial overlap with the gold-standard manual labels, and group-average area maps are consistent with cytoarchitectonic probability maps of areas 44 and 45. To facilitate reproducibility and to demonstrate that the method can be applied to resting-state fMRI datasets with varying acquisition and preprocessing parameters, the labeling procedure is applied to two open-source datasets from the Human Connectome Project and the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland Sample. While the current study focuses on Broca's region, the method is adaptable to parcellate other cortical regions with distinct connectivity profiles.

  17. Are Androgynous Individuals More Effective Persons and Parents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1982-01-01

    Using extensive, multifaceted observational and interview data from the Family Socialization and Developmental Competence Project (FSP), this paper examines the claims that androgynes, by comparison with sex-typed individuals, are more effective persons and parents. (Author/RH)

  18. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Yuji; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB). Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being.

  19. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness

    PubMed Central

    Ogihara, Yuji; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB). Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being. PMID:24634663

  20. Effectiveness of Simple Individual Psychoeducation for Bipolar II Disorder.

    PubMed

    Saito-Tanji, Yuka; Tsujimoto, Emi; Taketani, Reiko; Yamamoto, Ami; Ono, Hisae

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression. Her perception of mood state, particularly mixed state, was dramatically changed, and her quality of life was improved after the simple individual psychoeducation. This case suggests that the simple individual psychoeducation could be effective for bipolar II disorder by improving understanding of the disease and by meeting different individual needs.

  1. Effectiveness of Simple Individual Psychoeducation for Bipolar II Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Emi; Taketani, Reiko; Yamamoto, Ami

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression. Her perception of mood state, particularly mixed state, was dramatically changed, and her quality of life was improved after the simple individual psychoeducation. This case suggests that the simple individual psychoeducation could be effective for bipolar II disorder by improving understanding of the disease and by meeting different individual needs. PMID:27559486

  2. Fecal butyrate levels vary widely among individuals but are usually increased by a diet high in resistant starch.

    PubMed

    McOrist, Alexandra L; Miller, Rosalind B; Bird, Anthony R; Keogh, Jennifer B; Noakes, Manny; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Butyrate and other SCFA produced by bacterial fermentation of resistant starch (RS) or nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) promote human colonic health. To examine variation in fecal variables, especially butyrate, among individuals and the response to these fibers, a randomized cross-over study was conducted that compared the effects of foods supplying 25 g of NSP or 25 g of NSP plus 22 g of RS/d over 4 wk in 46 healthy adults (16 males, 30 females; age 31-66 y). Fecal SCFA levels varied widely among participants at entry (butyrate concentrations: 3.5-32.6 mmol/kg; butyrate excretions: 0.3-18.2 mmol/48 h). BMI explained 27% of inter-individual butyrate variation, whereas protein, starch, carbohydrate, fiber, and fat intake explained up to 16, 6, 2, 4, and 2% of butyrate variation, respectively. Overall, acetate, butyrate, and total SCFA concentrations were higher when participants consumed RS compared with entry and NSP diets, but individual responses varied. Individual and total fecal SCFA excretion, weight, and moisture were higher than those for habitual diets when either fiber diet was consumed. SCFA concentrations (except butyrate) and excretions were higher for males than for females. Butyrate levels increased in response to RS in most individuals but often decreased when entry levels were high. Fecal butyrate and ammonia excretions were positively associated ((2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). In conclusion, fecal butyrate levels vary widely among individuals but consuming a diet high in RS usually increases levels and may help maintain colorectal health.

  3. Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M; Blume, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    Although one of the main reasons for the interest in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) is the potential consequences of these behaviors, no study has been reported that summarizes the research regarding the relationships between OCBs and their outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a meta-analytic examination of the relationships between OCBs and a variety of individual- and organizational-level outcomes. Results, based on 168 independent samples (N = 51,235 individuals), indicated that OCBs are related to a number of individual-level outcomes, including managerial ratings of employee performance, reward allocation decisions, and a variety of withdrawal-related criteria (e.g., employee turnover intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism). In addition, OCBs were found to be related (k = 38; N = 3,611 units) to a number of organizational-level outcomes (e.g., productivity, efficiency, reduced costs, customer satisfaction, and unit-level turnover). Of interest, somewhat stronger relationships were observed between OCBs and unit-level performance measures in longitudinal studies than in cross-sectional studies, providing some evidence that OCBs are causally related to these criteria. The implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Habitat quality from individual- and population-level perspectives and implications for management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boves, Than J.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Wigley, T. Bently; Keyser, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Many wildlife management prescriptions are either implicitly or explicitly designed to improve habitat quality for a focal species, but habitat quality is often difficult to quantify. Depending upon the approach used to define and identify high-quality habitat, management decisions may differ widely. Although individual-level measures of habitat quality based on per capita reproduction (e.g., average nesting success, number of young produced per pair) are most common in the literature, they may not align with population-level measures that reflect number of young produced within a defined area. Using data on the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea) collected in the Cumberland Mountains (Tennessee, USA; 2008–2010) as an example, we illustrate how lack of concordance between individual- and population-level measures of habitat quality can have real-world management implications.

  5. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. Conclusions The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma. PMID:24242257

  6. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-11-13

    members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma.

  7. A Study of the Characteristics of Effective Individualized Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Calvin E.; Kim, Yungho

    The characteristics of effective or successful individualized instructional programs were investigated. The work of other evaluators was reviewed and a series of screening criteria were applied in order to identify effective programs. Programs were selected from evaluation reports for their effectiveness and their "popularity." Information about…

  8. Are all repeats created equal? Understanding DNA repeats at an individual level.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinpu; Li, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences, comprising up to 50 % of the genome in all eukaryotes, play important roles in a wide range of cellular functions, such as transcriptional regulation, genome stability, and cellular differentiation. However, due to technical difficulties in differentiating their sequences, DNA repeats remain one of the most mysterious parts of eukaryotic genomes. Key questions, such as how repetitive entities behave at individual level and how the internal architecture of these repeats is organized, are still poorly understood. Recent advances from our group reveal unexpected position-dependent variation within tandem DNA repeats in fission yeast. Despite sharing identical DNA sequences, the peri-centromeric repeats are organized into diverse epigenetic states and chromatin structures. We demonstrate that this position-dependent variation requires key heterochromatin factors and condensin. Our works further suggest that the peri-centromeric repeats are organized into distinct higher order structures that ensure a proper positioning of CENP-A, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant, to centromeres. These most recent developments offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the position effect within tandem DNA arrays, and have broad implications in the field of epigenetics and chromatin biology.

  9. Coopetition in health care: A multi-level analysis of its individual and organizational determinants.

    PubMed

    Westra, Daan; Angeli, Federica; Carree, Martin; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Cooperative inter-organizational relations are salient to healthcare delivery. However, they do not match with the pro-competitive healthcare reforms implemented in several countries. Healthcare organizations thus need to balance competition and cooperation in a situation of 'coopetition'. In this paper we study the individual and organizational determinants of coopetition versus those of cooperation in the price-competitive specialized care sector of the Netherlands. We use shared medical specialists as a proxy of collaboration between healthcare organizations. Based on a sample of 15,431 medical specialists and 371 specialized care organizations from March 2016, one logistic multi-level model is used to predict medical specialists' likelihood to be shared and another to predict their likelihood to be shared to a competitor. We find that different organizations share different specialists to competitors and non-competitors. Cooperation and coopetition are hence distinct organizational strategies in health care. Cooperation manifests through spin-off formation. Coopetition occurs most among organizations in the price-competitive market segment but in alternative geographical markets. Hence, coopetition in health care does not appear to be particularly anti-competitive. However, healthcare organizations seem reluctant to share their most specialized human resources, limiting the knowledge-sharing effects of this type of relation. Therefore, it remains unclear whether coopetition in health care is beneficial to patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral Health Outcomes Among Adults: Associations With Individual and Community-Level Economic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Laura J; Han, Beth; Dowd, William N; Cowell, Alexander J; Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Davies, M Christine; Colpe, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between state and local economic conditions and serious psychological distress, substance use disorders, and mental health service utilization among adults in the United States. Using data from 21,100 adults who responded to the 2008-2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population living in households, the study used multivariate methods to examine associations between selected macroeconomic conditions and behavioral health outcomes. Living in states in the top three quartiles for serious mortgage delinquency rate and in counties in the top three quartiles for unemployment rate was associated with a lower likelihood of using mental health services among individuals experiencing serious psychological distress (adjusted relative risk [ARR]=.54, .52, and .73, and ARR=.58, .62, and .71, respectively, versus quartile 1). Individual-level characteristics were the primary predictors associated with higher odds of having substance use disorders or experiencing serious psychological distress, but macroeconomic variables were not statistically significant predictors of these outcomes. Both individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and population-level macroeconomic conditions were associated with behavioral health outcomes. Prevalence of serious psychological distress and substance use disorders and use of mental health services varied by economic measure. The findings suggest that access to and availability of mental health services for individuals experiencing serious psychological distress may be more challenging for those who do not have health insurance or who reside in regions with higher rates of mortgage foreclosures or higher rates of unemployment.

  11. Individual-and Setting-Level Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Rape Crisis Center Staff.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sorell, Nicole R; Allen, Nicole E

    2016-02-01

    Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an issue of significant concern among providers who work with survivors of sexual assault. Although STS has been studied in relation to individual-level characteristics of a variety of types of trauma responders, less research has focused specifically on rape crisis centers as environments that might convey risk or protection from STS, and no research to knowledge has modeled setting-level variation in correlates of STS. The current study uses a sample of 164 staff members representing 40 rape crisis centers across a single Midwestern state to investigate the staff member-and agency-level correlates of STS. Results suggest that correlates exist at both levels of analysis. Younger age and greater severity of sexual assault history were statistically significant individual-level predictors of increased STS. Greater frequency of supervision was more strongly related to secondary stress for non-advocates than for advocates. At the setting level, lower levels of supervision and higher client loads agency-wide accounted for unique variance in staff members' STS. These findings suggest that characteristics of both providers and their settings are important to consider when understanding their STS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Increased low-level chromosome 21 mosaicism in older individuals with Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, E.C.; Genovese, M.; Ye, Ling Ling

    1997-01-20

    During a study of the familial aggregation of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer disease (AD), we observed an increase in mosaicism for disomy 21 in older individuals with DS. In a total of 213 DS subjects who were studied cytogenetically, only 1 of 121 (0.8%) under age 45 exhibited mosaicism, while 14 of 92 (15.2%) who were age 45 or older had mosaicism. Mosaicism in this report connotes {open_quotes}low-level{close_quotes} mosaicism, where all 15 individuals exhibited a modal chromosome number of 47 (i.e., trisomy 21), and at least two cells lacked one of the three chromosomes 21. The occurrence of aneuploidy for chromosomes 15, 17, and X increased with age, and an inverse correlation between chromosome loss and size was also observed. Because older individuals had not been karyotyped at birth, it was not possible to determine whether our observations were due to either increased survival of mosaic individuals or accumulation of disomy 21 cells via increased chromosome loss with aging of the trisomy 21 individual. Using a modeling approach involving life table methods, we obtained results that suggested acquired mosaicism as the predominant mechanism to explain our findings. These results support the hypothesis that as individuals with DS age, there is an increased loss of chromosome 21. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Comparison of total protein and phospholipase A(2) levels in individual coralsnake venoms.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Randall A; Harper, George R; Zimmerman, Sloane; Hook, Jessica

    2013-12-15

    Studies of differences or changes in venom protein levels or enzymatic activities have significance only if contrasted to the normal variations between individual snakes. This study involves the analysis and comparison of venom from 13 individual Texas coralsnakes (Micrurus tener tener) in order to detect differences in the volume, total protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, and PLA2 enzyme activity. A significant inverse correlation between venom volume and total protein concentration was found. Although the 13 venoms were indistinguishable from their electrophoretic protein profiles, phospholipase A2 enzymatic activities varied considerably.

  14. Avian haemosporidian persistence and co-infection in great tits at the individual level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies have tracked the distribution and persistence of avian haemosporidian communities across space and time at the population level, but few studies have investigated these aspects of infection at the individual level over time. Important aspects of parasite infection at the individual level can be missed if only trends at the population level are studied. This study aimed to determine how persistent Haemosporida are in great tit individuals recaptured over several years, whether parasitaemia differed by parasite lineage (mitochondrial cytochrome b haplotype) and how co-infection (i.e. concurrent infection with multiple genera of parasites) affects parasitaemia and body mass. Methods Parasite prevalence was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR were used to assess parasitaemia and sequencing was employed to determine the identity of the lineages using the MalAvi database. Results Haemosporidian prevalence was high over sampled years with 98% of 55 recaptured individuals showing infection in at least one year of capture. Eighty-two percent of all positive individuals suffered co-infection, with an overall haemosporidian lineage diversity of seventeen. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites were found to be highly persistent, with lineages from these genera consistently found in individuals across years and with no differences in individual parasitaemia being recorded at subsequent captures. Conversely, Leucocytozoon parasites showed higher turnover with regard to lineage changes or transitions in infection status (infected vs non-infected) across years. Parasitaemia was found to be lineage specific and there was no relationship between Plasmodium parasitaemia or host body condition and the presence of Leucocytozoon parasites. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that different genera of haemosporidian parasites interact differently with their host and other co-infecting parasites, influencing parasite

  15. Individual changes in clozapine levels after smoking cessation: results and a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J M

    2001-12-01

    Published reports document 20-40% lower mean serum clozapine concentrations in smokers compared with nonsmokers due to enzyme induction. Despite the increase in nonsmoking psychiatric facilities in the United States, previous studies have not tracked individual changes in serum clozapine levels after smoking cessation. Clozapine level changes were analyzed in 11 patients at Oregon State Hospital who were on stable clozapine doses, before and after implementation of a hospital-wide nonsmoking policy. A mean increase in clozapine levels of 71.9% (442.4 ng/ml +/- 598.8 ng/ml) occurred upon smoking cessation (p < .034) from a baseline level of 550.2 ng/ml (+/- 160.18 ng/ml). One serious adverse event, aspiration pneumonia, was associated with a nonsmoking serum clozapine level of 3066 ng/ml. Elimination of statistically extreme results generated a mean increase of 57.4 % or 284.1 ng/ml (+/- 105.2 ng/ml) for the remaining cases (p < .001) and permitted construction of a linear model which explains 80.9% of changes in clozapine levels upon smoking cessation (F = 34.9;p = .001): clozapine level as nonsmoker = 45.3 + 1.474 (clozapine level as smoker). These findings suggest that significant increases in clozapine levels upon smoking cessation may be predicted by use of a model. Those with high baseline levels should be monitored for serious adverse events.

  16. Nutritional status and serum zinc and selenium levels in Iranian HIV infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, H; Soudbakhsh, A; Hajiabdolbaghi, M; Dashti-Khavidaki, S; Poorzare, A; Saeedi, AA; Sharififar, R

    2008-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals are prone to malnutrition due to increased energy requirements, enteropathy and increased catabolism. Trace elements such as zinc and selenium have major role in maintaining a healthy immune system. This study was designed to evaluate the nutritional status of Iranian subjects who were newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus infection and to compare serum level of zinc and selenium in these patients with those of the sex and aged match healthy subjects. Methods After an interview and physical examination, nutritional assessment was done based on clinical and anthropometric parameters. Body mass index (normal range 18.5–27 kg/m2 based on age) of less than 16, 16–16.9 and 17–18.4 kg/m2 were considered as severe, moderate and mild malnutrition respectively. Serum level of zinc and selenium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Results Severe, moderate and mild malnutrition were detected in 15%, 38% and 24% of human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals respectively. Compared with the healthy control group, serum level of zinc and selenium in the human immunodeficiency virus infected subjects were significantly lower (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02 respectively). Conclusion Malnutrition found to be prevalent in Iranian human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals and low serum zinc and selenium levels are common in this population. PMID:19068104

  17. Individual and household-level socioeconomic position is associated with harmful alcohol consumption behaviours among adults.

