Science.gov

Sample records for individual monitoring experiments

  1. Optical absorption properties of electron bubbles and experiments on monitoring individual electron bubbles in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei

    When a free electron is injected into liquid helium, it forms a microscopic bubble essentially free of helium atoms, which is referred to as an electron bubble. It represents a fine example of a quantum-mechanical particle confined in a potential well. In this dissertation, we describe our studies on bubble properties, especially the optical absorption properties of ground state electron bubbles and experiments on imaging individual electron bubbles in liquid helium. We studied the effect of zero-point and thermal fluctuations on the shape of ground state electron bubbles in liquid helium. The results are used to determine the line shape for the 1S to 1P optical transition. The calculated line shape is in very good agreement with the experimental measurements of Grimes and Adams. For 1S to 2P transition, the obtained transition line width agrees well with the measured data of Zipfel over a range of pressure up to 15 bars. Fluctuations in the bubble shape also make other "unallowed" transitions possible. The transition cross-sections from the 1S state to the 1D and 2D states are calculated with magnitude approximately two orders smaller than that of the 1S to 1P and 2P transitions. In our electron bubble imaging experiments, a planar ultrasonic transducer was used to generate strong sound wave pulse in liquid helium. The sound pulse passed through the liquid so as to produce a transient negative pressure over a large volume (˜ 1 cm3). An electron bubble that was passed by the sound pulse exploded for a fraction of a microsecond and grew to have a radius of around 10 microns. While the bubble had this large size it was illuminated with a flash lamp and its position was recorded. In this way, we can determine its position. Through the application of a series of sound pulses, we can then take images along the track of individual electrons. The motion of individual electron bubbles has been successfully monitored. Interesting bubble tracks that may relate to electrons

  2. Routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure; Czech experience and results 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Malušek, A; Ploc, O; Kovář, I; Brabcová, K; Spurný, F

    2011-03-01

    Individual monitoring of aircrew of airline operators registered in the Czech Republic has been performed since 1998. In this work, annual effective doses and annual collective effective doses of aircrew from occupational exposure in the period from 1998 to 2008 are presented, methods used for their evaluation and verification are described, and general trends observed in the data are discussed. Annual effective doses were calculated using the computer code CARI from flight schedules provided by airline operators and typical flight profiles. The method was verified via a comparison with (i) measurements using different types of detectors and (ii) calculations using the CARI and EPCARD codes with actual flight data. It was found that average annual effective doses in the period from 1998 to 2008 were in the range from 1.2 to 2.0 mSv and followed the trend of the solar cycle. Annual collective effective doses increased from 1.4 manSv in 1998 to 4.1 manSv in 2008 as the number of aircrew increased from 857 to 2158 during this period. Combined relative uncertainties (coverage factor ) of reported individual and collective effective doses were ∼ 25 %, which is well within the range given by the factor of 1.5. More work is needed to achieve a higher accuracy of this estimate.

  3. Children monitor individuals' expertise for word learning.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M; Corriveau, Kathleen H

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to learn novel words using others' expertise about objects' nonobvious properties. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds (n = 24) endorsed individuals' labels for objects based on their differing causal knowledge about those objects. Experiment 2 examined the robustness of this inference and its development. Four-year-olds (n = 40) endorsed labels from confederates who accurately predicted objects' nonobvious internal properties but not nonobvious external properties. Three-year-olds (n = 40) performed at chance levels in both cases and were less likely to recognize the informants' expertise, suggesting that they might be unable to monitor individuals' expertise. These data suggest that children's ability to learn from testimony is necessary for their understanding of the relevance of an individual's expertise.

  4. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  5. Children Monitor Individuals' Expertise for Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to learn novel words using others' expertise about objects' nonobvious properties. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds (n = 24) endorsed individuals' labels for objects based on their differing causal knowledge about those objects. Experiment 2 examined the robustness of this inference and its development.…

  6. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  7. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  8. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  9. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  10. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  11. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2009-05-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative “all modes” failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  12. Using widgets to monitor the LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Caballero, I.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of the LHC experiments requires monitoring systems to verify the correct functioning of different sub-systems and to allow operators to quickly spot problems and issues that may cause loss of information and data. Due to the distributed nature of the collaborations and the different technologies involved, the information data that need to be correlated is usually spread over several databases, web pages and monitoring systems. On the other hand, although the complete set of monitorable aspects is known and fixed, the subset that each person needs to monitor is often different for each individual. Therefore, building a unique monitoring tool that suits every single collaborator becomes close to impossible. A modular approach with a set of customizable widgets, small autonomous portions of HTML and JavaScript, that can be aggregated to form private or public monitoring web pages can be a scalable and robust solution, where the information can be provided by a simple and thin set of web services. Among the different widget development toolkits available today, we have chosen the open project UWA (Unified Widget API) because of its portability to the most popular widget platforms (including iGoogle, Netvibes and Apple Dashboard). As an example, we show how this technology is currently being used to monitor parts of the CMS Computing project.

  13. Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (experiment M133)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the conceptual design of the Skylab sleep monitoring experiment and a comprehensive compilation of the data-analysis results from the three Skylab missions is presented. One astronaut was studied per flight, electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, and headmotion signals acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit are shown. A control-panel assembly, mounted in the sleep compartment, tested electrodes, preserved analog signals, and automatically analyzed data in real time (providing a telemetered indication of sleep stage). Results indicate that men are able to obtain adequate sleep in regularly scheduled eight-hour rest periods during extended space missions.

  14. Astronaut Bernard Harris monitors Spacehab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Bernard A. Harris Jr., a physician and STS-63 payload commander, monitors several Spacehab-3 experiments which occupy locker space on the Space Shuttle Discovery's middeck. The Spacehab-3 module is located in the cargo bay.

  15. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  16. Calibration Monitor for Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M. E.

    2009-11-23

    The goal of this program was to design, build, test, and characterize a flight qualified calibration source and monitor for a Dark Energy related experiment: ACCESS - 'Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars'. This calibration source, the On-board Calibration Monitor (OCM), is a key component of our ACCESS spectrophotometric calibration program. The OCM will be flown as part of the ACCESS sub-orbital rocket payload in addition to monitoring instrument sensitivity on the ground. The objective of the OCM is to minimize systematic errors associated with any potential changes in the ACCESS instrument sensitivity. Importantly, the OCM will be used to monitor instrument sensitivity immediately after astronomical observations while the instrument payload is parachuting to the ground. Through monitoring, we can detect, track, characterize, and thus correct for any changes in instrument senstivity over the proposed 5-year duration of the assembled and calibrated instrument.

  17. Achievement Monitoring of Individually Paced Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsky, Paul D.

    A study was made to monitor achievement of individually paced instruction. The project concentrated on designing testing procedures in group paced instructional programs to provide information to student, teachers, parents and administrators which could be used in both a formative and summative evaluation. The three objectives of the project were:…

  18. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily…

  19. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  20. Individual monitoring for external radiation at accelerator facilities.

    PubMed

    Tanner, R J; Hager, L G

    2011-07-01

    Individual monitoring at accelerator facilities is discussed, within the framework set out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and with reference to the implementation of the recommendations of that body within the European Basic Safety Standards. Legislation in other parts of the world may differ, but a worldwide perspective on this subject would be too exhaustive. The fields at accelerator facilities are contrasted in terms of particle type and energy with those encountered at more conventional sites within the nuclear fuel cycle, medical applications and general industry. The implications for individual monitoring are discussed in relation to the dose quantities for these accelerator fields and also with respect to the personal dosemeters options.

  1. IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  2. IEC STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, Miroslav; Ambrosi, P.; Behrens, R.; Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B Radiation protection instrumentation and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  3. Photoemission Experiments for Charge Characteristics of Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; West, E.; Pratico, J.; Tankosic, D.; Venturini, C. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission experiments with UV radiation have been performed to investigate the microphysics and charge characteristics of individual isolated dust grains of various compositions and sizes by using the electrodynamic balance facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Dust particles of 2-10 gm diameter are levitated in a vacuum chamber at pressures approximately 10(exp-5) torr and exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation in the 120-200 nm spectral range from a deuterium lamp source with a MgF2 window. A monochromator is used to select the UV wavelength with a spectral resolution of 8 nm. The electrodynamic facility permits measurements of the charge and diameters of particles of known composition, and monitoring of photoemission rates with the incident UV radiation. Experiments have been conducted on test particles of silica and polystyrene to determine the photoelectric yields and surface equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation. A brief description of an experimental procedure for photoemission studies is given and some preliminary laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust particles are presented.

  4. Monitoring individual and joint action outcomes in duet music performance.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Janeen D; Kourtis, Dimitrios; Vesper, Cordula; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-07-01

    We investigated whether people monitor the outcomes of their own and their partners' individual actions as well as the outcome of their combined actions when performing joint actions together. Pairs of pianists memorized both parts of a piano duet. Each pianist then performed one part while their partner performed the other; EEG was recorded from both. Auditory outcomes (pitches) associated with keystrokes produced by the pianists were occasionally altered in a way that either did or did not affect the joint auditory outcome (i.e., the harmony of a chord produced by the two pianists' combined pitches). Altered auditory outcomes elicited a feedback-related negativity whether they occurred in the pianist's own part or the partner's part, and whether they affected individual or joint action outcomes. Altered auditory outcomes also elicited a P300 whose amplitude was larger when the alteration affected the joint outcome compared with individual outcomes and when the alteration affected the pianist's own part compared with the partner's part. Thus, musicians engaged in joint actions monitor their own and their partner's actions as well as their combined action outcomes, while at the same time maintaining a distinction between their own and others' actions and between individual and joint outcomes.

  5. Monitoring tools of COMPASS experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodlak, M.; Frolov, V.; Huber, S.; Jary, V.; Konorov, I.; Levit, D.; Novy, J.; Salac, R.; Tomsa, J.; Virius, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper briefly introduces the data acquisition system of the COMPASS experiment and is mainly focused on the part that is responsible for the monitoring of the nodes in the whole newly developed data acquisition system of this experiment. The COMPASS is a high energy particle experiment with a fixed target located at the SPS of the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. The hardware of the data acquisition system has been upgraded to use FPGA cards that are responsible for data multiplexing and event building. The software counterpart of the system includes several processes deployed in heterogenous network environment. There are two processes, namely Message Logger and Message Browser, taking care of monitoring. These tools handle messages generated by nodes in the system. While Message Logger collects and saves messages to the database, the Message Browser serves as a graphical interface over the database containing these messages. For better performance, certain database optimizations have been used. Lastly, results of performance tests are presented.

  6. Photoemission Experiments for Charge Characteristics of Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Spann, James F., Jr.; Craven, Paul D.; West, E.; Pratico, Jared; Scheianu, D.; Tankosic, D.; Venturini, C. C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission experiments with UV radiation have been performed to investigate the microphysics and charge characteristics of individual isolated dust grains of various compositions and sizes by using the electrodynamic balance facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Dust particles of 1 - 100 micrometer diameter are levitated in a vacuum chamber at pressures approx. 10(exp -5) torr and exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation in the 120-300 nanometers spectral range from a deuterium lamp source with a MgF2 window. A monochromator is used to select the UV radiation wavelength with a spectral resolution of 8 nanometers. The electrodynamic facility permits measurements of the charge and diameters of particles of known composition, and monitoring of photoemission rates with the incident UV radiation. Experiments have been conducted on Al2O3 and silicate particles, and in particular on JSC-1 Mars regolith simulants, to determine the photoelectron yields and surface equilibrium potentials of dust particles when exposed to UV radiation in the 120-250 micrometers spectral range. A brief discussion of the experimental procedure, the results of photoemission experiments, and comparisons with theoretical models will be presented.

  7. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adrada, J.

    1997-02-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  8. Implementation of quality standards in an individual monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, H; Vartiainen, E

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a quality system to the procedures of an individual monitoring service (IMS) is described from the practical perspective. The IMS of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is used as an example. The IMS of STUK monitors about 8500 persons mainly working in hospitals, industry and research centres. The current thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system was introduced in 1992 and the whole service changed to TLDs in 1995. The quality system compatible with the quality standards was introduced in 1999. An application for accreditation to fulfill EN45001 and ISO/IEC Guide 25 was made in December 1999, accreditation was achieved in August 2000 by the Finnish Accreditation Service (FINAS). The considerations needed for the quality system to fulfill the requirements of the quality standards are reported.

  9. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons.

  10. Experience with the BEACON core monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.L. ); Icide, C.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The BEACON operational core support system was developed for use in pressurized water reactors to provide an integrated system to perform reactor core monitoring, core measurement reduction, core analysis and follow, and core predictions. It is based on the very fast and accurate three-dimensional SPNOVA nodal program. The experience to date has shown the importance of an accurate integrated system. The benefits accrued are greater for the total system than the benefits that are possible separately.

  11. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  12. Optical properties monitor: Experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Bennett, Jean M.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hadaway, James B.; Pezzaniti, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The stability of materials used in the space environment will continue to be a limiting technology for space missions. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment provides a comprehensive space research program to study the effects of the space environment (both natural and induced) on optical, thermal and space power materials. The OPM Experiment was selected for definition under the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiment Program. The results of the OPM Definition Phase are presented. The OPM experiment will expose selected materials to the space environment and measure the effects with in-space optical measurements. In-space measurements include total hemispherical reflectance total integrated scatter and VUV reflectance/transmittance. The in-space measurements will be augmented with extensive pre- and post-flight sample measurements to determine other optical, mechanical, electrical, chemical or surface effects of space exposure. Environmental monitors will provide the amount and time history of the sample exposure to solar irradiation, atomic oxygen and molecular contamination.

  13. Optical properties monitor: Experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Bennett, Jean M.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hadaway, James B.; Pezzaniti, Larry

    1989-01-01

    The stability of materials used in the space environment will continue to be a limiting technology for space missions. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment provides a comprehensive space research program to study the effects of the space environment-both natural and induced-on optical, thermal and space power materials. The OPM Experiment was selected for definition under the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiment Program. The results of the OPM Definition Phase are presented. The OPM Experiment will expose selected materials to the space environment and measure the effects with in-space optical measurements. In-space measurements include total hemispherical reflectance total integrated scatter and VUV reflectance/transmittance. The in-space measurements will be augmented with extensive pre- and post-flight sample measurements to determine other optical, mechanical, electrical, chemical or surface effects of space exposure. Environmental monitors will provide the amount and time history of the sample exposure to solar irradiation, atomic oxygen and molecular contamination.

  14. Experience of monitoring beaches for radioactive particles.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mike; McCulloch, George; Adsley, Ian

    2007-09-01

    This paper discusses some of the theoretical and practical problems that are encountered in monitoring beaches for hot particles. The experience is from operating a near-continuous monitoring program, for a period of eight years, on beaches near the Dounreay site. The reliability and failure mechanisms of the monitoring systems used will be discussed, together with remedial actions employed. The viability and performance of several types and configurations of radiation detectors will be described, along with methods by which particles might be detected, given their response to buried particles. When large areas are being monitored at high spatial resolution, which is required for efficient particle detection, the volume of data recorded for audit purposes can be very large. The use and abuse of Geographical Information Systems for this work is described. Other practical aspects of performing surveys are also discussed, including understanding health-and-safety requirements; constraints imposed by weather, tides and tidal speed; the logistics of making vehicles available to perform the work; and how a particle should be recovered once detected.

  15. Serosurveillance to monitor onchocerciasis elimination: the Ugandan experience.

    PubMed

    Oguttu, David; Byamukama, Edson; Katholi, Charles R; Habomugisha, Peace; Nahabwe, Christine; Ngabirano, Monica; Hassan, Hassan K; Lakwo, Thomson; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank O; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-02-01

    Uganda is the only African country whose onchocerciasis elimination program uses a two-pronged approach of vector control and mass drug distribution. The Ugandan program relies heavily upon the use of serosurveys of children to monitor progress toward elimination. The program has tested over 39,000 individuals from 11 foci for Onchocerca volvulus exposure, using the Ov16 ELISA test. The data show that the Ov16 ELISA is a useful operational tool to monitor onchocerciasis transmission interruption in Africa at the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended threshold of < 0.1% in children. The Ugandan experience has also resulted in a re-examination of the statistical methods used to estimate the boundary of the upper 95% confidence interval for the WHO prevalence threshold when all samples tested are negative. This has resulted in the development of Bayesian and hypergeometric statistical methods that reduce the number of individuals who must be tested to meet the WHO criterion.

  16. Monitoring the antiviral effect of alpha interferon on individual cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chon Saeng; Jung, Jong Ha; Wakita, Takaji; Yoon, Seung Kew; Jang, Sung Key

    2007-08-01

    An infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA clone (JFH1) was generated recently. However, quantitative analysis of HCV infection and observation of infected cells have proved to be difficult because the yield of HCV in cell cultures is fairly low. We generated infectious HCV clones containing the convenient reporters green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase in the NS5a-coding sequence. The new viruses responded to antiviral agents in a dose-dependent manner. Responses of individual cells containing HCV to alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were monitored using GFP-tagged HCV and time-lapse confocal microscopy. Marked variations in the response to IFN-alpha were observed among HCV-containing cells.

  17. Examining Greek Special Education Teachers' Individual and Collaborative Teaching Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morfidi, Eleni; Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors examine Greek special education teachers' individual and collaborative teaching experiences in the context of their literacy instruction. The Five Foci Framework, situated in Vygotskian theory, is utilized in the study's design to examine special education teachers' individual and collaborative experiences…

  18. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Kirkby, Nikolai; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce J.; Bardow, Allan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from 85 individuals with low levels of caries experience (healthy group) and 79 individuals with high levels of caries experience (caries group) were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbiome Identification Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique. Subsequently, saliva samples from caries-free individuals in the healthy group (n = 57) and the caries group (n = 31) were compared. A significantly higher α-diversity (p < 0.0001) and a twofold higher relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Fusobacterium were recorded in saliva samples from the healthy group compared with the caries group. Differences observed were more pronounced when limiting the analyses to caries-free individuals in each group. Data from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that low levels of caries experience might associate with a characteristic salivary bacterial composition different from that in individuals with high caries experience. Consequently, longitudinal studies are required to determine if the composition of the salivary microbiota might be a predictive factor of caries risk at the individual level. PMID:28326153

  19. Working It Out: Workplace Experiences of Individuals with HIV and Individuals with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-two individuals with cancer or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) were interviewed concerning their employment related experiences and concerns. Findings indicated that the decision to tell their supervisor and/or co-workers about their health status varied substantially between individuals with HIV and those with cancer. All study…

  20. Monitoring Preferential Flow During Infiltration Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinkova, V.; Votrubova, J.; Sanda, M.; Cislerova, M.

    2006-12-01

    Field ponded infiltration experiments monitored by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were conducted at the experimental site Liz, Sumava Mts., Southern Bohemia. Single-ring ponded infiltration experiments were carried out repeatedly using a set of permanently installed plastic infiltration rings and additional ring made of concrete. The preferential flow occurring during the infiltration experiment was monitored by means of invasive and non-invasive visualization of flow paths. For the noninvasive visualization two geophysical methods were tested, namely TDR and ERT. Geophysical measurements were taken before, during and after the infiltration. TDR measurements were conducted using Tektronix 1502C cable tester connected to three steel electrodes 1- m long installed vertically in the centre of the infiltration ring. ERT was done using the ARES device (the multi electrode VES employing the Wenner-Schlumberger method). After the initial period of clean water infiltration 10g/l NaCl solute was used to improve the ERT signal. The electrical resistivity images were reconstructed using RES2DINV (Geotomo software). In ERT images the evolution of infiltration processes is clearly visible however the preferential character of the flow is completely smeared. This is clear from the comparison of ERT images with the images of Brilliant Blue dye distribution taken from the dug out horizons at the end of infiltration. In addition, the ERT results show some inconsistencies, which are most probably related to the design and the scale of the ERT network which is not fully consistent with the assumption of the methods employed. The research has been performed in the frame of research projects VaV/650/5/03 and GACR 103/04/0663.

  1. Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

  2. Lived Experiences of College-Age Transsexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the lived experiences of 4 college-age transsexual individuals. A qualitative study using grounded theory was conducted to investigate their experiences influencing their later educational persistence. Results suggested that level of discomfort, perceived social supports, level of secrecy, and academic achievement all affected…

  3. German experiences in local fatigue monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abib, E.; Bergholz, S.; Rudolph, J.

    2012-07-01

    The ageing management of nuclear power plants (NPP) has gained an increasing importance in the last years. The reasons are mainly due to the international context of extending period of plants operation. Moreover, new scientific discoveries, such as the corrosive influence of the medium on the fatigue process (environmentally assisted fatigue - EAF) play an important role and influence the code development (ASME, EAF code cases). The fatigue damage process takes a central position in ageing mechanisms of components. It must be ensured through appropriate evidence that facilities are being operated under allowable boundary conditions. In the design phase of NPP, fatigue analyses are still based on theoretical considerations and empirical values, which are summarized in the design transient catalogue, necessary for licensing. These analyses aim at proving the admissibility of the loads in terms of stress and fatigue usage. These analyses will also provide the fatigue-relevant positions in the NPP and give a basis for future design improvements and optimization of operating modes. The design transients are in practice conservatively correlated with the real transients occurring during operation. Uncertainties reveal very conservative assumptions regarding forecast temperatures, temperature gradients and frequencies of events. During operation of the plant, it has to be recurrently proved, that the plant is being operated under designed boundary conditions. Moreover, operating signals are constantly acquired to enable a fatigue evaluation. For example, in Germany fatigue evaluation is based on decades of experience and regulatory requirements. The rule KTA 3201.4 [1] establishes the rules for qualified fatigue monitoring. The rule DIN 25475-3 [2] on fatigue monitoring systems is available in draft version. Experience shows that some significant differences occur between the design transients and the real occurred transients during plant operation. The reasons for it

  4. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal...

  5. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  6. Decisions from Experience: How Groups and Individuals Adapt to Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Experience: How Groups and Individuals Adapt to Change Every morning, Ferran Adrià receives fresh products from his suppliers on Spain‘s Costa Brava. High...involved in this decision? Perhaps. Only a few kilometers from El Bulli, Joan , Josep, and Jordi Roca manage El Celler de Can Roca, currently

  7. Experiences in home-based growth monitoring.

    PubMed

    Suelan, F; Briones, H

    1992-01-01

    A growth monitoring project (GMP) of child weighing was implemented by the Philippines' Department of Health (DOH) through the Integrated Provincial Health Office to monitor either children's nutritional progress or their faltering of growth. Weaknesses, however, were found in the GMP. For example, only 31% of preschoolers included in the Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP) survey had growth charts. An 1990 UNICEF-DOH survey also found that the growth chart was used primarily by mothers and service providers to record infant immunization. Mothers brought their children to well-baby clinics in barangay health centers only when their children were sick. Conducted only once per year, weighing was not perceived as a tool in detecting and preventing sickness, and ensuring normal growth. Asked to help improve the GMP, the NCP consulted intended beneficiaries and cooperators to develop a plan to pilot an intensive monitoring project in four towns of Negros Occidental, starting in January 1991 and ending in December 1992. The resultant Home-Based Growth Monitoring (HBGM) project would place emphasis upon enabling rural mothers to become self-sustaining agents for child growth monitoring. A key feature was the establishment of a weighing post in a strategic place for every 2-3 family clusters. The HBGM project was piloted in 1991 in Calatrava, Toboso, Cauayan, and Sipalay. This paper describes project implementation, problems and solutions, and results.

  8. The run control and monitoring system of the CMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Gerry; Boyer, Vincent; Branson, James; Brett, Angela; Cano, Eric; Carboni, Andrea; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; O'Dell, Vivian; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; /CERN /Kyungpook Natl. U. /MIT /UCLA /CERN /INFN, Legnaro

    2007-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC at CERN will start taking data in 2008. To configure, control and monitor the experiment during data-taking the Run Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) was developed. This paper describes the architecture and the technology used to implement the RCMS, as well as the deployment and commissioning strategy of this important component of the online software for the CMS experiment.

  9. Individualized Educational Program: Monitoring Anaysis Plan. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Johnny W.; And Others

    The study examined the individualized education program (IEP) process by investigating and observing instructional settings, interviewing IEP service providers, and reviewing handicapped students' records. Ninety students were randomly selected for examination of their IEPs. Data were collected, recorded, and analyzed by using record review,…

  10. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; DeWall, K. G.; Herring, J. S.

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  11. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoen, R.; Stancu, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Batraneanu, S. M.; Leahu, L.; Martin, B.; Al-Shabibi, A.

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  12. Individual differences in time perspective predict autonoetic experience.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kathleen M; McDermott, Kathleen B; Szpunar, Karl K

    2011-09-01

    Tulving (1985) posited that the capacity to remember is one facet of a more general capacity-autonoetic (self-knowing) consciousness. Autonoetic consciousness was proposed to underlie the ability for "mental time travel" both into the past (remembering) and into the future to envision potential future episodes (episodic future thinking). The current study examines whether individual differences can predict autonoetic experience. Specifically, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI, Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) was administered to 133 undergraduate students, who also rated phenomenological experiences accompanying autobiographical remembering and episodic future thinking. Scores on two of the five subscales of the ZTPI (Future and Present-Hedonistic) predicted the degree to which people reported feelings of mentally traveling backward (or forward) in time and the degree to which they reported re- or pre-experiencing the event, but not ten other rated properties less related to autonoetic consciousness.

  13. Space Motion Sickness Monitoring Experiment: Spacelab 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    overall discomfort, and vomited repeatedly. Symptom pattern was generally similar to that seen in the individuals preflight, except that: prodromal nausea ...contact cues around the body. Drugs known to be effective in preventing motion sickness were judged helpful in limiting symptoms, including vomiting . Results support the view that space sickness is a form of motion sickness.

  14. Monitoring hydraulic fracture growth: Laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Groenenboom, J.; Dam, D.B. van

    2000-04-01

    The authors carry out small-scale hydraulic fracture experiments to investigate the physics of hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiments are combined with time-lapse ultrasonic measurements with active sources using both compressional and shear-wave transducers. For the time-lapse measurements they focus on ultrasonic measurement changes during fracture growth. As a consequence they can detect the hydraulic fracture and characterize its shape and geometry during growth. Hence, this paper deals with fracture characterization using time-lapse acoustic data. Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to stimulate reservoir production.

  15. Space motion sickness monitoring experiment - Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed firsthand report on symptoms and signs of space motion sickness and fluid shift observed by four specially trained crewmembers during Shuttle/Spacelab 1, launched on November 28, 1983 is presented. Results show that three crewmen experienced persistent overall discomfort and vomited repeatedly. Symptom pattern was generally similar to that seen in the individuals preflight, except that prodromalnausea was brief or absent in some cases. Symptoms were clearly modulated by head movement, were exacerbated by unfamiliar visual cues, and could be reduced by physical restraint providing contact cues around the body. The results support the view that space sickness is a form of motion sickness.

  16. Individual differences in epistemic motivation and brain conflict monitoring activity.

    PubMed

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Czarnek, Gabriela; Wronka, Eligiusz; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Bukowski, Marcin

    2014-06-06

    It is well documented that motivation toward closure (NFC), defined as a desire for a quick and unambiguous answer to a question and an aversion to uncertainty, is linked to more structured, rigid, and persistent cognitive styles. However, the neurocognitive correlates of NFC have never been tested. Thus, using event-related potentials, we examined the hypothesis that NFC is associated with the neurocognitive process for detecting discrepancies between response tendencies and higher level intentions. We found that greater NFC is associated with lower conflict-related anterior cingulate activity, suggesting lower sensitivity to cues for altering a habitual response pattern and lower sensitivity to committing errors. This study provides evidence that high NFC acts as a bulwark against anxiety-producing uncertainty and minimizes the experience of error.

  17. Individual monitoring for internal contamination with plutonium compounds at JAEA-NCL.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Osamu; Kanai, Katsuta

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides an outline of an individual monitoring programme for internal contamination with Pu compounds and some of the knowledge obtained from experience of inhalation incidents that occurred over the past few decades at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (JAEA-NCL). Most of the incidents resulted in minor exposure doses, being an average of 0.1 mSv at a mixed oxide plant and 1.5 mSv at a reprocessing plant. Only two incidents involving three workers resulted in exposure over the regulatory dose limits of that time. The maximum exposure dose, an effective dose equivalent of 90 mSv, was assessed for a worker involved in the incident that took place at the reprocessing plant in 1993. Only faecal measurements have been used in final dose assessments because alternative monitoring data have rarely been available. Further investigations on the physicochemical properties specific to Pu compounds in workplaces have therefore been needed to improve not only the accuracy of internal dose assessments but also the nasal swab method useful in deciding medical intervention.

  18. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered.

  19. 42 CFR 82.15 - How will NIOSH evaluate the completeness and adequacy of individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequacy of individual monitoring data? 82.15 Section 82.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... adequacy of individual monitoring data? (a) NIOSH will evaluate the completeness and adequacy of an individual's monitoring data provided by DOE through one or more possible measures including, but not...

  20. 42 CFR 82.15 - How will NIOSH evaluate the completeness and adequacy of individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... adequacy of individual monitoring data? 82.15 Section 82.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... adequacy of individual monitoring data? (a) NIOSH will evaluate the completeness and adequacy of an individual's monitoring data provided by DOE through one or more possible measures including, but not...

  1. 42 CFR 82.15 - How will NIOSH evaluate the completeness and adequacy of individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... adequacy of individual monitoring data? 82.15 Section 82.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... adequacy of individual monitoring data? (a) NIOSH will evaluate the completeness and adequacy of an individual's monitoring data provided by DOE through one or more possible measures including, but not...

  2. Individuals with low working memory spans show greater interference from irrelevant information because of poor source monitoring, not greater activation.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Rose, Nathan S; Tamez, Elaine; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Although individuals with high and low working memory (WM) span appear to differ in the extent to which irrelevant information interferes with their performance on WM tasks, the locus of this interference is not clear. The present study investigated whether, when performing a WM task, high- and low-span individuals differ in the activation of formerly relevant, but now irrelevant items, and/or in their ability to correctly identify such irrelevant items. This was done in two experiments, both of which used modified complex WM span tasks. In Experiment 1, the span task included an embedded lexical decision task designed to obtain an implicit measure of the activation of both currently and formerly relevant items. In Experiment 2, the span task included an embedded recognition judgment task designed to obtain an explicit measure of both item and source recognition ability. The results of these experiments indicate that low-span individuals do not hold irrelevant information in a more active state in memory than high-span individuals, but rather that low-span individuals are significantly poorer at identifying such information as irrelevant at the time of retrieval. These results suggest that differences in the ability to monitor the source of information, rather than differences in the activation of irrelevant information, are the more important determinant of performance on WM tasks.

  3. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Laurence C.

    2014-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear-grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC-3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. The report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data following MCP-2691. This report also documents whether AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data meet the requirements for data collection as specified in technical and functional requirements documents and quality assurance (QA) plans. Data handling is described showing how data are passed from the data collection experiment to the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) team. The data structure is described, including data batches, components, attributes, and response variables. The description of the approach to data qualification includes the steps taken to qualify the data and the specific tests used to verify that the data meet requirements. Finally, the current status of the data received by NDMAS from the AGC-3 experiment is presented with summarized information on test results and resolutions. This report addresses all of the irradiation monitoring data collected during the AGC-3 experiment.

  4. System Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, L.

    2001-01-01

    This systems report describes how the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment was developed. Pertinent design parameters are discussed, along with mission information and system requirements to successfully complete the mission. Environmental testing was performed on the OPM to certify it for spaceflight. This testing included vibration, thermal vacuum, electromagnetic interference and conductance, and toxicity tests. Instrument and monitor subsystem performances, including the reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet, total integrated scatter, atomic oxygen monitor, irradiance monitor, and molecular contamination monitor during the mission are discussed. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. The OPM conducted in situ measurements of a number of material samples. These data may be found in the OPM Science Report. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  5. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250) completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and Resistance to Framing. Using structural equation modeling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence, and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision-making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation. PMID:27790170

  6. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Simon A; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250) completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and Resistance to Framing. Using structural equation modeling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence, and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision-making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation.

  7. Long-term stability of a TLD-based individual monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Abrantes, J N; Margo, O; Rangel, S; Santos, L

    2006-01-01

    The thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system at the Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) of the Nuclear Technology Institute (ITN) at the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) comprises two 6600 Harshaw readers and the Harshaw 8814 TL card and the holder containing two LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosemeters for the evaluation of H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07). The readers are calibrated on a monthly basis and as part of the quality assurance programme implemented at the IMS a set of dosemeters is issued monthly to the DPRSN's Standard Dosimetry Laboratory for linearity measurements. The results obtained since November 2001 are presented. Fading and sensitivity change experiments are carried out every month covering 8 week periods so that enough time is given to simulate issuing, integrating and receiving times and respective delays. A set of 96 dosemeters organised in eight subsets of 12 are used. In each subset, four dosemeters are irradiated and stored at room temperature (RT), four are not irradiated at all and the last four are irradiated after storage. The 12 dosemeters of each subset are readout at the same time, one per week, covering the 8 week period. The results from the sets irradiated and stored at different periods allowed for the evaluation of fading and sensitivity changes experienced over the whole monitoring period and respective preparation time and readout delays. Time evolution charts of the reader calibration factors, of the linearity parameters and of the evolution of the integrated area in the region of dosimetric interest with storage at RT were obtained. This paper aims to quantify the long-term stability of the TLD system in use at the IMS.

  8. Technical note: Validation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and individual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chizzotti, M L; Machado, F S; Valente, E E L; Pereira, L G R; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G; Ribas, M N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and feed intake (Intergado Ltd., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) in freestall-housed dairy cattle. No data have been published that validate either the behavioral measurement or the feed intake of this system. Feeding behavior data were recorded for 12 Holstein cows over 5d using an Intergado system and time-lapse video. The cows were fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder and provided free access to 12 feed bins. The system documented the visit duration and feed intake by recording the animal identification number, bin number, initial and final times, and the difference between feed weight at start and end of each feed bin visit. These data were exported to Intergado web software and reports were generated. Electronic data on animal behavior were compared with video data collected during the same evaluation period. An external scale was used to manually measure and validate the electronic system's ability to monitor dairy cow feed intake for each feed bin visit. The feed intake was manually measured for 4-h time periods and compared with the sum of the feed intake recorded by the monitoring system for each cow visit during the same time period. Video and manual weight data were regressed on the electronic feeding behavior and feeding intake data to evaluate the precision of the monitoring system. The Intergado system presented high values for specificity (99.9%) and sensitivity (99.6%) for cow detection. The visit duration and feed intake per visit collected using the electronic monitoring system were similar to the video and manual weighing data, respectively. The difference between the feed intake measured manually and the sum of the electronically recorded feed intake was less than 250g (25,635±2,428 and 25,391±2,428g estimated using manual weighing and the electronic system, respectively). In conclusion, the Intergado system is

  9. Tailoring Messages to Individual Differences in Monitoring-Blunting Styles to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Latimer, Amy E.; Katulak, Nicole A.; Cox, Ashley; Silvera, Stephanie A. N.; Mowad, Linda; Salovey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether messages matched to individuals' monitoring-blunting coping styles (MBCS) are more effective in increasing fruit and vegetable intake than mismatched messages. MBCS refers to the tendency to either attend to and amplify, or distract oneself from and minimize threatening information. Design/Setting: Randomly assigned…

  10. Antipsychotic Use and Metabolic Monitoring in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities Served in a Medicaid Medical Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Lisa M.; Damron, Mackenzie; Jones, Kyle B.; Weedon, Dean; Carbone, Paul S.; Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes antipsychotic use and metabolic monitoring rates among individuals with developmental disabilities enrolled in a subspecialty medical home (N = 826). Four hundred ninety-nine participants (60.4%) were taking antipsychotics, which was associated with male gender (p = 0.01), intellectual disability with and without autism…

  11. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…

  12. Automated workflow for large-scale selected reaction monitoring experiments.

    PubMed

    Malmström, Lars; Malmström, Johan; Selevsek, Nathalie; Rosenberger, George; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-03-02

    Targeted proteomics allows researchers to study proteins of interest without being drowned in data from other, less interesting proteins or from redundant or uninformative peptides. While the technique is mostly used for smaller, focused studies, there are several reasons to conduct larger targeted experiments. Automated, highly robust software becomes more important in such experiments. In addition, larger experiments are carried out over longer periods of time, requiring strategies to handle the sometimes large shift in retention time often observed. We present a complete proof-of-principle software stack that automates most aspects of selected reaction monitoring workflows, a targeted proteomics technology. The software allows experiments to be easily designed and carried out. The steps automated are the generation of assays, generation of mass spectrometry driver files and methods files, and the import and analysis of the data. All data are normalized to a common retention time scale, the data are then scored using a novel score model, and the error is subsequently estimated. We also show that selected reaction monitoring can be used for label-free quantification. All data generated are stored in a relational database, and the growing resource further facilitates the design of new experiments. We apply the technology to a large-scale experiment studying how Streptococcus pyogenes remodels its proteome under stimulation of human plasma.