    PubMed

    Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    To examine associations between individual-, household- and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and harmful alcohol consumption. Adults aged 18-76 residing in 50 neighbourhoods in Melbourne completed a postal questionnaire (n= 2349, 58.7% response rate). Alcohol-related behaviours were classified by risk of short- and long-term harm. Individual-, household- and neighbourhood-level SEP were ascertained by education, household income and proportion of low-income households, respectively. The association were examined by multi-level logistic regression. Participants lower education or household income were less likely to consume alcohol frequently compared to their more-advantaged counterparts. Lower-educated men were more likely to be at risk of short-term harm [OR 1.75 (1.23 - 2.48)]. Low-income women were less likely to be at risk of short-term harm [OR 0.44 (0.23 - 0.81)]. Neighbourhood disadvantage was not associated with alcohol consumption. Men and women from socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds were more frequent consumers of alcohol, whereas their disadvantaged counterparts drank less frequently but in greater quantities on each drinking occasion. Socioeconomic disadvantage at the individual and household levels may be an important determinant of alcohol consumption among Australian adults. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Individual and community levels of maternal autonomy and child undernutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Ramaprasad; Perkins, Jessica M; Joe, William; Subramanian, S V

    2017-03-01

    Investigate the relationship between maternal autonomy at multiple levels and the risk of child stunting, underweight, and wasting in India. Data were from a 2005-2006 nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 51,555 children under 5 years from 29 states in India. Multilevel, multivariable, logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of child stunting, underweight, and wasting in relation to maternal autonomy in healthcare, movement, and money at the individual level and community level, while adjusting for several child, maternal, and household factors. When only adjusting for child age and sex, children in communities with a high proportion of women with autonomy in healthcare, or movement, or money, separately, had a lower risk of being stunted, underweight, or wasted, separately. However, adjusting for other explanatory factors attenuated these relationships and made them statistically insignificant. Individual maternal autonomy in any of the three domains was not associated with any of the outcomes. The results suggest that caution should be taken when interpreting the direct relevance of maternal autonomy at both individual and community levels to measures of child undernutrition.

  19. Validation of the howRu and howRwe questionnaires at the individual patient level.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Steven H; Rutgers, Jojanneke; van Dijk, Peter R; Groenier, Klaas H; Bilo, Henk J G; Kleefstra, Nanne; Kocks, Janwillem W H; van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Blanker, Marco H

    2015-10-02

    The howRu and howRwe are new short questionnaires which are meant to measure health-related quality of life and patient experience. However, validation at the individual patient level has not yet taken place. We aimed to investigate the validity of both questionnaires at the individual patient level. In this prospective validation study, patients were asked to complete both questionnaires and comment on their answers in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Based on the transcribed interviews, a panel of 45 general practitioners and 45 patients filled out the questionnaires as they thought the patients had completed them. The questionnaires were considered valid instruments when a reliable and acceptable level of agreement was reached between the patient's score and the score of a review panel, defined as a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of ≥0.70. Bland-Altman plots were also made. Ninety patients were included. The CCC of the howRu total score of the review panel and patients was 0.80 (95 % CI 0.73 to 0.86). Bland-Altman plots showed a mean difference of -0.96 and the limits of agreement ranged from -2.87 to 0.95. The CCC of the howRwe total score was 0.57 (95 % CI 0.42 to 0.69). The mean difference on the Bland-Altman plots was -0.54 and the limits of agreement ranged from -3.59 to 2.52. The howRu seems to be a valid questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life at the individual patient level. We do not advice to use the tested version of the howRwe questionnaire for assessing patient experience at the individual patient level. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT01830803 . Registration date: 5 April 2013.

  20. The Effectiveness of Couple and Individual Relationship Education: Distress as a Moderator.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ryan G; Rappleyea, Damon L; Daire, Andrew P; Harris, Steven M; Liu, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Current literature yields mixed results about the effectiveness of relationship education (RE) with low-income participants and those who experience a high level of individual or relational distress. Scholars have called for research that examines whether initial levels of distress act as a moderator of RE outcomes. To test whether initial levels of relationship and/or individual distress moderate the effectiveness of RE, this study used two samples, one of couples who received couple-oriented relationship education with their partner (n = 192 couples) and one of individuals in a relationship who received individual-oriented RE by themselves (n = 60 individuals). We delivered RE in a community-based setting serving primarily low-income participants. For those attending with a partner, there was a significant interaction between gender, initial distress, and time. Findings indicate that women who were relationally distressed before RE reported the largest pre-postgains. Those who attended an individual-oriented RE program reported significant decreases in individual distress from pre to post, but no significant relationship gains. Findings also suggest that initial levels of distress did not moderate the effectiveness of individual-oriented RE. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  1. Individual-level risk factors for gun victimization in a sample of probationers.

    PubMed

    Wells, William; Chermak, Steven

    2011-07-01

    Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level variables uniquely related to the likelihood of experiencing a gun victimization in a sample of probationers, individuals already at a heightened risk for criminal victimization. Self-report data were collected from 235 felony probationers about, for instance, gun and nongun victimization, gang involvement, and drug sales. Results show different variables are related to nongun victimization and gun victimization. In the current sample, involvement in gun crimes are linked to an increased risk of gun victimization. Violent offending and residential stability are associated with an increased chance of crime victimization.

  2. Reasoning in Reference Games: Individual- vs. Population-Level Probabilistic Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Michael; Degen, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in probabilistic pragmatics have achieved considerable success in modeling speakers’ and listeners’ pragmatic reasoning as probabilistic inference. However, these models are usually applied to population-level data, and so implicitly suggest a homogeneous population without individual differences. Here we investigate potential individual differences in Theory-of-Mind related depth of pragmatic reasoning in so-called reference games that require drawing ad hoc Quantity implicatures of varying complexity. We show by Bayesian model comparison that a model that assumes a heterogenous population is a better predictor of our data, especially for comprehension. We discuss the implications for the treatment of individual differences in probabilistic models of language use. PMID:27149675

  3. Belief in Family Planning Myths at the Individual and Community Levels and Modern Contraceptive Use in Urban Africa.

    PubMed

    Gueye, Abdou; Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Okigbo, Chinelo C

    2015-12-01

    Negative myths and misconceptions about family planning are a barrier to modern contraceptive use. Most research on the subject has focused on individual beliefs about contraception; however, given that myths spread easily within communities, it is also important to examine how the prevalence of negative myths in a community affects the aggregate level of method use. Baseline data collected in 2010-2011 by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project on women aged 15-49 living in selected cities in Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal were used. Multivariate analyses examined associations between modern contraceptive use and belief in negative myths for individuals and communities. In each country, the family planning myths most prevalent at the individual and community levels were that "people who use contraceptives end up with health problems," "contraceptives are dangerous to women's health" and "contraceptives can harm your womb." On average, women in Nigeria and Kenya believed 2.7 and 4.6 out of eight selected myths, respectively, and women in Senegal believed 2.6 out of seven. Women's individual-level belief in myths was negatively associated with their modern contraceptive use in all three countries (odds ratios, 0.2-0.7). In Nigeria, the women's community-level myth variable was positively associated with modern contraceptive use (1.6), whereas the men's community-level myth variable was negatively associated with use (0.6); neither community-level variable was associated with modern contraceptive use in Kenya or Senegal. Education programs are needed to dispel common myths and misconceptions about modern contraceptives. In Nigeria, programs that encourage community-level discussions may be effective at reducing myths and increasing modern contraceptive use.

  4. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  5. Analysis of gene expression levels in individual bacterial cells without image segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, In Hae; Son, Minjun; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for extracting gene expression data from images of bacterial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method does not employ cell segmentation and does not require high magnification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence and phase contrast images of the cells are correlated through the physics of phase contrast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate the method by characterizing noisy expression of comX in Streptococcus mutans. -- Abstract: Studies of stochasticity in gene expression typically make use of fluorescent protein reporters, which permit the measurement of expression levels within individual cells by fluorescence microscopy. Analysis of such microscopy images is almost invariably based on a segmentation algorithm, where the image of a cell or cluster is analyzed mathematically to delineate individual cell boundaries. However segmentation can be ineffective for studying bacterial cells or clusters, especially at lower magnification, where outlines of individual cells are poorly resolved. Here we demonstrate an alternative method for analyzing such images without segmentation. The method employs a comparison between the pixel brightness in phase contrast vs fluorescence microscopy images. By fitting the correlation between phase contrast and fluorescence intensity to a physical model, we obtain well-defined estimates for the different levels of gene expression that are present in the cell or cluster. The method reveals the boundaries of the individual cells, even if the source images lack the resolution to show these boundaries clearly.

  6. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lana, Raquel de Carvalho; de Araujo, Lysandra Nogueira; Cardoso, Francisco; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP), the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  7. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kronborg, Gitte; Benfield, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of <50 copies/mL, and the median CD4(+) T-cell count was 503 cells/µL. During 10.5 years of follow-up, 167 (17.9%) died. Plasma sCD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29-8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2.16-4.64 mg/L]; P = .0001). The cumulative incidence of death increased with increasing plasma sCD163 levels, corresponding to a 6% or 35% increased risk of death for each milligram per liter or quartile increase, respectively, in baseline plasma sCD163 level (adjusted HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.03-1.09] and 1.35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63], respectively). Plasma sCD163 was an independent marker of all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may play a role in HIV pathogenesis and be a target of intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Effect of Shared versus Individual Reflection on Team Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domke-Damonte, Darla J.; Keels, J. Kay

    2015-01-01

    In this study, teams in a strategic management classroom were given one of two versions of an assignment related to the development of a team contract: independent individual reflections on desired team behaviors versus team-level reflections on desired behavioral norms. Results of a multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for gender and…

  9. The Effect of Shared versus Individual Reflection on Team Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domke-Damonte, Darla J.; Keels, J. Kay

    2015-01-01

    In this study, teams in a strategic management classroom were given one of two versions of an assignment related to the development of a team contract: independent individual reflections on desired team behaviors versus team-level reflections on desired behavioral norms. Results of a multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for gender and…

  10. Youth Supplying Tobacco to Other Minors: Evaluating Individual and Town-Level Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Steven B.; Jason, Leonard A.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study employed multilevel random-effects regression analyses to model individual and community correlates of youth supplying tobacco to other minors. Data from 8486 youth in 40 Midwestern junior high and high schools were examined. Results indicate community support for tobacco-possession laws was associated with lower likelihood of…

  11. Youth Supplying Tobacco to Other Minors: Evaluating Individual and Town-Level Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Steven B.; Jason, Leonard A.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study employed multilevel random-effects regression analyses to model individual and community correlates of youth supplying tobacco to other minors. Data from 8486 youth in 40 Midwestern junior high and high schools were examined. Results indicate community support for tobacco-possession laws was associated with lower likelihood of…

  12. Impact of Individual-, Environmental-, and Policy-Level Factors on Health Care Utilization Among US Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Joni A.; Gabbard, Susan; Kronick, Richard G.; Roesch, Scott C.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Zuniga, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined individual-, environmental-, and policy-level correlates of US farmworker health care utilization, guided by the behavioral model for vulnerable populations and the ecological model. Methods. The 2006 and 2007 administrations of the National Agricultural Workers Survey (n = 2884) provided the primary data. Geographic information systems, the 2005 Uniform Data System, and rurality and border proximity indices provided environmental variables. To identify factors associated with health care use, we performed logistic regression using weighted hierarchical linear modeling. Results. Approximately half (55.3%) of farmworkers utilized US health care in the previous 2 years. Several factors were independently associated with use at the individual level (gender, immigration and migrant status, English proficiency, transportation access, health status, and non-US health care utilization), the environmental level (proximity to US–Mexico border), and the policy level (insurance status and workplace payment structure). County Federally Qualified Health Center resources were not independently associated. Conclusions. We identified farmworkers at greatest risk for poor access. We made recommendations for change to farmworker health care access at all 3 levels of influence, emphasizing Federally Qualified Health Center service delivery. PMID:21330594

  13. Study of the relationship between IL-10 polymorphism and serum lipoprotein levels in Han Chinese individuals.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Q

    2016-06-03

    Previous studies have shown that cytokines can affect serum lipoprotein concentrations. The aim of this study was to examine the association between IL-10 gene polymorphisms and serum lipoprotein levels of Han Chinese individuals. A total of 359 Han Chinese people were enrolled in this investigation. IL-10 -592, -819, and -1082 genotypes were established using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. An automatic biochemistry analyzer was used to determine serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in each individual. We observed that the three IL-10 polymorphisms did not significantly differ in terms of age or age of carrier (P > 0.05), and the -592 and -819 variants did not significantly affect serum lipoprotein levels (P > 0.05). HDL concentrations were higher and TG levels were lower in carriers of the -1082 GA genotype compared to those with the AA genotype, and these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, TC, VLDL, and LDL levels were unaffected by this sequence variation (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that the polymorphism at position -1082 in the promoter region of IL-10 may affect serum HDL and TG concentrations, while other variants of this gene appear to have no relationship with serum lipoprotein levels.

  14. Individual Differences in Boredom Proneness and Task Effectiveness at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drory, Amos

    1982-01-01

    Studied relationships between boredom at work, personal characteristics, and performance in a sample of truck drivers. Results suggest that boredom was associated negatively with higher mental and physical individual capacity and negatively associated with effectiveness. The relationship between boredom and work effectiveness was significantly…

  15. Working together versus working autonomously: a new power-dependence perspective on the individual-level of analysis.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Simon B

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that it is important to investigate the interaction between task interdependence and task autonomy because this interaction can affect team effectiveness. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted and those studies focused solely on the team level of analysis. Moreover, there has also been a dearth of theoretical development. Therefore, this study develops and tests an alternative theoretical perspective in an attempt to understand if, and if so why, this interaction is important at the individual level of analysis. Based on interdependence theory and power-dependence theory, we expected that highly task-interdependent individuals who reported high task autonomy would be more powerful and better performers. In contrast, we expected that similarly high task-interdependent individuals who reported less task autonomy would be less powerful and would be weaker performers. These expectations were supported by multi-level and bootstrapping analyses performed on a multi-source dataset (self-, peer-, manager-ratings) comprised of 182 employees drawn from 37 teams. More specifically, the interaction between task interdependence and task autonomy was γ =.128, p <.05 for power and γ =.166, p <.05 for individual performance. The 95% bootstrap interval ranged from .0038 to .0686.

  16. Individual Effect Modifiers of Dust Exposure Effect on Cardiovascular Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Vodonos, Alina; Friger, Michael; Katra, Itzhak; Krasnov, Helena; Zahger, Doron; Schwartz, Joel; Novack, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been associated with death and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular morbidity. However, it is not clear a) whether high levels of non-anthropogenic PM from dust storms constitute a health risk; and b) whether these health risks are exacerbated in a particular demographic. Methods This study comprised all patients above 18 years old admitted to Soroka University Medical Center (1000 bed tertiary hospital, Be’er- Sheva, Israel, 2001–2010) with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data on meteorological parameters and PM10 (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodiameter) were obtained from monitoring stations in the city of Be'er-Sheva. Data were analyzed using a case crossover analysis to examine the effect of dust exposure on hospitalization due to ACS and the interaction with co-morbidities and demographic factors. Results There were 16,734 hospitalizations due to ACS during the study period. The estimated odds of hospitalization due to ACS was significantly associated with PM10 during non dust storm days at the same day of the exposure (lag0); OR = 1.014 (95%CI 1.001–1.027) for a 10 μg/m3 increase, while a delayed response (lag1) was found during the dust storm days; OR = 1.007 (95%CI 1.002–1.012). The effect size for the dust exposure association was larger for older (above the age of 65), female or Bedouin patients. Conclusions Exposure to non-anthropogenic PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Health risk associated dust exposure is gender and age specific with older women and Bedouin patients being the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26381397

  17. Comparing the occlusal contact area of individual teeth during low-level clenching.

    PubMed

    Nishimori, Hideta; Iida, Takashi; Kamiyama, Hirona; Komoda, Yoshihiro; Obara, Ryoko; Uchida, Takashi; Kawara, Misao; Komiyama, Osamu

    2017-09-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occlusal contact area (OCA) in individual teeth during low-level tooth clenching in 24 healthy participants. Before measurements were made, the 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined. At baseline, all subjects were instructed to close their mouth and touch the opposing teeth with minimal force. Occlusal contact was recorded during three jaw motor tasks (baseline, 20% MVC, and 40% MVC) using a blue silicone material. OCA thickness was determined from images and defined on five levels: level 1 (0-149 µm), level 2 (0-89 µm), level 3 (0-49 µm), level 4 (0-29 µm), and level 5 (0-4 µm). Premolar and molar OCAs increased significantly from baseline to 20% MVC and 40% MVC. The OCA of each anterior tooth did not change significantly with increasing clenching intensity at all levels. Our findings suggest that premolar and molar OCAs may be altered by low-intensity clenching, affecting the teeth and periodontal tissues.

  18. Refugee experiences of individual basic body awareness therapy and the level of transference into daily life. An interview study.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Trine Stårup; Carlsson, Jessica; Nordbrandt, Maja; Jensen, Jonna Anne

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate refugee experiences of individual Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) and the level of transference into daily life. Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews. Malterud's version of Giorgi's 4-step analysis was used to analyse the data. Three traumatised refugees with PTSD who had completed 14-20 individual BBAT sessions. The participants experienced the movements in BBAT as small and simple with big effects. BBAT was found to relieve pain and tension, bring peace of mind and body, and make it easier to sleep. Regular practice was necessary, as were instructions from a physiotherapist, to get the effect from BBAT. Positive changes in the contact to oneself and others were experienced and new coping strategies were developed. Traumatised refugees experienced positive effects from BBAT and transference into daily life was experienced to a great extent. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Urbanization and health in China, thinking at the national, local and individual levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinhu; Song, Jinchao; Lin, Tao; Dixon, Jane; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Hong

    2016-03-08

    China has the biggest population in the world, and has been experiencing the largest migration in history, and its rapid urbanization has profound and lasting impacts on local and national public health. Under these conditions, a systems understanding on the correlation among urbanization, environmental change and public health and to devise solutions at national, local and individual levels are in urgent need. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of recent studies which have examined the relationship between urbanization, urban environmental changes and human health in China. Based on the review, coupled with a systems understanding, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for promoting the health and wellbeing of the whole nation at national, local, and individual levels. Urbanization and urban expansion result in urban environmental changes, as well as residents' lifestyle change, which can lead independently and synergistically to human health problems. China has undergone an epidemiological transition, shifting from infectious to chronic diseases in a much shorter time frame than many other countries. Environmental risk factors, particularly air and water pollution, are a major contributing source of morbidity and mortality in China. Furthermore, aging population, food support system, and disparity of public service between the migrant worker and local residents are important contributions to China's urban health. At the national level, the central government could improve current environmental policies, food safety laws, and make adjustments to the health care system and to demographic policy. At the local level, local government could incorporate healthy life considerations in urban planning procedures, make improvements to the local food supply, and enforce environmental monitoring and management. At the individual level, urban residents can be exposed to education regarding health behaviour choices while being encouraged to take

  20. Neighbourhood characteristics, individual level socioeconomic factors, and depressive symptoms in young adults: the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, C.; Diez, R; Jacobs, D.; Kiefe, C.; West, D.; Williams, D.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate the relation between neighbourhood socioeconomic and ethnic characteristics with depressive symptoms in a population based sample. Design: Cross sectional data from the CARDIA study, including the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale score (CES-D). Neighbourhoods were 1990 US census blocks of 1000 people; six census variables reflecting wealth/income, education, and occupation investigated separately and as a summary score; neighbourhood racial composition (percentage white and black) and individual level income and education were also examined. Setting: Participants recruited in 1985/86 from community lists in Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis MN; from a health plan in Oakland, CA. Participants: 3437 adults aged 28–40 years in 1995/96: 24% white men, 27% white women, 20% black men, 29% black women. Main results: For each race-sex group, CES-D was inversely related to neighbourhood score and individual income and education. Associations of neighbourhood score with CES-D became weak and inconsistent after adjusting for individual level factors; personal income remained strongly and inversely associated with CES-D. Age adjusted mean differences (standard errors) in CES-D between the lowest and highest income categories were 3.41 (0.62) for white men, 4.57 (0.64) for white women, 5.80 (0.87) for black men, and 5.74 (0.83) for black women. For both black and white participants, CES-D was associated negatively with percentage of white people and positively with percentage of black people in their census block, before, but not after, adjustment for individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic variables. Conclusions: Neither neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics nor ethnic density were consistently related to depressive symptoms once individual socioeconomic characteristics were taken into account. PMID:15767387

  1. Impact of Individual-Level Social Capital on Quality of Life among AIDS Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Chen, Ruoling; Li, Niannian; Chen, Ren; Hu, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Background With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL) among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV) questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. Results The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS) score of 50.13±9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS) score of 41.64±11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02) or PHS score (OR = 6.90). Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR = 2.30, OR = 4.17, respectively). Conclusions This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration. PMID:23139823

  2. Electrocardiographic study of the effect of masturbation normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Banerjea, B K; Sen, S C

    1976-01-01

    An electrocardiographic study of 120 normal individuals of age group between 22 years to 38 years was carried out to observe changes manifested in the electrocardiogram under the effect of masturbation. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms was recorded, E.C.G. were taken twice in all the subjects: (i) before ejaculation, and (ii) after ejaculation. After ejaculation, in electrocardiogram, following changes were observed: (i) increase of QRS-amplitude, (ii) increase of T-wave amplitude, (iii) decrease of heart rate, and (iv) elevation of St-segment. Blooe pressure was also estimated in all the subjects before and after ejaculation. Blood pressure levels increased after ejaculation in all the cases. The fact that any sort of stressful condition may induce the discharge of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla as well as adrenergic nerve endings, led us to estimate the concentration of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in plasma before and after ejaculation. The result showed, increase of concentration of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine after ejaculation. Hence epinephrine and nor-epinephrine, were thought to be responsible to cause changes in the electrocardiographic pattern after ejaculation.

  3. Antioxidative effects of propofol vs. ketamin in individuals undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Khoshraftar, Ebrahim; Ranjbar, Akram; Kharkhane, Behroz; Tavakol Heidary, Shayesteh; Gharebaghi, Zohre; Zadkhosh, Nahid

    2014-07-01

    Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) is a widely used intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent for both induction/maintenance of anesthesia and sedation of critically ill patients. The present study aimed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers in individuals undergoing surgery with propofol and ketamine at doses used to induce anesthesia. The plasma oxidative stress biomarkers such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), total thiol molecules (TTM) and antioxidant enzymes activity such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxidedismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were studied in blood samples obtained from 40 patients with propofol, and compared to samples from 40 patients with ketamine aged 11 - 50 years. The results showed that the ketamine group had significantly higher blood LPO level, GPx and SOD activity while having lower blood TAC and TTM concentrations in comparison to the propofol group. In conclusion, our findings showed that propofol has antioxidant effects in human. Further studies need to be conducted to demonstrate the exact mechanism of oxidative stress caused by anesthesia in surgery patients.

  4. A longitudinal survey of anti-Ostertagia ostertagi antibody levels in individual and bulk tank milk in two dairy herds in Normandy.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Camuset, Philippe; Claerebout, Edwin; Courtay, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2007-10-01

    The Ostertagia-specific antibody levels in milk were monitored in 2 dairy herds to investigate seasonal variations and the relationship between individual and bulk tank milk antibody levels. Bulk tank and individual milk samples from all lactating animals were collected over a 1-year period at weekly and monthly intervals, respectively. The Ostertagia-specific antibody levels were measured with an indirect ELISA and the test results were expressed as optical density ratios (ODR). A clear seasonal pattern that followed the expected intake of infectious larvae was observed in the individual and bulk tank milk antibody levels of both herds. Within each herd, there was a large variation in the individual ODRs. This variation remained large when the distribution of individual ODRs was plotted according to high and low bulk tank milk ODR categories. The results suggest that the effect of seasonal variations on cut-off levels that predict production responses after anthelmintic control, needs to be assessed.

  5. Speeded Old-New Recognition of Multidimensional Perceptual Stimuli: Modeling Performance at the Individual-Participant and Individual-Item Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Stanton, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    Observers made speeded old-new recognition judgments of color stimuli embedded in a multidimensional similarity space. The paradigm used multiple lists but with the underlying similarity structures repeated across lists, to allow for quantitative modeling of the data at the individual-participant and individual-item levels. Correct rejection…

  6. Speeded Old-New Recognition of Multidimensional Perceptual Stimuli: Modeling Performance at the Individual-Participant and Individual-Item Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Stanton, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    Observers made speeded old-new recognition judgments of color stimuli embedded in a multidimensional similarity space. The paradigm used multiple lists but with the underlying similarity structures repeated across lists, to allow for quantitative modeling of the data at the individual-participant and individual-item levels. Correct rejection…

  7. Vasopressin, but not oxytocin, increases empathic concern among individuals who received higher levels of paternal warmth: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Benjamin A.; Meyer, Meghan L.; Castle, Elizabeth; Dutcher, Janine M.; Irwin, Michael R.; Han, Jung H.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy improves our ability to communicate in social interactions and motivates prosocial behavior. The neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and oxytocin play key roles in socioemotional processes such as pair bonding and parental care, which suggests that they may be involved in empathic processing. Methods We investigated how vasopressin and oxytocin affect empathic responding in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects study design. We also examined the moderating role of parental warmth, as reported in the early family environment, on empathic responding following vasopressin, oxytocin, or placebo administration. Results Among participants who reported higher levels of paternal warmth (but not maternal warmth), vasopressin (vs. placebo and oxytocin) increased ratings of empathic concern after viewing distressing and uplifting videos. No main or interaction effects were found for individuals who received oxytocin. Conclusions Vasopressin has a role in enhancing empathy among individuals who received higher levels of paternal warmth. Trial registration NCT01680718 PMID:25462898

  8. Similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels.

    PubMed

    William Domhoff, G; Schneider, Adam

    2008-12-01

    The similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels provide one starting point for carrying out studies that attempt to discover correspondences between dream content and various types of waking cognition. Hobson and Kahn's (Hobson, J. A., & Kahn, D. (2007). Dream content: Individual and generic aspects. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 850-858.) conclusion that dream content may be more generic than most researchers realize, and that individual differences are less salient than usually thought, provides the occasion for a review of findings based on the Hall and Van de Castle (Hall, C., & Van de Castle, R. (1966). The content analysis of dreams. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.) coding system for the study of dream content. Then new findings based on a computationally intensive randomization strategy are presented to show the minimum sample sizes needed to detect gender and individual differences in dream content. Generally speaking, sample sizes of 100-125 dream reports are needed because most dream elements appear in less than 50% of dream reports and the magnitude of the differences usually is not large.

  9. Prediction of community mental health service utilization by individual and ecological level socio-economic factors.

    PubMed

    Donisi, Valeria; Tedeschi, Federico; Percudani, Mauro; Fiorillo, Andrea; Confalonieri, Linda; De Rosa, Corrado; Salazzari, Damiano; Tansella, Michele; Thornicroft, Graham; Amaddeo, Francesco

    2013-10-30

    Individuals with a more deprived socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and use of psychiatric services. Such service use is also influenced by socioeconomic factors at the ecological level. The aim of this article is to investigate the influence of these variables on service utilization. All patients in contact with three Italian community psychiatric services (CPS) were included. Community and hospital contacts over 6 months were investigated. Socio-economic characteristics were described using a SES Index and two new Resources Accessibility Indexes. Low SES was found to be associated with more community service contacts. When other individual and ecological variables were controlled for, SES was negatively associated only with the number of home visits, which was about half the rate in deprived areas. An association between service utilization and the resources of the catchment area was also detected. The economic crisis in Europe is increasing inequality of access, so paying attention to SES characteristics at both the individual and the ecological levels is likely to become increasingly important in understanding patterns of psychiatric service utilization and planning care accordingly.

  10. DataSHIELD: an ethically robust solution to multiple-site individual-level data analysis.

    PubMed

    Budin-Ljøsne, Isabelle; Burton, Paul; Isaeva, Julia; Gaye, Amadou; Turner, Andrew; Murtagh, Madeleine J; Wallace, Susan; Ferretti, Vincent; Harris, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    DataSHIELD (Data Aggregation Through Anonymous Summary-statistics from Harmonised Individual levEL Databases) has been proposed to facilitate the co-analysis of individual-level data from multiple studies without physically sharing the data. In a previous paper, we investigated whether DataSHIELD could protect participant confidentiality in accordance with UK law. In this follow-up paper, we investigate whether DataSHIELD addresses a broader range of ethics-related data-sharing concerns. Ethics-related data-sharing concerns of Institutional Review Boards, ethics experts, international research consortia and research participants were identified through a literature search and systematically examined at a multidisciplinary workshop to determine whether DataSHIELD proposes mechanisms which can address these concerns. DataSHIELD addresses several ethics-related data-sharing concerns related to privacy, confidentiality, and the protection of the research participant's rights while sharing data and after the data have been shared. The data remain entirely under the direct management of the study that collected them. Data processing commands are strictly supervised, and the data are queried in a protected environment. Issues related to the return of individual research results when data are shared are eliminated; the responsibility for return remains at the study of origin. DataSHIELD can provide an innovative and robust solution for addressing commonly encountered ethics-related data-sharing concerns. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Individuals in the crowd: studying bacterial quorum-sensing at the single-cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino Perez, Pablo; Young, Jonathan; Johnson, Elaine L.; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2009-03-01

    Like many bacterial species, the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri can detect its own population density through a quorum sensing (QS) mechanism. The bacterium releases a small molecule signal -- the autoinducer (AI) -- into its environment: high AI concentration indicates high population density and triggers a genetic switch that, in V.fischeri, leads to bioluminescence. Although the QS behavior of bulk cultures of V.fischeri has been extensively studied, little is known about either the response of individual cells to AI signal levels or the role of noise and local diffusion in QS signaling. We have used a photon-counting camera to record the luminescence of individual V.fischeri cells immobilized in a flow cell and subject to varying concentrations of AI. We observe that light output by individual cells varies not only with bulk AI concentration, but also over time, between cells, with local (micron-scale) population density, and even with the flow rate of the medium. Most of these variations would not be evident in a bulk culture. We will present an analysis of this heterogeneity at the cell level and its implications for the role of noise in QS signaling.

  12. High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from analyses of individual microfossils.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Alan J; Xiao, Shuhai

    2003-09-18

    Solar luminosity on the early Earth was significantly lower than today. Therefore, solar luminosity models suggest that, in the atmosphere of the early Earth, the concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane must have been much higher. However, empirical estimates of Proterozoic levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have not hitherto been available. Here we present ion microprobe analyses of the carbon isotopes in individual organic-walled microfossils extracted from a Proterozoic ( approximately 1.4-gigayear-old) shale in North China. Calculated magnitudes of the carbon isotope fractionation in these large, morphologically complex microfossils suggest elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the ancient atmosphere--between 10 and 200 times the present atmospheric level. Our results indicate that carbon dioxide was an important greenhouse gas during periods of lower solar luminosity, probably dominating over methane after the atmosphere and hydrosphere became pervasively oxygenated between 2 and 2.2 gigayears ago.

  13. Association of Drug and Alcohol Use With Adolescent Firearm Homicide at Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Levels.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Bernadette C; Wiley, Shari; Wiebe, Douglas J; Culyba, Alison J; Drake, Rebecca; Branas, Charles C

    2017-03-01

    Homicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States and the leading cause of death for adolescents who are African American. Large cities have disproportionate homicide rates. To determine the relationships between exposures to drugs and alcohol at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels and adolescent firearm homicide and to inform new approaches to preventing firearm violence. Population-based case-control study from January 2010 to December 2012 of all 13- to 20-year-olds who were homicide victims in Philadelphia during the study period matched to randomly selected 13- to 20-year-old controls from the general population. Individual drug and alcohol use at the time of injury, history of drug and alcohol use, caregiver drug and alcohol use, and neighborhood availability of alcohol and illegal drugs. We also controlled for age, race, school suspensions, arrests, and neighborhood ethnicity. Adolescent firearm homicide identified from police and medical examiner's reports. We enrolled 161 adolescent homicide cases, including 157 (97.5%) firearm homicide cases and 172 matched controls, including 166 (96.5%) firearm homicide controls. Adolescents with a history of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.1; 95% CI, 1.2-14.0) or drug use (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.6) had increased odds of firearm homicide. Adolescents whose caregiver had a history of drug use had increased odds of firearm homicide (AOR, 11.7; 95% CI, 2.8-48.0). Adolescents in neighborhoods with high densities of alcohol outlets (AOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.1) and moderate or high drug availability had increased odds of firearm homicide (AOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.3 vs AOR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.2-25.8). Almost all adolescent homicides in Philadelphia between 2010 and 2012 were committed with a firearm. Substance use at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels was associated with increased odds of adolescent firearm homicide; drug use was associated at all 3 levels and

  14. Higher precision level at individual laying performance tests in noncage housing systems.

    PubMed

    Icken, W; Thurner, S; Heinrich, A; Kaiser, A; Cavero, D; Wendl, G; Fries, R; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R

    2013-09-01

    With the Weihenstephan funnel nest box, 12 laying hen flocks were tested for their individual laying performance, egg quality, and nesting behavior in a noncage environment. During the whole observation period of 8 yr, a transponder-based data recording system was continuously improved and resulted in a recording accuracy of 97%. At peak production, heritabilities for the number of eggs laid are in some flocks higher than expected. With improved data accuracy, heritability estimates on individual egg weights are more stable. Heritabilities for nesting behavior traits range between a low to moderate level, providing very useful information for laying hen selection to help improve traits that cannot be recorded in cages. Over the years, the benefits of the Weihenstephan funnel nest box for laying hen breeders have grown. This is due to higher data recording accuracies and extended testing capacities, which result in more reliable genetic parameters.

  15. Individual increase in inbreeding allows estimating effective sizes from pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Cervantes, Isabel; Molina, Antonio; Valera, Mercedes; Goyache, Félix

    2008-01-01

    We present here a simple approach to obtain reliable estimates of the effective population size in real world populations via the computation of the increase in inbreeding for each individual (delta Fi) in a given population. The values of delta Fi are computed as t-root of 1 - (1 - Fi) where Fi is the inbreeding coefficient and t is the equivalent complete generations for each individual. The values of delta F computed for a pre-defined reference subset can be averaged and used to estimate effective size. A standard error of this estimate of Ne can be further computed from the standard deviation of the individual increase in inbreeding. The methodology is demonstrated by applying it to several simulated examples and to a real pedigree in which other methodologies fail when considering reference subpopulations. The main characteristics of the approach and its possible use are discussed both for predictive purposes and for analyzing genealogies. PMID:18558071

  16. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves.