  13. Characteristics of the earth radiation budget experiment solar monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Cess, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    The earth radiation budget experiment solar monitors, active cavity pyrheliometers, have been developed to measure every two weeks the total optical solar irradiance from the earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA-9 spacecraft platforms. In the unfiltered 0.2-50-micron wavelength broadband region, the monitors were used to obtain 1365 W/sq m as the mean value for the solar irradiance, with measurement precisions and accuracies approaching 0.1 and 0.2 percent, respectively. The design and characteristics of the solar monitors are presented along with the data reduction model. For the October 1984 through July 1985 period, the resulting ERBS and NOAA-9 solar irradiance values are intercompared.

  14. Individual Self-Monitoring & Peer-Monitoring in One Classroom in Writing Activities: Who Is at Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toofan, Zohreh Zare

    2014-01-01

    Writing is an important experience through which we are able to share ideas, arouse feelings, persuade and convince other people (white & Arndt, 1991). It is important to view writing not solely as the product of an individual, but as a cognitive, social and cultural act. Writing is an act that takes place within a context, that accomplishes a…

  15. A COMPUTERIZED APPROACH TO THE INDIVIDUALIZING OF INSTRUCTIONAL EXPERIENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NACHTIGAL, PAUL

    A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS USES A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO ALLOW COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTION OF THE VARIABLES. THE PROCESS INCLUDES A TEACHING-LEARNING ENVIRONMENT, COMPOSED OF VARIABLES IN A CURRICULUM MODULE, THE INDIVIDUAL LEARNER AND HIS CHARACTERISTIC VARIABLES, AND INTERACTION OF THESE TWO THROUGH A…

  16. A new device for monitoring individual activity rhythms of honey bees reveals critical effects of the social environment on behavior.

    PubMed

    Beer, Katharina; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Härtel, Stephan; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    Chronobiological studies of individual activity rhythms in social insects can be constrained by the artificial isolation of individuals from their social context. We present a new experimental set-up that simultaneously measures the temperature rhythm in a queen-less but brood raising mini colony and the walking activity rhythms of singly kept honey bees that have indirect social contact with it. Our approach enables monitoring of individual bees in the social context of a mini colony under controlled laboratory conditions. In a pilot experiment, we show that social contact with the mini colony improves the survival of monitored young individuals and affects locomotor activity patterns of young and old bees. When exposed to conflicting Zeitgebers consisting of a light-dark (LD) cycle that is phase-delayed with respect to the mini colony rhythm, rhythms of young and old bees are socially synchronized with the mini colony rhythm, whereas isolated bees synchronize to the LD cycle. We conclude that the social environment is a stronger Zeitgeber than the LD cycle and that our new experimental set-up is well suited for studying the mechanisms of social entrainment in honey bees.

  17. Experiments on individual alumina-supported adatoms and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilius, N.; Cörper, A.; Bozdech, G.; Ernst, N.; Freund, H.-J.

    2001-08-01

    To contribute to an understanding of growth conditions and electronic properties of metal clusters on technologically relevant oxides we have examined the mobility of individual, alumina-supported Pt-adatoms and the optical properties of single supported Ag-clusters. Using field-ion microscopy (FIM) we have prepared and imaged an individual Pt-adatom at approximately 40 K, both on the apex plane of a [1 1 0]-oriented NiAl tip and on a thin alumina film, grown on the same NiAl specimen by oxidation. On the alumina film, the onset temperature for Pt surface diffusion approaches 100 K being distinctively lower than the value 165 K measured on NiAl(1 1 0). Employing the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) as a local electron source, photon emission from individual, alumina-supported Ag-clusters was spectroscopically analyzed. The occurrence of a distinct emission line is explained by the decay of a collective electron oscillation (Mie-plasmon resonance). For decreasing Ag-cluster diameter, the emission lines (i) shift to higher energies and (ii) their widths increase. To explain these observations, we discuss (i) the reduced screening of the plasmon oscillation due to the Ag 4d electrons and (ii) an enhanced electron surface scattering rate in small clusters.

  18. Protein Dynamics in Individual Human Cells: Experiment and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Geva-Zatorsky, Naama; Danon, Tamar; Issaeva, Irina; Kopito, Ronen Benjamine; Perzov, Natalie; Milo, Ron; Sigal, Alex; Alon, Uri

    2009-01-01

    A current challenge in biology is to understand the dynamics of protein circuits in living human cells. Can one define and test equations for the dynamics and variability of a protein over time? Here, we address this experimentally and theoretically, by means of accurate time-resolved measurements of endogenously tagged proteins in individual human cells. As a model system, we choose three stable proteins displaying cell-cycle–dependant dynamics. We find that protein accumulation with time per cell is quadratic for proteins with long mRNA life times and approximately linear for a protein with short mRNA lifetime. Both behaviors correspond to a classical model of transcription and translation. A stochastic model, in which genes slowly switch between ON and OFF states, captures measured cell–cell variability. The data suggests, in accordance with the model, that switching to the gene ON state is exponentially distributed and that the cell–cell distribution of protein levels can be approximated by a Gamma distribution throughout the cell cycle. These results suggest that relatively simple models may describe protein dynamics in individual human cells. PMID:19381343

  19. Individual choices in dynamic networks: an experiment on social preferences.

    PubMed

    van Dolder, Dennie; Buskens, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation.

  20. Individual Choices in Dynamic Networks: An Experiment on Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    van Dolder, Dennie; Buskens, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation. PMID:24732665

  1. Science Data Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.; Zwiener, J. M.; Carruth, Ralph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This science data report describes the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment and the data gathered during its 9-mo exposure on the Mir space station. Three independent optical instruments made up OPM: an integrating sphere spectral reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a total integrated scatter instrument. Selected materials were exposed to the low-Earth orbit, and their performance monitored in situ by the OPM instruments. Coinvestigators from four NASA Centers, five International Space Station contractors, one university, two Department of Defense organizations, and the Russian space company, Energia, contributed samples to this experiment. These materials included a number of thermal control coatings, optical materials, polymeric films, nanocomposites, and other state-of-the-art materials. Degradation of some materials, including aluminum conversion coatings and Beta cloth, was greater than expected. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  2. Measurements for the JASPER Program Flux Monitor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L.; Shono, A.

    1993-02-01

    The Flux Monitor Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the months of May and June 1992, as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) program that was started in 1986. This series of experiments was designed to examine shielding concerns and radiation transport effects pertaining to in-vessel flux monitoring systems (FMS) in current reactor shield designs proposed for both the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design and the Japanese loop-type design. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The Tower Shielding Reactor H (TSR-II) neutron source was altered by the spectrum modifier (SM) used previously in the Axial Shield Experiment, and part of the Japanese Removable Radial Shield (RRS) before reaching the axial shield. In the axial shield were placed six homogeneous boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) hexagons around a center hexagon of aluminum used to represent sodium. Shield designs to be studied were placed beyond the axial shield, each design forming a void directly behind the axial shield. Measurements were made in the void and behind each slab as successive slabs were added.

  3. Evaluation of a Damage Accumulation Monitoring System as an Individual Aircraft Tracking Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Report MONITORING SYSTEM AS AN INDIVIDUAL 9 1 (1- -20, AIRCRAFT TRACKING CONCEPT •. PERFORMINS ODG. RLpoy "UMmeR NOR 82- 58 7. AUJTNH)R(’q) -S CONTRACT OR...LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) FIGURE PAGE 17 Major IAT and Force Management Data Item Classes 89 18 Comparison of Individual Aircraft Crack...months or years at which time the critical crack length will be reached. L The full fatigue life of the aircraft or component (either based on test or

  4. The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Thomas F.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care. PMID:26529025

  5. STS-30 MS Cleave monitors fluids experiment apparatus (FEA) equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-30 Mission Specialist (MS) Mary L. Cleave monitors fluids experiment apparatus (FEA) equipment and conducts materials science experiments on Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, middeck. FEA equipment is in configuration for 'Floating Zone Crystal Growth and Purification' experiment. Cleave looks up from portable laptop computer with FEA-2, 35mm camera, and 8mm video camcorder positioned above her in aft locker location. Cleave, wearing polo shirt and light blue flight coveralls, uses knee board note pad to make additional notations. Rockwell International (RI) through its Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California, is engaged in a joint endeavor agreement (JEA) with NASA's Office of Commercial Programs in the field for floating zone crystal growth research.

  6. The Planeterrella experiment: from individual initiative to networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, J.; Provan, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Simon Wedlund, C.; Gronoff, G.; Vanlommel, P.; Brekke, A.; Garnier, P.; Grimald Rochel, S.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather is a relatively new discipline, which is still largely unknown amongst the wider public despite its increasing importance in all of our daily lives. Outreach activities can promote awareness of space weather. In particular the visual beauty and excitement of the aurora make these lights a wonderful inspirational hook to enhance understanding of space weather in a general audience. A century ago, the Norwegian experimental physicist Kristian Birkeland, one of the founding fathers of modern space science, demonstrated with his Terrella experiment the formation of the aurora. Recently, a modernized version of the Terrella has been designed in France. This ';';Planeterrella'' experiment allows the visualization of many phenomena that occur in our space environment. Although the Planeterrella was originally a local project, it has developed to become a very successful international public outreach experiment. We believe that its success is due to mainly two factors (i) the Planeterrella is not patented and the plans are free to any public institute and (ii) the project is widely advertised using national and scientific networks, as well as press releases, books and web sites. Today, nine Planeterrellas are in operation, six more are under construction in five different countries including in the US and several more are being planned. During the last five years, about 55 000 people in Europe have attended live Planeterrella demonstration on the formation of auroral light, the space environment and space weather. Many more have seen the Planeterrella being demonstrated on TV. It is now used for education, outreach, scientific, and artistic purposes. We will describes this process and discuss how the Planeterrella project developed to become an international public outreach phenomenon. We also examine some of the lessons learnt along the way such as patented or not, big or small, automatized or hand-operated, and the cost of the overall project. A star (close

  7. The Planeterrella experiment: from individual initiative to networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, Jean; Provan, Gabrielle; Grimald, Sandrine; Brekke, Asgeir; Flückiger, Erwin; Vanlommel, Petra; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Barthélémy, Mathieu; Garnier, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Space weather is a relatively new discipline, which is still largely unknown amongst the wider public despite its increasing importance in all of our daily lives. Outreach activities can promote awareness of space weather. In particular the visual beauty and excitement of the aurora make these lights a wonderful inspirational hook to enhance understanding of space weather in a general audience. A century ago, the Norwegian experimental physicist Kristian Birkeland, one of the founding fathers of modern space science, demonstrated with his Terrella experiment the formation of the aurora. Recently, a modernized version of the Terrella has been designed. This "Planeterrella" experiment allows the visualization of many phenomena that occur in our space environment. Although the Planeterrella was originally a local project, it has developed to become a very successful international public outreach experiment. We believe that its success is due to mainly two factors (i) the Planeterrella is not patented and the plans are free to any public institute and (ii) the project is widely advertised using national and European scientific networks such as COST ES 0803, as well as press releases, books and web sites. Today, seven Planeterrellas are in operation, four more are under construction in four different countries and several more are being planned. During the last five years, about 50 000 people in Europe have attended live Planeterrella demonstration on the formation of auroral light, the space environment and space weather. Many more have seen the Planeterrella being demonstrated on TV. The Planeterrella received the first international prize for outreach activities from the Europlanet Framework 7 program in 2010 and the French Ministry of Science outreach prize "Le goût des sciences" in November 2012. This paper describes the process that led to the construction of the first Planeterrella and discusses how the Planeterrella project developed to become an international

  8. Web Based Monitoring in the CMS Experiment at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Badgett, William; Borrello, Laura; Chakaberia, Irakli; Gigi, Dominique; Jo, Young-Kwon; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maeshima, Kaori; Maruyama, Sho; Patrick, James; Rapsevicius, Valdas; Soha, Aron; Sulmanas, Balys; Wan, Zongru

    2014-09-03

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a large and complex general purpose experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), built and maintained by many collaborators from around the world. Efficient operation of the detector requires widespread and timely access to a broad range of monitoring and status information. To this end the Web Based Monitoring (WBM) system was developed to present data to users located anywhere from many underlying heterogeneous sources, from real time messaging systems to relational databases. This system provides the power to combine and correlate data in both graphical and tabular formats of interest to the experimenters, including data such as beam conditions, luminosity, trigger rates, detector conditions, and many others, allowing for flexibility on the user side. This paper describes the WBM system architecture and describes how the system was used during the first major data taking run of the LHC.

  9. ERS-1 and Almaz ocean wave monitoring experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, R. C.; Tilley, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from two ocean wave monitoring experiments conducted in 1991 using the high-altitude ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the low-altitude ex-USSR Almaz 1 SAR are presented. ERS-1 imagery of the Gulf Stream supports the idea that a future wide-swath scansar will be a valuable tool for monitoring large-scale ocean dynamics at high resolution. A direct comparison of ERS-1 and Almaz 1 ocean wave spectra shows major deficiencies in the ERS-1 high range-to-velocity ratio R/V sensor that are partially resolved with the lower-altitude Almaz platform. Optimum wave imaging from space will require both a low R/V and low off-nadir angle.

  10. Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B A; Mohr, D L; Rice, J C; Clemmer, D I

    1987-02-01

    To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, we carried out a 44-month incidence density study on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, we computed a standardized ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction.

  11. Science Data Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Zwiener, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Long term stability of spacecraft materials when exposed to the space environment continues to be a major area of investigation. The natural and induced environment surrounding a spacecraft can decrease material performance and limit useful lifetimes. The Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment provided the capability to perform the important flight testing of materials and was flown on the Russian Mir Station to study the long term effects of the natural and induced space environment on materials. The core of the OPM in-flight analysis was three independent optical instruments. These instruments included an integrating sphere spectral reflectometer, a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a Total Integrated Scatter instrument. The OPM also monitored selected components of the environment including molecular contamination. The OPM was exposed on the exterior of the Mir Docking Module for approximately 8-1/2 months. This report describes the OPM experiment, a brief background of its development, program organization, experiment description, mission overview including space environment definition, performance overview, materials data including flight and ground data, in-depth post flight analysis including ground analysis measurements and a summary discussion of the findings and results.

  12. Control and monitoring of oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Brooker, Richard A.; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon D.; Stamper, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed capsule design that resolves some common problems associated with the monitoring and control of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) in high-pressure piston cylinder experiments. The new fO2 control assembly consists of an AuPd outer capsule enclosing two inner capsules: one of AuPd capsule containing the experimental charge (including some water), and the other of Pt containing a solid oxygen buffer plus water. The inner capsules are separated by crushable alumina. The outer capsule is surrounded by a Pyrex sleeve to simultaneously minimise hydrogen loss from the cell and carbon infiltration from the graphite furnace. Controlled fO2 experiments using this cell design were carried out at 1.0 GPa and 1,000 °C. We used NiPd, CoPd and (Ni, Mg)O fO2 sensors, whose pressure sensitivity is well calibrated, to monitor the redox states achieved in experiments buffered by Re-ReO2, Ni-NiO and Co-CoO, respectively. Results for the fO2 sensors are in good agreement with the intended fO2 established by the buffer, demonstrating excellent control for durations of 24-48 h, with uncertainties less than ± 0.3 log bar units of fO2.

  13. A Combined Anterior Pituitary Stimulation Test: Experience With 285 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Alan N.; Valenta, Lubomir J.

    1987-01-01

    A pituitary reserve test was performed in 285 individuals. Eighteen were healthy volunteers without any endocrine disease, 25 suffered from a presumed hypothalamic abnormality, 22 from hypopituitarism, 10 from acromegaly, 65 from the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, 2 from Nelson's syndrome, 32 from borderline primary hypothyroidism, 15 from borderline hyperthyroidism, 20 were on chronic levothyroxine therapy for primary hypothyroidism, and 15 had severe uncorrected primary hypothyroidism. Sixteen postmenopausal women were also included, as well as 15 patients with idiopathic ovarian failure and six with ovarian dysgenesis. Twelve male patients with hypergonadotropic and 12 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were also examined. The pituitary reserve test consisted of intravenous administration of a mixture of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and regular insulin. The following tests were obtained prior to the injection only (time 0): serum thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), T3 resin uptake or thyroxine-binding globulin, total and free testosterone in men, estradiol and progesterone in women, and sex hormone binding globulin. At times 0, 20, 30, and 60 minutes, serum concentrations of the following compounds were obtained: glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Normal responses were established in a large number of cases. More or less typical patterns were demonstrated in the above-listed disease categories. Poor correlations between basal and stimulated values were observed, which emphasizes the diagnostic importance of the stimulation test. Maximum data were obtained using a combined test that has negligible morbidity, may be performed within an hour in an outpatient setting, and which examines the anterior pituitary function in a comprehensive fashion. PMID:3121862

  14. A Study of States' Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. NCSER 2011-3001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollmer, Julie; Cronin, Roberta; Brauen, Marsha; Howell, Bethany; Fletcher, Philip; Gonin, Rene; Jenkins, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The Study of Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) examined how states monitored the implementation of IDEA by local special education and early intervention services programs. State monitoring and improvement practices in 2004-05 and 2006-07 were the focus of the study. Prior to the…

  15. Negotiating multiple marginalizations: experiences of South Asian LGBQ individuals.

    PubMed

    Sandil, Riddhi; Robinson, Matthew; Brewster, Melanie E; Wong, Stephanie; Geiger, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from minority stress (Meyer, 2003) and feminist multicultural (Brown, 1994) theories, the present study investigated the additive and interactive relations between 2 types of external minority stress (heterosexist discrimination and racist events) and 4 internal stress processes related to identifying as a South Asian American lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) person (internalized heterosexism, acculturation, enculturation, and outness as LGBQ) with psychological distress. With 142 participants, Pearson's correlations, multiple regression, and simultaneous multiple moderation analyses were conducted. Experiences of heterosexist discrimination, racist events, and internalized heterosexism were correlated positively with psychological distress and enculturation was correlated negatively. In a test of the additive model, heterosexist discrimination, racist events, and internalized heterosexism accounted for significant and unique variance in psychological distress, but outness, acculturation, and enculturation did not. To test the interactive model, the simultaneous moderating roles of the internal stress processes were examined in the links between the external minority stressors to psychological distress. Only outness as LGBQ emerged as a moderator. The link between racist events and psychological distress was exacerbated in instances of higher outness, such that respondents with high racist events and high outness reported the highest levels of psychological distress. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed and future research directions focused on the needs of South Asian American LGBQ people are suggested.

  16. Home and community literacy experiences of individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, Brian; Mirenda, Pat

    2006-07-01

    This exploratory survey was conducted to gain a detailed understanding of the home and community literacy experiences of children, adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. The data were collected from 224 parents/guardians across Canada who were asked to indicate literacy goals and priorities for their children with Down syndrome, the literacy resources they and their children utilised at home and in the community, perceived barriers to their children's literacy attainment, and solutions for alleviating the barriers. The results were analysed according to age when appropriate, in order to better understand the course of literacy development. Overall, the number of respondents who indicated their children with Down syndrome could read and write appeared to be consistent with previously published estimates, including the number reporting advanced reading levels. The wide range of reading and writing materials observed in use at home appeared to be greater than the range of materials actually used by children with Down syndrome. Relatively few of the parents who read storybooks to their children reported asking higher-level questions, suggesting that some parents might benefit from support in this activity. Many respondents reported using the library, and many expressed concerns about the quality and scarcity of literacy programs. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for how parents, caregivers, teachers, and program providers can encourage literacy development in persons with Down syndrome, and suggestions for future research.

  17. Insect monitoring with fluorescence lidar techniques: field experiments.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zuguang; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Lundin, Patrik; Wellenreuther, Maren; Runemark, Anna; Svensson, Erik I; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-09-20

    Results from field experiments using a fluorescence lidar system to monitor movements of insects are reported. Measurements over a river surface were made at distances between 100 and 300 m, detecting, in particular, damselflies entering the 355 nm pulsed laser beam. The lidar system recorded the depolarized elastic backscattering and two broad bands of laser-induced fluorescence, with the separation wavelength at 500 nm. Captured species, dusted with characteristic fluorescent dye powders, could be followed spatially and temporally after release. Implications for ecological research are discussed.

  18. Focus of attention in systems for visual monitoring of experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. E.; Martin, W. N.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing a computerized experiment monitoring system for use in a space station or elsewhere is examined. It is shown that the essential challenge of such a system - attaining a reasonable expected running time - can be attacked using the concept of focus of attention and by exploiting parallelism. The use of the Contract Net Protocol for the latter purpose is discussed. The use of ideas from information science to help focus a programs's efforts on those computations likely to bring results is addressed, and the incorporation of those ideas into a design in order to aid the system in deciding upon the best course of action is considered.

  19. Relationship between receiving authorities and monitoring authorities. The EMEA experience.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Brendan James

    2008-01-01

    The approach of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) to good laboratory practice (GLP) inspections in the context of authorization of medicinal products is illustrated with particular reference to the EMEA's experience as a receiving authority (RA), the procedures it has in place for the reporting and follow-up of GLP inspections, and the role of the ad hoc GLP inspectors working group. Other key issues dealt with are the relationship between the EU monitoring authorities (MAs) and the EMEA as a specific RA, how inspections outside the EU are handled and some aspects (exchange of information, handling of non-compliance, triggers for inspection) that have been raised during recent inspections.

  20. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  1. Volcanic Monitoring Techniques Applied to Controlled Fragmentation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M. K.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scharff, L.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. The range of eruptive styles is large and short term fluctuations of explosivity or vent position pose a large risk that is not necessarily confined to the immediate vicinity of a volcano. Explosive eruptions rather may also affect aviation, infrastructure and climate, regionally as well as globally. Multiparameter monitoring networks are deployed on many active volcanoes to record signs of magmatic processes and help elucidate the secrets of volcanic phenomena. However, our mechanistic understanding of many processes hiding in recorded signals is still poor. As a direct consequence, a solid interpretation of the state of a volcano is still a challenge. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we combined volcanic monitoring and experimental volcanology. We performed 15 well-monitored, field-based, experiments and fragmented natural rock samples from Colima volcano (Mexico) by rapid decompression. We used cylindrical samples of 60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively, and 25 and 35 vol.% open porosity. The applied pressure range was from 4 to 18 MPa. Using different experimental set-ups, the pressurised volume above the samples ranged from 60 - 170 cm3. The experiments were performed at ambient conditions and at controlled sample porosity and size, confinement geometry, and applied pressure. The experiments have been thoroughly monitored with 1) Doppler Radar (DR), 2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, 3) acoustic and infrasound sensors, 4) pressure transducers, and 5) electrically conducting wires. Our aim was to check for common results achieved by the different approaches and, if so, calibrate state-of-the-art monitoring tools. We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast

  2. Monitoring Building Deformation with InSAR: Experiments and Validation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kui; Yan, Li; Huang, Guoman; Chen, Chu; Wu, Zhengpeng

    2016-12-20

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques are increasingly applied for monitoring land subsidence. The advantages of InSAR include high accuracy and the ability to cover large areas; nevertheless, research validating the use of InSAR on building deformation is limited. In this paper, we test the monitoring capability of the InSAR in experiments using two landmark buildings; the Bohai Building and the China Theater, located in Tianjin, China. They were selected as real examples to compare InSAR and leveling approaches for building deformation. Ten TerraSAR-X images spanning half a year were used in Permanent Scatterer InSAR processing. These extracted InSAR results were processed considering the diversity in both direction and spatial distribution, and were compared with true leveling values in both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and measurement of error analyses. The detailed experimental results for the Bohai Building and the China Theater showed a high correlation between InSAR results and the leveling values. At the same time, the two Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) indexes had values of approximately 1 mm. These analyses show that a millimeter level of accuracy can be achieved by means of InSAR technique when measuring building deformation. We discuss the differences in accuracy between OLS regression and measurement of error analyses, and compare the accuracy index of leveling in order to propose InSAR accuracy levels appropriate for monitoring buildings deformation. After assessing the advantages and limitations of InSAR techniques in monitoring buildings, further applications are evaluated.

  3. Monitoring Building Deformation with InSAR: Experiments and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kui; Yan, Li; Huang, Guoman; Chen, Chu; Wu, Zhengpeng

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques are increasingly applied for monitoring land subsidence. The advantages of InSAR include high accuracy and the ability to cover large areas; nevertheless, research validating the use of InSAR on building deformation is limited. In this paper, we test the monitoring capability of the InSAR in experiments using two landmark buildings; the Bohai Building and the China Theater, located in Tianjin, China. They were selected as real examples to compare InSAR and leveling approaches for building deformation. Ten TerraSAR-X images spanning half a year were used in Permanent Scatterer InSAR processing. These extracted InSAR results were processed considering the diversity in both direction and spatial distribution, and were compared with true leveling values in both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and measurement of error analyses. The detailed experimental results for the Bohai Building and the China Theater showed a high correlation between InSAR results and the leveling values. At the same time, the two Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) indexes had values of approximately 1 mm. These analyses show that a millimeter level of accuracy can be achieved by means of InSAR technique when measuring building deformation. We discuss the differences in accuracy between OLS regression and measurement of error analyses, and compare the accuracy index of leveling in order to propose InSAR accuracy levels appropriate for monitoring buildings deformation. After assessing the advantages and limitations of InSAR techniques in monitoring buildings, further applications are evaluated. PMID:27999403

  4. Internal monitoring of GBTx emulator using IPbus for CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Swagata; Zabolotny, Wojciech; Sau, Suman; Chkrabarti, Amlan; Saini, Jogender; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Pal, Sushanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a part of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt at GSI. In CBM experiment a precisely time synchronized fault tolerant self-triggered electronics is required for Data Acquisition (DAQ) system in CBM experiments which can support high data rate (up to several TB/s). As a part of the implementation of the DAQ system of Muon Chamber (MUCH) which is one of the important detectors in CBM experiment, a FPGA based Gigabit Transceiver (GBTx) emulator is implemented. Readout chain for MUCH consists of XYTER chips (Front end electronics) which will be directly connected to detector, GBTx emulator, Data Processing Board (DPB) and First level event selector board (FLIB) with backend software interface. GBTx emulator will be connected with the XYTER emulator through LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signalling) line in the front end and in the back end it is connected with DPB through 4.8 Gbps optical link. IPBus over Ethernet is used for internal monitoring of the registers within the GBTx. In IPbus implementation User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack is used in transport layer of OSI model so that GBTx can be controlled remotely. A Python script is used at computer side to drive IPbus controller.

  5. An experiment on individual ‘parochial altruism’ revealing no connection between individual ‘altruism’ and individual ‘parochialism’

    PubMed Central

    Corr, Philip J.; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P.; Seger, Charles R.; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism. PMID:26347703

  6. Antipsychotic Use and Metabolic Monitoring in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities Served in a Medicaid Medical Home.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lisa M; Damron, Mackenzie; Jones, Kyle B; Weedon, Dean; Carbone, Paul S; Bakian, Amanda V; Bilder, Deborah A

    2016-06-01

    This study describes antipsychotic use and metabolic monitoring rates among individuals with developmental disabilities enrolled in a subspecialty medical home (N = 826). Four hundred ninety-nine participants (60.4 %) were taking antipsychotics, which was associated with male gender (p = 0.01), intellectual disability with and without autism spectrum disorder (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively), and inversely associated with the youngest and oldest age categories (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Among those taking antipsychotics, annual metabolic monitoring rates ranged from 89 % (lipids) to 99 % (weight). Age was positively associated with glucose (p < 0.001) and lipid monitoring (p < 0.001). Adult participants with dyslipidemia (p < 0.01), prediabetes/diabetes (p = 0.04), and hypertension (p = 0.02) were significantly more likely to obtain lipid monitoring. These values exceeded previously reported rates suggesting the importance of an integrated care model.

  7. Pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes and therapeutic drug monitoring as potential tools for individualizing taxane therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Stefanie D; McLeod, Howard L; Hertz, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    The taxanes are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. Although taxanes are highly effective in cancer treatment, their use is associated with serious complications attributable to large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window. Unpredictable toxicity occurrence necessitates close patient monitoring while on therapy and adverse effects frequently require decreasing, delaying or even discontinuing taxane treatment. Currently, taxane dosing is based primarily on body surface area, ignoring other factors that are known to dictate variability in pharmacokinetics or outcome. This article discusses three potential strategies for individualizing taxane treatment based on patient information that can be collected before or during care. The clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes or therapeutic drug monitoring could enable clinicians to personalize taxane treatment to enhance efficacy and/or limit toxicity. PMID:23556452

  8. Drought Monitoring and Forecasting: Experiences from the US and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Justin; Chaney, Nate; Yuan, Xing; Wood, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Drought has important but very different consequences regionally due to differences in vulnerability. These differences derive from variations in exposure related to climate variability and change, sensitivity of local populations, and coping capacity at all levels. Managing the risk of drought impacts relies on a variety of measures to reduce vulnerability that includes forewarning of drought development through early-warning systems. Existing systems rely on a variety of observing systems from satellites to local observers, modeling tools, and data dissemination methods. They range from sophisticated state-of-the-art systems to simple ground reports. In some regions, systems are virtually non-existent due to limited national capacity. This talk describes our experiences in developing and implementing drought monitoring and seasonal forecast systems in the US and sub-Saharan Africa as contrasting examples of the scientific challenges and user needs in developing early warning systems. In particular, early warning can help improve livelihoods based on subsistence farming in sub-Saharan Africa; whist reduction of economic impacts is generally foremost in the US. For the US, our national drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system has been operational for over 8 years and provides near real-time updates on hydrological states at ~12km resolution and hydrological forecasts out to 9 months. Output from the system contributes to national assessments such as from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the US National Drought Monitor (USDM). For sub-Saharan Africa, our experimental drought monitoring system was developed as a translation of the US system but presents generally greater challenges due to, for example, lack of ground data and unique user needs. The system provides near real-time updates based on hydrological modeling and satellite based precipitation estimates, and has recently been augmented by a seasonal forecast component. We discuss the

  9. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands. Utrok Atoll (2010-2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T. F.; Kehl, S. R.; Martinelli, R. E.; Hickman, R. E.; Hickman, D. P.; Tumey, S. J.; Brown, T. A.; Langston, R. G.; Tamblin, M. W.; Tibon, S.; Chee, L.; Aisek, Jr., A.; DeDrum, Z.; Mettao, M.; Henson, J.

    2014-12-15

    As a hard copy supplement to the Marshall Islands Program website (https://marshallislands.llnl.gov), this document provides an overview of the individual radiological surveillance monitoring program established in support of residents of Utrōk Atoll and nonresident citizens of the Utrōk Atoll population group, along with full disclosure of verified measurement data (2010-2012). The Utrōk Atoll Whole Body Counting Facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrōk Atoll Local Government, serves as a national radiological facility open to the general public.

  10. Self-Monitoring Utilization Patterns Among Individuals in an Incentivized Program for Healthy Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Young; Wineinger, Nathan E; Taitel, Michael; Radin, Jennifer M; Akinbosoye, Osayi; Jiang, Jenny; Nikzad, Nima; Orr, Gregory; Topol, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of digital technology has enabled individuals to track meaningful biometric data about themselves. This novel capability has spurred nontraditional health care organizations to develop systems that aid users in managing their health. One of the most prolific systems is Walgreens Balance Rewards for healthy choices (BRhc) program, an incentivized, Web-based self-monitoring program. Objective This study was performed to evaluate health data self-tracking characteristics of individuals enrolled in the Walgreens’ BRhc program, including the impact of manual versus automatic data entries through a supported device or apps. Methods We obtained activity tracking data from a total of 455,341 BRhc users during 2014. Upon identifying users with sufficient follow-up data, we explored temporal trends in user participation. Results Thirty-four percent of users quit participating after a single entry of an activity. Among users who tracked at least two activities on different dates, the median length of participating was 8 weeks, with an average of 5.8 activities entered per week. Furthermore, users who participated for at least twenty weeks (28.3% of users; 33,078/116,621) consistently entered 8 to 9 activities per week. The majority of users (77%; 243,774/315,744) recorded activities through manual data entry alone. However, individuals who entered activities automatically through supported devices or apps participated roughly four times longer than their manual activity-entering counterparts (average 20 and 5 weeks, respectively; P<.001). Conclusions This study provides insights into the utilization patterns of individuals participating in an incentivized, Web-based self-monitoring program. Our results suggest automated health tracking could significantly improve long-term health engagement. PMID:27856407

  11. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective  This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis  This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion  The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace. PMID:27413413

  12. GEM luminosity monitors for the OLYMPUS experiment to determine the effect of two-photon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ates, Ozgur

    The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY acquired its data in two distinct periods between 2012-2013 to measure the ratio of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections. In light of those measurements, OLYMPUS will be able to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange, which is widely considered to be responsible for the discrepancy between measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with the Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer methods. In order to control the systematic uncertainties to the sub-percent level, the luminosities were monitored redundantly and with high precision. This was done by measuring the rates for symmetric Moller and Bhabha scattering and by measuring the ep-elastic count rates at forward angles and low momentum transfer with tracking telescopes based on GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and MWPC (Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber technology. A total of nine GEM detectors were constructed for the OLYMPUS experiment. Within the scope of this thesis, every single step of construction, testing and installation of the GEM OLYMPUS luminosity monitors are explained in the hardware part of this thesis. Moreover, based on the analysis of the data taken with the GEM luminosity monitors at the OLYMPUS experiment, individual GEM detector performance and preliminary results on the positron/electron luminosity ratio measured with elastic scattering at forward angles are discussed in the analysis part of the thesis.

  13. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  14. Ozone Profiles and Tropospheric Ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Sioris, C. E.; Sparr, R. J. D.; Kuregm, T. P.; Martin, R. V.; Newchurch, M. J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Ozone profiles are derived from backscattered radiances in the ultraviolet spectra (290-340 nm) measured by the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment using optimal estimation. Tropospheric O3 is directly retrieved with the tropopause as one of the retrieval levels. To optimize the retrieval and improve the fitting precision needed for tropospheric O3, we perform extensive wavelength and radiometric calibrations and improve forward model inputs. Retrieved O3 profiles and tropospheric O3 agree well with coincident ozonesonde measurements, and the integrated total O3 agrees very well with Earth Probe TOMS and Dobson/Brewer total O3. The global distribution of tropospheric O3 clearly shows the influences of biomass burning, convection, and air pollution, and is generally consistent with our current understanding.

  15. Monitoring processes and metamemory experience in patients with dysexecutive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinon, Karine; Allain, Phillipe; Kefi, Mohamed Zied; Dubas, Frédéric; Le Gall, Didier

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether monitoring measures are differentially disturbed in dysexecutive patients after frontal lesions. Twelve dysexecutive patients and 12 healthy controls were administered a paired-associates learning task. Their performances on recall prediction, judgment-of-learning (JOL), and feeling-of-knowing judgment (FOK) were then compared. The results revealed that the two groups differed only on accuracy measures of the FOK paradigm. The study of the overall correlations between the three measures of metamemory revealed a significant relation between recall prediction and accuracy measures of the JOL. We failed to find any significant correlation with the accuracy measures of the FOK. Taken together, our data confirm that metamemory experience is not a unitary construct but rather a group of distinct and quite independent mechanisms.

  16. The Skylab sleep monitoring experiment - Methodology and initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Delucchi, M. R.; Shumate, W. H.; Booher, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The sleep monitoring experiment permitted an objective evaluation of sleep characteristics during the first two manned Skylab flights. Hardware located onboard the spacecraft accomplished data acquisition, analysis, and preservation, thereby permitting near-real-time evaluation of sleep during the flights and more detailed postmission analysis. The crewman studied during the 28-Day Mission showed some decrease in total sleep time and an increase in the percentage of Stage 4 sleep, while the subject in the 59-Day Mission exhibited little change in total sleep time and a small decrease in Stage 4 and REM sleep. Some disruption of sleep characteristics was seen in the final days of both missions, and both subjects exhibited decreases in REM-onset latency in the immediate postflight period. The relatively minor changes seen were not of the type nor magnitude which might be expected to be associated with significant degradation of performance capability.

  17. Monitoring of computing resource utilization of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, David; Dimitrov, Gancho; Vukotic, Ilija; Aidel, Osman; Schaffer, Rd; Albrand, Solveig

    2012-12-01

    Due to the good performance of the LHC accelerator, the ATLAS experiment has seen higher than anticipated levels for both the event rate and the average number of interactions per bunch crossing. In order to respond to these changing requirements, the current and future usage of CPU, memory and disk resources has to be monitored, understood and acted upon. This requires data collection at a fairly fine level of granularity: the performance of each object written and each algorithm run, as well as a dozen per-job variables, are gathered for the different processing steps of Monte Carlo generation and simulation and the reconstruction of both data and Monte Carlo. We present a system to collect and visualize the data from both the online Tier-0 system and distributed grid production jobs. Around 40 GB of performance data are expected from up to 200k jobs per day, thus making performance optimization of the underlying Oracle database of utmost importance.

  18. Systemic Case Formulation, Individualized Process Monitoring, and State Dynamics in a Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schiepek, Günter K; Stöger-Schmidinger, Barbara; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Schöller, Helmut; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management) including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociative identity disorder. Methods: A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client's dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior. The components (variables) of this idiographic system model (ISM) were used to create items for an individualized process questionnaire for the client. The questionnaire was administered daily through an internet-based monitoring tool (Synergetic Navigation System, SNS), to capture the client's individual change process continuously throughout the therapy and after-care period. The resulting time series were reflected by therapist and client in therapeutic feedback sessions. Results: For the client it was important to see how the personality states dominating her daily life were represented by her idiographic system model and how the transitions between each state could be explained and understood by the activating and inhibiting relations between the cognitive-emotional components of that system. Continuous monitoring of her cognitions, emotions, and behavior via SNS allowed for identification of important triggers, dynamic patterns, and psychological mechanisms behind seemingly erratic state fluctuations. These insights enabled a change in management of the dynamics and an intensified trauma-focused therapy. Conclusion: By making use of the systemic case formulation technique and subsequent daily online monitoring, client and therapist continuously refer to detailed visualizations of the mental and behavioral network and

  19. Systemic Case Formulation, Individualized Process Monitoring, and State Dynamics in a Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schiepek, Günter K.; Stöger-Schmidinger, Barbara; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Schöller, Helmut; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management) including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociative identity disorder. Methods: A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client's dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior. The components (variables) of this idiographic system model (ISM) were used to create items for an individualized process questionnaire for the client. The questionnaire was administered daily through an internet-based monitoring tool (Synergetic Navigation System, SNS), to capture the client's individual change process continuously throughout the therapy and after-care period. The resulting time series were reflected by therapist and client in therapeutic feedback sessions. Results: For the client it was important to see how the personality states dominating her daily life were represented by her idiographic system model and how the transitions between each state could be explained and understood by the activating and inhibiting relations between the cognitive-emotional components of that system. Continuous monitoring of her cognitions, emotions, and behavior via SNS allowed for identification of important triggers, dynamic patterns, and psychological mechanisms behind seemingly erratic state fluctuations. These insights enabled a change in management of the dynamics and an intensified trauma-focused therapy. Conclusion: By making use of the systemic case formulation technique and subsequent daily online monitoring, client and therapist continuously refer to detailed visualizations of the mental and behavioral network and

  20. HappyFace as a generic monitoring tool for HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gen; Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Quadt, Arnulf; Rzehorz, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    The importance of monitoring on HEP grid computing systems is growing due to a significant increase in their complexity. Computer scientists and administrators have been studying and building effective ways to gather information on and clarify a status of each local grid infrastructure. The HappyFace project aims at making the above-mentioned workflow possible. It aggregates, processes and stores the information and the status of different HEP monitoring resources into the common database of HappyFace. The system displays the information and the status through a single interface. However, this model of HappyFace relied on the monitoring resources which are always under development in the HEP experiments. Consequently, HappyFace needed to have direct access methods to the grid application and grid service layers in the different HEP grid systems. To cope with this issue, we use a reliable HEP software repository, the CernVM File System. We propose a new implementation and an architecture of HappyFace, the so-called grid-enabled HappyFace. It allows its basic framework to connect directly to the grid user applications and the grid collective services, without involving the monitoring resources in the HEP grid systems. This approach gives HappyFace several advantages: Portability, to provide an independent and generic monitoring system among the HEP grid systems. Eunctionality, to allow users to perform various diagnostic tools in the individual HEP grid systems and grid sites. Elexibility, to make HappyFace beneficial and open for the various distributed grid computing environments. Different grid-enabled modules, to connect to the Ganga job monitoring system and to check the performance of grid transfers among the grid sites, have been implemented. The new HappyFace system has been successfully integrated and now it displays the information and the status of both the monitoring resources and the direct access to the grid user applications and the grid collective

  1. Excretion of dengue virus RNA by Aedes aegypti allows non-destructive monitoring of viral dissemination in individual mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Albin; Jiolle, Davy; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle; Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Successful transmission of a vector-borne pathogen relies on a complex life cycle in the arthropod vector that requires initial infection of the digestive tract followed by systemic viral dissemination. The time interval between acquisition and subsequent transmission of the pathogen, called the extrinsic incubation period, is one of the most influential parameters of vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the dynamic nature of this process is often ignored because vector competence assays are sacrificial and rely on end-point measurements. Here, we report that individual Aedes aegypti mosquitoes release large amounts of dengue virus (DENV) RNA in their excreta that can be non-sacrificially detected over time following oral virus exposure. Further, we demonstrate that detection of DENV RNA in excreta from individual mosquitoes is correlated to systemic viral dissemination with high specificity (0.9–1) albeit moderate sensitivity (0.64–0.89). Finally, we illustrate the potential of our finding to detect biological differences in the dynamics of DENV dissemination in a proof-of-concept experiment. Individual measurements of the time required for systemic viral dissemination, a prerequisite for transmission, will be valuable to monitor the dynamics of DENV vector competence, to carry out quantitative genetics studies, and to evaluate the risk of DENV transmission in field settings. PMID:27117953

  2. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Measurements in Normo-Glycemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Akintola, Abimbola A.; Noordam, Raymond; Jansen, Steffy W.; de Craen, Anton J.; Ballieux, Bart E.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Pijl, Hanno; Westendorp, Rudi G.; van Heemst, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background The validity of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is well established in diabetic patients. CGM is also increasingly used for research purposes in normo-glycemic individuals, but the CGM validity in such individuals is unknown. We studied the accuracy of CGM measurements in normo-glycemic individuals by comparing CGM-derived versus venous blood-derived glucose levels and measures of glycemia and glycemic variability. Methods In 34 healthy participants (mean age 65.7 years), glucose was simultaneously measured every 10 minutes, via both an Enlite® CGM sensor, and in venous blood sampled over a 24-hour period. Validity of CGM-derived individual glucose measurements, calculated measures of glycemia over daytime (09:00h-23:00h) and nighttime (23:00h-09:00h), and calculated measures of glycemic variability (e.g. 24h standard deviation [SD]) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients, mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and paired t-tests. Results The median correlation coefficient between CGM and venous glucose measurements per participant was 0.68 (interquartile range: 0.40–0.78), and the MARD was 17.6% (SD = 17%). Compared with venous sampling, the calculated measure of glycemia during daytime was 0.22 mmol/L higher when derived from CGM, but no difference was observed during nighttime. Most measures of glycemic variability were lower with CGM than with venous blood sampling (e.g., 24h SD: 1.07 with CGM and 1.26 with venous blood; p-value = 0.004). Conclusion In normo-glycemic individuals, CGM-derived glucose measurements had good agreement with venous glucose levels. However, the measure of glycemia was higher during the day and most measures of glycemic variability were lower when derived from CGM. PMID:26445499

  3. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet

  4. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance

  5. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental

  6. Asset Building in Rural Communities: The Experience of Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Curley, Jami; Charles, Pajarita

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the unique experiences of low-income rural participants in an asset building program--the Individual Development Account. Using data from the American Dream Demonstration, this study addresses three main questions: (1) What are the individual characteristics associated with saving outcomes among rural IDA participants? (2) What…

  7. The Work Experiences of Transgender Individuals: Negotiating the Transition and Career Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Stephanie L.; Tebbe, Esther N.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the work experiences of individuals who have started transitioning from their biological sex to a different gender expression through 18 interviews of transgender-identified individuals. Thirteen of the participants identified as male-to-female transsexuals, 2 participants identified as female-to-male transsexuals, 2…

  8. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  9. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  10. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  11. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  12. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  13. Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

  14. Individuation Experience Predicts Other-Race Effects in Holistic Processing for Both Caucasian and Black Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Cottle, Jasmine; Ubiwa, JoAnna; Miller, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Same-race (SR) faces are recognized better than other-race (OR) faces, and this other-race effect (ORE) is correlated with experience. SR faces are also processed more holistically than OR faces, suggesting one possible mechanism for poorer performance on OR faces. Studies of object expertise have shown that individuating experiences are necessary…

  15. An RF powering system with adaptive impedance matching for individual health monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Zemin Liu; Yu-Pin Hsu; Hella, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a high-efficiency RF powering system, suitable for individual health monitoring applications. The system is composed of an antenna, an impedance matching network, and a two-stage full-wave RF-DC rectifier. A novel tuning mechanism is proposed to automatically adjust the impedance of the matching network. This mechanism can effectively improve the power efficiency of the system by 47% compared to the case without tuning. For the adaptive impedance, only a 5-bits binary weighted capacitor bank is required in the matching network. The complete system, designed in a standard 0.13μm CMOS technology, converts a -6dBm 915MHz RF signal to a 1.7V DC voltage with an output current of 85μA. The simulated maximum power efficiency of the complete RF harvester is 66%.

  16. Reduced punishment sensitivity in neural systems of behavior monitoring in impulsive individuals.

    PubMed

    Potts, Geoffrey F; George, Mary Reeni M; Martin, Laura E; Barratt, Ernest S

    This study measured the response-locked event-related potential during a flanker task with performance-based monetarily rewarding and punishing trials in 37 undergraduate students separated into high- and low-impulsive groups based on a median split on self-reported Barrett Impulsiveness Scale. The high-impulsive group had a smaller medial frontal error-related negativity (ERN) on punishment trials than the low-impulsive group. The medial prefrontal neural system of behavior monitoring, indexed by the ERN, appears less sensitive to punishment signals in normal impulsivity. This reduced punishment sensitivity in impulsivity, a personality variation associated with several mental and personality disorders including ADHD and substance abuse may be related to the tendency to select short-term rewards despite potential long-term negative consequences in these individuals.

  17. Automated swimming activity monitor for examining temporal patterns of toxicant effects on individual Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Michaelsen, Thomas Yssing; Jensen, Anne; Marcussen, Laurits Faarup; Nielsen, Majken Elley; Roslev, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aquatic pollutants are often biologically active at low concentrations and impact on biota in combination with other abiotic stressors. Traditional toxicity tests may not detect these effects, and there is a need for sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting sublethal effects. We have evaluated an automated infra-red (IR) light-based monitor for recording the swimming activity of Daphnia magna to establish temporal patterns of toxicant effects on an individual level. Activity was recorded for 48 h and the sensitivity of the monitor was evaluated by exposing D. magna to the reference chemicals K2 Cr2 O7 at 15, 20 and 25 °C and 2,4-dichlorophenol at 20 °C. Significant effects (P < 0.001) of toxicant concentrations, exposure time and incubation temperatures were observed. At 15 °C, the swimming activity remained unchanged for 48 h at sublethal concentrations of K2 Cr2 O7 whereas activity at 20 and 25 °C was more biphasic with decreases in activity occurring after 12-18 h. A similar biphasic pattern was observed after 2,4-dichlorophenol exposure at 20 °C. EC50 values for 2,4-dichlorophenol and K2 Cr2 O7 determined from automated recording of swimming activity showed increasing toxicity with time corresponding to decreases in EC50 of 0.03-0.07 mg l(-1) h(-1) . EC50 values determined after 48 h were comparable or lower than EC50 values based on visual inspection according to ISO 6341. The results demonstrated that the swimming activity monitor is capable of detecting sublethal behavioural effects that are toxicant and temperature dependent. The method allows EC values to be established at different time points and can serve as a high-throughput screening tool in toxicity testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Performance of a Portable Sleep Monitoring Device in Individuals with High Versus Low Sleep Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Bessman, Sara C.; Reini, Seth A.; Drummond, Sean P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Portable and automated sleep monitoring technology is becoming widely available to consumers, and one wireless system (WS) has recently surfaced as a research tool for sleep and sleep staging assessment outside the hospital/laboratory; however, previous research findings indicate low sensitivity for wakefulness detection. Because difficulty discriminating between wake and sleep is likely to affect staging performance, we sought to further evaluate the WS by comparing it to the gold-standard polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy (ACT) for overall sleep/wakefulness detection and sleep staging, within high and low sleep efficiency sleepers. Methods: Twenty-nine healthy adults (eight females) underwent concurrent WS, PSG, and ACT assessment in an overnight laboratory study. Epoch-by-epoch agreement was determined by comparing sleep/wakefulness decisions between the WS to both PSG and ACT, and for detection of light, deep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages between the WS and PSG. Results: Sensitivity for wakefulness was low (40%), and an overestimation of total sleep time and underestimation of wake after sleep onset was observed. Prevalence and bias adjusted kappa statistic indicated moderate-to-high agreement between the WS and PSG for sleep staging. However, upon further inspection, WS performance varied by sleep efficiency, with the best performance during high sleep efficiency. Conclusions: The benefit of the WS as a sleep monitoring device over ACT is the ability to assess sleep stages, and our findings suggest this benefit is only realized within high sleep efficiency. Care should be taken to collect data under conditions where this is expected. Citation: Markwald RR, Bessman SC, Reini SA, Drummond SP. Performance of a portable sleep monitoring device in individuals with high versus low sleep efficiency. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):95–103. PMID:26285110

  19. Databases in use at the individual monitoring service of ITN-DPRSN.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Roda, A R; Abrantes, J N

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the databases developed for routine use at the Individual Monitoring for External Radiation Service (IMS) of the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) at the Nuclear and Technological Institute (ITN) in Portugal are presented. At the IMS there are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously, one based on film and the other one on thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Two databases were initially and independently home-developed in order to meet each service's needs. A few modifications were introduced and while each service's requirements were maintained where needed, the databases were adapted in order to store the same type of information relative to the facilities and monitored workers, as well as to produce similar shaped reports and technical information. The necessary administrative features of the services were considered in the database development, made user-friendly and welcomed by the ordinary users. The improvements allowed a more direct analysis of the annual doses and an easy identification of professions and practices associated with higher dose values.

  20. Integrated Sensor Networks for Monitoring the Health and Well-Being of Vulnerable Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heatley, D. J. T.; Kalawsky, R. S.; Neild, I.; Bowman, P. A.

    The inescapable fact that people are living longer today than ever before means that the number of elderly people needing care or medical treatment has never been higher. In response to this there is a growing trend to place the elderly and infirm in residential homes or in sheltered accommodation, where they live in a protective environment while retaining some independence. Current healthcare systems in residential, sheltered, and community settings generally operate on a reactive basis rather than a pre-emptive basis [1]. This means that the people being cared for (the 'clients') are often already clinically ill and in need of medical attention, sometimes urgently, by the time the healthcare system engages, whereupon the treatment and recovery regime can be protracted and costly [2]. Unfortunately, a significant majority of our ageing population do not have the benefit of this level of healthcare [3], despite the evidence that our ageing population are regarded to be at an increased risk of falls [4], malnutrition [5], and failure to take prescribed medication [6]. It is this self-neglect that is of great concern. A far better scheme for all parties is one that continuously monitors clients who, although in fine health at that time, are considered to be at risk and likely to need attention at a time in the future, particularly if they are elderly and live alone. By continually monitoring certain behavioural characteristics of an individual, it is feasible to ascertain their well-being or detect when things deviate from the norm.

  1. 17 CFR 49.14 - Monitoring, screening and analyzing end-user clearing exemption claims by individual and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... analyzing end-user clearing exemption claims by individual and affiliated entities. 49.14 Section 49.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP DATA REPOSITORIES § 49.14 Monitoring, screening and analyzing end-user clearing exemption claims by individual and affiliated...

  2. Monitoring hyporheic exchanges during a dam controlled experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houzé, Clémence; Varnède, Lucie; Durand, Véronique; Pessel, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Precise understanding of the hyporheic exchanges response to stream flow fluctuations remains a great challenge for many environmental and hydrological problems. Multiplication of natural stream restoration programs and anthropic structures removal highlight that a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and ecological functioning of hyporheic exchanges is critical . The objective of this field experiment was to monitor the dynamic exchanges within the hyporheic zone due to an artificial stream head variation. Various types of measurements were performed, using natural tracers and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The dam downstream the studied river reach was successively lowered during two days, and raised during three days, implying river heads variations of about 15cm. The studied area was equipped with CTD probes (measuring the head and the conductivity) within the river, 2 multi-depths water sampling tubes inserted up to one meter depth within the riverbed deposits and 3 ERT profiles with various electrode spacing (20 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm). During the 5 days experiment, water sampling and ERT profiles were done regularly. Estimations of the sediments hydraulic conductivity were obtained by several slug tests in plastic tubes at different depths within the streambed. First results showed that stream fluctuation leads to a rapid hyporheic response according to chloride variations between stream and riverbed sediments. Similar results between geochemical and geophysical tools were found. A decrease in stream head leads to reduce the depth of the mixing zone, as the river gaining conditions intensify. On the contrary, we observed that an increased river head tends to deepen the hyporheic exchange zone.

  3. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  4. Development of the GRB Monitor for the CALET Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Kotani, Taro; Nakahira, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kei; Ohyama, Takuya; Doshida, Takaaki; Kojima, Tohru; Shiraki, Takayuki; Kataoka, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Tomida, Hiroshi; Torii, Shoji

    2009-05-25

    The CALET mission is a Japanese-led effort involving candidate experiments on the International Space Station, planned for launch in 2013. The CALET main detector is a pair conversion telescope which is dedicated to observing high energy electrons and gamma-rays in the GeV-TeV range. CALET can observe gamma-ray bursts over an unprecedented 9 decade energy range from {approx}keV to {approx}TeV with a combination of a gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) with low energy coverage. GBM is now designed as multiple scintillators made of BGO and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators. The prototype LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) crystal with 3 inch diameter and 0.5 inch thickness displays a very good performance: 2.9{+-}0.1% FWHM energy resolution at 662 keV and 4 keV lower energy threshold. Furthermore, degradations in performance by the anticipated proton irradiation in the orbit are not significant. Results on proton-induced background are also presented.

  5. [Therapeutic drug monitoring and individual dosing of antibiotics during sepsis : Modern or just "trendy"?

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, A; Röhr, A C; Köberer, A; Fuchs, T; Preisenberger, J; Krüger, W A; Frey, O R

    2016-09-13

    Pharmacokinetic variability of anti-infective drugs due to pathophysiological changes by severe sepsis and septic shock is a well-known problem for critically ill patients resulting in suboptimal serum and most likely tissue concentrations of these agents.To cover a wide range of potential pathogens, high concentrations of broad spectrum anti-infectives have to reach the site of infection. Microbiological susceptibility testing (susceptible, intermediate, resistant) don't take the pharmacokinetic variability into account and are based on data generated by non-critically ill patients. But inter-patient variability in distribution and elimination of anti-infective drugs in ICU patients is extremely high and also highly unpredictable. Drug clearance of mainly renally eliminated drugs and thus the required dose can differ up to 10-fold due to the variability in renal function in patients with severe infections. To assure a timely and adequate anti-infective regime, individual dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) seem to be appropriate tools in the setting of pathophysiological changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmakodynamics (PD) due to severe sepsis. In the case of known minimal inhibitory concentration, PK/PD indices (time or peak concentration dependent activity) and measured serum level can provide an optimal target concentration for the individual drug and patient.Modern anti-infective management for ICU patients includes more than the choice of drug and prompt application. Individual dosing, optimized prolonged infusion time and TDM give way to new and promising opportunities in infection control.

  6. Spinal-Cord-Injured Individual's Experiences of Having a Partner: A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Study.

    PubMed

    Angel, Sanne

    2015-06-01

    Having a partner is a strong factor in adaptation to the new life situation with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Still, more knowledge in detail about the partner's influences according to the experiences of individuals with SCI could contribute to the understanding of the situation after an injury. The aim of this phenomenological-hermeneutic article is to achieve a deeper understanding of nine individuals' experiences the first 2 years after SCI. In rehabilitation after SCI, the partner supported the SCI individual's life spirit by not giving up and by still seeing possibilities in the future. The partner reinforced the SCI individual's commitment to life by sharing experiences; providing love, trust, and hope; and giving priority to the best things in life for the SCI individual. This implied cohabitation providing concrete help and an intimacy that helped to cope with problems and anxieties and allowed SCI individuals the ability to self-realize. This promoted feelings of profound gratitude but also dependency. Thus, the SCI individual benefitted from the partner's support mentally and physically, which enabled a life that would not otherwise be possible.

  7. The Experience of Social Participation in Everyday Contexts among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Experience Sampling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the everyday life experiences of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16-45 years) with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism recorded what they were doing, level of interest/involvement, emotional reactions and preference for being alone 7 times/day for 7 days.…

  8. Vertical hydraulic generators experience with dynamic air gap monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.B.; Lyles, J.F )

    1992-12-01

    Until recently, dynamic monitoring of the rotor to stator air gap of hydraulic generators was not practical. Cost effective and reliable dyamic air gap monitoring equipment has been developed in recent years. Dynamic air gap monitoring was originally justified because of the desire of the owner to minimize the effects of catastrophic air gap failure. However, monitoring air gaps on a time basis has been shown to be beneficial by assisting in the assessment of hydraulic generator condition. The air gap monitor provides useful information on rotor and stator condition and generator vibration. The data generated by air gap monitors will assist managers in the decision process with respect to the timing and extent of required maintenance for a particular generating unit.

  9. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... those described in the NIOSH Research Issues Workshop, 2 to estimate the missing component of dose...

  10. Monitoring the sensitivity of active gully erosion to individual runoff events and seasonal soil moisture changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. P.; Delong, S.; Whipple, K. X.

    2010-12-01

    One method for quantitatively predicting landscape sensitivity to changes in climate is to measure rates of landscape change (i.e., local erosion and deposition) over timescales of weather, and then to use these data to develop models that scale specific surface processes up to climate timescales. In order to implement this approach, we have quantified relations between hydrology and soil headwall erosion at two gully headwalls in a discontinuous arroyo network formed on predominantly Pleistocene alluvial fan surfaces near Oracle, Arizona. The field site is a semiarid rangeland, with low relief overall but deep and active arroyo incision. Since June 2008 we have intensively monitored rainfall, soil moisture, hillslope overland flow and channel discharge at 1-2 minute intervals, using more than 50 sensors. In addition, we have measured soil erosion and headwall retreat in these arroyos, using multiple complementary techniques including ground-based LiDAR, RTK GPS surveys, and time-lapse field photography. These photographs have been taken in stereo, and we are currently using photogrammetric techniques to measure erosion at hourly timescales over this two-year monitoring interval. We find that landscape sensitivity to weather is complex and arguably counterintuitive: erosion occurs due not only to intense runoff events during the summer monsoon season, but also due to mass wasting and headwall collapse from soil wetting and drying, which is more active during the wetter and cooler winter months. Plunge pool erosion at the headcut base maintains headwalls at approximately vertical, and the efficiency of plunge pool erosion is greatly enhanced by the soil surface wet-dry weathering. Therefore, our preliminary data suggest that the intensity of individual runoff events need not be the dominant control on arroyo incision rates. It remains to be seen if these observations and interpretations are applicable to other environments with active gully erosion, but which have

  11. Individuality and Stability in Male Songs of Cao Vit Gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) with Potential to Monitor Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chang-Yong; Fei, Han-Lan; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Vocal individuality and stability has been used to conduct population surveys, monitor population dynamics, and detect dispersal patterns in avian studies. To our knowledge, it has never been used in these kinds of studies among primates. The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only one small population living in a karst forest along China-Vietnam border. Due to the difficult karst terrain, an international border, long life history, and similarity in male morphology, detailed monitoring of population dynamics and dispersal patterns are not possible using traditional observation methods. In this paper, we test individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons. We then discuss the possibility of using vocal individuality for population surveys and monitoring population dynamics and dispersal patterns. Significant individuality of vocalization was detected in all 9 males, and the correct rate of individual identification yielded by discriminant function analysis using a subset of variables was satisfactory (>90%). Vocal stability over 2–6 years was also documented in 4 males. Several characters of cao vit gibbons allowed long-term population monitoring using vocal recordings in both China and Vietnam: 1) regular loud calls, 2) strong individuality and stability in male songs, 3) stable territories, and 4) long male tenure. During the course of this research, we also observed one male replacement (confirmed by vocal analysis). This time- and labor-saving method might be the most effective way to detect dispersal patterns in this transboundary population. PMID:24788306

  12. Titration of Alanine Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Francis J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The experiment described here involves simultaneous monitoring of pH and NMR chemical shifts during an aqueous titration of alpha- and beta-alanine. This experiment is designed for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. (MR)

  13. Victimization experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Hyde, Janet S

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis quantitatively compiled the results of studies from 1992 to 2009 to determine the prevalence and types of victimization experienced by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Based on the results of three searches, 386 studies were retrieved and coded. Comparisons were made across all LGB individuals (138 studies), between LGB and heterosexual individuals (65 studies), and between LGB females and males (53 studies), with over 500,000 participants. Multiple types of victimization were coded, including discrimination, physical assault, and school victimization. Findings revealed that for LGB individuals, reports of victimization experiences were substantial (e.g., 55% experienced verbal harassment, and 41% experienced discrimination) and some types have increased since a 1992 review, while others have decreased. LGB individuals experienced greater rates of victimization than heterosexual individuals (range: d = .04-.58). LGB males experienced some types of victimization more than LGB females (e.g., weapon assault and being robbed) but, overall, the gender differences were small. It can be concluded that LGB individuals still experience a substantial amount of victimization. Implications for research methods are discussed, including recommendations for sampling and measurement of victimization. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Sex Research for the following free supplemental resource(s): Supplementary Tables. These tables are referred to in the text of this article as "Table S1," "Table S2," etc.].

  14. Conflict monitoring and adaptation in individuals at familial risk for developing bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Patino, Luis R.; Adler, Caleb M.; Mills, Neil P.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Fleck, David E.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine conflict monitoring and conflict-driven adaptation in individuals at familial risk for developing bipolar disorder. Methods We recruited 24 adolescents who had a parent with bipolar disorder and 23 adolescents with healthy parents. Participants completed an arrow version of the Eriksen Flanker Task that included trials with three levels of conflict: neutral, congruent, and incongruent flanks. Differences in performance were explored based upon the level of conflict in the current and previous trials. Results Individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorder performed more slowly than youth with healthy parents in all trials. Analyses evaluating sequential effects revealed that at-risk subjects responded more slowly than youth of healthy parents for all trial types when preceded by an incongruent trial, for incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials, and for neutral and congruent trials when preceded by neutral trials. In contrast to the comparison group, at-risk adolescents failed to display a response time advantage for incongruent trials preceded by an incongruent trial. When removing subjects with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), differences between groups in response time fell below significant level, but a difference in sequence modulation remained significant. Subjects at risk for bipolar disorder also displayed greater intra-subject response time variability for incongruent and congruent trials compared with the comparison adolescents. No differences in response accuracy were observed between groups. Conclusions Adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder displayed specific deficits in cognitive flexibility, which might be useful as a potential marker related to the development of bipolar disorder. PMID:23528067

  15. Revisiting biographical disruption: exploring individual embodied illness experience in people with terminal cancer.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Joanne; Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Payne, Sheila; Dowrick, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Biographical accounts of illness offer useful insights into the social and adaptive processes of living with chronic illness. Yet there are concerns that the underlying theoretical assumptions of a reflexive self seeking to maintain meaning may not reflect the lived experience of individuals. A narrative emphasis may neglect the importance of emotional/felt experiences; while an analytical focus on disruptive processes may not adequately reflect the totality of actual events. In this study, we explored how well biographical theory supports understanding of individual lived experience. Narratives from 19 individuals identified from General Practice lists with a terminal diagnosis of cancer were analysed using the holistic-form approach described by Lieblich. Participants described an ongoing process of living their life, 'managing' disruptive events and maintaining an overall sense of well-being (narrative form = biographical flow). For a minority, continuity was lost when people's capacity to continue living their everyday lives was overwhelmed (narrative form = fracture). The identified emphasis was on individual creative capacity in the face of terminal illness, highlighting the importance of embodied experience in understanding outcome and need. Maintaining continuity was draining: exhaustion precipitated fracture and thus need for external help to restore continuity. By focusing on feelings associated with overall narrative form, rather than individual disruptive events, we highlight the context in which disruptive events are experienced, and individual perceptions of their relative importance. We conclude that combining narrative and emotion offers new insights into the value of understanding of biographical accounts of illness in the context of individual creative capacity. We discuss the possibilities for new approaches to clinical assessment and management of need.

  16. [Individual peculiarities of adaptation to long-term space flights: 24-hour heart rhythm monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baevskii, R. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Gol'dberger, A. L.; Nikulina, G. A.; Charl'z, D. B.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator); Charles, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Presented are results of studying 24-hr variability of the cardiac rhythm which characterizes individual difference in reactions of two crew members to the same set of stresses during a 115-day MIR mission. Spacelab (USA) cardiorecorders were used. Data of monitoring revealed significantly different baseline health statuses of the cosmonauts. These functional differences were also observed in the mission. In one of the cosmonauts, the cardiac regulation changed over to a more economic functioning with the autonomous balance shifted towards enhanced sympathetic activity. After 2-3 months on mission he had almost recovered pre-launch level of regulation. In the other, the regulatory system was appreciably strained at the beginning of the mission as compared with preflight baseline. Later on, on flight months 2-3, this strain kept growing till a drastic depletion of the functional reserve. On return to Earth, this was manifested by a strong stress reaction with a sharp decline in power of high-frequency and grow in power of very low frequency components of the heart rhythm. The data suggest that adaptation to space flight and reactions in the readaptation period are dependent on initial health status of crew members, and functional reserve.

  17. Monitoring exocytosis and release from individual mast cells by capillary electrophoresis and UV imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, E.S. |; Lillard, S.J.; McCloskey, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The complex temporal evolution of on-column exocytotic release of serotonin from individual peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) was monitored by using capillary electrophoresis and UV imaging microscopy. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection with 275-nm excitation was used, and a detection limit of 1.7 amol (S/N = 3; rms) was obtained for serotonin. A physiological running buffer was used to ensure that the cell remained viable throughout. The secretagogue was polymyxin B sulfate (Pmx). Following the injection of a single mast cell into the capillary, electromigration of Pmx toward and past the cell induced degranulation and release of serotonin. The time course of release was registered in the electropherograms with subsecond resolution. Subsequent introduction of SDS caused the cell to lyse completely and allowed the residual serotonin to be quantified. The average amount of serotonin observed per RPMC was 1.6 {+-} 0.6 fmol; the average percentage of serotonin released was 28 {+-} 14%. Events that are consistent with released serontonin from single submicron granules (250 aL each) were evident, each of which contained an average amount of 5.9 {+-} 3 amol. Alternatively, UV movies can be taken of the entire event to provide temporal and spatial information.

  18. Assessment of SOMNOwatch plus EEG for sleep monitoring in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Voinescu, Bogdan Ioan; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-06-10

    Polysomnography (PSG) is still the standard in sleep monitoring, with several alternative solutions developed, including simplified electroencephalographic recorders such as SOMNOwatch plus EEG. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the recordings and of the analysis of the proprietary software of this solution, compared to PSG and semiautomatic scoring, respectively. From thirteen healthy adults, we recorded 27 nights simultaneously with a classical EEG amplifier (NeuroScan system) and the ambulatory SOMNOwatch plus EEG. Thereafter, we performed (semi-) automatic sleep analysis in Somnolyzer 24x7 and DOMINO Light (SOMNOwatch software). AASM scoring sensitivity of SOMNOwatch plus EEG, as revealed by Somnolyzer 24x7, was 97.79%, and specificity 87.19%. Paired T tests revealed no significant differences between the recordings of the two EEG systems, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from moderate to very good. When data were analyzed in DOMINO Light, sensitivity was 92.99% and specificity was 80.90%. Our data suggest that SOMNOwatch plus EEG might serve as a reliable instrument for recording sleep in healthy individuals, but its proprietary software, DOMINO Light, still seems to have weaknesses in terms of automatic sleep staging.

  19. Abnormal Error Monitoring in Math-Anxious Individuals: Evidence from Error-Related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2013-01-01

    This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants’ math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN. PMID:24236212

  20. [Individual peculiarities of adaptation to long-term space flights: 24-hour heart rhythm monitoring].

    PubMed

    Baevskiĭ, R M; Bogomolov, V V; Gol'dberger, A L; Nikulina, G A; Charl'z, D B

    2000-01-01

    Presented are results of studying 24-hr variability of the cardiac rhythm which characterizes individual difference in reactions of two crew members to the same set of stresses during a 115-day MIR mission. Spacelab (USA) cardiorecorders were used. Data of monitoring revealed significantly different baseline health statuses of the cosmonauts. These functional differences were also observed in the mission. In one of the cosmonauts, the cardiac regulation changed over to a more economic functioning with the autonomous balance shifted towards enhanced sympathetic activity. After 2-3 months on mission he had almost recovered pre-launch level of regulation. In the other, the regulatory system was appreciably strained at the beginning of the mission as compared with preflight baseline. Later on, on flight months 2-3, this strain kept growing till a drastic depletion of the functional reserve. On return to Earth, this was manifested by a strong stress reaction with a sharp decline in power of high-frequency and grow in power of very low frequency components of the heart rhythm. The data suggest that adaptation to space flight and reactions in the readaptation period are dependent on initial health status of crew members, and functional reserve.

  1. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Angels

    2013-01-01

    This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  2. Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kerkelä, Ellen Staveborg; Jonsson, Linus; Lindwall, Magnus; Strand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory–based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances. Methods A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female) aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach. Results Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual's context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs. Conclusions This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs. PMID:26282865

  3. Individual Differences and the Conundrums of User-Centered Design: Two Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bryce

    2000-01-01

    Discusses individual differences between users of information systems that can influence search performance, and describes two experiments that addressed user-centered design of information systems. Highlights include interaction between cognitive abilities and design features; compensation and capitalization perspectives; recall and precision;…

  4. Developing School Laboratories To Promote the Establishment of Individual Experience Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley Springs School District 2, AR.