    PubMed

    Miller, David A; Vleck, Carol M; Otis, David L

    2009-10-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10-15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  17. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  18. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  19. Asthma and rhinitis symptoms in individuals from different socioeconomic levels in a Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Baqueiro, Tiana; Pontes-de-carvalho, Lain; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Santos, Nilza Maria; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2007-01-01

    Allergy is considered to be caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Socioeconomic status (SES) may be the most important environmental determinant of allergy because it determines the living environment, but few studies have addressed the causal role of SES in allergy. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms in two SES groups in a Brazilian city. History of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was collected using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. SES was determined by the Gallup method. Sera from subgroups of the individuals were used to determine total, anti-Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and anti-Blomia tropicalis IgE. The prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was higher in the A and B (A&B) SES group than in the C, D, and E (C, D&E) SES group. Individuals with asthma and/or rhinitis were more frequently positive for anti-B. tropicalis and anti-D. pteronyssinus IgE than individuals without these symptoms. A positive association between total IgE levels and asthma and rhinitis symptoms was observed in the A&B SES group but not in the C, D&E SES group. Women reported more respiratory symptoms than men. These results revealed higher prevalence rates ofasthma and rhinitis symptoms in individuals with higher SES and may provide support for the hygiene hypothesis, which attributes the high prevalence of respiratory allergies observed in individuals from developed countries to a low exposure to pathogens. The observed higher prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms in women than in men could be attributed to differences in the perception of these symptoms or in exposures to allergens and protective pathogens.

  20. Comparing the Levels of Trace Elements in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Makhlough, Atieh; Makhlough, Marjan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Sedighi, Omid; Faghihan, Mansooreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in developed countries. Several trace elements were reported to be changed in diabetic nephropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum levels of zinc, copper and chromium and their association with the incidence of ESRD in patients with diabetes. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 70 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (macro and micro-albuminuria) and 70 healthy individuals. Samples were collected to survey metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential analysis methods. Results: Mean ± SD levels of Zn, Cu and Cr were significantly decreased in blood samples of patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Also the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr in drinking water of Sari were lower than the accepted limit. Only in one case, Cu was higher than the accepted limit, which was the possibility of contamination by water supply pipes. Conclusions: Cu, Zn and Cr play a specific role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Meanwhile in these patients, low serum levels of Cu, Zn and Cr were not associated with factors such as drinking water. Possible causes should be sought in other factors like urine, intervention factors in absorption and utilization and individual conditions. PMID:26539418

  1. Electricity forecasting on the individual household level enhanced based on activity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Gajowniczek, Krzysztof; Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Leveraging smart metering solutions to support energy efficiency on the individual household level poses novel research challenges in monitoring usage and providing accurate load forecasting. Forecasting electricity usage is an especially important component that can provide intelligence to smart meters. In this paper, we propose an enhanced approach for load forecasting at the household level. The impacts of residents’ daily activities and appliance usages on the power consumption of the entire household are incorporated to improve the accuracy of the forecasting model. The contributions of this paper are threefold: (1) we addressed short-term electricity load forecasting for 24 hours ahead, not on the aggregate but on the individual household level, which fits into the Residential Power Load Forecasting (RPLF) methods; (2) for the forecasting, we utilized a household specific dataset of behaviors that influence power consumption, which was derived using segmentation and sequence mining algorithms; and (3) an extensive load forecasting study using different forecasting algorithms enhanced by the household activity patterns was undertaken. PMID:28423039

  2. Individual- and community-level determinants of Inuit youth mental wellness.

    PubMed

    Gray, Andrew Paul; Richer, Faisca; Harper, Sam

    2016-10-20

    Following the onset of intensive colonial intervention and rapid social change in the lives of Inuit people, youth in Nunavik have experienced high rates of mental health problems and suicide. Inuit people describe a broad range of contextual influences on mental wellness based on lived experience, but most epidemiological studies have focused on individual risk factors and pathologies. This study aimed to assess the influence of multiple determinants of mental wellness among Inuit youth in Nunavik, including culturally meaningful activities, housing and community social characteristics. Mental wellness was measured in the form of two primary outcomes: self-esteem and suicidal ideation. Using cross-sectional data from the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey and multilevel regression modelling, we estimated associations between these two outcomes and various independent individual- and community-level explanatory factors among Inuit youth. All variables were selected to reflect Inuit perspectives on determinants of mental wellness. The study design and interpretation of results were validated with Inuit community representatives. Pride in Inuit identity, traditional activities, community-level social support and community-level socio-economic status were found to be protective. Barriers to participating in traditional activities, household crowding and high community rates of violence were risk factors. These findings support Inuit perspectives, expand the scope of epidemiological analysis of Inuit mental wellness and reinforce the need for locally informed, community-wide approaches to mental wellness promotion for Inuit youth.

  3. Electricity forecasting on the individual household level enhanced based on activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Gajowniczek, Krzysztof; Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Leveraging smart metering solutions to support energy efficiency on the individual household level poses novel research challenges in monitoring usage and providing accurate load forecasting. Forecasting electricity usage is an especially important component that can provide intelligence to smart meters. In this paper, we propose an enhanced approach for load forecasting at the household level. The impacts of residents' daily activities and appliance usages on the power consumption of the entire household are incorporated to improve the accuracy of the forecasting model. The contributions of this paper are threefold: (1) we addressed short-term electricity load forecasting for 24 hours ahead, not on the aggregate but on the individual household level, which fits into the Residential Power Load Forecasting (RPLF) methods; (2) for the forecasting, we utilized a household specific dataset of behaviors that influence power consumption, which was derived using segmentation and sequence mining algorithms; and (3) an extensive load forecasting study using different forecasting algorithms enhanced by the household activity patterns was undertaken.

  4. Death anxiety as a predictor of posttraumatic stress levels among individuals with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Martz, Erin

    2004-01-01

    Because the onset of a spinal cord injury may involve a brush with death and because serious injury and disability can act as a reminder of death, death anxiety was examined as a predictor of posttraumatic stress levels among individuals with disabilities. This cross-sectional study used multiple regression and multivariate multiple regression to examine whether death denial and death awareness predicted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among veterans and civilians with spinal cord injuries (N = 313). The results indicated that death anxiety (after controlling for demographic and disability-related variables) predicted a significant amount of the total levels of posttraumatic stress reactions among individuals with spinal cord injuries. Further, death awareness, pain level, and spiritual/religious coping significantly predicted the posttraumatic stress clusters of reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Death denial significantly predicted only hyperarousal. Because death anxiety predicts various aspects of PTSD reactions, one possible therapeutic implication is that addressing death-related topics may help to reduce PTSD reactions. Further research is needed to better ascertain the possible causality among these variables.

  5. EVALUATING EFFECTS ACROSS BIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION: EDCS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge in ecological risk assessments is to obtain, in a resource-effective manner, information that provides insight both into chemical mode/mechanism of action (MOA) and adverse effects in individual animals, which are indicative of potential population-level responses. T...

  6. Effects of Classroom Social Climate on Individual Learning 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary J.

    This study examines the effects of class properties on individual learners. Subjects represented a random sample of 800 pupils in 113 Harvard Project Physics classes during 1968, and were divided into eight same-sex samples--one for each of four learning criteria. The Learning Environment Inventory was used to obtain 14 climate scores.…

  7. Individual and national level associations between economic deprivation and partner violence among college students in 31 national settings.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This study expands previous work by examining individual and national level effects of economic deprivation on partner violence among college students. Three main hypotheses were tested: (1) individual level economic deprivation (i.e., ability to meet daily needs and family income) is associated with partner violence, (2) gross national income is associated with the mean rates of partner violence across nations, and (3) the association between individual level economic deprivation and partner violence varies according to the economic national context as measured by gross national income. Data for 14,090 participants from 31 nations came from the International Dating Violence Study that queried university students about violence in their relationships and relevant risk factors. A series of overdispersed Poisson hierarchical linear regression models were specified to test the hypotheses. Ability to meet daily needs, but not family income, was associated with rates of partner violence. Gross national income was also associated with mean rates of partner violence across nations as well as the relationships between ability to meet daily and partner violence and between family income and partner violence. The findings show the importance of context, as indicated by national economic standing, on rates of partner violence. Not only do economically deprived individuals experience more partner violence, but those living in poorer nations experience more partner violence, regardless of individual economic deprivation. Limitations of the study include a non-random sample and substantial variation in the study sites beyond economic standing. Nonetheless, findings indicate efforts to confront partner violence must also call for cross-national economic development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tightening up the performance-pay linkage: roles of contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing in the cross-level influence of individual pay-for-performance.

    PubMed

    Han, Joo Hun; Bartol, Kathryn M; Kim, Seongsu

    2015-03-01

    Drawing upon line-of-sight (Lawler, 1990, 2000; Murphy, 1999) as a unifying concept, we examine the cross-level influence of organizational use of individual pay-for-performance (PFP), theorizing that its impact on individual employees' performance-reward expectancy is boosted by the moderating effects of immediate group managers' contingent reward leadership and organizational use of profit-sharing. Performance-reward expectancy is then expected to mediate the interactive effects of individual PFP with contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing on employee job performance. Analyses of cross-organizational and cross-level data from 912 employees in 194 workgroups from 45 companies reveal that organizations' individual PFP was positively related to employees' performance-reward expectancy, which was strengthened when it was accompanied by higher levels of contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing. Also, performance-reward expectancy significantly transmitted the effects of individual PFP onto job performance under higher levels of contingent reward leadership and profit-sharing, thus delineating cross-level mediating and moderating processes by which organizations' individual PFP is linked to important individual-level employee outcomes. Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. The Short-Term Effects of Individual Corrective Feedback on L2 Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlaska, Andrea; Krekeler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of explicit individual corrective feedback (ICF) on L2 pronunciation at the micro-level in order to determine whether ICF needs to complement listening only interventions. To this purpose, the authors carried out a study which investigated the immediate effect of feedback on comprehensibility of controlled…

  10. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  11. HIV infection duration, social support and the level of trauma symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive Polish individuals.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Żebrowska, Magdalena; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms.

  12. Waiting time and socioeconomic status--an individual-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Monstad, Karin; Engesaeter, Lars Birger; Espehaug, Birgitte

    2014-04-01

    Waiting time is a rationing mechanism that is used in publicly funded healthcare systems. From an equity viewpoint, it is regarded as preferable to co-payments. However, long waits are an indication of poor quality of service. To our knowledge, this analysis is the first to benefit from individual-level data from administrative registers to investigate the relationship between waiting time, income, and education. Furthermore, it makes use of an extensive set of medical information that serves as indicators of patient need. Differences in waiting time by socioeconomic status are detected. For men, there is a statistically highly significant negative association between income and waiting time, driven by men in the highest income group, which constitutes 12% of all men. More educated women, that is, those having an education above compulsory schooling, experience lower waiting time than their fellow sisters with the lowest level of education. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. When nasty breeds nice: threats of violence amplify agreeableness at national, individual, and situational levels.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew Edward; Kenrick, Douglas T; Li, Yexin Jessica; Mortensen, Chad R; Neuberg, Steven L; Cohen, Adam B

    2012-10-01

    Humans have perennially faced threats of violence from other humans and have developed functional strategies for surviving those threats. Five studies examined the relation between threats of violence and agreeableness at the level of nations, individuals, and situations. People living in countries with higher military spending (Study 1) and those who chronically perceive threats from others (Study 2) were more agreeable. However, this threat-linked agreeableness was selective (Studies 3-5). Participants primed with threat were more agreeable and willing to help familiar others but were less agreeable and willing to help unfamiliar others. Additionally, people from large families, for whom affiliation may be a salient response to threat, were more likely than people from small families to shift in agreeableness. Returning to the national level, military spending was associated with increased trust in ingroup members but decreased trust in outgroups. Together, these findings demonstrate that agreeableness is selectively modulated by threats of violence.

  14. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  15. Individual, unit and vocal clan level identity cues in sperm whale codas.

    PubMed

    Gero, Shane; Whitehead, Hal; Rendell, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The 'social complexity hypothesis' suggests that complex social structure is a driver of diversity in animal communication systems. Sperm whales have a hierarchically structured society in which the largest affiliative structures, the vocal clans, are marked on ocean-basin scales by culturally transmitted dialects of acoustic signals known as 'codas'. We examined variation in coda repertoires among both individual whales and social units-the basic element of sperm whale society-using data from nine Caribbean social units across six years. Codas were assigned to individuals using photo-identification and acoustic size measurement, and we calculated similarity between repertoires using both continuous and categorical methods. We identified 21 coda types. Two of those ('1+1+3' and '5R1') made up 65% of the codas recorded, were shared across all units and have dominated repertoires in this population for at least 30 years. Individuals appear to differ in the way they produce '5R1' but not '1+1+3' coda. Units use distinct 4-click coda types which contribute to making unit repertoires distinctive. Our results support the social complexity hypothesis in a marine species as different patterns of variation between coda types suggest divergent functions, perhaps representing selection for identity signals at several levels of social structure.

  16. The impact of individual-level heterogeneity on estimated infectious disease burden: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Scott A; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Wallinga, Jacco

    2016-12-08

    Disease burden is not evenly distributed within a population; this uneven distribution can be due to individual heterogeneity in progression rates between disease stages. Composite measures of disease burden that are based on disease progression models, such as the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), are widely used to quantify the current and future burden of infectious diseases. Our goal was to investigate to what extent ignoring the presence of heterogeneity could bias DALY computation. Simulations using individual-based models for hypothetical infectious diseases with short and long natural histories were run assuming either "population-averaged" progression probabilities between disease stages, or progression probabilities that were influenced by an a priori defined individual-level frailty (i.e., heterogeneity in disease risk) distribution, and DALYs were calculated. Under the assumption of heterogeneity in transition rates and increasing frailty with age, the short natural history disease model predicted 14% fewer DALYs compared with the homogenous population assumption. Simulations of a long natural history disease indicated that assuming homogeneity in transition rates when heterogeneity was present could overestimate total DALYs, in the present case by 4% (95% quantile interval: 1-8%). The consequences of ignoring population heterogeneity should be considered when defining transition parameters for natural history models and when interpreting the resulting disease burden estimates.

  17. Individual, unit and vocal clan level identity cues in sperm whale codas

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Shane; Whitehead, Hal; Rendell, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The ‘social complexity hypothesis’ suggests that complex social structure is a driver of diversity in animal communication systems. Sperm whales have a hierarchically structured society in which the largest affiliative structures, the vocal clans, are marked on ocean-basin scales by culturally transmitted dialects of acoustic signals known as ‘codas’. We examined variation in coda repertoires among both individual whales and social units—the basic element of sperm whale society—using data from nine Caribbean social units across six years. Codas were assigned to individuals using photo-identification and acoustic size measurement, and we calculated similarity between repertoires using both continuous and categorical methods. We identified 21 coda types. Two of those (‘1+1+3’ and ‘5R1’) made up 65% of the codas recorded, were shared across all units and have dominated repertoires in this population for at least 30 years. Individuals appear to differ in the way they produce ‘5R1’ but not ‘1+1+3’ coda. Units use distinct 4-click coda types which contribute to making unit repertoires distinctive. Our results support the social complexity hypothesis in a marine species as different patterns of variation between coda types suggest divergent functions, perhaps representing selection for identity signals at several levels of social structure. PMID:26909165

  18. Phenotypic and evolutionary consequences of social behaviours: interactions among individuals affect direct genetic effects.

    PubMed

    Trubenová, Barbora; Hager, Reinmar

    2012-01-01

    Traditional quantitative genetics assumes that an individual's phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. For many animals, part of the environment is social and provided by parents and other interacting partners. When expression of genes in social partners affects trait expression in a focal individual, indirect genetic effects occur. In this study, we explore the effects of indirect genetic effects on the magnitude and range of phenotypic values in a focal individual in a multi-member model analyzing three possible classes of interactions between individuals. We show that social interactions may not only cause indirect genetic effects but can also modify direct genetic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both direct and indirect genetic effects substantially alter the range of phenotypic values, particularly when a focal trait can influence its own expression via interactions with traits in other individuals. We derive a function predicting the relative importance of direct versus indirect genetic effects. Our model reveals that both direct and indirect genetic effects can depend to a large extent on both group size and interaction strength, altering group mean phenotype and variance. This may lead to scenarios where between group variation is much higher than within group variation despite similar underlying genetic properties, potentially affecting the level of selection. Our analysis highlights key properties of indirect genetic effects with important consequences for trait evolution, the level of selection and potentially speciation.