    A project was conducted to promote and develop individual Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) programs in Arkansas through the development of laboratories. It was felt that strong SAE programs enhance the instructional portion of agriculture education, serve as a motivational tool, and improve the relations between the local school and…

  5. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  6. Team-Taught versus Individually Taught Undergraduate Education: A Qualitative Study of Student Experiences and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, Arthur; Coughlan, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Team teaching is becoming more common in undergraduate programmes of study although the relative merits to the more traditional individually taught courses have not been determined for best practice. For this study, 15 final-year undergraduate computer science students were interviewed to gain insight into their learning experiences. A thematic…

  7. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  8. Vulnerability and Experiences Related to Social Victimization among Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marisa H.; Moskowitz, Andrew L.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Compared to adults without disabilities, individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are more likely to experience social victimization. This study examined responses of caregivers of 146 adults with IDD on questionnaires concerning demographics and behavioral characteristics as well as a newly developed Social Vulnerability…

  9. Understanding the Friendship Processes of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study of Reflective College Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kammie Bohlken

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study shed light on the reflective college experiences of 11 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism from a competence rather than a deficit model of disability (Biklen, 2005). Using Goleman's model of Social Intelligence (2006) as a theoretical framework, the cognitive, behavioral, and affective…

  10. The Production and Destruction of Individual Competence: The Role of Vocational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Fatima; Paul, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into the impact on individual skill levels of the variables traditionally represented by human capital. The discussion is centred around the way in which education and vocational experience contribute to the process of producing useful skills in the job market or, conversely, of making them obsolete.…

  11. Fission Product Monitoring and Release Data for the Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Mark W. Drigert; Edward L. Reber

    2010-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 26, 2006 until November 6, 2009 in support of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Fuel Development and Qualification program. An important measure of the fuel performance is the quantification of the fission product releases over the duration of the experiment. To provide this data for the inert fission gasses(Kr and Xe), a fission product monitoring system (FPMS) was developed and implemented to monitor the individual capsule effluents for the radioactive species. The FPMS continuously measured the concentrations of various krypton and xenon isotopes in the sweep gas from each AGR-1 capsule to provide an indicator of fuel irradiation performance. Spectrometer systems quantified the concentrations of Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, Kr-89, Kr-90, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe 135, Xe 135m, Xe-137, Xe-138, and Xe-139 accumulated over repeated eight hour counting intervals.-. To determine initial fuel quality and fuel performance, release activity for each isotope of interest was derived from FPMS measurements and paired with a calculation of the corresponding isotopic production or birthrate. The release activities and birthrates were combined to determine Release-to-Birth ratios for the selected nuclides. R/B values provide indicators of initial fuel quality and fuel performance during irradiation. This paper presents a brief summary of the FPMS, the release to birth ratio data for the AGR-1 experiment and preliminary comparisons of AGR-1 experimental fuels data to fission gas release models.

  12. Monitoring of small laboratory animal experiments by a designated web-based database.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, T; Grohmann, C; Schumacher, U; Krüll, A

    2015-10-01

    Multiple-parametric small animal experiments require, by their very nature, a sufficient number of animals which may need to be large to obtain statistically significant results.(1) For this reason database-related systems are required to collect the experimental data as well as to support the later (re-) analysis of the information gained during the experiments. In particular, the monitoring of animal welfare is simplified by the inclusion of warning signals (for instance, loss in body weight >20%). Digital patient charts have been developed for human patients but are usually not able to fulfill the specific needs of animal experimentation. To address this problem a unique web-based monitoring system using standard MySQL, PHP, and nginx has been created. PHP was used to create the HTML-based user interface and outputs in a variety of proprietary file formats, namely portable document format (PDF) or spreadsheet files. This article demonstrates its fundamental features and the easy and secure access it offers to the data from any place using a web browser. This information will help other researchers create their own individual databases in a similar way. The use of QR-codes plays an important role for stress-free use of the database. We demonstrate a way to easily identify all animals and samples and data collected during the experiments. Specific ways to record animal irradiations and chemotherapy applications are shown. This new analysis tool allows the effective and detailed analysis of huge amounts of data collected through small animal experiments. It supports proper statistical evaluation of the data and provides excellent retrievable data storage.

  13. Prior Visual Experience Modulates Learning of Sound Localization Among Blind Individuals.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-Jia; Li, Jian-Jun; Ting, Kin-Hung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C

    2017-02-04

    Cross-modal learning requires the use of information from different sensory modalities. This study investigated how the prior visual experience of late blind individuals could modulate neural processes associated with learning of sound localization. Learning was realized by standardized training on sound localization processing, and experience was investigated by comparing brain activations elicited from a sound localization task in individuals with (late blind, LB) and without (early blind, EB) prior visual experience. After the training, EB showed decreased activation in the precuneus, which was functionally connected to a limbic-multisensory network. In contrast, LB showed the increased activation of the precuneus. A subgroup of LB participants who demonstrated higher visuospatial working memory capabilities (LB-HVM) exhibited an enhanced precuneus-lingual gyrus network. This differential connectivity suggests that visuospatial working memory due to the prior visual experience gained via LB-HVM enhanced learning of sound localization. Active visuospatial navigation processes could have occurred in LB-HVM compared to the retrieval of previously bound information from long-term memory for EB. The precuneus appears to play a crucial role in learning of sound localization, disregarding prior visual experience. Prior visual experience, however, could enhance cross-modal learning by extending binding to the integration of unprocessed information, mediated by the cognitive functions that these experiences develop.

  14. IDP Camp and Reconstruction Monitoring Experience at SERTIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clandillon, Stephen; Allenbach, Bernard; Battiston, Stephanie; Caspard, Mathilde; Fellah, Kader; Giraud, Henri; Montabord, Myldred; Tholey, Nadine; Uribe, Carlos; Yesou, Herve; de Fraipont, Paul

    2010-12-01

    SERTIT's rapid mapping activities covering disasters and damage mapping after a major catastrophic event such as those realized within the framework of International Charter "Space and major disasters" (Charter) and GMES1 programmes are relatively well known, whereas the work carried since 2004 on the exploitation of Earth Observation data for humanitarian aid is less often presented. The aim of this paper is to present this work from mapping and monitoring IDP camp related emergencies to supporting recovery and reconstruction and the context, procedures and examples of this work. A brief introduction to the world of rapid mapping will be given within the context of emergency mapping and monitoring and why this need arises. This is combined with a word on the development of this service with respect to the Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camp mapping. Then, the cases of Sudan 2004, Chad & Sudan 2008 and Yemen 2009 will be treated to show that the Emergency Mapping and Monitoring Service for Displaced Populations is operational. Afterwards, SERTIT's complementary Emergency Recovery Support Service will be demonstrated through the long- term reconstruction monitoring work carried out, post- disaster, following the 2003 Boumerdès earthquake event. Finally, the need for the availability and deployment of this kind of services is highlighted by the reconstruction planning and monitoring requirements in Haiti, amongst other places.

  15. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    PubMed

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.

  16. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation and individual differences.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-07-01

    1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  17. Individual external dose monitoring of all citizens of Date City by passive dosimeter 5 to 51 months after the Fukushima NPP accident (series): 1. Comparison of individual dose with ambient dose rate monitored by aircraft surveys.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Makoto; Hayano, Ryugo

    2016-12-06

    Date (da'te) City in Fukushima Prefecture has conducted a population-wide individual dose monitoring program after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, which provides a unique and comprehensive data set of the individual doses of citizens. The purpose of this paper, the first in the series, is to establish a method for estimating effective doses based on the available ambient dose rate survey data. We thus examined the relationship between the individual external doses and the corresponding ambient doses assessed from airborne surveys. The results show that the individual doses were about 0.15 times the ambient doses, the coefficient of 0.15 being a factor of 4 smaller than the value employed by the Japanese government, throughout the period of the airborne surveys used. The method obtained in this study could aid in the prediction of individual doses in the early phase of future radiological accidents involving large-scale contamination.

  18. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  19. Emotional granularity and social functioning in individuals with schizophrenia: an experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ballon, Jacob S; Malaspina, Dolores; Gross, James J

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown that healthy individuals who fail to differentiate among emotional states (i.e., those with low emotional granularity; EG) have poorer social functioning (SF) than those with high EG. It is unknown, however, whether these associations extend to clinical disorders characterized by impaired SF, such as schizophrenia. In the present study, we compared SF and EG in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and then, within the schizophrenia group, we examined the links between EG and SF. Employing an Experience Sampling Method approach, 77 individuals with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls rated their momentary emotions (sadness, anxiety, anger, and happiness) up to 10 times/day over a two-day period using mobile electronic devices. For each participant, we then calculated the within-subject average correlations among the momentary emotion ratings, producing two EG indices - EGIall for all emotions and EGIneg for negative ones. A subsample of participants with schizophrenia also completed self-report, interview, and ability-based measures of SF. Compared to healthy controls, individuals with schizophrenia displayed significantly poorer SF and lower EGIall, but comparable EGIneg. Within the schizophrenia group, hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that EGIall, but not EGIneg, significantly predicted social dysfunction after controlling for emotional awareness, symptoms, and emotional intensity and variability. Our findings indicate that individuals with schizophrenia have a relatively intact ability to differentiate among negative emotions in everyday life. However, they experience significant difficulties differentiating between positive and negative emotions, and this may contribute to their social difficulties.

  20. Weight loss in rats produced by running: effects of prior experience and individual housing.

    PubMed

    Boakes, R A; Dwyer, D M

    1997-05-01

    To investigate factors affecting activity-based anorexia (ABA) or activity-stress (AS), rats were given 2-hr access to a running wheel immediately prior to their daily 1.5-hr food access during the light cycle. This produced a reduction in food intake, a steady increase in running, and a large drop in body weight with a prolonged delay before weight recovery began. Experiment 1 found that these effects were reduced in rats with prior experience of eating at this time of day. In contrast, prior experience of running in the wheel when on ad lib food enhanced these effects in Experiment 2, where a subsequent change for half the subjects to individual housing produced a further decrease in body weight. The latter factor was investigated from the outset of Experiment 3 and again individually housed rats showed greater weight loss than did group-housed rats. This experiment also found that in rats of the same age a low initial body weight predicts greater vulnerability to ABA. It was concluded that ABA results from activity-induced reduction of feeding, which prolongs adaptation to a new feeding schedule and is accentuated by social isolation.

  1. The Role of Self-Monitoring in Assessing Individual Students' Quantity and Quality of Comments in Large-Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carstens, B. A.; Wright, J. M.; Coles, J. T.; McCleary, L. N.; Williams, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a reliable and valid self-monitoring procedure for student use in recording and rating the quality of their individual comments in large college classes. Students used daily record cards immediately to record and rate each comment they made each day. However, a limit was set on the amount of credit students could claim for…

  2. The Use of Individual Growth and Developmental Indicators for Progress Monitoring and Intervention Decision Making in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Buzhardt, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Progress monitoring tools have been shown to be essential elements in current approaches to intervention problem-solving models. Such tools have been valuable not only in marking individual children's level of performance relative to peers but also in measuring change in skill level in a way that can be attributed to intervention and development.…

  3. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  4. Monitoring Processes and Metamemory Experience in Patients with Dysexecutive Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinon, Karine; Allain, Phillipe; Kefi, Mohamed Zied; Dubas, Frederic; Le Gall, Didier

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether monitoring measures are differentially disturbed in dysexecutive patients after frontal lesions. Twelve dysexecutive patients and 12 healthy controls were administered a paired-associates learning task. Their performances on recall prediction, judgment-of-learning (JOL), and feeling-of-knowing…

  5. Experiences in monitoring and assessment of sustainable land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although sustainable land management (SLM) is widely promoted to prevent and mitigate land degradation and desertification, its monitoring and assessment has received much less attention. This paper compiles methodological approaches which to date have been little reported in literature. It draws le...

  6. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-11-23

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  7. Wide area network monitoring system for HEP experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Cottrell, Les; Logg, Connie; /SLAC

    2004-12-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centers. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  8. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education

  9. The experience of community engagement for individuals: a rapid review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Attree, Pamela; French, Beverley; Milton, Beth; Povall, Susan; Whitehead, Margaret; Popay, Jennie

    2011-05-01

    Community engagement is central to strategies to promote health and well-being and reduce health inequalities in many countries, particularly interventions which focus on improving health in disadvantaged populations. Despite the widespread use of community engagement approaches, however, there have been relatively few attempts to review the evidence on the impact that participation has on the lives of individuals involved. Drawing on a wider review of evidence carried out on behalf of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), this article reports on a rapid review of evidence of the effectiveness of initiatives which seek to engage communities in action to address the wider social determinants of health, to explore individuals' subjective experiences of engagement. The rapid review process was guided by NICE's public health methods manual, adapted to suit the diversity of the evidence. A total of 22 studies were identified containing empirical data on subjective experiences of community engagement for individuals. The findings of the rapid review suggest that the majority of 'engaged' individuals perceived benefits for their physical and psychological health, self-confidence, self-esteem, sense of personal empowerment and social relationships. Set against these positive outcomes, however, the evidence suggests that there are unintended negative consequences of community engagement for some individuals, which may pose a risk to well-being. These consequences included exhaustion and stress, as involvement drained participants' energy levels as well as time and financial resources. The physical demands of engagement were reported as particularly onerous by individuals with disabilities. Consultation fatigue and disappointment were negative consequences for some participants who had experienced successive waves of engagement initiatives. For some individuals, engagement may involve a process of negotiation between gains and losses. This

  10. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  11. The Cloud Detection and UV Monitoring Experiment (CLUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, L.; Loh, E.; Sokolsky, P.; Streitmatter, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a large-area, low-power instrument to perform CLoud detection and Ultraviolet monitoring, CLUE. CLUE will combine the W detection capabilities of the NIGHTGLOW payload, with an array of infrared sensors to perform cloud slicing measurements. Missions such as EUSO and OWL which seek to measure UHE cosmic-rays at 1W20 eV use the atmosphere as a fluorescence detector. CLUE will provide several important correlated measurements for these missions, including: monitoring the atmospheric W emissions &om 330 - 400 nm, determining the ambient cloud cover during those W measurements (with active LIDAR), measuring the optical depth of the clouds (with an array of narrow band-pass IR sensors), and correlating LIDAR and IR cloud cover measurements. This talk will describe the instrument as we envision it.

  12. Stability monitor experience in German BWRs (boiling water reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, L. ); Fuge, R. ); Seepolt, R. ); Frank, M. )

    1989-11-01

    A digital stability monitor developed by NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft MBH, operable on a personal computer, is in use at three boiling water reactor (BWR) plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The device has received the approval of an FRG licensing authority. It has been in operation for 5 yr. The stability monitor is a measurement device used to accurately determine and confirm the boundaries of the exclusion region on the operating power-flow map, and to permit controlled operation through such regions. This is achieved via neutron noise measurements converted to direct readout of decay ratios. It has satisfied regulatory requirements by defining potential unstable operating regions at Kernkraftwerk Isar in the FRG and the high power density Gundremmingen (KRB Units B and C) BWRs.

  13. How does experience modulate auditory spatial processing in individuals with blindness?

    PubMed

    Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-jia; Li, Jian-jun; Ting, Kin-hung; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-05-01

    Comparing early- and late-onset blindness in individuals offers a unique model for studying the influence of visual experience on neural processing. This study investigated how prior visual experience would modulate auditory spatial processing among blind individuals. BOLD responses of early- and late-onset blind participants were captured while performing a sound localization task. The task required participants to listen to novel "Bat-ears" sounds, analyze the spatial information embedded in the sounds, and specify out of 15 locations where the sound would have been emitted. In addition to sound localization, participants were assessed on visuospatial working memory and general intellectual abilities. The results revealed common increases in BOLD responses in the middle occipital gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, and precentral gyrus during sound localization for both groups. Between-group dissociations, however, were found in the right middle occipital gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. The BOLD responses in the left superior frontal gyrus were significantly correlated with accuracy on sound localization and visuospatial working memory abilities among the late-onset blind participants. In contrast, the accuracy on sound localization only correlated with BOLD responses in the right middle occipital gyrus among the early-onset counterpart. The findings support the notion that early-onset blind individuals rely more on the occipital areas as a result of cross-modal plasticity for auditory spatial processing, while late-onset blind individuals rely more on the prefrontal areas which subserve visuospatial working memory.

  14. Experiences of Thai individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Indratula, Rujadhorn; Sukonthasarn, Achara; Chanprasit, Chawapornpan; Wangsrikhun, Suparat

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative descriptive study, underpinned by the naturalistic inquiry, explored the lived experiences of individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting in Thailand. Eleven northern Thai individuals volunteered to participate. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Two major themes arose: uncertainty of life and striving to balance well-being. The first of these themes is presented in this paper. Uncertainty of life was recognized as a dynamic emotional state of being unsure or insecure in life, but its occurrence depended on the individual situation; it was described through two subthemes that had a profound effect on the participants: fear of death and fear of disability. Participants' uncertainty of life encompassed being unsure about the risks of dying from illness, both prior to and following the surgery, and surviving the surgery with a disability. These findings provide insight into the experiences of individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and will assist nurses and other healthcare providers in creating timely programs and appropriate interventions to reduce uncertainty of life while awaiting surgery.

  15. Transgender individuals' workplace experiences: the applicability of sexual minority measures and models.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Melanie E; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Climate Inventory (LGBTCI; B. J. Liddle, D. A. Luzzo, A. L. Hauenstein, & K. Schuck, 2004); and the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure (WSIMM; M. Z. Anderson, J. M. Croteau, Y. B. Chung, & T. M. DiStefano, 2001) were modified to explicitly address the experiences of transgender individuals. Data from a sample of 263 transgender individuals were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Analyses of the structures of the modified measures (Transgender Forms [TF]) suggested an alternative 2-factor structure for the WHEQ-TF, but provided support for the previously observed unidimensional structure for the LGBTCI-TF, and a slightly modified 3-factor structure for the WSIMM-TF. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for scale or subscale items across the 3 measures were acceptable. Criterion-related validity was evident in theoretically consistent patterns of correlations between scores on the 3 modified measures and scores on indicators of job satisfaction and outness. These data provide preliminary support for transgender-specific versions of measures of 3 key constructs in the sexual minority vocational behavior research.

  16. Computerized monitoring and control of experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janisch, Thomas V.

    1988-01-01

    The computer subsystem of the Villanova University GAS (Get Away Special) experiment apparatus is discussed. The function of the computer subsystem is to provide data acquisition and control system support to the experiments. The computer subsystem will provide high availability, low power consumption and highly reliable data retention. The general layout of the subsystem provides for redundant processing units, control modules, and multiple data acquisition modules. Each of the two redundant processing units will be composed of a microprocessor, control logic, PROM, RAM, non-volitile memory, timers, self-check logic and data ports to the data acquisition and control modules. One unit will control the experiment while the other shadows the primary unit operation. The data acquisition module gathers data from the experiment. The data is transfered to the processing unit in digital form. The control module validates the data, decodes it and executes the command.

  17. Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. Jr. . Dept. of Marine Sciences); Houde, E.D. . Chesapeake Biological Lab.); Rose, K.A. )

    1992-01-01

    An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual theoretical'' ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a switch'' occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

  18. Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. Jr.; Houde, E.D.; Rose, K.A.

    1992-11-01

    An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual ``theoretical`` ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a ``switch`` occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

  19. The experiences and needs of individuals with disabilities exposed to chronic political violence.

    PubMed

    Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa; Gelkopf, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of this study was to understand, describe and map the experiences, challenges and needs of individuals with lifelong disabilities, who have been exposed to chronic politically violent events (terror, war or continuous missile attacks) in Israel. Method The study was conducted within the qualitative-constructivist paradigm. Three focus groups consisting of 18 individuals with lifelong disabilities were conducted; each focus group included a specific disability type (physical, visual and hearing impairment). Results The participants reported encountering environmental barriers, such as inaccessibly of the physical environment and information as well as dependency on others. These barriers limited the participants' functioning during emergency period and thus increased their level of distress. The participants also emphasized their physical, social and psychological needs. Conclusions The needs of individuals with disabilities in emergency situations can be met if they have a safe place to stay in, are with someone else, and plan every daily action in advance. It is also imperative to provide accessible services and information. Furthermore, it is recommended to develop training sessions for individuals with disabilities and for service providers regarding how to locate, communicate with and assist individuals with disabilities during security threat situations. Implications for Rehabilitation Successful coping of individuals with lifelong disabilities with chronic politically violent events depends on personal and organizational accommodations. Besides an accessible physical environment, the information provided should be available and accessible through mass media and assistive technologies. A comprehensive emergency service for various disabilities is needed. Service providers should be trained on how to locate, communicate with, and assist individuals with disabilities during security threat situations.

  20. System of Monitoring the Quality of Higher Education in UK Universities: Experience for Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasilnikova, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the experience of the use of the system of internal monitoring of the quality of higher education in UK Universities. There has been analyzed the existing model of the system of higher education monitoring at the level of a higher education institution within the scope of the British higher education model, discovered by a…

  1. Using a Web-Based Database to Record and Monitor Athletic Training Students' Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kirk W.; Williams, Lisa; Janicki, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a documentation recording system employing the Microsoft Structured Query Language (MS-SQL) database used by the Athletic Training Education Program (ATEP) for recording and monitoring of athletic training student (ATS) clinical experiences and hours. Background: Monitoring ATSs clinical…

  2. Beam Extinction Monitoring in the Mu2e Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Prebys, Eric; Bartoszek, Larry; Gaponenko, Andrei; Kasper, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for the conversion of a muon to an electron in the field of an atomic nucleus with unprecedented sensitivity. The experiment requires a beam consisting of proton bunches approximately 200ns FW long, separated by 1.7 microseconds, with no out-of-time protons at the 10⁻¹⁰ fractional level. The verification of this level of extinction is very challenging. The proposed technique uses a special purpose spectrometer which will observe particles scattered from the production target of the experiment. The acceptance will be limited such that there will be no saturation effects from the in-time beam. The precise level and profile of the out-of-time beam can then be built up statistically, by integrating over many bunches.

  3. Contactless experiments on individual DNA molecules show no evidence for molecular wire behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Navarro, C.; Moreno-Herrero, F.; de Pablo, P. J.; Colchero, J.; Gómez-Herrero, J.; Baró, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for a molecule to be considered a molecular wire (MW) is the ability to transport electrical charge with a reasonably low resistance. We have carried out two experiments that measure first, the charge transfer from an electrode to the molecule, and second, the dielectric response of the MW. The latter experiment requires no contacts to either end of the molecule. From our experiments we conclude that adsorbed individual DNA molecules have a resistivity similar to mica, glass, and silicon oxide substrates. Therefore adsorbed DNA is not a conductor, and it should not be considered as a viable candidate for MW applications. Parallel studies on other nanowires, including single-walled carbon nanotubes, showed conductivity as expected. PMID:12070346

  4. Appraisals and Responses to Experimental Symptom Analogues in Clinical and Nonclinical Individuals With Psychotic Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Thomas A.; Gaynor, Keith J.; Hunter, Mike D.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.; Garety, Philippa A.; Peters, Emmanuelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive models of psychosis suggest that anomalous experiences alone do not always lead to clinical psychosis, with appraisals and responses to experiences being central to understanding the transition to “need for care”. Methods: The appraisals and response styles of Clinical (C; n = 28) and Nonclinical (NC; n = 34) individuals with psychotic experiences were compared following experimental analogues of thought interference (Cards Task) and auditory hallucinations (Virtual Acoustic Space Paradigm). Results: The groups were matched in terms of their psychotic experiences. As predicted, the C group scored higher than the NC group on maladaptive appraisals following both tasks, rated the experience as more personally significant, and was more likely to incorporate the experimental setup into their ongoing experiences. The C group also appraised the Cards Task as more salient, distressing, and threatening; this group scored higher on maladaptive—and lower on adaptive—response styles, than the NC group on both tasks. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with cognitive models of psychosis, with maladaptive appraisals and response styles characterizing the C group only. Clinical applications of both tasks are suggested to facilitate the identification and modification of maladaptive appraisals. PMID:23858493

  5. Emotional Granularity and Social Functioning in Individuals with Schizophrenia: An Experience Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W.; Hansen, Marie C.; Ballon, Jacob S.; Malaspina, Dolores; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that healthy individuals who fail to differentiate among emotional states (i.e., those with low emotional granularity; EG) have poorer social functioning (SF) than those with high EG. It is unknown, however, whether these associations extend to clinical disorders characterized by impaired SF, such as schizophrenia. In the present study, we compared SF and EG in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and then, within the schizophrenia group, we examined the links between EG and SF. Employing an Experience Sampling Method approach, 77 individuals with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls rated their momentary emotions (sadness, anxiety, anger, and happiness) up to 10 times/day over a two-day period using mobile electronic devices. For each participant, we then calculated the within-subject average correlations among the momentary emotion ratings, producing two EG indices – EGIall for all emotions and EGIneg for negative ones. A subsample of participants with schizophrenia also completed self-report, interview, and ability-based measures of SF. Compared to healthy controls, individuals with schizophrenia displayed significantly poorer SF and lower EGIall, but comparable EGIneg. Within the schizophrenia group, hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that EGIall, but not EGIneg, significantly predicted social dysfunction after controlling for emotional awareness, symptoms, and emotional intensity and variability. Our findings indicate that individuals with schizophrenia have a relatively intact ability to differentiate among negative emotions in everyday life. However, they experience significant difficulties differentiating between positive and negative emotions, and this may contribute to their social difficulties. PMID:24561000

  6. The Design and Monitoring of the Timing and Synchronization System at the NOvA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasel, Justin; NOvA Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    NOvA is an accelerator-based, long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to probe the mass hierarchy and mixing structure of the neutrino sector. The experiment consists of a near detector at Fermilab and a far detector 810 km away in northern Minnesota positioned to receive neutrinos from Fermilab's NuMI beam. A GPS-based timing system has been designed and built to synchronize the 344,064 far detector readout elements and 20,192 near detector readout elements to an absolute timing precision that provides a channel-to-channel variation of less than 10 ns. This is done while simultaneously synchronizing the readout timing of the near and far detectors to the Fermilab accelerator complex to allow for the detection of the individual neutrino beam spills in each of the detectors. This presentation will outline the design of NOvA's timing system and discuss the means by which we monitor its performance to ensure the quality of the physics data being collected.

  7. Long-term monitoring experiences at the HADES underground lab and its relevance for radwaste repository monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Verstricht, Jan

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of its radwaste disposal research programme, SCK-CEN started the construction of the HADES underground research facility in 1980. Including several extensions and a comprehensive experimental programme, it has provided a lot of experience on monitoring. Monitoring is performed for many reasons: construction follow-up, field characterisation, investigation of phenomena, and model validations - in which the underground lab offers the opportunity for up-scaling conventional laboratory set-ups. Construction monitoring has allowed to develop and optimise the underground construction techniques in a previously poorly known environment, resulting in a well-mastered application of mechanised methods for gallery construction with minimal damage to the host formation. Access to this formation also allows its characterisation, both geotechnical, geological and geochemical, and the detailed investigation of phenomena such as fracturing and oxidation. Finally, instrumented set-ups allow to test various numerical models by comparing the observations with the predicted behaviour. The specific conditions of the underground laboratory put particular requirements to the sensors. These conditions include the long-term nature of many set-ups - typically several years to decades, the inaccessibility of many sensors after installation, high mechanical and water pressures, and corrosion. Combined with the fact that many sensors are custom made, obtaining and maintaining a fully functional instrumented set-up can be challenging. A lot of experience has therefore been gained which is very valuable when designing the monitoring of radwaste repositories - and it has allowed us to determine the critical success factors for monitoring. Engineers tend to look at this first from a technical viewpoint - and there are many technical aspects indeed that determine the reliability of monitoring. A first one is the combination of different observations ('redundancy') which can be

  8. Hardware report for experiment M133, sleep monitoring on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booher, C. R.; Larue, E. F.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was objectively to measure sleep quantity and quality during prolonged space flight with the use of automatic equipment for onboard analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electro-oculographic (EOG) activity and telemetry of sleep stage data.

  9. Remote Control and Monitoring of VLBI Experiments by Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruztort, C. H.; Hase, H.; Zapata, O.; Pedreros, F.

    2012-12-01

    For the remote control and monitoring of VLBI operations, we developed a software optimized for smartphones. This is a new tool based on a client-server architecture with a Web interface optimized for smartphone screens and cellphone networks. The server uses variables of the Field System and its station specific parameters stored in the shared memory. The client running on the smartphone by a Web interface analyzes and visualizes the current status of the radio telescope, receiver, schedule, and recorder. In addition, it allows commands to be sent remotely to the Field System computer and displays the log entries. The user has full access to the entire operation process, which is important in emergency cases. The software also integrates a webcam interface.

  10. Fatigue crack monitoring in aero-engines: simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Leonid M.; Petrunin, Ivan V.; Thompson, Chris

    2004-03-01

    A new genetic approach to fatigue crack monitoring in aero-engine blades is presented. The approach consists of simultaneously using two diagnostic features: the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform of vibroacoustical signals. This approach is more fundamental than traditional approaches based on the power spectral density, phase spectrum and Hartley transform; each of these approaches is a special case of the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given based on the processing of signals generated using a nonlinear model of tested blades. The generated signals are the forced vibroacoustical oscillations of cracked and un-cracked blades. The numerical examples show that crack detection ismore effective when using the new approach than when u sing the power spectral density approach. The presented experimental results using un-cracked and cracked turbuine blades from an aero-engine are matched with numerical results. The proposed approach offers an effectiveness improvement over the traditional approach based on power spectral density.

  11. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations. PMID:24516317

  12. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S D

    2013-07-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations.

  13. Passive seismic monitoring of hydraulic fracture experiments at the Multiwell Experiment site

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, B.J.; Morris, H.E.

    1988-08-01

    Redesign of hardware, software, and data-reduction techniques associated with the Sandia National Laboratories' Borehole Seismic System (BSS) have made possible better estimates of hydraulic fracture geometry at the Multiwell Experiment (MWX) site. The redesigned system now incorporates four geophones per axis and provides up to 112 dB of downhole gain, for 100 times the sensitivity of the original system. Improved signal-to-noise ratios, extended frequency response and increased digitization rates have made possible the acquisition and processing of data which were previously inaccessible. A maximum likelihood event location scheme, which incorporates an algorithm based on the use of spherical statistics, is used to compute the location of microseismic events and error estimates for these locations. Accuracy estimates for the redesigned system, based on the ability to locate perforation shots, indicates a 25 ft (7.6 m) uncertainty in the location of individual microseismic events using data from two BSS receivers. This resulted in a high level of confidence in determination of the azimuth of the November 1, 1986, hydraulic fracture in the Fluvial B sandstone. A reasonable determination of the azimuth, propped wing length and height for the September 23, 1987, hydraulic fracture in the Fluvial E sandstone was possible using data from only one BSS receiver. 15 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Seismogeodetic Monitoring of Structural Deformation during Shaketable Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Saunders, J. K.; Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Melgar, D.; Restrepo, J. I.; Nema, A.; Fleischman, R. B.; Zhang, Z.; Offield, D. G.; Squibb, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate low frequency strong motion recordings are important for understanding free field and building response in large engineered structures. We have developed a seismogeodetic monitoring system based on GPS technology for real-time observations of large earthquakes that can also be used for structural monitoring. The data analysis method implements in a tightly-coupled Kalman filter to provide absolute estimates of seismic displacement, velocity, and tilt from GPS and accelerometer observations. Tilt is one of the major error sources that prevents accelerometer data from being integrated correctly to displacements. The technology is currently operational and streaming real-time observations from remote SIO Geodetic Module packages containing MEMS accelerometers at 17 GPS sites in southern California for the purposes of earthquake early warning and rapid response. The instruments were run in real-time on a four-story structure at the UCSD NEES shaketable to test an inertial force-limiting floor anchorage system as an emerging technology for new seismically resistant buildings. Observations were made during a series of earthquake simulations at five points on the roof of the structure, at the base, and at two nearby reference sites off the structure. Two of the points were also observed with observatory-grade Kinemetrics Episensor accelerometers to compare the performance of the MEMS sensors. The unique asymmetric design of the engineered structure deliberately induced large out-of-plane torsion and tilts of the building. This tested the performance of anchorage components to motions in two lateral directions even though the shaketable generated motions in only one component. We performed a seismogeodetic combination of the accelerometer and GPS data in which we simultaneously estimated tilts to take into account the impact of the rotations on vertical tilts of the accelerometers. The seismogeodetic combination reliably recovers drift at the rooftop, demonstrated

  15. Error-monitoring in response to social stimuli in individuals with higher-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A

    2015-05-01

    Error-monitoring, or the ability to recognize one's mistakes and implement behavioral changes to prevent further mistakes, may be impaired in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Children and adolescents (ages 9-19) with ASD (n = 42) and typical development (n = 42) completed two face processing tasks that required discrimination of either the gender or affect of standardized face stimuli. Post-error slowing and the difference in Error-Related Negativity amplitude between correct and incorrect responses (ERNdiff ) were used to index error-monitoring ability. Overall, ERNdiff increased with age. On the Gender Task, individuals with ASD had a smaller ERNdiff than individuals with typical development; however, on the Affect Task, there were no significant diagnostic group differences on ERNdiff . Individuals with ASD may have ERN amplitudes similar to those observed in individuals with typical development in more social contexts compared to less social contexts due to greater consequences for errors, more effortful processing, and/or reduced processing efficiency in these contexts. Across all participants, more post-error slowing on the Affect Task was associated with better social cognitive skills.

  16. Error-Monitoring in Response to Social Stimuli in Individuals with Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Error-monitoring, or the ability to recognize one's mistakes and implement behavioral changes to prevent further mistakes, may be impaired in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Children and adolescents (ages 9-19) with ASD (n = 42) and typical development (n = 42) completed two face processing tasks that required discrimination of either the gender or affect of standardized face stimuli. Post-error slowing and the difference in Error-Related Negativity amplitude between correct and incorrect responses (ERNdiff) were used to index error-monitoring ability. Overall, ERNdiff increased with age. On the Gender Task, individuals with ASD had a smaller ERNdiff than individuals with typical development; however, on the Affect Task, there were no significant diagnostic group differences on ERNdiff. Individuals with ASD may have ERN amplitudes similar to those observed in individuals with typical development in more social contexts compared to less social contexts due to greater consequences for errors, more effortful processing, and/or reduced processing efficiency in these contexts. Across all participants, more post-error slowing on the Affect Task was associated with better social cognitive skills. PMID:25066088

  17. Acute pain experience in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J

    2015-05-01

    In addition to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder, a number of clinically important comorbid complaints, including sensory abnormalities, are also discussed. One difference often noted in these accounts is hyposensitivity to pain; however, evidence for this is limited. The purpose of the current review therefore was to examine sensitivity to pain of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This review is interested in reports which consider differences in subjective experience of pain (i.e. different pain thresholds) and differences in behavioural response to pain (i.e. signs of pain-related distress). Studies were included if they were conducted with human subjects, included a clearly diagnosed autism spectrum disorder population and reported data pertaining to pain experience relative to the neurotypical population. Studies were classified as being self/parent report, clinical observations, observations of response to medical procedures or experimental examination of pain. Both self/parent report and clinical observations appeared to report hyposensitivity to pain, whereas observations of medical procedures and experimental manipulation suggested normal or hypersensitive responses to pain. This review suggests that contrary to classical reports, individuals with autism spectrum disorder do not appear to have systematically altered pain responses or thresholds. More systematic experimental examination of this area is needed to understand responses to pain of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

  18. Schizophrenia-like topological changes in the structural connectome of individuals with subclinical psychotic experiences.

    PubMed

    Drakesmith, Mark; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Dutt, Anirban; Zammit, Stanley; Evans, C John; Reichenberg, Abraham; Lewis, Glyn; David, Anthony S; Jones, Derek K

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia is often regarded as a "dysconnectivity" disorder and recent work using graph theory has been used to better characterize dysconnectivity of the structural connectome in schizophrenia. However, there are still little data on the topology of connectomes in less severe forms of the condition. Such analysis will identify topological markers of less severe disease states and provide potential predictors of further disease development. Individuals with psychotic experiences (PEs) were identified from a population-based cohort without relying on participants presenting to clinical services. Such individuals have an increased risk of developing clinically significant psychosis. 123 individuals with PEs and 125 controls were scanned with diffusion-weighted MRI. Whole-brain structural connectomes were derived and a range of global and local GT-metrics were computed. Global efficiency and density were significantly reduced in individuals with PEs. Local efficiency was reduced in a number of regions, including critical network hubs. Further analysis of functional subnetworks showed differential impairment of the default mode network. An additional analysis of pair-wise connections showed no evidence of differences in individuals with PEs. These results are consistent with previous findings in schizophrenia. Reduced efficiency in critical core hubs suggests the brains of individuals with PEs may be particularly predisposed to dysfunction. The absence of any detectable effects in pair-wise connections illustrates that, at less severe stages of psychosis, white-matter alterations are subtle and only manifest when examining network topology. This study indicates that topology could be a sensitive biomarker for early stages of psychotic illness.

  19. Development of a wireless sensor network for individual monitoring of panels in a photovoltaic plant.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Miguel J; Pernía, Alberto M; Nuño, Fernando; Díaz, Juan; Villegas, Pedro J

    2014-01-30

    With photovoltaic (PV) systems proliferating in the last few years due to the high prices of fossil fuels and pollution issues, among others, it is extremely important to monitor the efficiency of these plants and optimize the energy production process. This will also result in improvements related to the maintenance and security of the installation. In order to do so, the main parameters in the plant must be continuously monitored so that the appropriate actions can be carried out. This monitoring should not only be carried out at a global level, but also at panel-level, so that a better understanding of what is actually happening in the PV plant can be obtained. This paper presents a system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) that includes all the components required for such monitoring as well as a power supply obtaining the energy required by the sensors from the photovoltaic panels. The system proposed succeeds in identifying all the nodes in the network and provides real-time monitoring while tracking efficiency, features, failures and weaknesses from a single cell up to the whole infrastructure. Thus, the decision-making process is simplified, which contributes to reducing failures, wastes and, consequently, costs.

  20. Development of a Wireless Sensor Network for Individual Monitoring of Panels in a Photovoltaic Plant

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Miguel J.; Pernía, Alberto M.; Nuño, Fernando; Díaz, Juan; Villegas, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    With photovoltaic (PV) systems proliferating in the last few years due to the high prices of fossil fuels and pollution issues, among others, it is extremely important to monitor the efficiency of these plants and optimize the energy production process. This will also result in improvements related to the maintenance and security of the installation. In order to do so, the main parameters in the plant must be continuously monitored so that the appropriate actions can be carried out. This monitoring should not only be carried out at a global level, but also at panel-level, so that a better understanding of what is actually happening in the PV plant can be obtained. This paper presents a system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) that includes all the components required for such monitoring as well as a power supply obtaining the energy required by the sensors from the photovoltaic panels. The system proposed succeeds in identifying all the nodes in the network and provides real-time monitoring while tracking efficiency, features, failures and weaknesses from a single cell up to the whole infrastructure. Thus, the decision-making process is simplified, which contributes to reducing failures, wastes and, consequently, costs. PMID:24487622

  1. Monitoring Rates and Heterogeneity of High-Pressure Germination of Bacillus Spores by Phase-Contrast Microscopy of Individual Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The germination of multiple individual Bacillus subtilis spores by a high pressure (HP) of 140-150 (unless noted...public release; distribution is unlimited. Monitoring Rates and Heterogeneity of High-Pressure Germination of Bacillus Spores by Phase-Contrast Microscopy...ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Bacillus , spores, spore germination, high pressure, pressure

  2. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-07-22

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon.

  3. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  4. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KITO, Aiko; UENO, Takeji

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants’ previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them. PMID:26320730

  5. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kito, Aiko; Ueno, Takeji

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants' previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them.

  6. Political economy. On the endogeneity of political preferences: evidence from individual experience with democracy.

    PubMed

    Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola; Schündeln, Matthias

    2015-03-06

    Democracies depend on the support of the general population, but little is known about the determinants of this support. We investigated whether support for democracy increases with the length of time spent under the system and whether preferences are thus affected by the political system. Relying on 380,000 individual-level observations from 104 countries over the years 1994 to 2013, and exploiting individual-level variation within a country and a given year in the length of time spent under democracy, we find evidence that political preferences are endogenous. For new democracies, our findings imply that popular support needs time to develop. For example, the effect of around 8.5 more years of democratic experience corresponds to the difference in support for democracy between primary and secondary education.

  7. Monitoring the Veterinary Medical Student Experience: An Institutional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Miller, RoseAnn; Mavis, Brian E; Lloyd, James W; Grabill, Chandra M; Henry, Rebecca C; Patterson, Coretta C

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary medical school challenges students academically and personally, and some students report depression and anxiety at rates higher than the general population and other medical students. This study describes changes in veterinary medical student self-esteem (SE) over four years of professional education, attending to differences between high and low SE students and the characteristics specific to low SE veterinary medical students. The study population was students enrolled at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 2006 to 2012. We used data from the annual anonymous survey administered college-wide that is used to monitor the curriculum and learning environment. The survey asked respondents to rate their knowledge and skill development, learning environment, perceptions of stress, skill development, and SE. Participants also provided information on their academic performance and demographics. A contrasting groups design was used: high and low SE students were compared using logistic regression to identify factors associated with low SE. A total of 1,653 respondents met inclusion criteria: 789 low SE and 864 high SE students. The proportion of high and low SE students varied over time, with the greatest proportion of low SE students during the second-year of the program. Perceived stress was associated with low SE, whereas perceived supportive learning environment and skill development were associated with high SE. These data have provided impetus for curricular and learning environment changes to enhance student support. They also provide guidance for additional research to better understand various student academic trajectories and their implications for success.

  8. Interpersonal Coordination and Individual Organization Combined with Shared Phenomenological Experience in Rowing Performance: Two Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Lardy, Julien; Bourbousson, Jérôme; Adé, David; Nordez, Antoine; Thouvarecq, Régis; Saury, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to examine the impact of variability in interpersonal coordination and individual organization on rowing performance. The second aim was to analyze crew phenomenology in order to understand how rowers experience their joint actions when coping with constraints emerging from the race. We conducted a descriptive and exploratory study of two coxless pair crews during a 3000-m rowing race against the clock. As the investigation was performed in an ecological context, we postulated that our understanding of the behavioral dynamics of interpersonal coordination and individual organization and the variability in performance would be enriched through the analysis of crew phenomenology. The behavioral dynamics of individual organization were assessed at kinematic and kinetic levels, and interpersonal coordination was examined by computing the relative phase between oar angles and oar forces and the difference in the oar force impulse of the two rowers. The inter-cycle variability of the behavioral dynamics of one international and one national crew was evaluated by computing the root mean square and the Cauchy index. Inter-cycle variability was considered significantly high when the behavioral and performance data for each cycle were outside of the confidence interval. Crew phenomenology was characterized on the basis of self-confrontation interviews and the rowers' concerns were then analyzed according to course-of-action methodology to identify the shared experiences. Our findings showed that greater behavioral variability could be either "perturbing" or "functional" depending on its impact on performance (boat velocity); the rowers experienced it as sometimes meaningful and sometimes meaningless; and their experiences were similar or diverging. By combining phenomenological and behavioral data, we explain how constraints not manipulated by an experimenter but emerging from the ecological context of a race can be associated with

  9. Interpersonal Coordination and Individual Organization Combined with Shared Phenomenological Experience in Rowing Performance: Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Ludovic; Lardy, Julien; Bourbousson, Jérôme; Adé, David; Nordez, Antoine; Thouvarecq, Régis; Saury, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to examine the impact of variability in interpersonal coordination and individual organization on rowing performance. The second aim was to analyze crew phenomenology in order to understand how rowers experience their joint actions when coping with constraints emerging from the race. We conducted a descriptive and exploratory study of two coxless pair crews during a 3000-m rowing race against the clock. As the investigation was performed in an ecological context, we postulated that our understanding of the behavioral dynamics of interpersonal coordination and individual organization and the variability in performance would be enriched through the analysis of crew phenomenology. The behavioral dynamics of individual organization were assessed at kinematic and kinetic levels, and interpersonal coordination was examined by computing the relative phase between oar angles and oar forces and the difference in the oar force impulse of the two rowers. The inter-cycle variability of the behavioral dynamics of one international and one national crew was evaluated by computing the root mean square and the Cauchy index. Inter-cycle variability was considered significantly high when the behavioral and performance data for each cycle were outside of the confidence interval. Crew phenomenology was characterized on the basis of self-confrontation interviews and the rowers' concerns were then analyzed according to course-of-action methodology to identify the shared experiences. Our findings showed that greater behavioral variability could be either “perturbing” or “functional” depending on its impact on performance (boat velocity); the rowers experienced it as sometimes meaningful and sometimes meaningless; and their experiences were similar or diverging. By combining phenomenological and behavioral data, we explain how constraints not manipulated by an experimenter but emerging from the ecological context of a race can be associated with

  10. Experience of primary care among homeless individuals with mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, Joya G; Glover, Dawn L; Young, Alexander S; Whelan, Fiona; Austin, Erika L; Johnson, Nancy K; Pollio, David E; Holt, Cheryl L; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J; Kim, Theresa A; Daigle, Shanette G; Steward, Jocelyn L; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA), one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366) were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005), with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score). Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons' needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers.

  11. Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachab, A.

    2007-03-28

    The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas mixture, it has been necessary first to cover the NEMO 3 detector with an airtight tent and then to install a radon-free air factory. With the use of sensitive radon detectors, the level of radon at the exit of the factory and inside the tent is continuously controlled. These radon levels are discussed within the NEMO 3 context.

  12. RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF NO, NO2, NOY, AND INDIVIDUAL NOZ SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most appropriate monitoring methods for reactive nitrogen oxides are identified subject to the requirements for diagnostic testing of air quality simulation models. Measurements must be made over 1 h or less and with an uncertainty of

  13. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  14. The Rainbow Families Scale (RFS): a measure of experiences among individuals with lesbian and gay parents.

    PubMed

    Lick, David J; Schmidt, Karen M; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2011-01-01

    According to two decades of research, parental sexual orientation does not affect overall child development. Researchers have not found significant differences between offspring of heterosexual parents and those of lesbian and gay parents in terms of their cognitive, psychological, or emotional adjustment. Still, there are gaps in the literature regarding social experiences specific to offspring of lesbian and gay parents. This study's objective was to construct a measure of those experiences. The Rainbow Families Scale (RFS) was created on the basis of focus group discussions (N = 9 participants), and then piloted (N = 24) and retested with a new sample (N = 91) to examine its psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analyses uncovered secondary dimensions and Rasch analytic procedures examined item fit, reliability, and category usage. Misfitting items were eliminated where necessary, yielding a psychometrically sound measurement tool to aid in the study of individuals with lesbian and gay parents.

  15. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-09-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  16. Small passive student experiments on G324 261 individual quests for student knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.; Tempel, Carol A.; Ashcraft, Ruth; Rutherford, Robin

    1995-01-01

    The Charleston County School District CAN DO Project payload on STS-57 had a primary goal of photographing the Earth with the GeoCam camera system. In addition, the payload carried 261 passive student experiments representing the efforts of several thousand students throughout the district and in four other states. These experiments represented the individual concepts of teams ranging in age from pre-school to high school. Consequently, a tremendous variety of samples from collard green seeds to microscopic 'water bears' were flown. Each prospective team was provided a simple kit equipped with five vials. Each student team submitted five coded samples, one for space flight and four control samples. The control samples were exposed to radiation, cold and centrifugation respectively while one negative control sample was passively stored. The students received the samples back still coded so that they were unaware of which samples were flown. They then investigated their samples according to their individual research protocols. The results were presented in poster and platform form at a student research symposium. Space Trees grown from tree seeds flown in the payload have been planted at all district schools, and at many guest schools. These seeds represented another way in which to involve additional classes and students. Both the passive experiments and the space trees were housed in what otherwise would have been wasted space within the payload. They extended the GAS programs worthwhile ballast concept to another level. The opportunity to fly an experiment in space is too previous not to be extended to the greatest number of students possible.

  17. Monitoring instrument field experiments at Oregon Institute of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, M.J.; Smith, R.P.

    1980-09-01

    The field tests were conducted under reducing and oxidizing conditions. Corrosion rates with zero oxygen were about 1.1 mils per year (mpy) for both copper and steel coupons, which is quite low for carbon steel. There was a problem controlling the oxygen level in the oxygenated experiments; however, it was found that corrosion rates increased with the presence of oxygen. Corrosion rates for the steel and copper coupons were 4 and 2 mpy, respectively; copper coupled to cast iron corroded at 8 mpy. Commercial corrosion rate measuring equipment determined the general corrosion rate of carbon steel farily well but overestimated copper corrosion rates. The redox electrode was a very sensitive indicator of the entry of oxygen.

  18. Deformation Monitoring of Materials Under Stress in Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarlatos, D.; Yiatros, S.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry is a valid alternative solution to linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) measurements in structural testing in laboratory conditions. Although the use of LVDTs boasts a high degree of accuracy, on the other hand it is limiting as it offers measurements between two points and it thus might be unable to capture localized deformations and strains over a bigger area of a structural specimen. In this aspect photogrammetry seems to offer certain advantages. Commercial solutions provide limited testing envelopes, while on the other hand, the wide range on new materials need more versatile techniques. Based on the need to develop an in-house photogrammetric toolbox to support several structural and material experiments in the department Advanced Pore Morphology (APM) aluminium foam specimens developed at Fraunhofer IFAM in Germany and cured at CUT, were tested under monotonic compressive load. Data acquisition, analysis and results, along with lessons learnt from the process are presented in this work.

  19. Deep Learning Automates the Quantitative Analysis of Individual Cells in Live-Cell Imaging Experiments.

    PubMed

    Van Valen, David A; Kudo, Takamasa; Lane, Keara M; Macklin, Derek N; Quach, Nicolas T; DeFelice, Mialy M; Maayan, Inbal; Tanouchi, Yu; Ashley, Euan A; Covert, Markus W

    2016-11-01

    Live-cell imaging has opened an exciting window into the role cellular heterogeneity plays in dynamic, living systems. A major critical challenge for this class of experiments is the problem of image segmentation, or determining which parts of a microscope image correspond to which individual cells. Current approaches require many hours of manual curation and depend on approaches that are difficult to share between labs. They are also unable to robustly segment the cytoplasms of mammalian cells. Here, we show that deep convolutional neural networks, a supervised machine learning method, can solve this challenge for multiple cell types across the domains of life. We demonstrate that this approach can robustly segment fluorescent images of cell nuclei as well as phase images of the cytoplasms of individual bacterial and mammalian cells from phase contrast images without the need for a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker. These networks also enable the simultaneous segmentation and identification of different mammalian cell types grown in co-culture. A quantitative comparison with prior methods demonstrates that convolutional neural networks have improved accuracy and lead to a significant reduction in curation time. We relay our experience in designing and optimizing deep convolutional neural networks for this task and outline several design rules that we found led to robust performance. We conclude that deep convolutional neural networks are an accurate method that require less curation time, are generalizable to a multiplicity of cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, and expand live-cell imaging capabilities to include multi-cell type systems.

  20. Association between RGS4 variants and psychotic-like experiences in nonclinical individuals.

    PubMed

    de Castro-Catala, Marta; Cristóbal-Narváez, Paula; Kwapil, Thomas R; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Peña, Elionora; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Rosa, Araceli

    2017-02-01

    The psychosis phenotype is expressed across a continuum known as schizotypy, which ranges from personality variation through subclinical symptoms to severe psychopathology. The study of subclinical manifestations in non-affected individuals minimizes confounding factors associated with the clinical phenotype and facilitates the differentiation of dimension-specific etiological mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the variation in the regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) gene, a putative candidate gene for psychosis previously associated with schizophrenia endophenotypes, and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). In total, 808 healthy individuals completed the community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPE) to measure positive and negative PLEs and provided a DNA sample. Two RGS4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs951436 [SNP4] and rs2661319 [SNP18]) were genotyped. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to explore the association of positive and negative PLEs with RGS4 variation. Our results showed associations of positive and negative PLEs with the two polymorphisms studied: subjects with the T allele (SNP4) and the A allele (SNP18) had higher scores on both the positive and the negative dimensions. Haplotypic analyses supported these results, showing the highest scores in those with the TA haplotype (SNP4-SNP18). The RGS4 variants might exert gene-specific modulating effects on psychosis proneness.

  1. Dynamic quantitative photothermal monitoring of cell death of individual human red blood cells upon glucose depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George Chung Kit; Andika, Marta; Agarwal, Shuchi; Chen, Peng; Olivo, Malini

    2010-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo ``programmed cell death,'' or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs upon glucose depletion. Since the physiological status of the dying cells is highly sensitive to photothermal parameters (e.g., thermal diffusivity, absorption, etc.), we applied linear PT response to continuously monitor the death mechanism of RBC when depleted of glucose. The kinetics of the assay where the cell's PT response transforms from linear to nonlinear regime is reported. In addition, quantitative monitoring was performed by extracting the relevant photothermal parameters from the PT response. Twofold increases in thermal diffusivity and size reduction were found in the linear PT response during cell death. Our results reveal that photothermal parameters change earlier than phosphatidylserine externalization (used for fluorescent studies), allowing us to detect the initial stage of eryptosis in a quantitative manner. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detection of eryptosis earlier than fluorescence, could also reveal physiological status of the cells through quantitative photothermal parameter extraction.

  2. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.

  3. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  4. When experience meets language statistics: Individual variability in processing English compound words.

    PubMed

    Falkauskas, Kaitlin; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-11-01

    Statistical patterns of language use demonstrably affect language comprehension and language production. This study set out to determine whether the variable amount of exposure to such patterns leads to individual differences in reading behavior as measured via eye-movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that more proficient readers are less influenced by distributional biases in language (e.g., frequency, predictability, transitional probability) than poor readers. We hypothesized that a probabilistic bias that is characteristic of written but not spoken language would preferentially affect readers with greater exposure to printed materials in general and to the specific pattern engendering the bias. Readers of varying reading experience were presented with sentences including English compound words that can occur in 2 spelling formats with differing probabilities: concatenated (windowsill, used 40% of the time) or spaced (window sill, 60%). Linear mixed effects multiple regression models fitted to the eye-movement measures showed that the probabilistic bias toward the presented spelling had a stronger facilitatory effect on compounds that occurred more frequently (in any spelling) or belonged to larger morphological families, and on readers with higher scores on a test of exposure-to-print. Thus, the amount of support toward the compound's spelling is effectively exploited when reading, but only when the spelling patterns are entrenched in an individual's mental lexicon via overall exposure to print and to compounds with alternating spelling. We argue that research on the interplay of language use and structure is incomplete without proper characterization of how particular individuals, with varying levels of experience and skill, learn these language structures.

  5. Factors contributing to perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders: the role of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and social disorganization.

    PubMed

    Button, Deeanna M; Tewksbury, Richard; Mustaine, Elizabeth E; Payne, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore factors contributing to perceptions about electronic monitoring policies governing sex offenders. Guided by Tannenbaum's theory of attribution and Shaw and McKay's theory of social disorganization, the authors examine the influence of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and neighborhood characteristics on perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders. Ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression analyses of stratified telephone survey data reveal that factors associated with favorable views on the use of global positioning satellite monitoring for registered sex offenders appear to stem primarily from individuals' demographic characteristics. Experiential and neighborhood factors do provide some influence over individuals' views of electronic monitoring policies for sex offenders. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

  6. Individual Monitoring of Vocal Effort with Relative Fundamental Frequency: Relationships with Aerodynamics and Listener Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was investigated as a potential objective measure to track variations in vocal effort within and across individuals. Method: Twelve speakers with healthy voices created purposeful modulations in their vocal effort during speech tasks. RFF and an aerodynamic measure of vocal effort,…

  7. Do people essentialize emotions? Individual differences in emotion essentialism and emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Gendron, Maria; Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-08-01

    Many scientific models of emotion assume that emotion categories are natural kinds that carve nature at its joints. These beliefs remain strong, despite the fact that the empirical record on the issue has remained equivocal for over a century. In this research, the authors examined one reason for this situation: People essentialize emotion categories by assuming that members of the same category (e.g., fear) have a shared metaphysical essence (i.e., a common causal mechanism). In Study 1, the authors found that lay people essentialize emotions by assuming that instances of the same emotion category have a shared essence that defines them, even when their surface features differ. Study 2 extended these findings, demonstrating that lay people tend to essentialize categories the more a category is of the body (vs. the mind). In Study 3, we examined the links between emotion essentialism and the complexity of actual emotional experiences. In particular, we predicted and found that individuals who hold essentialist beliefs about emotions describe themselves as experiencing highly differentiated emotional experiences but do not show evidence of stronger emotional differentiation in their momentary ratings of experience in everyday life. Implications for the science of emotion are discussed.

  8. Hypothesis: the sound of the individual metabolic phenotype? Acoustic detection of NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Stefano; Saccenti, Edoardo; Piccioli, Mario

    2015-03-01

    We present here an innovative hypothesis and report preliminary evidence that the sound of NMR signals could provide an alternative to the current representation of the individual metabolic fingerprint and supply equally significant information. The NMR spectra of the urine samples provided by four healthy donors were converted into audio signals that were analyzed in two audio experiments by listeners with both musical and non-musical training. The listeners were first asked to cluster the audio signals of two donors on the basis of perceived similarity and then to classify unknown samples after having listened to a set of reference signals. In the clustering experiment, the probability of obtaining the same results by pure chance was 7.04% and 0.05% for non-musicians and musicians, respectively. In the classification experiment, musicians scored 84% accuracy which compared favorably with the 100% accuracy attained by sophisticated pattern recognition methods. The results were further validated and confirmed by analyzing the NMR metabolic profiles belonging to two other different donors. These findings support our hypothesis that the uniqueness of the metabolic phenotype is preserved even when reproduced as audio signal and warrants further consideration and testing in larger study samples.

  9. Low-cost assays for monitoring HIV infected individuals in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Iqbal, Hussain Syed; Shanmugham, Saravanan; Mohanakrishnan, Janardhanan; Solomon, Sunil S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Solomon, Suniti

    2011-01-01

    Use of a combination of CD4 counts and HIV viral load testing in the management of antiretroviral therapy (ART) provides higher prognostic estimation of the risk of disease progression than does the use of either test alone. The standard methods to monitor HIV infection are flow cytometry based for CD4+ T cell count and molecular assays to quantify plasma viral load of HIV. Commercial assays have been routinely used in developed countries to monitor ART. However, these assays require expensive equipment and reagents, well trained operators, and established laboratory infrastructure. These requirements restrict their use in resource-limited settings where people are most afflicted with the HIV-1 epidemic. With the advent of low-cost and/or low-tech alternatives, the possibility of implementing CD4 count and viral load testing in the management of ART in resource-limited settings is increasing. However, an appropriate validation should have been done before putting them to use for patient testing. PMID:22310816

  10. Biological monitoring of mercury exposure in individuals referred to a toxicological center in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Maritza; Seijas, David; Agreda, Olga; Rodríguez, Maritza

    2006-02-01

    People in developing countries are often considered at greater risk of mercury (Hg) poisoning due to a variety of factors including a lack of awareness regarding their occupational risks. Individuals requiring urine mercury (U-Hg) analysis at the Center for Toxicological Investigations of the University of Carabobo (CITUC), between 1998 and 2002 were studied to identify demographic characteristics associated to U-Hg levels. The studied population included individuals with a history of exposure (or related exposures) to Hg processes, and was comprised of 1159 individuals (65 children, 1094 adults) ages 0.58-79 years old, mean 36.63+/-12.4. Children's geometric mean U-Hg levels were 2.73 microg/g Creatinine (Ct) and in adults 2.55 microg/g Ct. The highest frequency of adults' occupations were shipyard workers (35.47%), dentists (23.5%), lab technicians (11.43%), dental employees 10.42% and miners (10.2%). Chemical laboratory technicians had the highest mean U-Hg (4.46 microg/g Ct). Mean U-Hg levels in female adults (3.45 microg/g Ct) were statistically superior to levels in male adults (2.15 microg/g Ct). Two of the 172 women in reproductive age, had U-Hg levels higher than 78 microg/g Ct. Individuals from Falcon State were found to have the highest mean U-Hg (4.53 microg/g Ct). U-Hg levels higher than permissible limits were found in only 2 states (Carabobo and Bolivar) with a total of 24 cases. Although the results of this investigation were highly variable, the findings can be used to examine circumstances which influence mercury toxicity trends, and possibly used in future studies working to identify Hg exposures.

  11. Deep Learning Automates the Quantitative Analysis of Individual Cells in Live-Cell Imaging Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Van Valen, David A.; Lane, Keara M.; Quach, Nicolas T.; Maayan, Inbal

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell imaging has opened an exciting window into the role cellular heterogeneity plays in dynamic, living systems. A major critical challenge for this class of experiments is the problem of image segmentation, or determining which parts of a microscope image correspond to which individual cells. Current approaches require many hours of manual curation and depend on approaches that are difficult to share between labs. They are also unable to robustly segment the cytoplasms of mammalian cells. Here, we show that deep convolutional neural networks, a supervised machine learning method, can solve this challenge for multiple cell types across the domains of life. We demonstrate that this approach can robustly segment fluorescent images of cell nuclei as well as phase images of the cytoplasms of individual bacterial and mammalian cells from phase contrast images without the need for a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker. These networks also enable the simultaneous segmentation and identification of different mammalian cell types grown in co-culture. A quantitative comparison with prior methods demonstrates that convolutional neural networks have improved accuracy and lead to a significant reduction in curation time. We relay our experience in designing and optimizing deep convolutional neural networks for this task and outline several design rules that we found led to robust performance. We conclude that deep convolutional neural networks are an accurate method that require less curation time, are generalizable to a multiplicity of cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, and expand live-cell imaging capabilities to include multi-cell type systems. PMID:27814364

  12. When experience meets language statistics: Individual variability in processing English compound words

    PubMed Central

    Falkauskas, Kaitlin; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Statistical patterns of language use demonstrably affect language comprehension and language production. This study set out to determine whether the variable amount of exposure to such patterns leads to individual differences in reading behaviour as measured via eye-movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that more proficient readers are less influenced by distributional biases in language (e.g. frequency, predictability, transitional probability) than poor readers. We hypothesized that a probabilistic bias that is characteristic of written but not spoken language would preferentially affect readers with greater exposure to printed materials in general and to the specific pattern engendering the bias. Readers of varying reading experience were presented with sentences including English compound words that can occur in two spelling formats with differing probabilities: concatenated (windowsill, used 40% of the time) or spaced (window sill, 60%). Linear mixed effects multiple regression models fitted to the eye-movement measures showed that the probabilistic bias towards the presented spelling had a stronger facilitatory effect on compounds that occurred more frequently (in any spelling) or belonged to larger morphological families, and on readers with higher scores on a test of exposure-to-print. Thus, the amount of support towards the compound’s spelling is effectively exploited when reading, but only when the spelling patterns are entrenched in an individual’s mental lexicon via overall exposure to print and to compounds with alternating spelling. We argue that research on the interplay of language use and structure is incomplete without proper characterization of how particular individuals, with varying levels of experience and skill, learn these language structures. PMID:26076328

  13. Understanding the Experience of Age-Related Vestibular Loss in Older Individuals: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Bridges, John F. P.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner ear balance (or vestibular) function declines with age and is associated with decreased mobility and an increased risk of falls in older individuals. We sought to understand the lived experience of older adults with vestibular loss in order to improve care in this population. Methods Qualitative data were derived from semi-structured interviews of individuals aged 65 years or older presenting to the Balance and Falls Prevention Clinic from February 1, 2014 to March 30, 2015 for evaluation of age-related vestibular loss. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. We created a taxonomy of overarching superordinate themes based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework, and classified key dimensions within each of these themes. Results Sixteen interviews were conducted with individuals (mean age 76.0 years, 75 % female) with age-related vestibular loss. The three superordinate themes and associated key dimensions were (1) body impairment (including depression, fatigue, fear/anxiety, and problems with concentrating and memory); (2) activity limitation and participation restriction (isolation, needing to stop in the middle of activities, reduced participation relative to expectations, reduced ability to drive or travel, and problems with bending/looking up, standing, and walking); and (3) environmental influences (needing help with daily activities). All participants reported difficulty walking. Conclusions Older adults report that vestibular loss impacts their body functioning and restricts their participation in activities. The specific key dimensions uncovered by this qualitative study can be used to evaluate care from the patient's perspective. PMID:26739817

  14. Chemical Explosion Experiments to Improve Nuclear Test Monitoring [Developing a New Paradigm for Nuclear Test Monitoring with the Source Physics Experiments (SPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Snelson, Catherine M.; Abbott, Robert E.; Broome, Scott T.; Mellors, Robert J.; Patton, Howard J.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Townsend, Margaret J.; Walter, William R.

    2013-07-02

    A series of chemical explosions, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to develop a new more physics-based paradigm for nuclear test monitoring. Currently, monitoring relies on semi-empirical models to discriminate explosions from earthquakes and to estimate key parameters such as yield. While these models have been highly successful monitoring established test sites, there is concern that future tests could occur in media and at scale depths of burial outside of our empirical experience. This is highlighted by North Korean tests, which exhibit poor performance of a reliable discriminant, mb:Ms (Selby et al., 2012), possibly due to source emplacement and differences in seismic responses for nascent and established test sites. The goal of SPE is to replace these semi-empirical relationships with numerical techniques grounded in a physical basis and thus applicable to any geologic setting or depth.

  15. Chemical Explosion Experiments to Improve Nuclear Test Monitoring [Developing a New Paradigm for Nuclear Test Monitoring with the Source Physics Experiments (SPE)

    DOE PAGES

    Snelson, Catherine M.; Abbott, Robert E.; Broome, Scott T.; ...

    2013-07-02

    A series of chemical explosions, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to develop a new more physics-based paradigm for nuclear test monitoring. Currently, monitoring relies on semi-empirical models to discriminate explosions from earthquakes and to estimate key parameters such as yield. While these models have been highly successful monitoring established test sites, there is concern that future tests could occur in media and at scale depths of burial outside of our empirical experience. This is highlighted by North Korean tests, which exhibit poormore » performance of a reliable discriminant, mb:Ms (Selby et al., 2012), possibly due to source emplacement and differences in seismic responses for nascent and established test sites. The goal of SPE is to replace these semi-empirical relationships with numerical techniques grounded in a physical basis and thus applicable to any geologic setting or depth.« less

  16. A Distributed, Real-Time Data Monitoring System as Ground Support Equipment for Balloon-Borne Astronomy Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. M. H.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cook, W. R.; Davis, A. J.; Harrison, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    We present a real-time data-monitoring software suite that we developed for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT). HEFT was one of the first projects to develop focusing mirrors and detectors for hard X-ray astronomy. We deployed these new technologies on the scientific ballooning platform. During a balloon flight, this so-called ‘ground support equipment’ (GSE) allows us to monitor the physical condition of the payload, and to inspect preliminary science data in real time, through displays of tables of frequently updated quantities and their averages, time-series plots, histograms, spectra, and images. Unique from previous implementations of GSE s for other experiments, our system is a server-client network that utilises TCP/IP unicast and UDP multicast to enable multiple, concurrent and independent display clients. Most of the code is in Java, and thus platform-independent. We verified that the software suite works on Linux, Mac OS/X and Windows XP, deployed it in two flight campaigns for use during on-site calibration, pre-launch practice drills, and an observation flight of 24 hours. This system, and individual ideas of its implementation, can be adapted for use in future experiments requiring sophisticated real-time monitoring and data display.

  17. Application of the object-oriented paradigm for scientific experiment monitoring & control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racaud, Thierry; Assis-Arantes, Patrick

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the monitoring and control of scientific experiments. This new approach is based on an object-oriented environment composed of three elements: (a) A graphical environment that allows the creation of an object-oriented model of the experiment based on objects, attributes and methods. (b) A language for writing procedures to access the model by sending messages in order to operate the experiment. (c) A man-machine interface based on an interactive graphical layer above the object-oriented representation for controlling and monitoring the experiment. This new approach has been prototyped in a project called "Man-Machine Interface Software for Ground User Terminal", or User Terminal in short. The project is carried out by SPACEBEL Informatique on behalf of the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC). Although this project has been undertaken for the operation of scientific experiments in space, User Terminal can naturally be used for the monitoring and control of ground based experiments. This article presents the User Terminal system as well as one of the first practical exercises performed in the context of the teleoperation of a liquid science experiment to be shipped into space.

  18. Abnormal visual experiences in individuals with histories of hallucinogen use: a Web-based questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Baggott, M J; Coyle, J R; Erowid, E; Erowid, F; Robertson, L C

    2011-03-01

    Despite longstanding reports of prolonged or reoccurring perceptual changes in a subset of hallucinogen users, very little is known about Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder and related visual abnormalities in hallucinogen users. We used an online questionnaire to document the symptoms and relationship to drug use of unusual visual phenomena in hallucinogen users. 16,192 individuals viewed the information sheet and 2679 were included in the study. Of these, 224 reported having unrelated diagnoses associated with unusual visual experiences and were excluded from main analyses. Most (60.6%) of the remaining 2455 participants reported having experienced drug-free visual experiences that resembled hallucinogen effects. Probability of experiencing constant or near-constant symptoms was predicted by greater past exposure to specific hallucinogens, including lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Although symptoms were common, few (104, or 4.2% of the sample) found them distressing or impairing enough to consider seeking treatment. Visual changes in hallucinogen users may be more common than previously suspected and are worthy of further study.

  19. First experiences with an individual nasal olive in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Papaspyrou, George; Schneider, Mathias; Schick, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic teleangiectasia (HHT) is most notably characterized by vulnerable vascular formations of the nasal superficial mucosa. Epistaxis is one of the most common symptoms of the afflicted patients, with an incidence of more than 90 %. A variable series of treatments have been described, ranging from nasal ointments to the complete surgical occlusion of the nose. The objective of this pilot study is the presentation of first experiences in treating patients suffering from HHT and chronically recurrent epistaxis with an individual nasal olive made from silicone. Eleven patients (six men, five women) aging from 44 to 80 years with known HHT were treated at the ENT department of Homburg/Saar between October 2008 and July 2012 because of nasal bleeding by Nd:YAG laser or argon plasma coagulation. After the surgical treatment, an imprint of the nasal aditus was taken to manufacture an individual custom-made silicone nasal olive. Patients were wearing the nasal olive for 3-8 h a day. Check-ups were made every 6 months. Epistaxis severity score (ESS) was used pre- and post-nasal olive application. The observation period was 12-48 months. The utilization of the silicone nasal olive led to a distinct reduction of epistaxis events. Apart from the nasal olive, our patients needed no further treatment of the nose during the observation period except for a nasal ointment. Insertion and removal of the nasal olive were handled by the patients themselves. The local manipulation in handling the nasal olive caused no epistaxis itself. A significant improvement of the ESS and satisfaction was reported in all patients. Use of an individually manufactured silicone nasal olive is a promising extension to the established treatments of epistaxis in HHT patients. Tolerance towards this treatment by the patients was high due to the low personal burden and encumbrance. The extended use of the presented method in HHT patients may be beneficial. However, a more prolonged

  20. Monitoring Functional Capability of Individuals with Lower Limb Amputations Using Mobile Phones

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark V.; McCarthy, Cliodhna; Valentin, Juliana; Herrmann, Megan; Kording, Konrad; Jayaraman, Arun

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, a prescribed prosthetic device must match the functional requirements and capabilities of each patient. These capabilities are usually assessed by a clinician and reported by the Medicare K-level designation of mobility. However, it is not clear how the K-level designation objectively relates to the use of prostheses outside of a clinical environment. Here, we quantify participant activity using mobile phones and relate activity measured during real world activity to the assigned K-levels. We observe a correlation between K-level and the proportion of moderate to high activity over the course of a week. This relationship suggests that accelerometry-based technologies such as mobile phones can be used to evaluate real world activity for mobility assessment. Quantifying everyday activity promises to improve assessment of real world prosthesis use, leading to a better matching of prostheses to individuals and enabling better evaluations of future prosthetic devices. PMID:23750254

  1. Development and testing of fiber beam monitors for the Muon g-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkquist, Robin; Diamond, Edward; Martinez, Benjamin; Sblendorio, Alec; Gray, Frederick; Muon g-2 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab will measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon to a precision of 140 parts per billion. Careful characterization of the stored muon beam will be crucial for the experiment, because several beam-related systematic effects must be taken into account. The fiber beam monitors will provide a direct measurement of the spatial, temporal and momentum distributions and betatron oscillations of the stored muon beam. These detectors were originally built by KEK for the previous Muon g-2 experiment at Brookhaven National Lab, but have been repaired and refurbished for the upcoming experiment, including new scintillating fibers and upgraded SiPM-based readout electronics. We present the final design of the fiber beam monitor system and the results of a recent beam test performed at SLAC.