  19. Testing for evidence of maternal effects among individuals and populations of white crappie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Scantland, M.A.; Stein, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    For an increasing number of species, maternal characteristics have been correlated with the characteristics of their eggs or larvae at the individual level. Documenting these maternal effects at the population level, however, is uncommon. For white crappies Pomoxis annularis, we evaluated whether individual maternal effects on eggs existed and then explored whether incorporating maternal effects explained additional variation in recruitment, a population-level response. Individual egg quality (measured as ovary energy density) increased with maternal length among individuals from seven Ohio reservoirs in 1999 and three in 2000. Among these same individuals, egg quality increased with maternal condition factor (measured as residual wet mass for a given length) in 1999 but not in 2000. In 2000 we estimated somatic energy density, an improved measure of condition; egg quality increased with somatic energy density, but somatic energy density was also strongly correlated with maternal length. Hence, we could not determine whether maternal length or condition was the primary factor influencing white crappie egg quality. Across seven populations, the relative population fecundity (i.e., stock size) of the 1999 year-class was unable to explain the variation in recruitment to age 2 (Ricker model r2 = 0.04 and Beverton and Holt model r2 = 0.02). Mean ovary energy density (i.e., egg quality), however, was unable to explain additional recruitment variability in either model. Hence, we documented evidence of maternal effects on individual ovaries but not on population-level recruitment. Nonetheless, we recommend that future studies seeking to understand white crappie recruitment continue to consider maternal effects as a potential factor, especially those studies that may have greater sample sizes at the population level and, in turn, a greater probability of documenting a population-level effect. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers

    PubMed Central

    NAKADA, Akihiro; IWASAKI, Shinichi; KANCHIKA, Masaru; NAKAO, Takehisa; DEGUCHI, Yasuhiko; KONISHI, Akihito; ISHIMOTO, Hideyuki; INOUE, Koki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the “depressive group.” We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers’ work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers’ work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers’ depressive symptoms. PMID:27021060

  1. Hip moments during level walking, stair climbing, and exercise in individuals aged 55 years or older.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, R N; Culham, E G; Costigan, P

    1999-04-01

    Low bone mass of the proximal femur is a risk factor for hip fractures. Exercise has been shown to reduce bone loss in older individuals; however, the exercises most likely to influence bone mass of the proximal femur have not been identified. Net moments of force at the hip provide an indication of the mechanical load on the proximal femur. The purpose of this study was to examine various exercises to determine which exercises result in the greatest magnitude and rate of change in moments of force at the hip in older individuals. Walking and exercise patterns were analyzed for 30 subjects (17 men, 13 women) who were 55 years of age or older (X = 65.4, SD = 6.02, range = 55-75) and who had no identified musculoskeletal or neurological impairment. Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained with an optoelectronic system and a force platform. Results. Of the exercises investigated, only ascending stairs generated peak moments higher than those obtained during level walking and only in the transverse plane. Most of the exercises generated moments and rate of change in moments with magnitudes similar to or lower than those obtained during gait. Level walking and exercises that generated moments with magnitudes comparable to or higher than those obtained during gait could be combined in an exercise program designed to maintain or increase bone mass at the hip.

  2. Analyses of dynamic co-contraction level in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Fonseca, Sergio; Silva, Paula L P; Ocarino, Juliana M; Guimaràes, Raquel B; Oliveira, Marcela T C; Lage, Cristiane A

    2004-04-01

    A complete understanding of neural mechanisms by which ligament receptors may contribute to joint stability is not well established. It has been suggested that these receptors may be involved in a neuromuscular process related to the modulation of dynamic co-contraction, as a means of guaranteeing functional joint stability. Individuals with ACL injury have diminished dynamic co-contraction. Exploratory, cross-sectional design. Ten subjects with unilateral ACL injury treated conservatively, and ten subjects without history of injury participated in the study. The co-contraction level was assessed through EMG recordings of the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris before and after a perturbation imposed on the subjects during a walking task. Subjects with ACL injury presented significantly lower co-contraction level pre-perturbation (p = 0.045) and post-perturbation (p = 0.046) than those in the control group. The bilateral decrease in muscular co-contraction presented by individuals with ACL injury suggests that ligament and joint receptors may be responsible for a bilateral dynamic increase in muscle and joint stiffness that could result in a greater joint stability. This study analyzed a neuromuscular mechanism that might contribute to the functional stability of the knee joint.

  3. Use of Individual-level Covariates to Improve Latent Class Analysis of Trypanosoma Cruzi Diagnostic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Tustin, Aaron W.; Small, Dylan S.; Delgado, Stephen; Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Ancca Juárez, Jenny M.; Quispe Machaca, Víctor R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical methods such as latent class analysis can estimate the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests when no perfect reference test exists. Traditional latent class methods assume a constant disease prevalence in one or more tested populations. When the risk of disease varies in a known way, these models fail to take advantage of additional information that can be obtained by measuring risk factors at the level of the individual. We show that by incorporating complex field-based epidemiologic data, in which the disease prevalence varies as a continuous function of individual-level covariates, our model produces more accurate sensitivity and specificity estimates than previous methods. We apply this technique to a simulated population and to actual Chagas disease test data from a community near Arequipa, Peru. Results from our model estimate that the first-line enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI: 62–100%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 99–100%). The confirmatory immunofluorescence assay is estimated to be 73% sensitive (95% CI: 65–81%) and 99% specific (95% CI: 96–100%). PMID:24083130

  4. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kanchika, Masaru; Nakao, Takehisa; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Inoue, Koki

    2016-10-08

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the "depressive group." We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers' work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers' work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers' depressive symptoms.

  5. Microsatellites: Evolutionary and methodological background and empirical applications at individual, population, and phylogenetic levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Kim T.; Pearce, John M.; Baker, Allan J.

    2000-01-01

    The recent proliferation and greater accessibility of molecular genetic markers has led to a growing appreciation of the ecological and evolutionary inferences that can be drawn from molecular characterizations of individuals and populations (Burke et al. 1992, Avise 1994). Different techniques have the ability to target DNA sequences which have different patterns of inheritance, different modes and rates of evolution and, concomitantly, different levels of variation. In the quest for 'the right marker for the right job', microsatellites have been widely embraced as the marker of choice for many empirical genetic studies. The proliferation of microsatellite loci for various species and the voluminous literature compiled in very few years associated with their evolution and use in various research applications, exemplifies their growing importance as a research tool in the biological sciences.The ability to define allelic states based on variation at the nucleotide level has afforded unparalleled opportunities to document the actual mutational process and rates of evolution at individual microsatellite loci. The scrutiny to which these loci have been subjected has resulted in data that raise issues pertaining to assumptions formerly stated, but largely untestable for other marker classes. Indeed this is an active arena for theoretical and empirical work. Given the extensive and ever-increasing literature on various statistical methodologies and cautionary notes regarding the uses of microsatellites, some consideration should be given to the unique characteristics of these loci when determining how and under what conditions they can be employed.

  6. Use of Individual-level Covariates to Improve Latent Class Analysis of Trypanosoma Cruzi Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Tustin, Aaron W; Small, Dylan S; Delgado, Stephen; Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Verastegui, Manuela R; Ancca Juárez, Jenny M; Quispe Machaca, Víctor R; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z

    2012-08-01

    Statistical methods such as latent class analysis can estimate the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests when no perfect reference test exists. Traditional latent class methods assume a constant disease prevalence in one or more tested populations. When the risk of disease varies in a known way, these models fail to take advantage of additional information that can be obtained by measuring risk factors at the level of the individual. We show that by incorporating complex field-based epidemiologic data, in which the disease prevalence varies as a continuous function of individual-level covariates, our model produces more accurate sensitivity and specificity estimates than previous methods. We apply this technique to a simulated population and to actual Chagas disease test data from a community near Arequipa, Peru. Results from our model estimate that the first-line enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI: 62-100%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 99-100%). The confirmatory immunofluorescence assay is estimated to be 73% sensitive (95% CI: 65-81%) and 99% specific (95% CI: 96-100%).

  7. Neighborhood effects on an individual's health using neighborhood measurements developed by factor analysis and cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Ying-Chih

    2009-01-01

    This study suggests a multivariate-structural approach combining factor analysis and cluster analysis that could be used to examine neighborhood effects on an individual's health. Data were from the Taiwan Social Change Survey conducted in 1990, 1995, and 2000. In total, 5,784 women and men aged over 20 years living in 428 neighborhoods were interviewed. Participants' addresses were geocoded with census data for measuring neighborhood-level characteristics. The factor analysis was applied to identify neighborhood dimensions, which were used as entities in the cluster analysis to generate a neighborhood typology. The factor analysis generated three neighborhood dimensions: neighborhood education, age structure, and neighborhood family structure and employment. The cluster analysis generated six types of neighborhoods with combinations of the three neighborhood dimensions. Multilevel binomial regression models were used to assess the effects of neighborhoods on an individual's health. The results showed that the biggest health differences were between two neighborhood types: (1) the highest concentration of inhabitants younger than 15 years, a moderate education level, and a moderate level of single-parent families and (2) the highest educational level, a median level of single-parent families, and a median level of elderly concentrations. Individuals living in the first type had significantly higher chances of having functional limitations and poor self-rated health than the individuals in the second neighborhood type. Our study suggests that the multivariate-structural approach improves neighborhood measurements by addressing neighborhood diversity and examining how an individual's health varies in different neighborhood contexts.

  8. Effectiveness of personalised reminiscence photo videos for individuals with dementia.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwabara, Kazuhiro; Kuwahara, Noriaki; Abe, Shinji; Tetsutani, Nobuji

    2009-08-01

    Reminiscence intervention is effective for increasing self-esteem and decreasing behavioural disturbances in individuals with dementia. This paper introduces the concept of a "personalised reminiscence photo video" as a convenient method for reminiscence intervention. The video utilises a slideshow video of personal photos with narration, background music, and pan/zoom visual effects. A group of 15 individuals with dementia watched personalised reminiscence photo videos as well as two types of TV shows: a variety show and a news show. Eighty percent of the subjects (12 out of 15) showed more attention to their personalised reminiscence photo video than to the other two types of TV shows, thus suggesting the effectiveness of personalised reminiscence photo videos for reminiscence intervention.

  9. Measuring diet cost at the individual level: a comparison of three methods

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, P; Perrigue, M M; Adams, S L; Drewnowski, A

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: Household-level food spending data are not suitable for population-based studies of the economics of nutrition. This study compared three methods of deriving diet cost at the individual level. Subjects/methods: Adult men and women (n=164) completed 4-day diet diaries and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Food expenditures over 4 weeks and supermarket prices for 384 foods were obtained. Diet costs (US$/day) were estimated using: (1) diet diaries and expenditures; (2) diet diaries and supermarket prices; and (3) FFQs and supermarket prices. Agreement between the three methods was assessed on the basis of Pearson correlations and limits of agreement. Income-related differences in diet costs were estimated using general linear models. Results: Diet diaries yielded mean (s.d.) diet costs of $10.04 (4.27) based on Method 1 and $8.28 (2.32) based on Method 2. FFQs yielded mean diet costs of $7.66 (2.72) based on Method 3. Correlations between energy intakes and costs were highest for Method 3 (r2=0.66), lower for Method 2 (r2=0.24) and lowest for Method 1 (r2=0.06). Cost estimates were significantly associated with household incomes. Conclusion: The weak association between food expenditures and food intake using Method 1 makes it least suitable for diet and health research. However, merging supermarket food prices with standard dietary assessment tools can provide estimates of individual diet cost that are more closely associated with food consumed. The derivation of individual diet cost can provide insights into some of the economic determinants of food choice, diet quality and health. PMID:24045791

  10. Tools for quantifying isotopic niche space and dietary variation at the individual and population level.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsome, Seth D.; Yeakel, Justin D.; Wheatley, Patrick V.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly using stable isotope analysis to inform questions about variation in resource and habitat use from the individual to community level. In this study we investigate data sets from 2 California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) populations to illustrate the advantages and potential pitfalls of applying various statistical and quantitative approaches to isotopic data. We have subdivided these tools, or metrics, into 3 categories: IsoSpace metrics, stable isotope mixing models, and DietSpace metrics. IsoSpace metrics are used to quantify the spatial attributes of isotopic data that are typically presented in bivariate (e.g., δ13C versus δ15N) 2-dimensional space. We review IsoSpace metrics currently in use and present a technique by which uncertainty can be included to calculate the convex hull area of consumers or prey, or both. We then apply a Bayesian-based mixing model to quantify the proportion of potential dietary sources to the diet of each sea otter population and compare this to observational foraging data. Finally, we assess individual dietary specialization by comparing a previously published technique, variance components analysis, to 2 novel DietSpace metrics that are based on mixing model output. As the use of stable isotope analysis in ecology continues to grow, the field will need a set of quantitative tools for assessing isotopic variance at the individual to community level. Along with recent advances in Bayesian-based mixing models, we hope that the IsoSpace and DietSpace metrics described here will provide another set of interpretive tools for ecologists.

  11. Inter- and intra-individual variability in the levels of plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; González-Torres, Miguel Angel; Anguiano, Juan B; Zabalo, María José; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrúe, Aurora; Zamalloa, María Isabel; Guimón, José

    2007-04-13

    Changes in the levels of homovanillic acid in blood plasma (pHVA) may reflect changes which occur in the brain. In healthy individuals, this concentration of pHVA is stable over time. Over the course of one month, we studied 98 acute schizophrenic patients who had not been taking any medication but were administered neuroleptics upon hospital admission, together with 23 chronic schizophrenic patients on long-term treatment from whom medication was withdrawn. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals from each individual and the concentration of plasma homovanillic acid was measured. We found relative stable values of pHVA with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.363 in acute patients and 0.638 (p<0.0001) in chronic patients, although no differences were found in mean values (13.79 and 14.18 microg/L, respectively) or in the variation range (7.20 to 26.7 microg/L and 6.96 to 29.96 microg/L respectively). The index of individuality was calculated to be 1.36 in acute patients and 0.74 in chronic patients. Despite the wide range of values in the concentration of pHVA and the presence of pharmacological stimuli, we found a certain reproducibility in the levels of this dopamine metabolite. These findings are consistent with the idea that the dopaminergic activity is characterized by a constitutive value which would be under genetic control. The higher stability observed in chronic patients may reflect a weaker, age-related dopaminergic plasticity; conversely, it may indicate that a lack of plasticity in response to a pharmacological stimulus may be an indicator of poorer prognosis.

  12. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR≥1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this

  13. Associations Between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers.

    PubMed

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Wilson, Melvin N

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent incarcerated) and family level (number of relationships that have borne children) characteristics were significantly associated with their parenting practices. Based on canonical correlation analysis, on function one, responsive parenting was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Restrictive parenting was negatively associated with education level and positively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Function 2 capitalized on variance in the restrictive parenting predictor that was not utilized in function 1, and likely captured lack of opportunity to parent. On function 2, restrictive parenting was negatively associated with cumulative time spent incarcerated and more numerous partner fertility. In all, results suggest that prison-based education programs should be part of an overall response to incarcerated fathers. These results add to the growing body of research on incarcerated fathers and fragile families.