  2. Monitoring ultraviolet-B-induced DNA damage in individual diatom cells by immunofluorescent thymine dimer detection

    SciTech Connect

    Buma, A.G.J.; Van Hannen, E.J.; Roza, L.

    1995-04-01

    We developed a method to investigate the effect of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) on the formation of thymine dimers in microalgal DNA that can be used for both laboratory and in situ research. Antibody labeling of dimers was followed by a secondary antibody (fluorescein isothiocyanate) staining to allow visualization of DNA damage with flow cytometry or fluorescence microscopy. Thymine dimer-specific fluorescence in nuclear DNA of the marine diatom Cyclotella sp. was linearly related to the UVBR dose. Simultaneous measurements of cellular DNA content showed that the vulnerability of G2 cells to DNA damage did not differ significantly from the vulnerability of G1 cells. The formation and removal of thymine dimers in Cyclotella sp. cells was monitored for 3 consecutive days at two realistic UVBR irradiance levels. Thymine dimers were removed within 24 h when exposed to a saturating photosynthetically active radiation intensity following the UVBR treatment. This new method allows the study of UVBR-induced DNA damage on a cell-to-cell basis. It is also feasible for field studies because cells remain intact and can be recognized readily after antibody treatment. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations.

  4. Diffracted X-ray tracking for monitoring intramolecular motion in individual protein molecules using broad band X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohta, Noboru; Hoshisashi, Kentaro; Jae-won, Chang; Tokue, Maki; Matsushita, Yufuku; Nishijima, Masaki; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Yagi, Naoto

    2013-10-15

    Diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) enables the tilting and twisting motions of single protein molecules to be monitored with micro- to milliradian resolution using a highly brilliant X-ray source with a wide energy bandwidth. We have developed a technique to monitor single molecules using gold nanocrystals attached to individual protein molecules using the BL28B2 beamline at SPring-8. In this paper we present the installation of a single toroidal X-ray mirror at BL28B2 to focus X-rays in an energy range of 10–20 keV (△E/E = 82% for an X-ray with a wide energy bandwidth). With this beamline we tracked diffraction spots from gold nanocrystals over a wide angle range than that using quasi-monochromatic X-rays. Application of the wide angle DXT technique to biological systems enabled us to observe the on-site motions of single protein molecules that have been functionalized in vivo. We further extend the capability of DXT by observing the fractional tilting and twisting motions of inner proteins under various conditions. As a proof of this methodology and to determine instrumental performance the intramolecular motions of a human serum albumin complex with 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was investigated using the BL28B2 beamline. The random tilting and twisting intramolecular motions are shown to be directly linked to the movement of individual protein molecules in the buffer solution.

  5. Diffracted X-ray tracking for monitoring intramolecular motion in individual protein molecules using broad band X-ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Hoshisashi, Kentaro; Jae-won, Chang; Tokue, Maki; Matsushita, Yufuku; Nishijima, Masaki; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Sasaki, Yuji C.

    2013-10-01

    Diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) enables the tilting and twisting motions of single protein molecules to be monitored with micro- to milliradian resolution using a highly brilliant X-ray source with a wide energy bandwidth. We have developed a technique to monitor single molecules using gold nanocrystals attached to individual protein molecules using the BL28B2 beamline at SPring-8. In this paper we present the installation of a single toroidal X-ray mirror at BL28B2 to focus X-rays in an energy range of 10-20 keV (△E/E = 82% for an X-ray with a wide energy bandwidth). With this beamline we tracked diffraction spots from gold nanocrystals over a wide angle range than that using quasi-monochromatic X-rays. Application of the wide angle DXT technique to biological systems enabled us to observe the on-site motions of single protein molecules that have been functionalized in vivo. We further extend the capability of DXT by observing the fractional tilting and twisting motions of inner proteins under various conditions. As a proof of this methodology and to determine instrumental performance the intramolecular motions of a human serum albumin complex with 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was investigated using the BL28B2 beamline. The random tilting and twisting intramolecular motions are shown to be directly linked to the movement of individual protein molecules in the buffer solution.

  6. Saharan dust from source to sink; first results from a transatlantic monitoring experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, J. B. W.; Munday, C.; Korte, L.; Van der Does, M.

    2014-12-01

    New results of a transatlantic monitoring experiment are presented. In the experiment we study the potential marine environmental effects of Saharan-dust deposition, focussing on the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of Saharan dust collected along a transatlantic transect at 12degN. The material is collected both at the ocean surface with floating dust collectors as well as while settling through the water column.

  7. Use of a digital camera onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle to monitor spring phenology at individual tree level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, Elias; Gaulton, Rachel; Barr, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of forest phenology, in a cost-effective manner, at a fine spatial scale and over relatively large areas remains a significant challenge. To address this issue, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) appear as a potential new option for forest phenology monitoring. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of imagery acquired from a UAV to track seasonal changes in leaf canopy at individual tree level. UAV flights, deploying consumer-grade standard and near-infrared modified cameras, were carried out over a deciduous woodland during the spring season of 2015, from which a temporal series of calibrated and georeferenced 5 cm spatial resolution orthophotos was generated. Initial results from a subset of trees are presented in this paper. Four trees with different observed Start of Season (SOS) dates were selected to monitor UAV-derived Green Chromatic Coordinate (GCC), as a measure of canopy greenness. Mean GCC values were extracted from within the four individual tree crowns and were plotted against the day of year (DOY) when the data were acquired. The temporal GCC trajectory of each tree was associated with the visual observations of leaf canopy phenology (SOS) and also with the development of understory vegetation. The chronological order when sudden increases of GCC values occurred matched with the chronological order of observed SOS: the first sudden increase in GCC was detected in the tree which first reached SOS; 18.5 days later (on average) the last sudden increase of GCC was detected in the tree which last reached SOS (18 days later than the first one). Trees with later observed SOS presented GCC values increasing slowly over time, which were associated with development of understory vegetation. Ongoing work is dealing with: 1) testing different indices; 2) radiometric calibration (retrieving of spectral reflectance); 3) expanding the analysis to more tree individuals, more tree species and over larger forest areas, and; 4) deriving

  8. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Island Resettlement Support (1998-2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-05-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the U.S. Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNLL) using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  9. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  10. Monitoring of individual human exposure to aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) by immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, C.P.; Umbenhauer, D.; Chapot, B.; Montesano, R.

    1986-01-01

    Highly sensitive immunoassays have been used to quantitate aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) in human body fluids and tissues, respectively. This approach was taken in order to quantitate environmental exposure to these agents at an individual level to facilitate the investigation of their role in the etiology of human cancer. In order to analyse AF in human urine, an immunopurification step has been developed by using AF-specific antibody bound to AH-Sepharose 4B gel in a small (4-ml gel volume) affinity column prior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA can be used to quantitate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) over the range 0.01 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml and the assay system has been validated by using human urine samples spiked with AFB1 over this concentration range. In addition, 29 urine samples from the Philippines have been analyzed and found to contain a range of levels from zero to 4.25 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent with a mean of 0.875 ng/ml. This compared with a mean of 0.066 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent in samples from France. Radioimmunoassay of O6-methyldeoxyguanosine (O6-medG) has been performed on human esophageal and cardiac stomach mucosal DNA from tissue samples obtained during surgery in Linxian County, People's Republic of China, an area of high risk for both esophageal and stomach cancer. Using the methodology described and having 1 mg of hydrolyzed DNA allows the detection of approximately 25 fmol O6medG per mg DNA.

  11. I Still Need My Security Teddy Bear: Experiences of an Individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayman, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the needs of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their post-high school experiences is a new and widely under-studied area of research (MacLeod & Green, 2009). The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of a young woman with ASD in her journey following high school graduation to the world…

  12. Long-Term Effects of Individual Development Accounts on Postsecondary Education: Follow-Up Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Sherraden, Michael; Gale, William G.; Rohe, William M.; Schreiner, Mark; Key, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a randomized field experiment testing the impact of a 3-year matched savings program on educational outcomes 10 years after the start of the experiment. We examine the effect of an Individual Development Account (IDA) program on (1) educational enrollment, (2) degree completion, and (3) increased education level.…

  13. Grief and Personal Growth Experience of Spouses and Adult-Child Caregivers of Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Carol H.; Sanders, Sara; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the grief and personal growth experience of spouses and adult children of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and the factors contributing to these experiences. Design and Methods: We used a modification of the Marwit-Meuser-Sanders Caregiver Grief model to examine the…

  14. How are the Experiences and Needs of Families of Individuals with Mental Illness Reflected in Medical Education Guidelines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebschleger, Joanne; Scheid, Jeanette; Luz, Clare; Mickus, Maureen; Liszewski, Christine; Eaton, Monaca

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This descriptive study explored the extent that medical education curriculum guidelines contained content about the experiences and needs of family members of people with serious mental illness. Methods: Key family-focused-literature themes about the experiences and needs of families of individuals with mental illness were drawn from a…

  15. Quality assurance of personal beta particle dosemeters used for individual monitoring of occupationally exposed persons.

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Klaus; Ambrosi, Peter

    2007-01-01

    As a result of investigations and intercomparison measurements organised from 1996 to 1999 by PTB, several types of personal dosemeters, all based on TLD, were selected by the dosimetry services for the measurement of the personal dose equivalent Hp(0.07) in beta and/or photon radiation fields. These dosemeters have now the status of legal personal beta partial-body dosemeters. Workplaces at which beta radiation might significantly contribute to the doses to the extremities are to be found today with increasing frequency in radiation therapy, radiation source production and nuclear power plants. Quality assurance for beta personal dosemeters is stipulated by guidelines for the official dosimetry service and is carried out by way of the intercomparison measurements organised periodically by the PTB. The results are evaluated based on the recommendations of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK). The procedure of these intercomparison measurements will be explained in detail. The experience gained from three series of comparisons with seven types of fingerring dosemeters will be described and the results will be presented. The anonymity of the dosemeter types and of the participants in the intercomparison will be preserved.

  16. Empty rituals? A qualitative study of users' experience of monitoring & evaluation systems in HIV interventions in western India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anuprita; Teedon, Paul; Cornish, Flora

    2016-11-01

    In global health initiatives, particularly in the context of private philanthropy and its 'business minded' approach, detailed programme data plays an increasing role in informing assessments, improvements, evaluations, and ultimately continuation or discontinuation of funds for individual programmes. The HIV/AIDS literature predominantly treats monitoring as unproblematic. However, the social science of audit and indicators emphasises the constitutive power of indicators, noting that their effects at a grassroots level are often at odds with the goals specified in policy. This paper investigates users' experiences of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) systems in the context of HIV interventions in western India. Six focus groups (totalling 51 participants) were held with employees of 6 different NGOs working for government or philanthropy-funded HIV interventions for sex workers in western India. Ten donor employees were interviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted. NGO employees described a major gap between what they considered their "real work" and the indicators used to monitor it. They could explain the official purposes of M&E systems in terms of programme improvement and financial accountability. More cynically, they valued M&E experience on their CVs and the rhetorical role of data in demonstrating their achievements. They believed that inappropriate and unethical means were being used to meet targets, including incentives and coercion, and criticised indicators for being misleading and inflexible. Donor employees valued the role of M&E in programme improvement, financial accountability, and professionalising NGO-donor relationships. However, they were suspicious that NGOs might be falsifying data, criticised the insensitivity of indicators, and complained that data were under-used. For its users, M& E appears an 'empty ritual', enacted because donors require it, but not put to local use. In this context, monitoring is constituted as an instrument of

  17. Investigations into beam monitors at the AE bar {g}IS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, A.; Bravin, E.; Harasimowicz, J.; Jeff, A.; Welsch, C. P.

    2014-02-01

    Detailed diagnostic of antiproton beams at low energies is required for essentially all experiments at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), but will be particularly important for the future Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) and its keV beam lines to the different experiments. Many monitors have been successfully developed and operated at the AD, but in particular beam profile monitoring remains a challenge. A dedicated beam instrumentation and detector test stand has recently been setup at the AE bar {g}IS experiment (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy). Located behind the actual experiment, it allows for parasitic use of the antiproton beam at different energies for testing and calibration. With the aim to explore and validate different candidate technologies for future low energy beam lines, as well as the downstream antihydrogen detector in AE bar {g}IS, measurements have been carried out using Silicon strip and pixel detectors, a purpose-built secondary emission monitor and emulsions. Here, results from measurements and characterization of the different detector types with regard to their future use at the AD complex are presented.

  18. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for determination of size of individual immobilized vesicles: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Thomas; Zhdanov, Vladimir P.; Höök, Fredrik

    2015-08-01

    Lipid vesicles immobilized via molecular linkers at a solid support represent a convenient platform for basic and applied studies of biological processes occurring at lipid membranes. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), one can track such processes at the level of individual vesicles provided that they contain dyes. In such experiments, it is desirable to determine the size of each vesicle, which may be in the range from 50 to 1000 nm. Fortunately, TIRFM in combination with nanoparticle tracking analysis makes it possible to solve this problem as well. Herein, we present the formalism allowing one to interpret the TIRFM measurements of the latter category. The analysis is focused primarily on the case of unpolarized light. The specifics of the use of polarized light are also discussed. In addition, we show the expected difference in size distribution of suspended and immobilized vesicles under the assumption that the latter ones are deposited under diffusion-controlled conditions. In the experimental part of our work, we provide representative results, showing explicit advantages and some shortcomings of the use of TIRFM in the context under consideration, as well as how our refined formalism improves previously suggested approaches.

  19. Group vs. Individual Bystander Response to a Violent Assault: A Field Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Herbert; And Others

    Research studies on group versus individual bystander responses either have involved nonviolent emergencies or laboratory simulations. To investigate group versus individual bystander response to a violent assualt in a natural setting, 80 male college students (from an original pool of 393 white, male students) were observed either individually or…

  20. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  1. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  2. Bioanalytical Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory: Monitoring Glucose in Sports Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, J. Justin; Yang, Wenrong; Situmorang, Manihar

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes two complementary bioanalytical experiments for analyzing the concentration of glucose in sports drinks. The first experiment is a spectrophotometric enzyme assay employing the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The glucose is oxidized by the GOx, producing hydrogen peroxide, which is the substrate for HRP. In the reduction of the H2O2 a chromogen is oxidized, causing a color change. In the partner experiment, the GOx is immobilized on a platinum electrode using a dialysis membrane. The hydrogen peroxide produced in the enzyme reaction is monitored amperometrically by oxidizing the hydrogen peroxide produced. The simple method of preparing the enzyme electrode is useful in demonstrating the important parameters in defining the response of enzyme electrodes. The same sports drinks are analyzed in both experiments. The two experiments together illustrate the advantage of bioanalysis in analyzing complex samples with minimal sample preparation.

  3. A system utilizing radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to monitor individual rodent behavior in complex social settings.

    PubMed

    Howerton, Christopher L; Garner, Joseph P; Mench, Joy A

    2012-07-30

    Pre-clinical investigation of human CNS disorders relies heavily on mouse models. However these show low predictive validity for translational success to humans, partly due to the extensive use of rapid, high-throughput behavioral assays. Improved assays to monitor rodent behavior over longer time scales in a variety of contexts while still maintaining the efficiency of data collection associated with high-throughput assays are needed. We developed an apparatus that uses radio frequency identification device (RFID) technology to facilitate long-term automated monitoring of the behavior of mice in socially or structurally complex cage environments. Mice that were individually marked and implanted with transponders were placed in pairs in the apparatus, and their locations continuously tracked for 24 h. Video observation was used to validate the RFID readings. The apparatus and its associated software accurately tracked the locations of all mice, yielding information about each mouse's location over time, its diel activity patterns, and the amount of time it was in the same location as the other mouse in the pair. The information that can be efficiently collected in this apparatus has a variety of applications for pre-clinical research on human CNS disorders, for example major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder, in that it can be used to quantify validated endophenotypes or biomarkers of these disorders using rodent models. While the specific configuration of the apparatus described here was designed to answer particular experimental questions, it can be modified in various ways to accommodate different experimental designs.

  4. Individual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    M Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1β1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-γ and IL-4/13A) and β-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment.

  5. Mobile-Based Nutrition and Child Health Monitoring to Inform Program Development: An Experience From Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Guyon, Agnes; Bock, Ariella; Buback, Laura; Knittel, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Implementing complex nutrition and other public health projects and tracking nutrition interventions, such as women's diet and supplementation and infant and young child feeding practices, requires reliable routine data to identify potential program gaps and to monitor trends in behaviors in real time. However, current monitoring and evaluation practices generally do not create an environment for this real-time tracking. This article describes the development and application of a mobile-based nutrition and health monitoring system, which collected monitoring data on project activities, women's nutrition, and infant and young child feeding practices in real time. Program Description: The Liberia Agricultural Upgrading Nutrition and Child Health (LAUNCH) project implemented a nutrition and health monitoring system between April 2012 and June 2014. The LAUNCH project analyzed project monitoring and outcome data from the system and shared selected behavioral and programmatic indicators with program managers through a short report, which later evolved into a visual data dashboard, during program-update meetings. The project designed protocols to ensure representativeness of program participants. Findings: LAUNCH made programmatic adjustments in response to findings from the monitoring system; these changes were then reflected in subsequent quarterly trends, indicating that the availability of timely data allowed for the project to react quickly to issues and adapt the program appropriately. Such issues included lack of participation in community groups and insufficient numbers of food distribution points. Likewise, the system captured trends in key outcome indicators such as breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, linking them to project activities and external factors including seasonal changes and national health campaigns. Conclusion: Digital data collection platforms can play a vital role in improving routine programmatic functions

  6. The Deep Impact Network Experiment Operations Center Monitor and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan (Cindy); Torgerson, J. Leigh; Schoolcraft, Joshua; Brenman, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) software at JPL is an implementation of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) which has been proposed as an interplanetary protocol to support space communication. The JPL Deep Impact Network (DINET) is a technology development experiment intended to increase the technical readiness of the JPL implemented ION suite. The DINET Experiment Operations Center (EOC) developed by JPL's Protocol Technology Lab (PTL) was critical in accomplishing the experiment. EOC, containing all end nodes of simulated spaces and one administrative node, exercised publish and subscribe functions for payload data among all end nodes to verify the effectiveness of data exchange over ION protocol stacks. A Monitor and Control System was created and installed on the administrative node as a multi-tiered internet-based Web application to support the Deep Impact Network Experiment by allowing monitoring and analysis of the data delivery and statistics from ION. This Monitor and Control System includes the capability of receiving protocol status messages, classifying and storing status messages into a database from the ION simulation network, and providing web interfaces for viewing the live results in addition to interactive database queries.

  7. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals’ experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone

  8. First Operating Experiences of Beam Position Monitors in the TESLA Test Facility Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R.; Sachwitz, M.; Schreiber, H. J.; Tonisch, F.; Castellano, M.; Patteri, P.; Tazzioli, F.; Catani, L.

    1997-05-01

    Different types of monitors where installed in the TESLA Test Facility Linac to measure the beam position. At each superconducting quadrupole, the transverse beam position will be measured with a resolution of better than 10 μm, using a cylindrical cavity excited in the TM_110-mode by an off-center beam. In addition, two 'warm' cavities working at room temperature were built for the Injector I and the Bunch Compressor. The amplitude of the TM_110-mode and its phase are measured in a homodyne receiver. For the experimental area, stripline monitors having a resolution of better than 100 μm were built, tested and installed. The averaged position of the whole bunch train of Injector I is measured in a narrowband receiver using the amplitude-to-phase conversion. This paper summarizes the designs, cold tests and first operating experiences of both monitor types.

  9. Gas Filled RF Resonator Hadron Beam Monitor for Intense Neutrino Beam Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, Katsuya; Abrams, Robert; Dinkel, Holly; Freemire, Ben; Johnson, Rolland; Kazakevich, Grigory; Tollestrup, Alvin; Zwaska, Robert

    2016-06-01

    MW-class beam facilities are being considered all over the world to produce an intense neutrino beam for fundamental particle physics experiments. A radiation-robust beam monitor system is required to diagnose the primary and secondary beam qualities in high-radiation environments. We have proposed a novel gas-filled RF-resonator hadron beam monitor in which charged particles passing through the resonator produce ionized plasma that changes the permittivity of the gas. The sensitivity of the monitor has been evaluated in numerical simulation. A signal manipulation algorithm has been designed. A prototype system will be constructed and tested by using a proton beam at the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab.

  10. Monitoring of debris flows and landslides by wired and wireless systems. Experiences from the Catalan Pyrenees.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Clàudia; Moya, José; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Llosa, Jordi

    2013-04-01

    Sophisticated monitoring of landslides for research purpose has started in the 1990thies in the Catalan Pyrenees. Since then several types of mass movements (large landslides, debris flows, shallow landslides and rock falls) and multiples techniques have been applied. In this contribution, special attention will be given to the debris-flow monitoring system installed since summer 2009 in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees. The monitoring system has continuously been improved during the last years and nowadays includes devices studying the three major aspects: 1) initiation, 2) flow dynamics, and 3) accumulation. While some parts of the monitoring network include a traditional wired system, the newer parts were installed using low-power wireless devices. Two major aspects will be discussed. First, results of the Rebaixader monitoring site will be presented. Second, experience regarding the monitoring will be evaluated focussing on technical aspects and the comparison between wired and wireless techniques. In the Rebaixader catchment, 6 debris flows and 11 debris floods were observed between August 2009 and October 2012. Surprisingly, also 4 major rock falls were recorded. The rainfall analysis shows that the debris flows were triggered by short, high-intensity rainstorms with a preliminary threshold of about 15 mm during 1 hour. In addition, there was observed a positive trend between event volume and rainfall amount or intensity. The analysis of the ground vibration signals shows significant differences between the time series recorded at the different geophones. These differences are associated with the geophone location in the channel (distance and material), the mounting or the data acquisition system. For instance, the most downstream geophone, installed in bedrock, shows the clearest debris-flows vibration time series, while the uppermost is the most reliable regarding the detection of rockfalls. An evaluation of wired versus wireless monitoring

  11. Field-scale gas tracing experiment in unsaturated fractured media: from deep injection to surface monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Sabroux, J.; Sestier-Carlin, R.; Adler, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    For CO2 sequestration as for other applications, it is important to understand transfer mechanisms of gases in unsaturated fractured rocks from experiment and to develop modeling capabilities. We carried out a field-scale tracing experiment using SF6 with the aim to serve for a forthcoming experiment using CO2. The experimental site was well characterized (mineralogy and fracturation). Transport parameters were estimated from the field, especially permeability and dilution factor. We also evaluated methods to monitor tracer breakthrough at the surface. At the Roselend Natural Laboratory (French Alps), a tunnel provides access to the heart of unsaturated fractured crystalline rocks, at 55 m depth below ground surface. This underground research facility allows studying gas exchange between a 60 m3 chamber isolated at the dead-end of the tunnel and the surface. At the topographic surface, ten 10 meter-long vertical boreholes and one 60 meter-long subhorizontal borehole were used to monitor tracer breakthrough. Stereological analysis of fractures in the tunnel previously led to permeability estimation. Similar analysis of drilled cores (density and orientation of fractures) gave additional permeability estimates in the subsurface. Gas permeability was also determined from pneumatic injection tests in both the injection chamber and subsurface boreholes. Steady-state and transient experiments were analyzed by modeling in real geometry. Long-term continuous pressure monitoring in the isolated chamber and the packed-off boreholes were also used for permeability estimation. We found equivalent air permeability of the order of 10-12 m2 which compares well with previous estimations. Following baseline determination, SF6 was injected at 1000 ppmV in the isolated chamber that was then pressurized to 150 mbar above atmospheric pressure during 2 hours. During all the experiment SF6 concentration was continuously monitored inside the isolated chamber and in front of the isolation

  12. Research on simulation and experiment of noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring based on acoustoelasticity effects

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; He, Wei; Chen, Wei-min; Zhu, Lian

    2013-01-01

    The real-time monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is very important for craniocerebrally critically ill patients, but it is very difficult to realize long-time monitoring for the traditional invasive method, which very easily infects patients. Many noninvasive methods have emerged, but these have not been able to monitor ICP for long periods in real time, and they are not ready for clinical application. In order to realize long-time, online, real-time, noninvasive monitoring for ICP, a new method based on acoustoelasticity of ultrasound is herein proposed. Experimental models were devised to research the new method for experiment and simulation. Polymethyl methacrylate and hydrogel were adopted for the experiment, and their mechanical properties were very close to the real brain. A numerical solution for acoustoelasticity theory was acquired by simulating calculation based on a finite-element method. This was compared to the experimental value. The results showed a consistent match between theoretical solution and experimental value, with maximum error at most 5%. Thus, the effectiveness of the new method was verified. Theoretical and practical foundation is provided for this new method, and it could be used for animal experimentation or clinical testing in further research. PMID:24009433

  13. Research on simulation and experiment of noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring based on acoustoelasticity effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; He, Wei; Chen, Wei-Min; Zhu, Lian

    2013-01-01

    The real-time monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is very important for craniocerebrally critically ill patients, but it is very difficult to realize long-time monitoring for the traditional invasive method, which very easily infects patients. Many noninvasive methods have emerged, but these have not been able to monitor ICP for long periods in real time, and they are not ready for clinical application. In order to realize long-time, online, real-time, noninvasive monitoring for ICP, a new method based on acoustoelasticity of ultrasound is herein proposed. Experimental models were devised to research the new method for experiment and simulation. Polymethyl methacrylate and hydrogel were adopted for the experiment, and their mechanical properties were very close to the real brain. A numerical solution for acoustoelasticity theory was acquired by simulating calculation based on a finite-element method. This was compared to the experimental value. The results showed a consistent match between theoretical solution and experimental value, with maximum error at most 5%. Thus, the effectiveness of the new method was verified. Theoretical and practical foundation is provided for this new method, and it could be used for animal experimentation or clinical testing in further research.

  14. Diamond detector for beam profile monitoring in COMET experiment at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    &Cbreve; erv, M.; Sarin, P.; Pernegger, H.; Vageeswaran, P.; Griesmayer, E.

    2015-06-01

    We present the design and initial prototype results of a proton beam profile monitor for the COMET experiment at J-PARC. The goal of COMET is to look for charged lepton flavor violation by direct μ to e conversion at a sensitivity of 10-19. The 8 GeV proton beam pulsed at 100 ns with 1010 protons/s will be used to create muons through pion production and decay. In the final experiment, the proton flux will be raised to 1014 protons/s to increase the sensitivity. These requirements of harsh radiation tolerance and fast readout make diamond a good choice for constructing a beam profile monitor in COMET. We present first results of the characterization of single crystal diamond (scCVD) sourced from a new company 2A SYSTEMS Singapore. Our measurements indicate excellent charge collection and high carrier mobility down to cryogenic temperatures.

  15. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  16. Integrating a project monitoring system into a public health network: experiences from Alive & Thrive Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Thanh; Alayon, Silvia; Do, Tran Thanh; Ngan, Tran Thi; Hajeebhoy, Nemat

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available about how to build a monitoring system to measure the output of preventive nutrition interventions, such as counselling on infant and young child feeding. This paper describes the Alive & Thrive Vietnam (A&T) project experience in nesting a large-scale project monitoring system into the existing public health information system (e.g. using the system and resources), and in using monitoring data to strengthen service delivery in 15 provinces with A&T franchises. From January 2012 to April 2014, the 780 A&T franchises provided 1,700,000 counselling contacts (~3/4 by commune franchises). In commune franchises in April 2014, 80% of mothers who were pregnant or with children under two years old had been to the counselling service at least one time, and 87% of clients had been to the service earlier. Monitoring data are used to track the progress of the project, make decisions, provide background for a costing study and advocate for the integration of nutrition counselling indicators into the health information system nationwide. With careful attention to the needs of stakeholders at multiple levels, clear data quality assurance measures and strategic feedback mechanisms, it is feasible to monitor the scale-up of nutrition programmes through the existing routine health information system.

  17. Leaders’ and followers’ individual experiences during the early phase of simulation-based team training: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Meurling, Lisbet; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Wallin, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence shows that team training can develop essential team skills and contribute to better patient outcomes. Current simulation-based team training (SBTT) programmes most often include targets and feedback focused on the whole team and/or leader, ignoring the follower as a unique entity. By considering followers’ individual experiences, and tailoring behavioural targets for training and feedback, SBTT could be improved. Our aim was to explore the individual experiences and behaviours of leaders and followers during the early phase of SBTT, and we hypothesised that leaders and followers would show different responses. Methods Medical students (n=54) participated in half-day SBTT including three video-recorded scenarios. Self-efficacy was assessed pretraining and post-training. For each scenario (n=36), the individual teamwork behaviours, concentration, mental strain and the team's clinical performance were recorded. Data were analysed using a mixed model allowing for participants to be their own control in their roles as leader or follower. Results Self-efficacy improved. In the role of leader, participants communicated to a greater extent and experienced higher mental strain and concentration than they did in the role of follower. Discussion The increased self-efficacy enables a positive learning outcome after only three scenarios. Individual experiences and behaviours differed between the role of leader and that of follower. By shedding further light on leaders’ and followers’ individual experiences and behaviours, targets for training and feedback could be specified in order to improve SBTT. PMID:23293119

  18. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John b. Walter

    2010-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B’s) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  19. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K Hartwell; John B. Walter

    2008-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B’s) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  20. Aircraft Turbine Engine Monitoring Experience: Implications for the F100 Engine Diagnostic System Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    malfunction re- port data were obtained from the Program Office. -8- EHMS (T-38 / J85 ) ACTIVITY OUTCOMES JULY 76 - MAY 77 INSTRUMENTED ENGINES CONTROL...interesting to note that the J85 was a mature engine and that the number of engine problems encountered was not very great. Also, the EHMS was not a new...copyright notation hereon. Library of Congress Cataloging In PObNiation Data Birkier, John L Aircraft turbine engine monitoring experience. ([Report

  1. Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi

    2008-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed.

  2. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  3. MOJAVE: Monitoring of jets in active galactic nuclei with VLBA experiments. XI. Spectral distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas; Homan, Daniel C.; Lister, Matthew L.

    2014-06-01

    We have obtained milliarcsecond-scale spectral index distributions for a sample of 190 extragalactic radio jets through the Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with the VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) project. The sources were observed in 2006 at 8.1, 8.4, 12.1, and 15.4 GHz, and we have determined spectral index maps between 8.1 and 15.4 GHz to study the four-frequency spectrum in individual jet features. We have performed detailed simulations to study the effects of image alignment and (u, v)-plane coverage on the spectral index maps to verify our results. We use the spectral index maps to study the spectral index evolution along the jet and determine the spectral distributions in different locations of the jets. The core spectral indices are on average flat with a mean value of +0.22 ± 0.03 for the sample, while the jet spectrum is in general steep with a mean index of –1.04 ± 0.03. A simple power-law fit is often inadequate for the core regions, as expected if the cores are partially self-absorbed. The overall jet spectrum steepens at a rate of about –0.001 to –0.004 per deprojected parsec when moving further out from the core with flat spectrum radio quasars having significantly steeper spectra (mean –1.09 ± 0.04) than the BL Lac objects (mean –0.80 ± 0.05). However, the spectrum in both types of objects flattens on average by ∼0.2 at the locations of the jet components indicating particle acceleration or density enhancements along the jet. The mean spectral index at the component locations of –0.81 ± 0.02 corresponds to a power-law index of ∼2.6 for the electron energy distribution. We find a significant trend that jet components with linear polarization parallel to the jet (magnetic field perpendicular to the jet) have flatter spectra, as expected for transverse shocks. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have more jet components with perpendicular magnetic field alignment, which may explain their generally flatter spectra. The overall

  4. Monitoring System for the GRID Monte Carlo Mass Production in the H1 Experiment at DESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritskaya, Elena; Fomenko, Alexander; Gogitidze, Nelly; Lobodzinski, Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    The H1 Virtual Organization (VO), as one of the small VOs, employs most components of the EMI or gLite Middleware. In this framework, a monitoring system is designed for the H1 Experiment to identify and recognize within the GRID the best suitable resources for execution of CPU-time consuming Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tasks (jobs). Monitored resources are Computer Elements (CEs), Storage Elements (SEs), WMS-servers (WMSs), CernVM File System (CVMFS) available to the VO HONE and local GRID User Interfaces (UIs). The general principle of monitoring GRID elements is based on the execution of short test jobs on different CE queues using submission through various WMSs and directly to the CREAM-CEs as well. Real H1 MC Production jobs with a small number of events are used to perform the tests. Test jobs are periodically submitted into GRID queues, the status of these jobs is checked, output files of completed jobs are retrieved, the result of each job is analyzed and the waiting time and run time are derived. Using this information, the status of the GRID elements is estimated and the most suitable ones are included in the automatically generated configuration files for use in the H1 MC production. The monitoring system allows for identification of problems in the GRID sites and promptly reacts on it (for example by sending GGUS (Global Grid User Support) trouble tickets). The system can easily be adapted to identify the optimal resources for tasks other than MC production, simply by changing to the relevant test jobs. The monitoring system is written mostly in Python and Perl with insertion of a few shell scripts. In addition to the test monitoring system we use information from real production jobs to monitor the availability and quality of the GRID resources. The monitoring tools register the number of job resubmissions, the percentage of failed and finished jobs relative to all jobs on the CEs and determine the average values of waiting and running time for the

  5. Individual Conferences Versus Typed Comments Without Conferences on Graded Freshman English Composition Papers: The El Camino Experiment and the Compton Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Jack

    In order to determine the effectiveness of the tutorial method of individual conferences for communicating students' strengths and weaknesses in writing skills compared to the traditional method of returning correction-marked papers with only written comments on them, two experiments were conducted in which an experimental group and a control…

  6. Consensus and experience trump leadership, suppressing individual personality during social foraging.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Nicholas D; Rands, Sean A; Hill, Francesca; Elder, Charlotte; Ioannou, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Whether individual behavior in social settings correlates with behavior when individuals are alone is a fundamental question in collective behavior. However, evidence for whether behavior correlates across asocial and social settings is mixed, and no study has linked observed trends with underlying mechanisms. Consistent differences between individuals in boldness, which describes willingness to accept reward over risk, are likely to be under strong selection pressure. By testing three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a risky foraging task alone and repeatedly in shoals, we demonstrate that the expression of boldness in groups is context-specific. Whereas personality is repeatable in a low-risk behavior (leaving a refuge), the collectively made consensus decision to then cross the arena outweighs leadership by bolder individuals, explaining the suppression of personality in this context. However, despite this social coordination, bolder individuals were still more likely to feed. Habituation and satiation over repeated trials degrade the effect of personality on leaving the refuge and also whether crossing the arena is a collective decision. The suppression of personality in groups suggests that individual risk-taking tendency may rarely represent actual risk in social settings, with implications for the evolution and ecology of personality variation.

  7. Consensus and experience trump leadership, suppressing individual personality during social foraging

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Nicholas D.; Rands, Sean A.; Hill, Francesca; Elder, Charlotte; Ioannou, Christos C.