  14. Yoga reduces perceived stress and exhaustion levels in healthy elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Eric; Tilton, Katherine; Eickholt, Nicole; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether a 7-week yoga intervention could improve physical function, perceived stress, and mental/emotional wellness in elderly participants. 8 participants (66.5 ± 0.3 years) attended 2 60-min Hatha yoga sessions/week for 7 weeks, and performed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Balance was assessed using a 5-test battery. Flexibility was measured by sit-and-reach and shoulder flexibility tests. Functional mobility tests included 8-ft up-and-go, 5 chair stands, and 4-m walk. Participants completed SF-12, exhaustion level, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires. SF-12 Mental Component Summary scores, exhaustion levels, and PSS scores improved post-intervention. No differences were found for physical function measures. Yoga participation can improve mental/emotional wellness, exhaustion levels, and stress levels in elderly individuals, even without measurable improvements in physical function. Clinicians and health practitioners who work with the elderly should consider yoga as a potential therapeutic modality for improving important aspects of quality of life in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations Between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent incarcerated) and family level (number of relationships that have borne children) characteristics were significantly associated with their parenting practices. Based on canonical correlation analysis, on function one, responsive parenting was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Restrictive parenting was negatively associated with education level and positively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Function 2 capitalized on variance in the restrictive parenting predictor that was not utilized in function 1, and likely captured lack of opportunity to parent. On function 2, restrictive parenting was negatively associated with cumulative time spent incarcerated and more numerous partner fertility. In all, results suggest that prison-based education programs should be part of an overall response to incarcerated fathers. These results add to the growing body of research on incarcerated fathers and fragile families. PMID:19802371

  16. Estimating relative intensity using individualized accelerometer cutpoints: the importance of fitness level.

    PubMed

    Ozemek, Cemal; Cochran, Heather L; Strath, Scott J; Byun, Wonwoo; Kaminsky, Leonard A

    2013-04-01

    Accelerometer cutpoints based on absolute intensity may under or overestimate levels of physical activity due to the lack of consideration for an individual's current fitness level. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the interindividual variability in accelerometer activity counts measured at relative intensities (40 and 60% heart rate reserve (HRR)) and demonstrate the differences between relative activity counts between low, moderate and high fitness groups. Seventy-three subjects (38 men, 35 women) with a wide range of cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 27.9 to 58.5 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹), performed a submaximal exercise test with measures of heart rate (HR) and accelerometer activity counts. Linear regression equations were developed for each subject to determine accelerometer activity counts for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity corresponding to 40% and 60% of HRR. Interindividual variability of activity counts between subjects at both 40% and 60% of HRR was demonstrated by plotting values using a box and whisker plot. To examine the difference between absolute and relative activity cutpoints, subjects were categorized into 3 fitness groups based on metabolic equivalents (MET) (<10 MET, 10-13 MET, >13 MET). At 40 and 60% of HRR, activity counts ranged from 1455-7520, and 3459-10066 counts · min-1, respectively. Activity counts at 40% HRR (3385 ± 850, 4048 ± 1090, and 5037 ± 1019 counts · min⁻¹) and 60% HRR (5159 ± 765, 5995 ± 1131 and 7367 ± 1374 counts · min-1) significantly increased across fitness groups (<10 MET, 10-13 MET, and >13 MET, respectively). This study revealed interindividual variability in activity counts at relative moderate (40% HRR) and vigorous (60% HRR) intensities, while fitness level was shown to have a significant influence on relative activity counts measured at these intensities. Individualizing activity count cutpoints may be more representative

  17. Individual predictors of the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Mathur, Deepan; Newton, Thomas F; Desouza, Cherilyn

    2013-08-15

    The subjective and reinforcing effects of addictive substances can vary greatly between individuals. This study compared the relative contributions of baseline drug use, craving, stressful life events, and social factors in determining the subjective effects of cocaine in individual participants. Twelve veterans meeting criteria for cocaine dependence were evaluated in a laboratory setting. Self-report of the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine was recorded following single- and double-blind, placebo-controlled injections. Increased positive subjective effects of cocaine, including drug-induced 'good' effects and the value of intravenous injections, were most strongly correlated with greater family and social dysfunction measured through the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Social dysfunction was the strongest predictor of cocaine-induced euphoria, accounting for approximately one-half of its variability. Participants who were dissatisfied with their current marital status reported almost no 'bad' effects of cocaine but instead reported increased drug-induced 'high', euphoria, and injection value. Although further research is required to determine the generalizability of this association, our findings are parallel to recent preclinical results showing that social interaction can attenuate psychostimulant reward. Effects of substance abuse treatment that rely on improved social function may be mediated through changes in the brain's reinforcement system that modify the rewarding effects of cocaine.

  18. Individual-level factors associated with mental health in Rwandan youth affected by HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Pamela; Duarte, Cristiane S; Stevenson, Anne; Mushashi, Christine; Kanyanganzi, Fredrick; Munyana, Morris; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-07-01

    Prevention of mental disorders worldwide requires a greater understanding of protective processes associated with lower levels of mental health problems in children who face pervasive life stressors. This study aimed to identify culturally appropriate indicators of individual-level protective factors in Rwandan adolescents where risk factors, namely poverty and a history of trauma, have dramatically shaped youth mental health. The sample included 367 youth aged 10-17 in rural Rwanda. An earlier qualitative study of the same population identified the constructs "kwihangana" (patience/perseverance) and "kwigirira ikizere" (self-esteem) as capturing local perceptions of individual-level characteristics that helped reduce risks of mental health problems in youth. Nine items from the locally derived constructs were combined with 25 items from an existing scale that aligned well with local constructs-the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). We assessed the factor structure of the CD-RISC expanded scale using exploratory factor analysis and determined the correlation of the expanded CD-RISC with depression and functional impairment. The CD-RISC expanded scale displayed high internal consistency (α = 0.93). Six factors emerged, which we labeled: perseverance, adaptability, strength/sociability, active engagement, self-assuredness, and sense of self-worth. Protective factor scale scores were significantly and inversely correlated with depression and functional impairment (r = -0.49 and r = - 0.38, respectively). An adapted scale displayed solid psychometric properties for measuring protective factors in Rwandan youth. Identifying culturally appropriate protective factors is a key component of research associated with the prevention of mental health problems and critical to the development of cross-cultural strength-based interventions for children and families.

  19. Mapping disease at an approximated individual level using aggregate data: a case study of mapping New Hampshire birth defects.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xun; Miller, Stephanie; Mwenda, Kevin; Onda, Akikazu; Reese, Judy; Onega, Tracy; Gui, Jiang; Karagas, Margret; Demidenko, Eugene; Moeschler, John

    2013-09-06

    Limited by data availability, most disease maps in the literature are for relatively large and subjectively-defined areal units, which are subject to problems associated with polygon maps. High resolution maps based on objective spatial units are needed to more precisely detect associations between disease and environmental factors. We propose to use a Restricted and Controlled Monte Carlo (RCMC) process to disaggregate polygon-level location data to achieve mapping aggregate data at an approximated individual level. RCMC assigns a random point location to a polygon-level location, in which the randomization is restricted by the polygon and controlled by the background (e.g., population at risk). RCMC allows analytical processes designed for individual data to be applied, and generates high-resolution raster maps. We applied RCMC to the town-level birth defect data for New Hampshire and generated raster maps at the resolution of 100 m. Besides the map of significance of birth defect risk represented by p-value, the output also includes a map of spatial uncertainty and a map of hot spots. RCMC is an effective method to disaggregate aggregate data. An RCMC-based disease mapping maximizes the use of available spatial information, and explicitly estimates the spatial uncertainty resulting from aggregation.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of phenotype-structured populations: from individual-level mechanisms to population-level consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Rebecca H.; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Desvillettes, Laurent; Hughes, Barry D.

    2016-08-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are increasingly recognised as integral to the adaptation of species that face environmental changes. In particular, empirical work has provided important insights into the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the persistence of clonal species, from which a number of verbal explanations have emerged that are suited to logical testing by proof-of-concept mathematical models. Here, we present a stochastic agent-based model and a related deterministic integrodifferential equation model for the evolution of a phenotype-structured population composed of asexually-reproducing and competing organisms which are exposed to novel environmental conditions. This setting has relevance to the study of biological systems where colonising asexual populations must survive and rapidly adapt to hostile environments, like pathogenesis, invasion and tumour metastasis. We explore how evolution might proceed when epigenetic variation in gene expression can change the reproductive capacity of individuals within the population in the new environment. Simulations and analyses of our models clarify the conditions under which certain evolutionary paths are possible and illustrate that while epigenetic mechanisms may facilitate adaptation in asexual species faced with environmental change, they can also lead to a type of "epigenetic load" and contribute to extinction. Moreover, our results offer a formal basis for the claim that constant environments favour individuals with low rates of stochastic phenotypic variation. Finally, our model provides a "proof of concept" of the verbal hypothesis that phenotypic stability is a key driver in rescuing the adaptive potential of an asexual lineage and supports the notion that intense selection pressure can, to an extent, offset the deleterious effects of high phenotypic instability and biased epimutations, and steer an asexual population back from the brink of an evolutionary dead end.

  1. How are individual-level social capital and poverty associated with health equity? A study from two Chinese cities

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojie; Rehnberg, Clas; Meng, Qingyue

    2009-01-01

    Background A growing body of literature has demonstrated that higher social capital is associated with improved health conditions. However, some research indicated that the association between social capital and health was substantially attenuated after adjustment for material deprivation. Studies exploring the association between poverty, social capital and health still have some serious limitations. In China, health equity studies focusing on urban poor are scarce. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how poverty and individual-level social capital in urban China are associated with health equity. Methods Our study is based on a household study sample consisting of 1605 participants in two Chinese cities. For all participants, data on personal characteristics, health status, health care utilisation and social capital were collected. Factor analysis was performed to extract social capital factors. Dichotomised social capital factors were used for logistic regression models. A synergy index (if it is above 1, we can know the existence of the co-operative effect) was computed to examine the interaction effect between lack of social capital and poverty. Results Results indicated the poor had an obviously higher probability of belonging to the low individual-level social capital group in all the five dimensions, with the adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.42 to 2.12. When the other variables were controlled for in the total sample, neighbourhood cohesion (NC), and reciprocity and social support (RSS) were statistically associated with poor self-rated health (NC: OR = 1.40; RSS: OR = 1.34). However, for the non-poor sub-sample, no social capital variable was a statistically significant predictor. The synergy index between low individual-level NC and poverty, and between low individual-level RSS and poverty were 1.22 and 1.28, respectively, indicating an aggravating effect between them. Conclusion In this study, we have shown that the interaction effect

  2. Ant groups optimally amplify the effect of transiently informed individuals.

    PubMed

    Gelblum, Aviram; Pinkoviezky, Itai; Fonio, Ehud; Ghosh, Abhijit; Gov, Nir; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-07-28

    To cooperatively transport a large load, it is important that carriers conform in their efforts and align their forces. A downside of behavioural conformism is that it may decrease the group's responsiveness to external information. Combining experiment and theory, we show how ants optimize collective transport. On the single-ant scale, optimization stems from decision rules that balance individuality and compliance. Macroscopically, these rules poise the system at the transition between random walk and ballistic motion where the collective response to the steering of a single informed ant is maximized. We relate this peak in response to the divergence of susceptibility at a phase transition. Our theoretical models predict that the ant-load system can be transitioned through the critical point of this mesoscopic system by varying its size; we present experiments supporting these predictions. Our findings show that efficient group-level processes can arise from transient amplification of individual-based knowledge.

  3. Ant groups optimally amplify the effect of transiently informed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gelblum, Aviram; Pinkoviezky, Itai; Fonio, Ehud; Ghosh, Abhijit; Gov, Nir; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    To cooperatively transport a large load, it is important that carriers conform in their efforts and align their forces. A downside of behavioural conformism is that it may decrease the group's responsiveness to external information. Combining experiment and theory, we show how ants optimize collective transport. On the single-ant scale, optimization stems from decision rules that balance individuality and compliance. Macroscopically, these rules poise the system at the transition between random walk and ballistic motion where the collective response to the steering of a single informed ant is maximized. We relate this peak in response to the divergence of susceptibility at a phase transition. Our theoretical models predict that the ant-load system can be transitioned through the critical point of this mesoscopic system by varying its size; we present experiments supporting these predictions. Our findings show that efficient group-level processes can arise from transient amplification of individual-based knowledge. PMID:26218613

  4. Ant groups optimally amplify the effect of transiently informed individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelblum, Aviram; Pinkoviezky, Itai; Fonio, Ehud; Ghosh, Abhijit; Gov, Nir; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-07-01

    To cooperatively transport a large load, it is important that carriers conform in their efforts and align their forces. A downside of behavioural conformism is that it may decrease the group's responsiveness to external information. Combining experiment and theory, we show how ants optimize collective transport. On the single-ant scale, optimization stems from decision rules that balance individuality and compliance. Macroscopically, these rules poise the system at the transition between random walk and ballistic motion where the collective response to the steering of a single informed ant is maximized. We relate this peak in response to the divergence of susceptibility at a phase transition. Our theoretical models predict that the ant-load system can be transitioned through the critical point of this mesoscopic system by varying its size; we present experiments supporting these predictions. Our findings show that efficient group-level processes can arise from transient amplification of individual-based knowledge.

  5. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  6. Strategic differentiation and integration of genomic-level heritabilities facilitate individual differences in preparedness and plasticity of human life history.

    PubMed

    Woodley Of Menie, Michael A; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Fernandes, Heitor B F; Madison, Guy; Wolf, Pedro S A; Black, Candace J

    2015-01-01

    Life history (LH) strategies refer to the pattern of allocations of bioenergetic and material resources into different domains of fitness. While LH is known to have moderate to high population-level heritability in humans, both at the level of the high-order factor (Super-K) and the lower-order factors (K, Covitality, and the General Factor of Personality), several important questions remain unexplored. Here, we apply the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model to measure individual genomic-level heritabilities (termed transmissibilities). These transmissibility values were computed for the latent hierarchical structure and developmental dynamics of LH strategy, and demonstrate; (1) moderate to high heritability of factor loadings of Super-K on its lower-order factors, evidencing biological preparedness, genetic accommodation, and the gene-culture coevolution of biased epigenetic rules of development; (2) moderate to high heritability of the magnitudes of the effect of the higher-order factors upon their loadings on their constituent factors, evidencing genetic constraints upon phenotypic plasticity; and (3) that heritability of the LH factors, their factor loadings, and the magnitudes of the correlations among factors, are weaker among individuals with slower LH speeds. The results were obtained from an American sample of 316 monozygotic (MZ) and 274 dizygotic (DZ) twin dyads and a Swedish sample of 863 MZ and 475 DZ twin dyads, and indicate that inter-individual variation in transmissibility is a function of individual socioecological selection pressures. Our novel technique, opens new avenues for analyzing complex interactions among heritable traits inaccessible to standard structural equation methods.

  7. Strategic differentiation and integration of genomic-level heritabilities facilitate individual differences in preparedness and plasticity of human life history

    PubMed Central

    Woodley of Menie, Michael A.; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Fernandes, Heitor B. F.; Madison, Guy; Wolf, Pedro S. A.; Black, Candace J.

    2015-01-01

    Life history (LH) strategies refer to the pattern of allocations of bioenergetic and material resources into different domains of fitness. While LH is known to have moderate to high population-level heritability in humans, both at the level of the high-order factor (Super-K) and the lower-order factors (K, Covitality, and the General Factor of Personality), several important questions remain unexplored. Here, we apply the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model to measure individual genomic-level heritabilities (termed transmissibilities). These transmissibility values were computed for the latent hierarchical structure and developmental dynamics of LH strategy, and demonstrate; (1) moderate to high heritability of factor loadings of Super-K on its lower-order factors, evidencing biological preparedness, genetic accommodation, and the gene-culture coevolution of biased epigenetic rules of development; (2) moderate to high heritability of the magnitudes of the effect of the higher-order factors upon their loadings on their constituent factors, evidencing genetic constraints upon phenotypic plasticity; and (3) that heritability of the LH factors, their factor loadings, and the magnitudes of the correlations among factors, are weaker among individuals with slower LH speeds. The results were obtained from an American sample of 316 monozygotic (MZ) and 274 dizygotic (DZ) twin dyads and a Swedish sample of 863 MZ and 475 DZ twin dyads, and indicate that inter-individual variation in transmissibility is a function of individual socioecological selection pressures. Our novel technique, opens new avenues for analyzing complex interactions among heritable traits inaccessible to standard structural equation methods. PMID:25954216

  8. Individual- and regional-level determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine refusal: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV vaccine cohort study.

    PubMed

    Remes, Olivia; Smith, Leah M; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz E; Colley, Lindsey; Lévesque, Linda E

    2014-10-08

    Studies on the determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use have generally focused on individual-level characteristics, despite the potentially important influence of regional-level characteristics. Therefore, we undertook a population-based, retrospective cohort study to identify individual- and regional-level determinants of HPV vaccine refusal (non-receipt) in Ontario's (Canada) Grade 8 HPV Immunization Program. Ontario's administrative health and immunization databases were used to identify girls eligible for free HPV vaccination in 2007-2011 and to ascertain individual-level characteristics of cohort members (socio-demographics, vaccination history, health care utilization, medical history). The social and material characteristics of the girl's region (health unit) were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. Generalized estimating equations (binomial distribution, logit link) were used to estimate the population-average effects of individual- and regional-level characteristics on HPV vaccine refusal. Our cohort consisted of 144,047 girls, 49.3% of whom refused HPV vaccination. Factors associated with refusal included a previous diagnosis of Down's syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.63) or autism (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.34-1.90), few physician visits (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.35-1.55), and previous refusal of mandatory (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 2.07-2.40) and optional (OR = 3.96, 95% CI 3.87-4.05) vaccines. Refusal was highest among the lowest and highest income levels. Finally, a previous diagnosis of obesity and living in an area of high deprivation were associated with lower refusal (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92 and OR = 0.82 95%, CI 0.79-0.86, respectively). Studies on HPV vaccine determinants should consider regional-level factors. Efforts to increase HPV vaccine acceptance should include vulnerable populations (such as girls of low income) and girls with limited contact with the healthcare system.

  9. Size, sex and individual-level behaviour drive intrapopulation variation in cross-ecosystem foraging of a top-predator.

    PubMed

    Nifong, James C; Layman, Craig A; Silliman, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Large-bodied, top-predators are often highly mobile, with the potential to provide important linkages between spatially distinct food webs. What biological factors contribute to variation in cross-ecosystem movements, however, have rarely been examined. Here, we investigated how ontogeny (body size), sex and individual-level behaviour impacts intrapopulation variation in cross-ecosystem foraging (i.e. between freshwater and marine systems), by the top-predator Alligator mississippiensis. Field surveys revealed A. mississippiensis uses marine ecosystems regularly and are abundant in estuarine tidal creeks (from 0·3 to 6·3 individuals per km of creek, n = 45 surveys). Alligator mississippiensis captured in marine/estuarine habitats were significantly larger than individuals captured in freshwater and intermediate habitats. Stomach content analysis (SCA) showed that small juveniles consumed marine/estuarine prey less frequently (6·7% of individuals) than did large juveniles (57·8%), subadult (73%), and adult (78%) size classes. Isotopic mixing model analysis (SIAR) also suggests substantial variation in use of marine/estuarine prey resources with differences among and within size classes between sexes and individuals (range of median estimates for marine/estuarine diet contribution = 0·05-0·76). These results demonstrate the importance of intrapopulation characteristics (body size, sex and individual specialization) as key determinants of the strength of predator-driven ecosystem connectivity resulting from cross-ecosystem foraging behaviours. Understanding the factors, which contribute to variation in cross-ecosystem foraging behaviours, will improve our predictive understanding of the effects of top-predators on community structure and ecosystem function. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  10. Limits to prediction of energy balance from milk composition measures at individual cow level.

    PubMed

    Løvendahl, P; Ridder, C; Friggens, N C

    2010-05-01

    Frequently updated energy balance (EB) estimates for individual cows are especially useful for dairy herd management, and individual-level estimates form the basis for group-level EB estimates. The accuracy of EB estimates determines the value of this information for management decision support. This study aimed to assess EB accuracy through ANOVA components and by comparing EB estimates based either on milk composition (EBalMilk) or on body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) (EBalBody). Energy balance based on milk composition was evaluated using data in which milk composition was measured at each milking. Three breeds (Danish Red, Holstein-Friesian, and Jersey) of cows (299 cows, 623 lactations) in parities 1 to 4 were used. Milk data were smoothed using a rolling local regression. Energy balance based on milk composition was calculated using a partial least squares (PLS) model based on milk fat, protein, and lactose contents and yields, and the daily change in these variables at each day. Energy balance based on BCS and BW was calculated from changes in body condition and BW scored weekly or fortnightly. Equations for calculation of EBalMilk and EBalBody used no common variables and were, therefore, assumed mathematically independent. Traits were analyzed within 3 stages of lactation expected to have high mobilization of body tissue (1, early), almost balanced (2), and deposition of body energy (3, mid to late lactation). In general, EBalMilk and EBalBody followed similar expected changes through lactation. Estimates of covariance were obtained using single-trait mixed models with random regression terms describing the change with time and used for calculation of repeatability as intraclass correlations. Within stage, EBalMilk was less repeatable than EBalBody (0.53, 0.41, 0.43 vs. 0.93, 0.91, 0.86, respectively, for stages 1, 2, and 3), mainly because of a larger residual variance for EBalMilk. Correlations between individual-level estimates of EBal

  11. Effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The effects of low-level radiation inhumans are usually estimated by extrapolation from high-level effects. Biological radiation effects from low-level radiation can be defined as those from doses below which no deterministic or graded biological responses will occur. In addition, the health consequences are almost all probabilistic. There is incomplete knowledge regarding the role of sex, age at exposure, co-factors, or environmental pollutants.

  12. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bockting, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed individual (i.e., internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including: density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion towards homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N=1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  13. Reconnect on Facebook: The Role of Information Seeking Behavior and Individual- and Relationship-Level Factors.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Artemio; Sumner, Erin M; Hayes, Jameson

    2016-08-01

    Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook function as both venues for reconnecting with associates from a user's past and sources of social information about them. Yet, little is known about what factors influence the initial decision to reconnect with a past associate. This oversight is significant given that SNSs and other platforms provide an abundance of social information that may be utilized for reaching such decisions. The present study investigated the links among relational reconnection, information seeking (IS) behavior, and individual- and relationship-level factors in user decisions to reconnect on Facebook. A national survey of 244 Facebook users reported on their most recent experience of receiving a friend request from someone with whom they had been out of contact for an extended period. Results indicated that uncertainty about the potential reconnection partner and forecast about the reconnection's potential reward level significantly predicted IS behavior (passive on both target and mutual friends' SNS pages as well as active). However, the emergence of their two-way interaction revealed that the forecasts moderated the IS-uncertainty link on three of the strategies (extractive, both passive approaches). Moreover, social anxiety, sociability, uncertainty about the partner, the forecast about the reconnection's reward level, and extractive and passive (target SNS pages) strategies significantly predicted user decisions to reconnect. Future directions for research on relational reconnection on SNSs are offered.

  14. Effects of tongue pressing effortful swallow in older healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Park, Taeok; Kim, Youngsun

    2016-01-01

    The risk of swallowing disorders is increased for older individuals due to weak tongue and pharyngeal muscle strength. This study was appraised the value of a preventative approach by developing the tongue pressing effortful swallow (TPES) applied using a home-based and self-administered procedure. The TPES was developed by combining two swallowing exercises: tongue strengthening exercise and the effortful swallow. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the TPES on maximum tongue pressure and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity in older individuals. 27 older individuals (mean 73 years) performed a 4-week TPES. The exercise program was adapted to a home-based and self-administered procedure. The maximum tongue pressure was measured by the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity by surface electromyography (sEMG). Statistical comparisons were made by a matched pairs t-test (p<0.05). The results of this study showed that the TPES had statistically significant and positive effects on increasing maximum tongue pressure, but the peak amplitude of the submental sEMG did not differ between before and after exercises. The TPES had a positive impact in older individuals. The TPES, a combining exercise, was possible because two exercises had common physiological events. The TPES was a more innovative and efficient approach than the tongue strengthening exercise alone. In addition, older individuals were able to perform the swallowing exercise at home and by themselves with little assistance. Future research needs to refine the TPES and apply it to patients with dysphagia. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Preserved priming effect in individuals with schizophrenia: cues towards rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Nadia; McNally-Gagnon, Andréane; Dubuc, Marie-Josée; Forget, Julie; Mottard, Jean-Pierre; Leblanc, Jean; Lassonde, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia and affective disorders show relatively intact implicit memory as compared to declarative memory. Implicit memory is usually assessed with skill learning and priming tasks. Whereas priming is thought to involve storage changes in the posterior neocortex, skill learning is thought to rely more on the corticostriatal pathway. Since frontostriatal and frontotemporal dysfunctions are, respectively, found in schizophrenia and affective disorders, we hypothesised that individuals with schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis would exhibit disturbances in skill learning, but not priming. Thirty-five patients (11 first-episode psychosis; 11 schizophrenia; 13 affective disorders) and 10 controls completed a procedural learning and priming task. Participants had to identify fragmented images throughout five training sessions. The improvement of the threshold at which the images could be identified between the first and last session was used as an index of procedural learning. In a final session, the identification thresholds for old and new images were compared to assess the priming effect. Whereas individuals with schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis showed impaired skill learning, the priming effect was similar in all groups. Even though some aspects of learning and memory are affected in schizophrenia, our results suggest that the posterior cortical pathway remains efficient at modulating the priming effect. This intact ability could be used to guide the elaboration of new rehabilitation programmes.

  16. Multilevel Selection and Neighbourhood Effects from Individual to Metapopulation in a Wild Passerine

    PubMed Central

    Laiolo, Paola; Obeso, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel selection has rarely been studied in the ecological context of animal populations, in which neighbourhood effects range from competition among territorial neighbours to source-sink effects among local populations. By studying a Dupont’s lark Chersophilus duponti metapopulation, we analyze neighbourhood effects mediated by song repertoires on fitness components at the individual level (life-span) and population level (growth rate). As a sexual/aggressive signal with strong effects on fitness, birdsong creates an opportunity for group selection via neighbour interactions, but may also have population-wide effects by conveying information on habitat suitability to dispersing individuals. Within populations, we found a disruptive pattern of selection at the individual level and an opposite, stabilizing pattern at the group level. Males singing the most complex songs had the longest life-span, but individuals with the poorest repertoires lived longer than ‘average’ males, a finding that likely reflects two male strategies with respect to fitness and sexual trait expression. Individuals from groups with intermediate repertoires had the longest life-span, likely benefitting from conspecific signalling to attract females up to the detrimental spread of competitive interactions in groups with superior vocal skills. Within the metapopulation selection was directional but again followed opposite patterns at the two levels: Populations had the highest growth rate when inhabiting local patches with complex repertoires surrounded by patches with simple repertoires. Here the song may impact metapopulation dynamics by guiding prospecting individuals towards populations advertising habitat quality. Two fitness components linked to viability were therefore influenced by the properties of the group, and birdsong was the target of selection, contributing to linking social/sexual processes at the local scale with regional population dynamics. PMID:22745665

  17. Projected Dipole Moments of Individual Two-Level Defects Extracted Using Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sarabi, B; Ramanayaka, A N; Burin, A L; Wellstood, F C; Osborn, K D

    2016-04-22

    Material-based two-level systems (TLSs), appearing as defects in low-temperature devices including superconducting qubits and photon detectors, are difficult to characterize. In this study we apply a uniform dc electric field across a film to tune the energies of TLSs within. The film is embedded in a superconducting resonator such that it forms a circuit quantum electrodynamical system. The energy of individual TLSs is observed as a function of the known tuning field. By studying TLSs for which we can determine the tunneling energy, the actual p_{z}, dipole moments projected along the uniform field direction, are individually obtained. A distribution is created with 60 p_{z}. We describe the distribution using a model with two dipole moment magnitudes, and a fit yields the corresponding values p=p_{1}=2.8±0.2  D and p=p_{2}=8.3±0.4  D. For a strong-coupled TLS the vacuum-Rabi splitting can be obtained with p_{z} and tunneling energy. This allows a measurement of the circuit's zero-point electric-field fluctuations, in a method that does not need the electric-field volume.

  18. Probability Weighting Functions Derived from Hyperbolic Time Discounting: Psychophysical Models and Their Individual Level Testing.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    A probability weighting function (w(p)) is considered to be a nonlinear function of probability (p) in behavioral decision theory. This study proposes a psychophysical model of probability weighting functions derived from a hyperbolic time discounting model and a geometric distribution. The aim of the study is to show probability weighting functions from the point of view of waiting time for a decision maker. Since the expected value of a geometrically distributed random variable X is 1/p, we formulized the probability weighting function of the expected value model for hyperbolic time discounting as w(p) = (1 - k log p)(-1). Moreover, the probability weighting function is derived from Loewenstein and Prelec's (1992) generalized hyperbolic time discounting model. The latter model is proved to be equivalent to the hyperbolic-logarithmic weighting function considered by Prelec (1998) and Luce (2001). In this study, we derive a model from the generalized hyperbolic time discounting model assuming Fechner's (1860) psychophysical law of time and a geometric distribution of trials. In addition, we develop median models of hyperbolic time discounting and generalized hyperbolic time discounting. To illustrate the fitness of each model, a psychological experiment was conducted to assess the probability weighting and value functions at the level of the individual participant. The participants were 50 university students. The results of individual analysis indicated that the expected value model of generalized hyperbolic discounting fitted better than previous probability weighting decision-making models. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  19. Probability Weighting Functions Derived from Hyperbolic Time Discounting: Psychophysical Models and Their Individual Level Testing

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    A probability weighting function (w(p)) is considered to be a nonlinear function of probability (p) in behavioral decision theory. This study proposes a psychophysical model of probability weighting functions derived from a hyperbolic time discounting model and a geometric distribution. The aim of the study is to show probability weighting functions from the point of view of waiting time for a decision maker. Since the expected value of a geometrically distributed random variable X is 1/p, we formulized the probability weighting function of the expected value model for hyperbolic time discounting as w(p) = (1 − k log p)−1. Moreover, the probability weighting function is derived from Loewenstein and Prelec's (1992) generalized hyperbolic time discounting model. The latter model is proved to be equivalent to the hyperbolic-logarithmic weighting function considered by Prelec (1998) and Luce (2001). In this study, we derive a model from the generalized hyperbolic time discounting model assuming Fechner's (1860) psychophysical law of time and a geometric distribution of trials. In addition, we develop median models of hyperbolic time discounting and generalized hyperbolic time discounting. To illustrate the fitness of each model, a psychological experiment was conducted to assess the probability weighting and value functions at the level of the individual participant. The participants were 50 university students. The results of individual analysis indicated that the expected value model of generalized hyperbolic discounting fitted better than previous probability weighting decision-making models. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:27303338

  20. Stochastic protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Long; Friedman, Nir; Xie, X. Sunney

    2006-03-01

    In a living cell, gene expression-the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA followed by translation to protein-occurs stochastically, as a consequence of the low copy number of DNA and mRNA molecules involved. These stochastic events of protein production are difficult to observe directly with measurements on large ensembles of cells owing to lack of synchronization among cells. Measurements so far on single cells lack the sensitivity to resolve individual events of protein production. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic-based assay that allows real-time observation of the expression of β-galactosidase in living Escherichia coli cells with single molecule sensitivity. We observe that protein production occurs in bursts, with the number of molecules per burst following an exponential distribution. We show that the two key parameters of protein expression-the burst size and frequency-can be either determined directly from real-time monitoring of protein production or extracted from a measurement of the steady-state copy number distribution in a population of cells. Application of this assay to probe gene expression in individual budding yeast and mouse embryonic stem cells demonstrates its generality. Many important proteins are expressed at low levels, and are thus inaccessible by current genomic and proteomic techniques. This microfluidic single cell assay opens up possibilities for system-wide characterization of the expression of these low copy number proteins.

  1. Comparison of individual-level versus area-level socioeconomic measures in assessing health outcomes of children in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Crespo, Maria R; Narla, Nirmala Priya; Williams, Arthur R; Beebe, Timothy J; Sloan, Jeff; Yawn, Barbara P; Wheeler, Philip H; Juhn, Young J

    2013-04-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of health, but SES measures are frequently unavailable in commonly used datasets. Area-level SES measures are used as proxy measures of individual SES when the individual measures are lacking. Little is known about the agreement between individual-level versus area-level SES measures in mixed urban-rural settings. We identified SES agreement by comparing information from telephone self-reported SES levels and SES calculated from area-level SES measures. We assessed the impact of this agreement on reported associations between SES and rates of childhood obesity, low birth weight <2500 g and smoking within the household in a mixed urban-rural setting. 750 households were surveyed with a response rate of 62%: 51% male, 89% Caucasian; mean child age 9.5 years. Individual-level self-reported income was more strongly associated with all three childhood health outcomes compared to area-level SES. We found significant disagreement rates of 22-31%. The weighted Cohen's κ indices ranged from 0.15 to 0.22, suggesting poor agreement between individual-level and area-level measures. In a mixed urban-rural setting comprised of both rural and urbanised areas, area-level SES proxy measures significantly disagree with individual SES measures, and have different patterns of association with health outcomes from individual-level SES measures. Area-level SES may be an unsuitable proxy for SES when individual rather than community characteristics are of primary concern.