    2016-01-01

    Whether individual behavior in social settings correlates with behavior when individuals are alone is a fundamental question in collective behavior. However, evidence for whether behavior correlates across asocial and social settings is mixed, and no study has linked observed trends with underlying mechanisms. Consistent differences between individuals in boldness, which describes willingness to accept reward over risk, are likely to be under strong selection pressure. By testing three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a risky foraging task alone and repeatedly in shoals, we demonstrate that the expression of boldness in groups is context-specific. Whereas personality is repeatable in a low-risk behavior (leaving a refuge), the collectively made consensus decision to then cross the arena outweighs leadership by bolder individuals, explaining the suppression of personality in this context. However, despite this social coordination, bolder individuals were still more likely to feed. Habituation and satiation over repeated trials degrade the effect of personality on leaving the refuge and also whether crossing the arena is a collective decision. The suppression of personality in groups suggests that individual risk-taking tendency may rarely represent actual risk in social settings, with implications for the evolution and ecology of personality variation. PMID:27652342

  8. Supporting patients to self-monitor their oral anticoagulation therapy: recommendations based on a qualitative study of patients’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Alice; Heneghan, Carl; Fitzmaurice, David; Sutton, Stephen; Harrison, Sian; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical trials suggest that oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) self-monitoring is safe and effective, however little is known about the patient experience of this process. There is a lack of understanding about how best to train and support patients embarking on OAT self-monitoring. Aim To collect in-depth information about patients’ experiences of OAT self-monitoring outside of clinical trial conditions and to produce a set of recommendations on how best to support such patients. Design and setting Semi-structured qualitative interviews with patients who self-monitor and live in England. Method In total, 26 of the 267 (9.7%) who participated in the Cohort study of Anticoagulation Self-Monitoring (CASM) and were still self-monitoring after 12 months’ follow-up were interviewed. Topics discussed included experiences of OAT self-monitoring, healthcare support, training, and decision making. Framework analysis was used. Results Following initial problems using the monitoring device, interviewees described a mostly positive experience. Although less effort was expended attending monitoring appointments with health professionals, effort was required to conduct self-monitoring tests and to interpret and act on the results. Desire to self-manage was variable, especially when dosing advice systems worked promptly and reliably. Interviewees overcame patchy healthcare system knowledge and support of self-monitoring by educating themselves. Family and friends provided support with learning to use the monitor and managing OAT dosage adjustments. Conclusion Better, more-consistent training and health-service support would have alleviated a number of problems encountered by these patients who were self-monitoring. This training and support will become even more important if self-monitoring becomes more accessible to the general population of people on OAT. PMID:26077266

  9. Predicting Individual Differences in Attention, Memory, and Planning in First Graders from Experiences at Home, Child Care, and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Developmental Psychology, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This study adds to the growing literature linking children's experiences in the environment to individual differences in their developing skills in attention, memory, and planning. The authors asked about the extent to which stimulating and sensitive care in the family and in the child-care or school environments would predict these cognitive…

  10. A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Educational, Vocational and Social Experiences of College Educated Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Mary-Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Students who are visually impaired have significantly lower educational and vocational success rates than their nondisabled peers (Hasazi, Johnson, Hasazi, Gordon, & Hull, 1989; Nagle, 2001). A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to explore the educational, vocational and social experiences of college educated individuals who were…

  11. A Study of the Effects of Individualized Programmed Mathematics Experiments on Achievement and Attitudes of Seventh Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John L.; Hudson, Charles

    An analysis of the cognitive and affective outcomes of individualized programmed experiments (IPE) on seventh-grade pupils was performed. Based on the theory that student attitudes towards mathematics are largely shaped during the period of time spanned between fourth through eighth grade, researchers investigated the effectiveness of nonlecture…

  12. Children's Individual Experiences in Early Care and Education: Relations with Overall Classroom Quality and Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Langill, Carolyn C.; Peterson, Carla A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among children's individual experiences, global classroom quality, and school readiness. Preschool children from low-income backgrounds (N = 138; M = 62.16 months; SD = 3.93; range = 55-70) were observed in their early care and education settings, and their language and cognitive skills were assessed. Research…

  13. Professional Carers' Experiences of Caring for Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Dementia: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Josephine; Doody, Owen

    2017-01-01

    The number of people with intellectual disability living into old age and developing dementia continues to increase. Dementia presents a wide range of challenges for staff due to progressive deterioration. This article presents the findings from a narrative literature review of professional caregivers' experiences of caring for individuals with…

  14. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Phenotypes among Individuals With and Without Diabetes Taking Antihypertensive Medication: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Bromfield, Samantha G.; Shimbo, Daichi; Bertoni, Alain G.; Sims, Mario; Carson, April P.; Muntner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can detect phenotypes associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Diabetes is associated with increased CVD risk but few data are available documenting whether blood pressure (BP) phenotypes, detected by ABPM, differ between individuals with versus without diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 567 participants in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, taking antihypertensive medication to evaluate the association between diabetes and ABPM phenotypes. Two clinic BP measurements were taken at baseline following a standardized protocol. ABPM was performed for 24 hours following the clinic visit. ABPM phenotypes included daytime, sustained, nocturnal, and isolated nocturnal hypertension, a non-dipping BP pattern, and white coat, masked, and masked isolated nocturnal hypertension. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications. Of the included participants (mean age 62.3 years, 71.8% female), 196 (34.6%) had diabetes. After multivariable adjustment, participants with diabetes were more likely to have daytime hypertension (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.09–1.60), masked hypertension (PR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11–1.93), and masked isolated nocturnal hypertension (PR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.02–1.89). Although nocturnal hypertension was more common among participants with versus without diabetes, this association was not present after adjustment for daytime systolic BP. Diabetes was not associated with the other ABPM phenotypes investigated. This study highlights the high prevalence of ABPM phenotypes among individuals with diabetes taking antihypertensive medication. PMID:27169827

  15. Hemodynamic monitoring of large animal chronic studies after median sternotomy: experiences with different telemetric physiological devices.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yasuhiro; Pitsillides, Koullis; Ferro, Giuseppe; Kagawa, Hiroshi; Centola, Luca; Kinouchi, Katsushi; Zhu, Liqun; Ferrier, William T; Talken, Linda; Nasirov, Teimour; Riemer, R Kirk; Reinhartz, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Telemetric physiological monitoring systems (TPMS) have enabled accurate continuous measurement of animal blood pressures and flows. However, few studies describe approaches for use of TPMS in the great vessels or inside the heart. We describe our initial experiences using two types of TPMSs. Twelve lambs (20-37 kg) underwent sternotomy. Two lambs were not instrumented and were killed at 14 days to confirm normal sternal wound healing (sham group, n = 2). Ten lambs underwent placement of either standard indwelling pressure-monitoring catheter and perivascular-flow-probe (CFP group, n = 3) or TPMS implantation (TPMS group, n = 7). The TPMS used were EG1-V3S2T-M2 (EG1, n = 5; Transonic Endogear Inc.) and Physio Tel Digital L21 (PTD, n = 2; Data Sciences Inc.). Two deaths because of respiratory problems occurred in TPMS group, attributed to lung compression by the implanted device. In TPMS group, more consistent trends of blood pressures and flows were recorded, and management of animals was easier and less labor-intensive. Comparing the two TPMSs, the initiation and renewal costs for each case was $28 K vs. $20 K and $1,700 vs. $0, (PTD versus EG1, respectively). In conclusion, TPMS implantation was feasible via median sternotomy in lambs. Telemetric physiological monitoring systems significantly improve reliability of hemodynamic monitoring in chronic survival animal study. EG1 was less costly than PTD.

  16. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  17. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  18. A soil flowing characteristics monitoring method in planetary drilling and coring verification experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Junyue; Quan, Qiquan; Jiang, Shengyuan; Chen, Chongbin; Yuan, Fengpei; Deng, Zongquan

    2017-03-01

    Some type of piercing into the subsurface formation is required in future planetary explorations to enhance the understanding of early stars' geological evolution and the origin of life. Compared with other technical methods, drilling & coring, only utilizing the compound locomotion of rotation and penetration, can sample the subsurface soil relatively efficient and convenient. However, given the uncertain mechanical properties of planetary soil, drilling state signals should be monitored online to improve the robustness of drilling system and avoid potential drilling faults. Since the flowing characteristics of interacted soil, such as removal volume, coring height, removal velocity and accumulation angle, directly reveal the drilling conditions, they are enhancing resources to comprehend the sampling phenomenon and can be used to help control the drill tool. This paper proposed a novel soil flowing characteristics (SFC) monitoring method by applying an industrial camera to record the flowing characteristics of removed cuttings and by utilizing an ultrasonic sensor into the hollow auger to monitor the sampled core. Experiments in one typical lunar regolith simulant indicate that the monitored SFC accurately reflects the interaction between the drill tool and soil.

  19. Individual Differences in Negative Group Work Experiences in Collaborative Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Regina; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bray, Diane; Michie, Fran; Street, Becky

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the Negative Group Work Experiences questionnaire (NGWE), an assessment tool for measuring negative experiences of group work. Study 1 involved two samples of undergraduate psychology students (second-year sample n = 425; first-year sample n = 443), who completed research modules incorporating substantial…

  20. Heterosexual College Student Sexual Experiences, Feminist Identity, and Attitudes toward LGBT Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian,…

  1. Individual and workplace monitoring measurements made after a 240Pu incident and during the clean-up operations.

    PubMed

    Hochmann, R; Eisenwagner, H; Benesch, T; Hunt, J; Cruz-Suarez, R; Bulyha, S; Schmitzer, C

    2011-03-01

    On 3 August 2008, five glass vials containing around 7 GBq of (240)Pu in nitric acid solution burst in a laboratory operated by the IAEA in Seibersdorf, Austria. The vials were located in a fire-proof safe in the IAEA Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, and the release of the (240)Pu caused an air contamination in the room and in adjoining rooms. Immediate emergency work was carried out, which was then followed by a long period of clean-up operations. A large number of conventional individual and workplace monitoring measurements were carried out immediately after the incident and during the clean-up work. In addition, due to the fact that (240)Pu has a very low background presence in the environment, and that the IAEA laboratories operate an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry system capable of very low levels of detection of this radionuclide, a number of non-conventional measurements were made to detect (240)Pu on, for example, the photographic camera used to document the incident, on nasal swabs from the first responders, etc. Plastic beakers were left in the corridor of the controlled area to accumulate (240)Pu from precipitation to see whether it was possible to detect traces of the radionuclide. This paper presents the measurements obtained, and discusses their relevance to occupational radiation protection.

  2. Single-Step DNA Detection Assay Monitoring Dual-Color Light Scattering from Individual Metal Nanoparticle Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Efficiently detecting DNA sequences within a limited time is vital for disease screening and public health monitoring. This calls for a new method that combines high sensitivity, fast read-out time, and easy manipulation of the sample, avoiding the extensive steps of DNA amplification, purification, or grafting to a surface. Here, we introduce photon cross-correlation spectroscopy as a new method for specific DNA sensing with high sensitivity in a single-step homogeneous solution phase. Our approach is based on confocal dual-color illumination and detection of the scattering intensities from individual silver nanoparticles and gold nanorods. In the absence of the target DNA, the nanoparticles move independently and their respective scattering signals are uncorrelated. In the presence of the target DNA, the probe-functionalized gold and silver nanoparticles assemble via DNA hybridization with the target, giving rise to temporal coincidence between the signals scattered by each nanoparticle. The degree of coincidence accurately quantifies the amount of target DNA. To demonstrate the efficiency of our technique, we detect a specific DNA sequence of sesame, an allergenic food ingredient, for a range of concentration from 5 pM to 1.5 nM with a limit of detection of 1 pM. Our method is sensitive and specific enough to detect single nucleotide deletion and mismatch. With the dual-color scattering signals being much brighter than fluorescence-based analogs, the analysis is fast, quantitative, and simple to operate, making it valuable for biosensing applications. PMID:28261666

  3. Preliminary study of tolerance of ambiguity of individuals reporting paranormal experiences.

    PubMed

    Houran, J

    1998-02-01

    This research tested the notion that poltergeist-like experiences reflect the need to explain anomalous personal experiences. Thus, it was hypothesized that percipients of poltergeists would score lower on tolerance of ambiguity than controls. Further, it was hypothesized that tolerance of ambiguity would negatively correlate with the number of different categories of poltergeist experience. 30 self-identified percipients of poltergeist-like phenomena and 30 self-identified nonpercipients of the paranormal were administered the Rydell-Rosen Ambiguity Tolerance Scale and Houran and Lange's Poltergeist Experiences Checklist. Results partially supported predictions. Percipients of the paranormal scored significantly lower on tolerance of ambiguity than nonpercipients, but scores on the experiences checklist did not significantly correlate with scores on tolerance of ambiguity. The results supported the main hypothesis but more detailed research is needed to clarify the roles of age and tolerance of ambiguity in the perception of anomalous phenomena.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  5. A common neural code for similar conscious experiences in different individuals

    PubMed Central

    Naci, Lorina; Cusack, Rhodri; Anello, Mimma; Owen, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of human consciousness from brain activity, without recourse to speech or action, is one of the most provoking and challenging frontiers of modern neuroscience. We asked whether there is a common neural code that underpins similar conscious experiences, which could be used to decode these experiences in the absence of behavior. To this end, we used richly evocative stimulation (an engaging movie) portraying real-world events to elicit a similar conscious experience in different people. Common neural correlates of conscious experience were quantified and related to measurable, quantitative and qualitative, executive components of the movie through two additional behavioral investigations. The movie’s executive demands drove synchronized brain activity across healthy participants’ frontal and parietal cortices in regions known to support executive function. Moreover, the timing of activity in these regions was predicted by participants’ highly similar qualitative experience of the movie’s moment-to-moment executive demands, suggesting that synchronization of activity across participants underpinned their similar experience. Thus we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that a neural index based on executive function reliably predicted every healthy individual’s similar conscious experience in response to real-world events unfolding over time. This approach provided strong evidence for the conscious experience of a brain-injured patient, who had remained entirely behaviorally nonresponsive for 16 y. The patient’s executive engagement and moment-to-moment perception of the movie content were highly similar to that of every healthy participant. These findings shed light on the common basis of human consciousness and enable the interpretation of conscious experience in the absence of behavior. PMID:25225384

  6. Secondary Preservice Teachers Share Their Writing with Individual Students in School: A Survey of Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to describe the method, barriers, and positive effects when secondary preservice teachers of diverse subject areas shared their writing with individual middle and high school students in school. (Methodology) secondary preservice teachers (N = 77) shared their writing for two minutes before class each time…

  7. Experiments combining communication with punishment options demonstrate how individuals can overcome social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Elinor

    2012-02-01

    Guala raises important questions about the misinterpretation of experimental studies that have found that subjects engage in costly punishment. Instead of positing that punishment is the solution for social dilemmas, earlier research posited that when individuals facing a social dilemma agreed on their own rules and used graduated sanctions, they were more likely to have robust solutions over time.

  8. Exploring the Experiences and Self-Labeling of Mixed-Race Individuals with Two Minority Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Donna M.

    2008-01-01

    With increasing numbers of multiracial individuals and interracial relationships, the potential for rapid growth of this population on campus is unprecedented. Despite this emerging reality, the literature on mixed-race and multiracial persons is very limited, providing little guidance for student affairs educators. To address this need, the…

  9. Evidence of Reflective Thinking across the Curriculum: College Experience versus Individual Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Carol Springer

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how individual and course-level variables across the curriculum at a four-year college (college here refers to a higher education institution that offers undergraduate education but not graduate degrees) in the southeastern US impacted student reflective thinking as measured by Kember and colleagues' [2000. Development of a…

  10. Design Research Perspectives on Transitioning from Individual Microgenetic Interviews to a Whole-Class Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberg, Teruni D.; Middleton, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an education design research program that began with individual microgenetic interviews with children in a laboratory setting and led to a developmental model of students' understanding of quotients in mathematics and subsequently to the design and testing of an anchored instruction module for use in whole-class work. The…

  11. When Experience Meets Language Statistics: Individual Variability in Processing English Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkauskas, Kaitlin; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Statistical patterns of language use demonstrably affect language comprehension and language production. This study set out to determine whether the variable amount of exposure to such patterns leads to individual differences in reading behavior as measured via eye-movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that more proficient readers are less…

  12. Variation among individuals in photoperiod responses: Effects of breeding schedule, photoperiod, and age-related photoperiodic experience in birds.

    PubMed

    Watts, Heather E; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A; Hahn, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Many organisms use environmental cues to regulate reproductive function in order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. Whereas we understand much about how environmental cues are used to time reproduction, we know relatively little about variation among individuals in responsiveness to environmental cues. However, this variation among individuals may represent a crucial component of a population's capacity to respond to changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantify variation among individuals in photoperiod responsiveness of the avian reproductive system and investigate three potential underlying sources of this variation in environmental cue responsiveness. Specifically, we tested whether age-related photoperiodic experience, strength of the photoperiodic cue (day length), and degree of flexibility in breeding schedule influenced the degree of variation observed in experimental studies of seven species of cardueline finches. Overall, we found a high degree of variation among individuals in photoperiod response, and this was influenced by experimental photoperiod and breeding schedule. As experimental photoperiod became longer, the degree of variation declined. Opportunistic breeders showed greater variation in response compared with more seasonal breeders. We found no effect of age-related photoperiodic experience in one species for which we could examine this factor. The results of this study highlight the extent to which individuals can vary in their response to environmental cues and point to both species ecology and characteristics of the cue as important influences on the degree of this variation.

  13. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.

  14. Acknowledging Individual Responsibility while Emphasizing Social Determinants in Narratives to Promote Obesity-Reducing Public Policy: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity’s social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story’s main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity. PMID:25706743

  15. A sorting system with automated gates permits individual operant experiments with mice from a social home cage.

    PubMed

    Winter, York; Schaefers, Andrea T U

    2011-03-30

    Behavioral experiments based on operant procedures can be time-consuming for small amounts of data. While individual testing and handling of animals can influence attention, emotion, and behavior, and interfere with experimental outcome, many operant protocols require individual testing. We developed an RFID-technology- and transponder-based sorting system that allows removing the human factor for longer-term experiments. Identity detectors and automated gates route mice individually from their social home cage to an adjacent operant compartment with 24/7 operation. CD1-mice learnt quickly to individually pass through the sorting system. At no time did more than a single mouse enter the operant compartment. After 3 days of adjusting to the sorting system, groups of 4 mice completed about 50 experimental trials per day in the operant compartment without experimenter intervention. The automated sorting system eliminates handling, isolation, and disturbance of the animals, eliminates experimenter-induced variability, saves experimenter time, and is financially economical. It makes possible a new approach for high-throughput experimentation, and is a viable tool for increasing quality and efficiency of many behavioral and neurobiological investigations. It can connect a social home cage, through individual sorting automation, to diverse setups including classical operant chambers, mazes, or arenas with video-based behavior classification. Such highly automated systems will permit efficient high-throughput screening even for transgenic animals with only subtle neurological or psychiatric symptoms where elaborate or longer-term protocols are required for behavioral diagnosis.

  16. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Grande, Stuart W.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  17. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

  18. Underwater monitoring experiment using hyperspectral sensor, LiDAR and high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chan-Su; Kim, Sun-Hwa

    2014-10-01

    In general, hyper-spectral sensor, LiDAR and high spatial resolution satellite imagery for underwater monitoring are dependent on water clarity or water transparency that can be measured using a Secchi disk or satellite ocean color data. Optical properties in the sea waters of South Korea are influenced mainly by a strong tide and oceanic currents, diurnal, daily and seasonal variations of water transparency. The satellite-based Secchi depth (ZSD) analysis showed the applicability of hyper-spectral sensor, LiDAR and optical satellite, determined by the location connected with the local distribution of Case 1 and 2 waters. The southeast coastal areas of Jeju Island are selected as test sites for a combined underwater experiment, because those areas represent Case 1 water. Study area is a small port (<15m) in the southeast area of the island and linear underwater target used by sewage pipe is located in this area. Our experiments are as follows: 1. atmospheric and sun-glint correction methods to improve the underwater monitoring ability; 2. intercomparison of water depths obtained from three different sensors. Three sensors used here are the CASI-1500 (Wide-Array Airborne Hyperspectral VNIR Imager (0.38-1.05 microns), the Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar (CZMIL) and Korean Multi-purpose Satellite-3 (KOMPSAT-3) with 2.8 meter multi-spectral resolution. The experimental results were affected by water clarity and surface condition, and the bathymetric results of three sensors show some differences caused by sensor-itself, bathymetric algorithm and tide level. It is shown that CASI-1500 was applicable for bathymetry and underwater target detection in this area, but KOMPSAT-3 should be improved for Case 1 water. Although this experiment was designed to compare underwater monitoring ability of LIDAR, CASI-1500, KOMPSAT-3 data, this paper was based on initial results and suggested only results about the bathymetry and underwater target detection.

  19. User Centric Job Monitoring - a redesign and novel approach in the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Lauret, J.; Zulkarneeva, Y.

    2014-06-01

    User Centric Monitoring (or UCM) has been a long awaited feature in STAR, whereas programs, workflows and system "events" could be logged, broadcast and later analyzed. UCM allows to collect and filter available job monitoring information from various resources and present it to users in a user-centric view rather than an administrative-centric point of view. The first attempt and implementation of "a" UCM approach was made in STAR 2004 using a log4cxx plug-in back-end and then further evolved with an attempt to push toward a scalable database back-end (2006) and finally using a Web-Service approach (2010, CSW4DB SBIR). The latest showed to be incomplete and not addressing the evolving needs of the experiment where streamlined messages for online (data acquisition) purposes as well as the continuous support for the data mining needs and event analysis need to coexists and unified in a seamless approach. The code also revealed to be hardly maintainable. This paper presents the next evolutionary step of the UCM toolkit, a redesign and redirection of our latest attempt acknowledging and integrating recent technologies and a simpler, maintainable and yet scalable manner. The extended version of the job logging package is built upon three-tier approach based on Task, Job and Event, and features a Web-Service based logging API, a responsive AJAX-powered user interface, and a database back-end relying on MongoDB, which is uniquely suited for STAR needs. In addition, we present details of integration of this logging package with the STAR offline and online software frameworks. Leveraging on the reported experience and work from the ATLAS and CMS experience on using the ESPER engine, we discuss and show how such approach has been implemented in STAR for meta-data event triggering stream processing and filtering. An ESPER based solution seems to fit well into the online data acquisition system where many systems are monitored.

  20. Experiences and recommendations in deploying a real-time, water quality monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flynn, B.; Regan, F.; Lawlor, A.; Wallace, J.; Torres, J.; O'Mathuna, C.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of water quality at a river basin level to meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) using conventional sampling and laboratory-based techniques poses a significant financial burden. Wireless sensing systems offer the potential to reduce these costs considerably, as well as provide more useful, continuous monitoring capabilities by giving an accurate idea of the changing environmental and water quality in real time. It is unlikely that the traditional spot/grab sampling will provide a reasonable estimate of the true maximum and/or mean concentration for a particular physicochemical variable in a water body with marked temporal variability. When persistent fluctuations occur, it is likely only to be detected through continuous measurements, which have the capability of detecting sporadic peaks of concentration. Thus, in situ sensors capable of continuous sampling of parameters required under the WFD would therefore provide more up-to-date information, cut monitoring costs and provide better coverage representing long-term trends in fluctuations of pollutant concentrations. DEPLOY is a technology demonstration project, which began planning and station selection and design in August 2008 aiming to show how state-of-the-art technology could be implemented for cost-effective, continuous and real-time monitoring of a river catchment. The DEPLOY project is seen as an important building block in the realization of a wide area autonomous network of sensors capable of monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of important water quality and environmental target parameters. The demonstration sites chosen are based in the River Lee, which flows through Ireland's second largest city, Cork, and were designed to include monitoring stations in five zones considered typical of significant river systems--these monitor water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, depth, conductivity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Over one million data points

  1. Aircraft Turbine Engine Monitoring Experience: An Overview and Lessons Learned from Selected Case Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Engines DMMH/FH 1.12 0.80 Removal rate/1000 hr 1.74 1.85 The OPTEVFOR analysis was limited on several counts: (1) The evaluation failed to consider or...investigate aircraft turbine engine monitoring experience. Conducted under the Project AIR FORCE project, "Methods and Applications of Life-Cycle Analysis for...for hot-section parts; o Hot-section parts vary in age and accumulated creep ; o Other failure modes (low cycle fatigue , thermal shock, etc.) were

  2. Sleep-monitoring, experiment M133. [electronic recording system for automatic analysis of human sleep patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.

  3. The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor - A Situational Awareness Tool for Conducting Tropical Cyclone Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Parker, Philip; He, Yubin

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, aircraft state information, airborne and surface instruments, and weather state data in to a single visualization package for real time field experiment management. RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (investigated African easterly waves and Tropical Storm Debby and Helene) during August-September 2006 in Cape Verde, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling experiment during July-August 2007 in Costa Rica, and the Hurricane Aerosonde mission into Hurricane Noel in 2-3 November 2007. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links, and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols. Each field experiment presents unique challenges and opportunities for advancing the functionality of RTMM. A description of RTMM, the missions it has supported, and its new features that are under development will be presented.

  4. Individual differences in conceptual and procedural fraction understanding: the role of abilities and school experience.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Darcy; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Thorpe, Christina M

    2012-12-01

    Recent research on children's conceptual and procedural knowledge has suggested that there are individual differences in the ways that children combine these two types of knowledge across a number of mathematical topics. Cluster analyses have demonstrated that some children have more conceptual knowledge, some children have more procedural knowledge, and some children have an equal level of both. The current study investigated whether similar individual differences exist in children's understanding of fractions and searches for explanations for these differences. Grade 6 students (n=119) and Grade 8 students (n=114) were given measures of conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions as well as measures of general fraction knowledge, general conceptual ability, and general procedural ability. Grade 6 children demonstrated a four-cluster solution reflecting those who do poorly on procedural and conceptual fraction knowledge, those who do well on both, those whose strength is procedural knowledge, and those whose strength is conceptual knowledge. Grade 8 children demonstrated a two-cluster solution reflecting those whose strength is procedural knowledge and those whose strength is conceptual knowledge. Cluster in either grade, however, did not vary in distribution across schools and was not related to general conceptual ability or general procedural ability. Overall, these results provide a more detailed picture of individual differences in conceptual and procedural knowledge in mathematical cognition.

  5. Individual Monitoring of Immune Response in Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar following Experimental Infection with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV).

    PubMed

    Collet, Bertrand; Urquhart, Katy; Monte, Milena; Collins, Catherine; Garcia Perez, Sandro; Secombes, Chris J; Hall, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the immune response in fish over the progression of a disease is traditionally carried out by experimental infection whereby animals are killed at regular intervals and samples taken. We describe here a novel approach to infectiology for salmonid fish where blood samples are collected repeatedly in a small group of PIT-tagged animals. This approach contributes to the reduction of animals used in research and to improved data quality. Two groups of 12 PIT-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were i.p infected with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV) or culture medium and placed in 1 m3 tanks. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 25 days post infection. The viral load, immune and stress response were determined in individual fish by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) on the blood cells, as well as the haematocrit used as an indicator of haemolysis, a clinical consequence of ISAV infection. "In-tank" anaesthesia was used in order to reduce the stress related to chase and netting prior to sampling. The data were analysed using a statistical approach which is novel with respect to its use in fish immunology. The repeated blood collection procedure did not induce stress response as measured by HSP70 and HSP90 gene expression in the un-infected animals. A strong increase in viraemia as well as a significant induction of Mx and γIP gene expression were observed in the infected group. Interleukin 10 was found induced at the later stage of the infection whereas no induction of CD8 or γ IFN could be detected. These results and the advantages of this approach are discussed.

  6. A radiation belt monitor for the High Energy Transient Experiment Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, D. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prigozhin, G. Y.; Doty, J.; Ricker, G.

    1993-01-01

    A Radiation Belt Monitor (RBM) sensitive to protons and electrons with energy approximately greater than 0.5 MeV has been designed for the High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) satellite in order to: first, control the on-off configuration of the experiments (i.e. those susceptible to proton damage); and second, to indicate the presence of proton and/or electron events that could masquerade as legitimate high energy photon events. One of the two RBM channels has an enhanced sensitivity to electrons. Each channel of the RBM, based on a PIN silicon diode, requires a typical power of 6 milliwatts. Tests have been performed with protons with energies from approximately 0.1 to 2.5 MeV (generated by a Cockcroft-Walton linear accelerator via the d(d,p)t reaction), and with electrons with energies up to 1 MeV (from a 1.0 microcurie Bi-207 source).

  7. Experiences in long-term evaluation of mercury emission monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Hung-Ta Lin; Qiang Wang; Chien-Wei Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Ming-Chung Liu; Chi-Kuan Chen; Wei-Ping Pan

    2008-09-15

    Six mercury continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems provided by two leading mercury (Hg) CEM system manufacturers were tested at five coal combustion utilities. The linearity, response time, day-to-day stability, efficiency of the Hg speciation modules, and ease of use were evaluated by following procedures specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 40 Part 75 (40 CFR Part 75). Mercury monitoring results from Hg CEM systems were compared to an EPA-recognized reference method. A sorbent trap sampling system was also evaluated in this study to compare the relative accuracy to the reference method as well as to Hg CEM systems. A conceptual protocol proposed by U.S. EPA (Method 30A) for using an Hg CEM system as the reference method for the Hg relative accuracy (RA) test was also followed to evaluate the workability of the protocol. This paper discusses the operational experience obtained from these field studies and the remaining challenges to overcome while using Hg CEM systems and the sorbent trap method for continuous Hg emission monitoring. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Initial experience with personal digital assistant-based reflectance photoplethysmograph for free tissue transfer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Stack, Brendan C; Futran, Neal D; Zang, Billy; Scharf, John E

    2003-08-01

    Improved microsurgical technique has resulted in a high percentage of successful free tissue transfers. When a tissue transfer fails in the head and neck, however, the results are orocutaneous fistulas, carotid artery exposure, and deformity that adds morbidity, expense, and may delay adjuvant therapy. Postoperative monitoring of tissue perfusion can detect early problems in free tissue transfer that may allow for early intervention and salvage. The authors have demonstrated that reflectance photoplethysmography can detect perfusion changes in free tissue transfer within 5 minutes of a pedicle "insult" intraoperatively. Normative data for viable flaps from various donor sites have been established. The authors now report their initial experience with a newly developed reflectance photoplethysmograph based on a hand-held computer for routine clinical use. Their results are compared with a conventional surveillance protocol that included observation, bleeding to pin prick, and bedside duplex scanning of the vascular pedicle. In a series of 30 free tissue transfers (29 patients), there was one ischemic event (skin paddle loss only), which was detected by the monitor. The monitor was able to predict correctly (one flap) survival of a free tissue transfer even when duplex ultrasonic data were indicative of an absence of perfusion. Personal digital assistant-based photoplethysmography appears to be a promising device for bedside diagnosis of free tissue transfer viability or ischemia.

  9. Geophysical Monitoring of Active Infiltration Experiments for Recharge Estimation: Gains and Pains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, U.; Lamparter, A.; Houben, G.; Koeniger, P.; Stoeckl, L.; Guenther, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water supply on the island of Langeoog, North Sea, solely depends on groundwater from a freshwater lens. The correct estimation of the recharge rate is critical for a sustainable use of the resource. Extensive hydrogeological and geophysical studies have revealed differences in groundwater recharge by a factor of two and more between the top of the dunes and the dune valleys. The most convincing proof of these differences in recharge is based on isotope analysis (age dating) but boreholes are scarce and a direct proof of recharge is desired. For this purpose active infiltration experiments are performed and geophysically monitored. Former applications of this method in sand and loess soil gave evidence for the applicability of the geophysical observation when combined with tensiometers installed in situ at depth. These results showed firstly that in sandy soil the water reaches the groundwater table quicker than anticipated due to the water repellent characteristic of the dry sand, inhibiting the lateral spreading of the water. The studies also revealed that in loess preferential flow is initiated by ponding and that sprinkling caused very slow movement of water within the unsaturated zone and the water remained near the surface. On the island of Langeoog field experiments underlined the importance of water repellency on the dune surface, indicating that the rain water runs off superficially into the dune valleys where higher recharge is found. The active infiltration zone of the experiment covers an area of some 7m² and includes steeper parts of the dune. The infiltration will vary depending on rainfall intensity and duration, original water content and vegetation cover. What results can we reliably expect from the active experiment and what additional measurements are required to back up the findings? Results are ambiguous with regard to the quantitative assessment but the processes can be visualized by geophysical monitoring in situ.

  10. Predictive power of individual factors and clinical learning experience on academic success: findings from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dante, Angelo; Fabris, Stefano; Palese, Alvisa

    2015-01-01

    Academic failure is the inability of a nursing student to graduate or to complete the nursing degree on time. This longitudinal cohort study, involving 2 Italian universities, documents the effects of selected individual variables and the quality of the clinical learning experience as perceived by students on academic success. Factors related to the clinical learning experience were the quality of the supervisory relationship, pedagogical atmosphere, and commitment of the ward related to the level of personalized nursing care delivered and clarity of nursing documentation.

  11. Toward Individual and Family Well-Being: The Western Kansas Experience in Family Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guss, Thomas O.

    Rural communities are often plagued with socioeconomic challenges that contribute to family vulnerability and developmental challenges. Family Development Programs is a course that provides learning experiences related to rural community issues and family interactions with an opportunity to review programs that are provided within the region.…

  12. Dynamical fingerprints for probing individual relaxation processes in biomolecular dynamics with simulations and kinetic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Noe, F; Diadone, Isabella; Lollmann, Marc; Sauer, Marcus; Chondera, John D; Smith, Jeremy C

    2011-01-01

    There is a gap between kinetic experiment and simulation in their views of the dynamics of complex biomolecular systems. Whereas experiments typically reveal only a few readily discernible exponential relaxations, simulations often indicate complex multistate behavior. Here, a theoretical framework is presented that reconciles these two approaches. The central concept is dynamical fingerprints which contain peaks at the time scales of the dynamical processes involved with amplitudes determined by the experimental observable. Fingerprints can be generated from both experimental and simulation data, and their comparison by matching peaks permits assignment of structural changes present in the simulation to experimentally observed relaxation processes. The approach is applied here to a test case interpreting single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments on a set of fluorescent peptides with molecular dynamics simulations. The peptides exhibit complex kinetics shown to be consistent with the apparent simplicity of the experimental data. Moreover, the fingerprint approach can be used to design new experiments with site-specific labels that optimally probe specific dynamical processes in the molecule under investigation.

  13. My Hero, My Friend: Exploring Honduran Youths' Lived Experience of the God-Individual Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Monique B.; Silver, Christopher F.; Ross, Christopher F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive social science research has focused on God image and God concept through the lens of attachment theory and the parental relationship. While vast theoretical frameworks exist, the authors suggest that more focused phenomenological research would shed light on adolescent lived experience within experiential descriptive language and…

  14. Forgetting the Past: Individual Differences in Recency in Subjective Valuations from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nathaniel J. S.; Rakow, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Recent research investigating decisions from experience suggests that not all information is treated equally in the decision process, with more recently encountered information having a greater impact. We report 2 studies investigating how this differential treatment of sequentially encountered information affects subjective valuations of risky…

  15. On the Outside Looking in: An African American Family's Experience in an Individualized Education Plan Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelov, Azure D. S.; Anderson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    The current laws that mandate special education originated through the advocacy of families (Turnbull & Turnbull, 1990). Over the years, families have challenged the system to provide free and appropriate public educations for their children. We share, through qualitative measures, the experiences of one African American family and the…

  16. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCE ON AFTER BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORGAYS, DONALD G.

    TWO SERIES OF STUDIES WHOSE SUBJECTS WERE EITHER HOODED AND ALBINO RATS OR YOUNG CHILDREN INVESTIGATED THE INFLUENCE OF EARLY EXPERIENCES ON LATER BEHAVIOR. IN THE FIRST, BOTH SUBSPECIES OF RATS WERE EXPOSED TO EITHER ENRICHED OR RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS TO ASSESS THEIR PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITIES UNDER VARIOUS LEARNING CONDITIONS. THE RESULTS…

  17. Emotional Experiences Predict the Conversion of Individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome to Psychosis: A 6-Month Follow up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fa Zhan; Wang, Yi; Sun, Xi Rong; Yao, Yu Hong; Zhang, Ning; Qiao, Hui Fen; Zhang, Lan; Li, Zhan Jiang; Lin, Hong; Lu, Zheng; Li, Jing; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Zhao, Xu Dong

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the conversion rate in individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) and potential predictor for transition in mainland China. Sixty-three participants identified as APS were followed up 6 months later. The results showed that 17% of individuals with APS converted to full-blown psychosis. The converters exhibited significantly poorer emotional experience and expression than the non-converters at baseline. A further binary logistic regression analysis showed that emotional experience could predict the transition (Wald = 4.18, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 1.04~6.82). The present study suggests an important role of emotional processing in the prediction of the development of full-blown psychosis. PMID:27313553

  18. OBSERVING TODDLERS' INDIVIDUAL EXPERIENCES IN CLASSROOMS: INITIAL USE OF THE PARENTING INTERACTIONS WITH CHILDREN: CHECKLIST OF OBSERVATIONS LINKED TO OUTCOMES.