  2. IGESS: a statistical approach to integrating individual-level genotype data and summary statistics in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingwei; Ming, Jingsi; Cai, Mingxuan; Liu, Jin; Yang, Can; Wan, Xiang; Xu, Zongben

    2017-09-15

    Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that a complex phenotype is often affected by many variants with small effects, known as 'polygenicity'. Tens of thousands of samples are often required to ensure statistical power of identifying these variants with small effects. However, it is often the case that a research group can only get approval for the access to individual-level genotype data with a limited sample size (e.g. a few hundreds or thousands). Meanwhile, summary statistics generated using single-variant-based analysis are becoming publicly available. The sample sizes associated with the summary statistics datasets are usually quite large. How to make the most efficient use of existing abundant data resources largely remains an open question. In this study, we propose a statistical approach, IGESS, to increasing statistical power of identifying risk variants and improving accuracy of risk prediction by i ntegrating individual level ge notype data and s ummary s tatistics. An efficient algorithm based on variational inference is developed to handle the genome-wide analysis. Through comprehensive simulation studies, we demonstrated the advantages of IGESS over the methods which take either individual-level data or summary statistics data as input. We applied IGESS to perform integrative analysis of Crohns Disease from WTCCC and summary statistics from other studies. IGESS was able to significantly increase the statistical power of identifying risk variants and improve the risk prediction accuracy from 63.2% ( ±0.4% ) to 69.4% ( ±0.1% ) using about 240 000 variants. The IGESS software is available at https://github.com/daviddaigithub/IGESS . zbxu@xjtu.edu.cn or xwan@comp.hkbu.edu.hk or eeyang@hkbu.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Influence of low-level laser therapy on vertical jump in sedentary individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Higa, Jessica Yumie; Errero, Tatiane Kamada; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of low intensity laser (660nm), on the surae triceps muscle fatigue and power, during vertical jump in sedentary individuals, in addition to delayed onset muscle soreness. Methods We included 22 sedentary volunteers in the study, who were divided into three groups: G1 (n=8) without performing low intensity laser (control); G2 (n=7) subjected to 6 days of low intensity laser applications; and G3 (n=7) subjected to 10 days of low intensity laser applications. All subjects were evaluated by means of six evaluations of vertical jumps lasting 60 seconds each. In G2 and G3, laser applications in eight points, uniformly distributed directly to the skin in the region of the triceps surae were performed. Another variable analyzed was the delayed onset muscle soreness using the Visual Analog Scale of Pain. Results There was no significant difference in fatigue and mechanical power. In the evaluation of delayed onset muscle soreness, there was significant difference, being the first evaluation higher than the others. Conclusion The low intensity laser on the triceps surae, in sedentary individuals, had no significant effects on the variables evaluated. PMID:25993067

  4. Improving Adiponectin Levels in Individuals With Diabetes and Obesity: Insights From Look AHEAD.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Schwenke, Dawn C; Kriska, Andrea; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Tracy, Russell P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated whether fitness changes resulting from lifestyle interventions for weight loss may independently contribute to the improvement of low adiponectin levels in obese individuals with diabetes. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) randomized overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes to intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss or to diabetes support and education (DSE). Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin (adiponectins), weight, and cardiorespiratory fitness (submaximal exercise stress test) were measured in 1,397 participants at baseline and at 1 year, when ILI was most intense. Regression analyses examined the associations of 1-year weight and fitness changes with change in adiponectins. ILI resulted in greater improvements in weight, fitness, and adiponectins at 1 year compared with DSE (P < 0.0001). Weight loss and improved fitness were each associated with changes in adiponectins in men and women (P < 0.001 for all), after adjusting for baseline adiponectins, demographics, clinical variables, and treatment arm. Weight loss contributed an additional 4-5% to the variance of change in adiponectins than did increased fitness in men; in women, the contributions of improved fitness (1% greater) and of weight loss were similar. When weight and fitness changes were both accounted for, weight loss in men and increased fitness in women retained their strong associations (P < 0.0001) with adiponectin change. Improvements in fitness and weight with ILI were favorably but distinctly associated with changes in adiponectin levels in overweight/obese men and women with diabetes. Future studies need to investigate whether sex-specific biological determinants contribute to the observed associations. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Elastins from patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome and healthy individuals differ on the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andrea; Huertas, Angela C Mora; Schräder, Christoph U; Pankau, Rainer; Gosch, Angela; Schmelzer, Christian E H

    2016-07-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a congenital disorder, which involves the heterozygous deletion of the elastin gene and other genes on chromosome 7. Clinical symptoms that are associated with hemizygosity of the essential extracellular matrix protein elastin include premature aging of the skin and supravalvular aortic stenosis. However, only little is known about the molecular basis of structural abnormalities in the connective tissue of WBS patients. Therefore, for the first time this study aimed to systematically characterize and compare the structure and amount of elastin present in skin and aortic tissue from WBS patients and healthy individuals. Elastin fibers were isolated from tissue biopsies, and it was found that skin of WBS patients contains significantly less elastin compared to skin of healthy individuals. Scanning electron microscopy and mass spectrometric measurements combined with bioinformatics data analysis were used to investigate the molecular-level structure of elastin. Scanning electron microscopy revealed clear differences between WBS and healthy elastin. With respect to the molecular-level structure, it was found that the proline hydroxylation degree differed between WBS and healthy elastin, while the tropoelastin isoform appeared to be the same. In terms of cross-linking, no differences in the content of the tetrafunctional cross-links desmosine and isodesmosine were found between WBS and healthy elastin. However, principal component analysis revealed differences between enzymatic digests of elastin from healthy probands and WBS patients, which indicates differing susceptibility toward enzymatic cleavage. Overall, the study contributes to a better understanding of the correlation between genotypic and elastin-related phenotypic features of WBS patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Apelin and Visfatin Plasma Levels in Healthy Individuals With High Normal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Charalampos I; Sanidas, Elias A; Perrea, Despoina N; Grassos, Charalampos A; Chantziara, Vasiliki; Viniou, Nora-Athina; Barbetseas, John D; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios P

    2016-05-01

    High normal blood pressure (BP; 130-139/85-89 mm Hg) is related with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk compared to normal BP (120-129/80-84 mm Hg) or/and optimal BP (<120/80 mm Hg). Low apelin plasma levels have been associated with arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis, while high visfatin plasma levels may promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and have been evaluated as a marker for identifying stages of essential hypertension. We sought to compare the apelin and visfatin plasma levels between subjects with high normal BP and subjects with normal or optimal BP matched for age, gender, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Twenty-five subjects with high normal BP (office BP 136±3/88±2 mm Hg, age 57±4 years, 76% males, 32% smokers, BMI 24.0±1.7 kg/m2) and 35 subjects with normal or optimal BP (office BP 118±2/78±2 mm Hg, age 55±7 years, 63% males, 29% smokers, BMI 23.2±1.4 kg/m2) were studied. The apelin and visfatin plasma levels were determined with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to normal or optimal BP subjects, apelin levels were significantly lower (205±108 vs. 325±152 pg/ml, P < 0.001) and visfatin levels significantly higher (11.0±2.0 vs. 7.2±0.9 ng/ml, P = 0.002) in high normal BP subjects. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups (P = NS) regarding the basic clinical characteristics, the glycemic/lipid profile, and the renal function parameters. The emerging, from the present study, data raise the hypothesis that lower apelin and higher visfatin plasma levels in high normal BP subjects compared to normal or optimal BP individuals could partially explain the higher CV risk of the high normal BP group. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Best Practices for Ethical Sharing of Individual-Level Health Research Data From Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Denny, Spencer; Jao, Irene; Marsh, Vicki; Merson, Laura; Shah More, Neena; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Osrin, David; Tangseefa, Decha; Wassenaar, Douglas; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sharing individual-level data from clinical and public health research is increasingly being seen as a core requirement for effective and efficient biomedical research. This article discusses the results of a systematic review and multisite qualitative study of key stakeholders’ perspectives on best practices in ethical data sharing in low- and middle-income settings. Our research suggests that for data sharing to be effective and sustainable, multiple social and ethical requirements need to be met. An effective model of data sharing will be one in which considered judgments will need to be made about how best to achieve scientific progress, minimize risks of harm, promote fairness and reciprocity, and build and sustain trust. PMID:26297751

  8. Best Practices for Ethical Sharing of Individual-Level Health Research Data From Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    PubMed

    Bull, Susan; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Denny, Spencer; Jao, Irene; Marsh, Vicki; Merson, Laura; Shah More, Neena; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Osrin, David; Tangseefa, Decha; Wassenaar, Douglas; Parker, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Sharing individual-level data from clinical and public health research is increasingly being seen as a core requirement for effective and efficient biomedical research. This article discusses the results of a systematic review and multisite qualitative study of key stakeholders' perspectives on best practices in ethical data sharing in low- and middle-income settings. Our research suggests that for data sharing to be effective and sustainable, multiple social and ethical requirements need to be met. An effective model of data sharing will be one in which considered judgments will need to be made about how best to achieve scientific progress, minimize risks of harm, promote fairness and reciprocity, and build and sustain trust.

  9. Neural correlates of plasma acylated ghrelin level in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Nakano, Masayuki; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Egashira, Kazuteru; Matsubara, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2012-09-14

    Anhedonic symptoms, which include loss of pleasure, appetite and motivation, are key symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and are thought to depend on a neural circuit of the mesolimbic system. The neuropeptide ghrelin plays a crucial role in appetite and reward. Little is known, however, about the role of ghrelin in MDD. We examined the association between morphometric change and plasma ghrelin levels in patients with MDD. Twenty-four patients with MDD and 24 healthy control subjects were studied. Plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin was measured after a period of fasting. Using voxel-based morphometry, we found a main effect of ghrelin on the volume of several brain regions. We then compared these regional volumes in patients with MDD versus healthy subjects. We also compared brain volumes between the two groups, controlling for ghrelin level. There was no significant difference in plasma acylated ghrelin level between patients with MDD and healthy subjects. In the MDD group, ghrelin levels positively correlated with the severity of reduced appetite. Ghrelin levels negatively correlated with gray matter volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the total sample. The patients with MDD showed significantly smaller VTA gray matter volume compared to healthy subjects. Controlling for the plasma acylated ghrelin level, patients with MDD showed significantly smaller gray matter volume of right substantia nigra compared to healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that plasma acylated ghrelin is associated with neural abnormalities of the pleasure/reward system and may be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD.

  10. Arterial Indices and Serum Cystatin C Level in Individuals With Occupational Wide Band Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Ali R.; Mousavi-Asl, Benyamin; Shekarchi, Babak; Amini, Kazem; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM) proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN) exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: <40 and >40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI) for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA). CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Results: Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66) and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77) revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145) but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019). Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P value < 0.001) both in younger and older groups. Conclusion: We could

  11. Arterial indices and serum cystatin C level in individuals with occupational wide band noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Ali R; Mousavi-Asl, Benyamin; Shekarchi, Babak; Amini, Kazem; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM) proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN) exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: <40 and >40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI) for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA). CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66) and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77) revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145) but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019). Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P value < 0.001) both in younger and older groups

  12. [Urbanization mechanisms in bird species: population systems transformations or adaptations at the individual level?].

    PubMed

    Fridman, V S; Eremkin, G S; Zakharova-Kubareva, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    The present research deals with urbanization of wild bird and mammal species. Forms and mechanisms of population steadiness in the urban landscape have been examined. The urbanization process turned out to be a directed change of the population system forming de novo in the urbolandscape leading to a sustainable organization peculiar for the particular environment. The population organization of different types in urbolandscape is found to provide its stability under conditions of directed and fast changes accompanied with instability and heterogenous structure of habitats. It is shown that the same type of population organization meets the corresponding demands among different species settling in the urban environment. Its features are "openness" and "flowage" of the groups, far order of settlement levels and other units of population system, constant movements of the individuals between the groups as a respond to the signals of urboenvironment significant changes. The "urban" variant of the population system organization turns out to be opposite to that of the same species in the non-urban habitats. After formation of the urban types by the species and successful developing of the town, the urban population becomes separated from the maternal local population and begins to exist independently in the urban landscape. The variety of adaptation aberrations in ecology, behavior, and mode of life of urban birds is the population system stability function in the urban landscape and is not a results of individual selection. It is shown that the urbanization process of the species goes firstly on the population level being the system structure transformation developed by the species towards the most stable state in the town (city) territory. Only after the appearance of stable urban population, the urban individuals show the rapid growth of different changes in ecology, behavior, mode of life that was traditionally described by naturalists as species adaptation to the

  13. Level of heat shock proteins decreases in individuals carrying B-chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    PubMed

    Teruel, M; Sørensen, J G; Loeschcke, V; Cabrero, J; Perfectti, F; Camacho, J P M

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of B-chromosome presence on expression level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cerebral ganglion and gonad in both males and females of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Two natural Spanish populations, Salobreña (Granada) and Torrox (Málaga) were assayed, the former harbouring a neutralized (non-driving) B-chromosome (B(2)) and the latter a parasitic (driving) B-chromosome (B(24)). The analysis was performed by Western blotting, immunostaining and densitometric measuring expression level of the Hsp70 family in adult individuals. The results showed that Hsp70 levels of testis were significantly higher in Salobreña than Torrox, and were significantly lower in testes of B-carrying males from both populations. A similar effect was observed in the ovary of females from Torrox. No effect was, however, observed in cerebral ganglia in any sex or population. B-chromosome effects in Torrox showed a dose-dependent pattern. The results point to an interesting interaction between B-chromosome and stress protein expression in reproductive tissue. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effect of occlusion on joint sounds in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Zuim, Paulo R Junqueira; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Paulo H; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Flacón-Antenucci, Rosse M

    2008-01-01

    Occlusion is a predisposing factor for Temporomandibular Dysfunctions (TMD) of the joint, whose first sign and/or symptom is usually joint sound. To verify the effect of occlusion on joint sounds, temporomandibular joints (TMJ) were analyzed in 78 asymptomatic individuals with various dental conditions. Electrosonography was used to determine the intensity of the vibration in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on opening and closing the mouth. Transducers (piezoelectric accelerometer) were placed on the right and left joints. Results were tabled and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (a=0.05). It was concluded that TMJ vibration in partly edentulous individuals from Kennedy classes I, II and III is statistically higher than in dentate and fully edentulous subjects.

  15. An Internet-Delivered, Individually Differentiated Reading Program: Effects on Students' Literacy Achievement and Technology Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Diane H.; Young, John W.

    2005-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of a technology based learning program on 219 5th graders' reading and technology skills. Central to the program's design is its capacity to deliver reading materials that are on students' individually differentiated reading levels. That is, on any given day all students in a classroom receive a reading…

  16. The Implications of Teacher Selection and Teacher Effects in Individually Randomized Group Treatment Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Randomized experiments have become an increasingly popular design to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in education (Spybrook, 2008). Many of the interventions evaluated in education are delivered to groups of students, rather than to individuals. Experiments designed to evaluate programs delivered at the group level often…

  17. Effects of Using a Web-Based Individualized Education Program Decision-Making Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriner, James G.; Carty, Susan J.; Rose, Chad A.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Kim, Myungjin; Trach, John S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a web-based decision support system ("Tutorial") for writing standards-based Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). A total of 35 teachers and 154 students participated across two academic years. Participants were assigned to one of three intervention groups based on level of "Tutorial"…

  18. Semantic priming effects, lexical repetition effects, and contextual disambiguation effects in healthy aged individuals and individuals with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    PubMed

    Balota, D A; Duchek, J M

    1991-02-01

    An experiment is reported that addresses semantic priming effects, lexical repetition effects, and the influence of context on meaning selection for ambiguous words in 32 healthy aged individuals and 32 individuals with Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SDAT). On each of 232 trials, subjects pronounced each of three words. The four major conditions were concordant (music-organ-piano), discordant (kidney-organ-piano), neutral (ceiling-organ-piano), and unrelated (kidney-ceiling-piano). In order to address lexical repetition effects, target words were repeated across Blocks 1 and 2 but not in Block 3. Analyses of naming latencies indicated that semantic priming effects and lexical repetition effects were slightly larger in SDAT individuals than in healthy aged individuals. More importantly, healthy aged individuals produced normal selective access of the contextually biased meaning whereas SDAT individuals produced evidence consistent with nonselective meaning access. These results are discussed within both an attentional and a connectionist account of homograph disambiguation.

  19. Genetic diversity confers colony-level benefits due to individual immunity.

    PubMed

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Walz, Megan; Tarpy, David R

    2016-03-01

    Several costs and benefits arise as a consequence of eusociality and group-living. With increasing group size, spread of disease among nest-mates poses selective pressure on both individual immunity and group-level mechanisms of disease resistance (social immunity). Another factor known to influence colony-level expression of disease is intracolony genetic diversity, which in honeybees (Apis mellifera) is a direct function of the number of mates of the queen. Colonies headed by queens with higher mating numbers have less variable infections of decreased intensity, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. By pathogen-challenging larvae in vitro, we decoupled larval immune response from mechanisms of social immunity. Our results show that baseline immunity and degree of immune response do not vary with genetic diversity. However, intracolony variance in antimicrobial peptide production after pathogen challenge decreases with increasing genetic diversity. This reduction in variability of the larval immune response could drive the mitigation of disease observed in genetically diverse colonies. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

    PubMed Central

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; King, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000). Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality. PMID:12379153

  1. Genetic diversity confers colony-level benefits due to individual immunity

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Megan; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Several costs and benefits arise as a consequence of eusociality and group-living. With increasing group size, spread of disease among nest-mates poses selective pressure on both individual immunity and group-level mechanisms of disease resistance (social immunity). Another factor known to influence colony-level expression of disease is intracolony genetic diversity, which in honeybees (Apis mellifera) is a direct function of the number of mates of the queen. Colonies headed by queens with higher mating numbers have less variable infections of decreased intensity, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. By pathogen-challenging larvae in vitro, we decoupled larval immune response from mechanisms of social immunity. Our results show that baseline immunity and degree of immune response do not vary with genetic diversity. However, intracolony variance in antimicrobial peptide production after pathogen challenge decreases with increasing genetic diversity. This reduction in variability of the larval immune response could drive the mitigation of disease observed in genetically diverse colonies. PMID:26961896

  2. Individual Letter Contrast Thresholds: Effect of Object Frequency and Noise

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Cierra; Wang, Shu; McAnany, J. Jason

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare differences in contrast threshold among individual Sloan letters presented in additive white luminance noise and in the absence of noise. Methods Contrast threshold for letter identification was measured for 3 visually normal subjects (ages 22, 25, 34 years) using letters from the Sloan set (C, D, H, K, N, O, R, S, V, Z). The letter size was equivalent to 1.5 log MAR and the letters were either unfiltered or band-pass filtered to limit the object frequency content (cycles-per-letter; cpl) to a one-octave wide band centered at 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 cpl. Letters were presented for an unlimited duration against a uniform adapting f