    PubMed

    Lippard, Christine N; Riley, Katie L; Hughes-Belding, Kere

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated using the Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO; Roggman, Cook, Innocenti, Norman, & Christiansen, 2013a) measure to assess teacher-child interactions experienced by individual toddlers within their childcare classrooms. Forty toddlers were observed, each during three 10-min cycles, and all their interactions with adults in the classroom were coded using the PICCOLO. Results, in terms of psychometric properties, indicate promise for using this measure to observe toddlers' individual experiences of teacher-child interactions in group settings. Furthermore, certain individual teacher-toddler interactions were associated with toddlers' problem behavior. Implications for use of the PICCOLO in early childhood classroom research and particular findings related to toddlers' behavior are discussed.

  19. Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela Rodriguez, F.

    2011-12-01

    The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

  20. Lessons Learned During Implementation and Early Operations of the DS1 Beacon Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Wyatt, Jay; Hotz, Henry; Schlutsmeyer, Alan; Sue, Miles

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to mission operations will be flight validated on NASA's New Millennium Program Deep Space One (DS1) mission which launched in October 1998. The Beacon Monitor Operations Technology is aimed at decreasing the total volume of downlinked engineering telemetry by reducing the frequency of downlink and the volume of data received per pass. Cost savings are achieved by reducing the amount of routine telemetry processing and analysis performed by ground staff. The technology is required for upcoming NASA missions to Pluto, Europa, and possibly some other missions. With beacon monitoring, the spacecraft will assess its own health and will transmit one of four beacon messages each representing a unique frequency tone to inform the ground how urgent it is to track the spacecraft for telemetry. If all conditions are nominal, the tone provides periodic assurance to ground personnel that the mission is proceeding as planned without having to receive and analyze downlinked telemetry. If there is a problem, the tone will indicate that tracking is required and the resulting telemetry will contain a concise summary of what has occurred since the last telemetry pass. The primary components of the technology are a tone monitoring technology, AI-based software for onboard engineering data summarization, and a ground response system. In addition, there is a ground visualization system for telemetry summaries. This paper includes a description of the Beacon monitor concept, the trade-offs with adapting that concept as a technology experiment, the current state of the resulting implementation on DS1, and our lessons learned during the initial checkout phase of the mission. Applicability to future missions is also included.

  1. The LHCb Online Framework for Experiment Protection, and Global Operational Control and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Jacobsson, R.; Schleich, S.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity and extreme parameters of the LHC, such as the stored energy, the collision frequency, the high risk of adverse background conditions and potentially damaging beam losses have demanded an unprecedented connectivity between the operation of the accelerator and the experiments at both hardware and software level. LHCb has been at the forefront of developing a software framework and hardware which connects to all of the LHC communication interfaces for timing, control and monitoring of the machine and beam parameters, in addition to its own local systems for beam and background monitoring. The framework also includes failsafe connectivity with the beam interlock system. The framework drives the global operation of the detector and is integrated into the readout control. It provides the shifters with the tools needed to take fast and well-guided decisions to run the LHCb experiment safely and efficiently. In particular, it has allowed the detector to be operated with only two shifters already at the LHC pilot run. The requirements include reliability and clarity for the shifters, and the possibility to retrieve the past conditions for offline analysis. All essential parameters are archived and an interactive analysis tool has been developed which provides overviews of the experimental performance and which allows post-analysis of any anomaly in the operation. This paper describes the architecture and the many functions, including the basis of the automation of the LHCb operational procedure and detector controls, and the information exchange between LHCb and the LHC, and finally the shifter and expert tools for monitoring the experimental conditions.

  2. Integrating cortisol and isotopic analyses of archeological hair: reconstructing individual experiences of health and stress.

    PubMed

    Webb, Emily C; White, Christine D; Van Uum, Stan; Longstaffe, Fred J

    2015-04-01

    Archeological hair from 14 adults from the Nasca Region, Peru (c. AD1-1000) was analyzed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions and cortisol levels. We investigated the relationship between isotopic compositions, which reflect diet, and cortisol, which reflects biogenic cortisol production and chronic stress. Using a case study approach, we determined that there are consistent changes in cortisol production associated with the rapid dietary change characteristic of local mobility. Moreover, changes in nitrogen- and carbon-isotope compositions, when integrated with cortisol levels, enabled inferences to be made about nitrogen metabolism and carbon routing, and elucidated the nature of potential stressors in the months before death. The isotopic and cortisol data suggested a relatively high rate of exposure to stress that is consistent with what is known about the Nasca Region social and physical environments. Of the 14 adults included in this study, six likely suffered from illness/trauma before death, and a further three experienced stress without an observable associated change in isotopic composition. Five individuals also experienced increased stress related to local mobility, inferred from co-occurring changes in cortisol production and dietary shifting. The integration of cortisol and isotopic data revealed individual characteristics of hidden frailty and risk that would not be apparent using more traditional methods of evaluating health status. This approach will provide a powerful enhancement to the understanding of stress, morbidity, and well-being developed through skeletal analysis.

  3. Promoting Individual Learning for Trainees with Perceived High Helplessness: Experiences of a Safety Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohamad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The article arises from a research project investigating the effectiveness of safety training on changing attitudes toward safety issues. Followed by the training intervention was observed that employees’ helplessness decreased. The researchers have come to the idea of investigating how safety training can reduce perceived helplessness. Thus, this research examined the effectiveness of safety training on reducing employees’ helplessness with attention to the mediating role of attitude toward safety issues. Methods: The current study was an experimental study with the control group. A total of 204 (101 experimental group and 103 control group) completed safety attitude questionnaire and perceived helplessness before a safety training course including four 90-min sessions over 4 consecutive days in Esfahan Steel Company in 2012 between October and December. Only members of the experimental group participated in this course. These questionnaires, approximately 30 days later, again were run on members of both groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive indexes, t-, and F-test. Results: Results by comparing the two groups showed that safety training was effective only on individuals with perceived low helplessness (p = 0.02). Conclusion: In individuals with perceived high helplessness, safety training only with changing safety attitudes can reduce the perceived helplessness. PMID:25798170

  4. The Real Time Mission Monitor: A Situational Awareness Tool For Managing Experiment Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Goodman, Michael; Parker, Philip; Freudinger, Larry; He, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, airborne and surface data sets; weather information; model and forecast outputs; and vehicle state data (e.g., aircraft navigation, satellite tracks and instrument field-of-views) for field experiment management RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses experiment during summer 2006 in Cape Verde, Africa. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols.

  5. Application of Bayes theorem to aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity: comparison of extended-interval dosing, individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring, and multiple-daily dosing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong-Jin; Bertino, Joseph S; Erb, Tara A; Jenkins, Paul L; Nafziger, Anne N

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity related to extended-interval dosing, individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring, and multiple-daily dosing by applying Bayes theorem. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE (1966-2003) and a manual search of references from published meta-analyses and review articles were performed. Studies using extended-interval dosing, individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring, or multiple-daily dosing and reported aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity for patients > or = 16 years of age were included. Quality scores were assigned based on the rigor of definition of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity, duration of therapy, and length of follow-up of renal function after completion of therapy. Inclusion criteria were then based on these quality scores. Quantitative data on the incidence of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity were abstracted. Twelve extended-interval dosing studies (n = 916), 10 individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring studies (n = 2066), and 27 multiple-daily dosing studies (n = 4251) met the inclusion criteria. Prior probabilities of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity were derived from a combination of a review of published studies and expert judgment. The maximum densities for the final posterior probabilities of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity for extended-interval dosing, individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring, and multiple-daily dosing were located at 12% to 13%, 10% to 11%, and 13% to 14%, respectively. Application of Bayes theorem demonstrates that aminoglycoside dosing by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring results in less aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity than extended-interval dosing or multiple-daily dosing.

  6. Monitoring of firefighters exposure to smoke during fire experiments in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana Isabel; Martins, Vera; Cascão, Pedro; Amorim, Jorge Humberto; Valente, Joana; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos; Tchepel, Oxana; Ferreira, António Jorge; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo; Viegas, Domingos Xavier; Ribeiro, Luís Mário; Pita, Luís Paulo

    2010-10-01

    Forest fires represent a serious threat to public security in Europe due to the large burned area. Moreover, smoke pollution due to forest fire events is an important public health issue for the communities directly affected, and particularly for the personnel involved in firefighting operations. Aiming to contribute to the scientific knowledge concerning firefighters exposure to forest fires smoke, data of individual exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were obtained during experimental field fires for a group of 10 firefighters equipped with portable "in continuum" measuring devices. Measured values are very high exceeding the Occupational Exposure Standard limits, in particular for peak limit thresholds. These are the first measurements and analysis of firefighter's individual exposure to toxic gases and particles in fire smoke experiments in Europe. However, they already indicate that urgent measures to avoid these levels of exposure are needed.

  7. Individual Differences in Toddlers' Prosociality: Experiences in Early Relationships Explain Variability in Prosocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Newton, Emily K; Thompson, Ross A; Goodman, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Latent class logistic regression analysis was used to investigate sources of individual differences in profiles of prosocial behavior. Eighty-seven 18-month-olds were observed in tasks assessing sharing with a neutral adult, instrumentally helping a neutral adult, and instrumentally helping a sad adult. Maternal mental state language (MSL) and maternal sensitivity were also assessed. Despite differing motivational demands across tasks, we found consistency in children's prosocial behavior with three latent classes: no prosocial behavior, moderate prosocial behavior, and frequent instrumental helping across emotional situations. Maternal sensitivity, MSL, and their interaction predicted toddlers' membership in the classes. These findings evidence moderate consistency in early prosocial behaviors and suggest that these capacities are motivated in early relationships with caregivers.

  8. Odorant Normative Data for Use in Olfactory Memory Experiments: Dimension Selection and Analysis of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Andrew G.; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane V.; Johnson, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed. PMID:27605921

  9. Individual Differences in Fifth Graders' Literacy and Academic Language Predict Comprehension Monitoring Development: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children…

  10. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  11. The Anticipative Value of Individual and Group Information Feedback on the Decision Process During the Simulation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kljajić, M.; Škraba, A.; Kljajić, M.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the influence of individual and group feedback information introduced by the system dynamics model in a multicriteria decision process. The experiment was performed in a controlled environment. The criteria function was explicitly defined in order to increase the level of experimental control. The experiment was conducted under three experimental conditions: a1) determination of strategy on the basis of a subjective judgment of the task, a2) determination of strategy with the application of a system dynamics model without group interaction, and a3) determination of strategy with the application of a formal model with subject interaction supported by group feedback information. 147 subjects, senior university students, participated in the experiment. The hypothesis that model application and group feedback information positively influence the convergence of the decision process and contribute to higher criteria function values was confirmed.

  12. Investigating Subjective Experience and the Influence of Weather Among Individuals With Fibromyalgia: A Content Analysis of Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yong-Bin; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Burstein, Frada; Whittle, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is understood about the determinants of symptom expression in individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). While individuals with FMS often report environmental influences, including weather events, on their symptom severity, a consistent effect of specific weather conditions on FMS symptoms has yet to be demonstrated. Content analysis of a large number of messages by individuals with FMS on Twitter can provide valuable insights into variation in the fibromyalgia experience from a first-person perspective. Objective The objective of our study was to use content analysis of tweets to investigate the association between weather conditions and fibromyalgia symptoms among individuals who tweet about fibromyalgia. Our second objective was to gain insight into how Twitter is used as a form of communication and expression by individuals with fibromyalgia and to explore and uncover thematic clusters and communities related to weather. Methods Computerized sentiment analysis was performed to measure the association between negative sentiment scores (indicative of severe symptoms such as pain) and coincident environmental variables. Date, time, and location data for each individual tweet were used to identify corresponding climate data (such as temperature). We used graph analysis to investigate the frequency and distribution of domain-related terms exchanged in Twitter and their association strengths. A community detection algorithm was applied to partition the graph and detect different communities. Results We analyzed 140,432 tweets related to fibromyalgia from 2008 to 2014. There was a very weak positive correlation between humidity and negative sentiment scores (r=.009, P=.001). There was no significant correlation between other environmental variables and negative sentiment scores. The graph analysis showed that “pain” and “chronicpain” were the most frequently used terms. The Louvain method identified 6 communities. Community 1 was related

  13. Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tomstad, Solveig T; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition. Aim The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Findings Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life. Conclusion Health care professionals should be aware of these findings in order to support self-care in older people, and they should pay attention to the social aspects at meals. PMID:23271914

  14. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    on the each calibration graphics with different H2 concentration in standard gas mixtures. The graphics represent the power functions. The accuracy of the approximating functions is 3-18 %. At low concentrations (H2 <3 ppm) - error is rather high (about 20%).So we think that 2 ppm is the low limit of measurement. The essential factor is a temperature drift. We estimate this drift as 20mV per 1 degree and make corrections, because measurements were made in wide temperature range (+29 - -20 C). To take this factor we added our network by meteorological sensors. Each sensor network node has a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting. All nodes are equal and serve as routers, so there is no need to plan nodes placement in advance Mesh Network protocol. Every node maintains a local routing table with information about one or several neighbors. The signal transmission between nodes and router used radio channel 2.6 GHz. Communication between router and IT server used two methods: cable RS486 and GPRS modem. GPRS connection is unstable and influence on operating stability. There are some problems in using of directional antenna because of the high level of city's radio noises and radio interferences. Nevertheless, a number of experiments with use of different technical solutions allowed us to perform continuous monitoring during 2 months. As a result about 3 million data records were obtained during experimental works. This information provided an opportunity to develop the structure of database management systems to store data and the technology of online data collection from remote sensors. Using the abilities of program software a periodical (12h) automatic export/import was realized. Access to file on remote computers is opened using FTP protocol. Database forms derived tables

  15. Performance monitoring and the medial prefrontal cortex: a review of individual differences and context effects as a window on self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    van Noordt, Stefon J. R.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2012-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is central to self-regulation and has been implicated in generating a cluster of event-related potential components, collectively referred to as medial frontal negativities (MFNs). These MFNs are elicited while individuals monitor behavioral and environmental consequences, and include the error-related negativity, Nogo N2, and the feedback-related negativity. A growing cognitive and affective neuroscience literature indicates that the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and surrounding medial prefrontal regions during performance monitoring is not only influenced by task context, but that these patterns of activity also vary as a function of individual differences (e.g., personality, temperament, clinical and non-clinical symptomatology, socio-political orientation, and genetic polymorphisms), as well as interactions between individual differences and task context. In this review we survey the neuroscience literature on the relations between performance monitoring, personality, task context, and brain functioning with a focus on the MPFC. We relate these issues to the role of affect in the paradigms used to elicit performance-monitoring neural responses and highlight some of the theoretical and clinical implications of this research. We conclude with a discussion of the complexity of these issues and how some of the basic assumptions required for their interpretation may be clarified with future research. PMID:22798949

  16. Zebrafish response to robotic fish: preference experiments on isolated individuals and small shoals.

    PubMed

    Polverino, G; Abaid, N; Kopman, V; Macrì, S; Porfiri, M

    2012-09-01

    Recently developed bioinspired robots imitate their live counterparts in both aspect and functionality. Nevertheless, whether these devices can be integrated within the ecological niche inspiring their design is seldom tested experimentally. An elemental research question concerns the feasibility of modulating spontaneous behaviour of animal systems through bioinspired robotics. The following study explores the possibility of engineering a robotic fish capable of influencing the behaviour of live zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a dichotomous preference test. While we observe that the preference for the robotic fish never exceeds the preference for a conspecific, our data show that the robot is successful in attracting both isolated individuals and small shoals and that such capability is influenced by its bioinspired features. In particular, we find that the robot's undulations enhance its degree of attractiveness, despite the noise inherent in the actuation system. This is the first experimental evidence that live zebrafish behaviour can be influenced by engineered robots. Such robotic platforms may constitute a valuable tool to investigate the bases of social behaviour and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal functions and dysfunctions.

  17. Enhancement of Self-Monitoring in a Web-Based Weight Loss Program by Extra Individualized Feedback and Reminders: Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hutchesson, Melinda Jane; Tan, Chor Yin; Morgan, Philip; Callister, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring is an essential behavioral strategy for effective weight loss programs. Traditionally, self-monitoring has been achieved using paper-based records. However, technology is now more frequently used to deliver treatment programs to overweight and obese adults. Information technologies, such as the Internet and mobile phones, allow innovative intervention features to be incorporated into treatment that may facilitate greater adherence to self-monitoring processes, provide motivation for behavior change, and ultimately lead to greater weight loss success. Objective The objective of our study was to determine whether the consistency of self-monitoring differed between participants randomly assigned to a basic or an enhanced 12-week commercial Web-based weight loss program. Methods We randomly assigned a sample of 301 adults (mean age 42.3 years; body mass index 31.3 kg/m2; female 176/301, 58.5%) to the basic or enhanced group. The basic program included tools for self-monitoring (online food and exercise diary, and a weekly weigh-in log) with some feedback and reminders to weigh in (by text or email). The enhanced program included the basic components, as well as extra individualized feedback on self-monitoring entries and reminders (by text, email, or telephone) to engage with self-monitoring tools. We evaluated the level of self-monitoring by examining the consistency of self-monitoring of food, exercise, and weight during the 12 weeks. Consistency was defined as the number of weeks during which participants completed a criterion number of entries (ie, ≥3 days of online food or exercise diary records per week and ≥1 weigh-in per week). Results The enhanced group’s consistency of use of self-monitoring tools was significantly greater than that of the basic group throughout the 12 weeks (median consistency for food 8 vs 3 weeks, respectively, P<.001; for exercise 2.5 vs 1 weeks, respectively, P=.003). Conclusions Enhanced features

  18. Long-term geoelectrical monitoring of laboratory freeze-thaw experiments on bedrock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuras, Oliver; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Murton, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Much attention has recently focussed on the continuous and near-real-time geophysical monitoring of permafrost-affected bedrock with permanently installed sensor arrays. It is hoped that such efforts will enhance process understanding in such environments (permafrost degradation, weathering mechanisms) and augment our capability to predict future instabilities of rock walls and slopes. With regard to electrical methods for example, recent work has demonstrated that temperature-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is capable of imaging recession and re-advance of rock permafrost in response to the ambient temperature regime. However, field experience also shows that several fundamental improvements to ERT methodology are still required to achieve the desired sensitivity, spatial-temporal resolution and long-term robustness that must underpin continuous geophysical measurements. We have applied 4D geoelectrical tomography to monitoring laboratory experiments simulating permafrost growth, persistence and thaw in bedrock over a period of 26 months. Six water-saturated samples of limestone and chalk of varying porosity represented lithologies commonly affected by permafrost-related instability. Time-lapse imaging of the samples was undertaken during multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles, emulating annual seasonal change over several decades. Further experimental control was provided by simultaneous measurements of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture content within the bedrock samples. These experiments have helped develop an alternative methodology for the volumetric imaging of permafrost bedrock and tracking active layer dynamics. Capacitive resistivity imaging (CRI), a technique based upon low-frequency, capacitively-coupled measurements emulates ERT methodology, but without the need for galvanic contact on frozen rock. The latter is perceived as a key potential weakness, which could lead to significant limitations as a result of the variable

  19. Equatorial Precession in the Control Software of the Ka-Band Object Observation and Monitoring Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakeman, Hali L.

    2013-01-01

    The Ka-Band Object Observation and Monitoring, or KaBOOM, project is designed mainly to track and characterize near Earth objects. However, a smaller goal of the project would be to monitor pulsars and study their radio frequency signals for use as a clock in interstellar travel. The use of pulsars and their timing accuracy has been studied for decades, but never in the Ka-band of the radio frequency spectrum. In order to begin the use of KaBOOM for this research, the control systems need to be analyzed to ensure its capability. Flaws in the control documentation leave it unclear as to whether the control software processes coordinates from the J200 epoch. This experiment will examine the control software of the Intertronic 12m antennas used for the KaBOOM project and detail its capabilities in its "equatorial mode." The antennas will be pointed at 4 chosen points in the sky on several days while probing the virtual azimuth and elevation (horizon coordinate) registers. The input right ascension and declination coordinates will then be converted separately from the control software to horizontal coordinates and compared, thus determining the ability of the control software to process equatorial coordinates.

  20. The evolution of satellite-monitored radio tags for large whales: One laboratory's experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mate, Bruce; Mesecar, Roderick; Lagerquist, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Despite several centuries of whaling and directed research, there are only a few whale stocks whose year-round whereabouts are reasonably well known. For the vast majority of depleted populations, the link between seasonal feeding and breeding concentrations remains unknown. This lack of information on range, seasonal distribution, stock structure, and migration routes makes it difficult to design and implement effective conservation measures to promote recovery. The use of such information would have been valuable to develop stock-specific quotas for whaling, but now it may be even more important for recovery of depleted stocks and identifying anthropogenic threats throughout a depleted stock's range. Building upon the preliminary findings of Discovery tags and more recent photo identification studies, satellite-monitored radio tags are now providing range and seasonal distribution information for many stocks of depleted large whales. These parameters are important to better estimate population abundance, characterize habitats, identify threats to recovery, and design effective protection measures when needed. This paper traces one laboratory's experience with the development of satellite-monitored radio tag technology for large whales, including attachment mechanisms and delivery systems, in the hope that others will profit from our successes and our mistakes. Selected examples are used to demonstrate how such tags contribute to new insights about whales' habitats, migrations, behaviour, and management.

  1. Indirect monitoring shot-to-shot shock waves strength reproducibility during pump-probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Ozaki, N.; Hartley, N. J.; Albertazzi, B.; Matsuoka, T.; Takahashi, K.; Habara, H.; Tange, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Ochante, R.; Sueda, K.; Sakata, O.; Sekine, T.; Sato, T.; Umeda, Y.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabuuchi, T.; Togashi, T.; Katayama, T.; Yabashi, M.; Harmand, M.; Morard, G.; Koenig, M.; Zhakhovsky, V.; Inogamov, N.; Safronova, A. S.; Stafford, A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Pikuz, S. A.; Okuchi, T.; Seto, Y.; Tanaka, K. A.; Ishikawa, T.; Kodama, R.

    2016-07-01

    We present an indirect method of estimating the strength of a shock wave, allowing on line monitoring of its reproducibility in each laser shot. This method is based on a shot-to-shot measurement of the X-ray emission from the ablated plasma by a high resolution, spatially resolved focusing spectrometer. An optical pump laser with energy of 1.0 J and pulse duration of ˜660 ps was used to irradiate solid targets or foils with various thicknesses containing Oxygen, Aluminum, Iron, and Tantalum. The high sensitivity and resolving power of the X-ray spectrometer allowed spectra to be obtained on each laser shot and to control fluctuations of the spectral intensity emitted by different plasmas with an accuracy of ˜2%, implying an accuracy in the derived electron plasma temperature of 5%-10% in pump-probe high energy density science experiments. At nano- and sub-nanosecond duration of laser pulse with relatively low laser intensities and ratio Z/A ˜ 0.5, the electron temperature follows Te ˜ Ilas2/3. Thus, measurements of the electron plasma temperature allow indirect estimation of the laser flux on the target and control its shot-to-shot fluctuation. Knowing the laser flux intensity and its fluctuation gives us the possibility of monitoring shot-to-shot reproducibility of shock wave strength generation with high accuracy.

  2. Monitoring Floods with NASA's ST6 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment: Implications on Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, Felipe; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Castano, B.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A. G.; Doggett, T.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) [1-3] has been successfully demonstrated in Earth-orbit. NASA has identified the development of an autonomously operating spacecraft as a necessity for an expanded program of missions exploring the Solar System. The versatile ASE spacecraft command and control, image formation, and science processing software was uploaded to the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) spacecraft in early 2004 and has been undergoing onboard testing since May 2004 for the near real-time detection of surface modification related to transient geological and hydrological processes such as volcanism [4], ice formation and retreat [5], and flooding [6]. Space autonomy technology developed as part of ASE creates the new capability to autonomously detect, assess, react to, and monitor dynamic events such as flooding. Part of the challenge has been the difficulty to observe flooding in real time at sufficient temporal resolutions; more importantly, it is the large spatial extent of most drainage networks coupled with the size of the data sets necessary to be downlinked from satellites that make it difficult to monitor flooding from space. Below is a description of the algorithms (referred to as ASE Flood water Classifiers) used in tandem with the Hyperion spectrometer instrument on EO-1 to identify flooding and some of the test results.

  3. Monitoring of an Infiltration Experiment Using the Self-Potential Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suski, B.; Revil, A.; Boleve, A.; Titov, K.; Konosavsky, P.; Voltz, M.; Dages, C.; Huttel, O.

    2005-12-01

    The flow of ground water in a porous soil generates an electrical field which can be measured at the ground surface with a set of non-polarizable electrodes connected to a multimeter. These so-called self-potential signals can be used to determine the pattern of the ground water flow in the subsurface. A field experiment was carried out to monitor the piezometric level and the dynamics of self-potential signals during a water infiltration test from a ditch using a set of 18 piezometers and a network of 41 (Pb/PbCl2) non-polarizable electrodes placed at the ground surface. The variations of the self-potential signals and the piezometric levels are linearly correlated with an apparent coupling coefficient of -5.5 +/- 0.9 mV.m-1. The intrinsic streaming potential coupling coefficient, measured on soil samples extracted from the test site, is in the range -4.0 to -5.9 mV.m-1 depending on the conductivity of the pore water. The hydraulic heads and the self-potential signals are jointly modelled using the 2D-finite-difference software GWFGEM (Ground Water Flow Geo-Electrical Mapping). This model reproduces fairly well the observed results with independent evaluation of the material properties entering the field equations. These results show the ability of the self-potential method to monitor ground water flow in a non-intrusive way.

  4. Data Quality Monitoring System for New GEM Muon Detectors for the CMS Experiment Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Robert; CMS Muon group Team

    2017-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are novel detectors designed to improve the muon trigger and tracking performance in CMS experiment for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC. Partial installation of GEM detectors is planned during the 2016-2017 technical stop. Before the GEM system is installed underground, its data acquisition (DAQ) electronics must be thoroughly tested. The DAQ system includes several commercial and custom-built electronic boards running custom firmware. The front-end electronics are radiation-hard and communicate via optical fibers. The data quality monitoring (DQM) software framework has been designed to provide online verification of the integrity of the data produced by the detector electronics, and to promptly identify potential hardware or firmware malfunctions in the system. Local hits reconstruction and clustering algorithms allow quality control of the data produced by each GEM chamber. Once the new detectors are installed, the DQM will monitor the stability and performance of the system during normal data-taking operations. We discuss the design of the DQM system, the software being developed to read out and process the detector data, and the methods used to identify and report hardware and firmware malfunctions of the system.

  5. The Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment (LAIME) for TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, L.; Koutchmy, S.; Kuzin, S.; Lamy, P.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Noëns, J.-C.

    LAIME the Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment is a remarkably simple no mechanisms and compact 100x100x400 mm full Sun imager to be flown with TESIS on the CORONAS-PHOTON mission launch expected before mid-2008 As such it will be the only true chromospheric imager to be flown in the next years supporting TESIS EUV-XUV imaging SDO and the Belgian LYRA Lyman Alpha flux monitor on the ESA PROBA-2 microsatellite launch expected in September 2007 We will give a short description of this unique O60 mm aperture imaging telescope dedicated to the investigating of the magnetic sources of solar variability in the UV and chromospheric and coronal disruptive events rapid waves Moreton waves disparitions brusques of prominences filaments eruptions and CMEs onset The resolution pixel is 2 7 arcsec the field of view 1 4 solar radius and the acquisition cadence could be as high as 1 image minute The back thinned E2V CCD in the focal plane is using frame transfer to avoid shutter and mechanisms Further more the double Lyman Alpha filtering allows a 40 AA FWHM bandwidth and excellent rejection yet providing a vacuum seal design of the telescope MgF2 entrance window Structural stability of the telescope focal length 1 m is preserved by a 4-INVAR bars design with Aluminium compensation in a large pm 10 o around 20 o

  6. 42 CFR 82.15 - How will NIOSH evaluate the completeness and adequacy of individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Comparisons with available information on area monitoring, production processes, and radiologic protection... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.15 How will NIOSH evaluate the completeness...

  7. 42 CFR 82.15 - How will NIOSH evaluate the completeness and adequacy of individual monitoring data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Comparisons with available information on area monitoring, production processes, and radiologic protection... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.15 How will NIOSH evaluate the completeness...

  8. Formation of Plant Canopy Hierarchies and Consequences for Water Use: Insights From Field Experiments and Individual Based Modeling of Weed-Crop Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A. G.; McDonald, A. J.; Riha, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    monitoring of stomatal conductance and end of the season harvest index indicate that corn was no more water stressed in the weedy treatments. It appears that soil water dynamics and drought severity were not significantly affected by weed competition. The similarity of entire canopy light interception for maize systems with and without weeds may explain the somewhat counter- intuitive nature of our findings. Model simulations conform to results from field experiments, and allowed us to estimate the partitioning of water use for each plant and the effects of resource scarcity on the dynamics of growth of individual plants and the formation of hierarchies within the canopy. The model was also used to asses the impact of climate variability on competition conducting simulations for a 40 year period of time and contrasting scenarios of soil nitrogen availability.

  9. Individual, Household, and Community U.S. Migration Experience and Infant Mortality in Rural and Urban Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Villarreal, Andrés; Hummer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores rural and urban differences in the relationship between U.S. migration experience measured at the individual, household, and community levels and individual-level infant mortality outcomes in a national sample of recent births in Mexico. Using 2000 Mexican Census data and multi-level regression models, we find that women’s own U.S. migration experience is associated with lower odds of infant mortality in both rural and urban Mexico, possibly reflecting a process of healthy migrant selectivity. Household migration has mixed blessings for infant health in rural places: remittances are beneficial for infant survival, but recent out-migration is disruptive. Recent community-level migration experience is not significantly associated with infant mortality overall, although in rural places, there is some evidence that higher levels of community migration are associated with lower infant mortality. Household- and community-level migration have no relationship with infant mortality in urban places. Thus, international migration is associated with infant outcomes in Mexico in fairly complex ways, and the relationships are expressed most profoundly in rural areas of Mexico. PMID:20047012

  10. Adaptive Measurement of Well-Being: Maximizing Efficiency and Optimizing User Experience during Individual Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kraatz, Miriam; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2016-08-01

    Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284-290).

  11. Adaptive Measurement of Well-Being: Maximizing Efficiency and Optimizing User Experience during Individual Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kraatz, Miriam; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284–290) PMID:26674396

  12. Errorless Learning for Training Individuals With Schizophrenia at a Community Mental Health Setting Providing Work Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Robert S.; Liberman, Robert P.; Becker, Deborah R.; Drake, Robert E.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Green, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of errorless learning (EL) on work performance, tenure, and personal well-being were compared with conventional job training in a community mental health fellowship club offering 12-week time-limited work experience. Participants were 40 clinically stable schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients randomly assigned to EL vs conventional instruction (CI) at a thrift-type clothing store. EL participants received training on how to perform their assigned job tasks based on principles of EL, such as error reduction and automation of task performance. CI participants received training common to other community-based entry-level jobs that included verbal instruction, a visual demonstration, independent practice, and corrective feedback. Participants were scheduled to work 2 hours per week for 12 weeks. For both groups, job training occurred during the first 2 weeks at the worksite. Work performance (assessed using the Work Behavior Inventory, WBI) and personal well-being (self-esteem, job satisfaction, and work stress) were assessed at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Job tenure was defined as the number of weeks on the job or total number of hours worked prior to quitting or study end. The EL group performed better than the CI group on the Work Quality Scale from the WBI, and the group differences were relatively consistent over time. Results from the survival analyses of job tenure revealed a non-significant trend favoring EL. There were no group differences on self-esteem, job satisfaction, or work stress. The findings provide modest support for the extensions of EL to community settings for enhancing work performance. PMID:18326529

  13. Inter-individual differences in the experience of negative emotion predict variations in functional brain architecture

    PubMed Central

    Petrican, Raluca; Saverino, Cristina; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that two spatially distinct neuroanatomical networks, the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the default mode network (DMN), support externally and internally oriented cognition, respectively, and are functionally regulated by a third, frontoparietal control network (FPC). Interactions among these networks contribute to normal variations in cognitive functioning and to the aberrant affective profiles present in certain clinical conditions, such as major depression. Nevertheless, their links to non-clinical variations in affective functioning are still poorly understood. To address this issue, we used fMRI to measure the intrinsic functional interactions among these networks in a sample of predominantly younger women (N = 162) from the Human Connectome Project. Consistent with the previously documented dichotomous motivational orientations (i.e., withdrawal versus approach) associated with sadness versus anger, we hypothesized that greater sadness would predict greater DMN (rather than DAN) functional dominance, whereas greater anger would predict the opposite. Overall, there was evidence of greater DAN (rather than DMN) functional dominance, but this pattern was modulated by current experience of specific negative emotions, as well as subclinical depressive and anxiety symptoms. Thus, greater levels of currently experienced sadness and subclinical depression independently predicted weaker DAN functional dominance (i.e., weaker DAN-FPC functional connectivity), likely reflecting reduced goal-directed attention towards the external perceptual environment. Complementarily, greater levels of currently experienced anger and subclinical anxiety predicted greater DAN functional dominance (i.e., greater DAN-FPC functional connectivity and, for anxiety only, also weaker DMN-FPC coupling). Our findings suggest that distinct affective states and subclinical mood symptoms have dissociable neural signatures, reflective of the symbiotic relationship

  14. Errorless learning for training individuals with schizophrenia at a community mental health setting providing work experience.

    PubMed

    Kern, Robert S; Liberman, Robert P; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2009-07-01

    The effects of errorless learning (EL) on work performance, tenure, and personal well-being were compared with conventional job training in a community mental health fellowship club offering 12-week time-limited work experience. Participants were 40 clinically stable schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients randomly assigned to EL vs conventional instruction (CI) at a thrift-type clothing store. EL participants received training on how to perform their assigned job tasks based on principles of EL, such as error reduction and automation of task performance. CI participants received training common to other community-based entry-level jobs that included verbal instruction, a visual demonstration, independent practice, and corrective feedback. Participants were scheduled to work 2 hours per week for 12 weeks. For both groups, job training occurred during the first 2 weeks at the worksite. Work performance (assessed using the Work Behavior Inventory, WBI) and personal well-being (self-esteem, job satisfaction, and work stress) were assessed at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Job tenure was defined as the number of weeks on the job or total number of hours worked prior to quitting or study end. The EL group performed better than the CI group on the Work Quality Scale from the WBI, and the group differences were relatively consistent over time. Results from the survival analyses of job tenure revealed a non-significant trend favoring EL. There were no group differences on self-esteem, job satisfaction, or work stress. The findings provide modest support for the extensions of EL to community settings for enhancing work performance.

  15. The role of social context and individual experience in novel task acquisition in cottontop tamarins, Saguinus oedipus

    PubMed Central

    MOSCOVICE, LIZA R.; SNOWDON, CHARLES T.

    2006-01-01

    In socially tolerant settings, naïve individuals may have opportunities to interact jointly with knowledgeable demonstrators and novel tasks. This process is expected to facilitate social learning. Individual experience may also be important for reinforcing and honing socially acquired behaviours. We examined the role of joint interaction and individual experience in the acquisition of a novel foraging task in captive cottontop tamarins. The task involved learning how to locate and access two hidden food rewards from among 10 differently cued forage sites. Tamarins were tested in three different conditions: (1) individually, (2) while interacting with a naïve mate, and (3) while interacting with a mate trained as a knowledgeable demonstrator. For tamarins tested with mates present, we interspersed social input test days with exposure to the task while alone. Tamarins were tested again 17 months after their last exposure to the task, to assess long-term memory. All tamarins tested with knowledgeable demonstrators solved the task. In contrast, tamarins tested alone or with naïve mates had similarly high levels of neophobia and low levels of task acquisition. We conclude that joint interaction occurs in mated pairs of cottontop tamarins and facilitates the spread of novel behaviour. Interspersing test days with a knowledgeable demonstrator present and test days alone with the task helped tamarins to achieve the ultimate goal of the task: obtaining food rewards. Tamarins performed similarly when tested 17 months later, regardless of their initial learning environment. Tamarins had memory deficits for the location of hidden food rewards, but retained memory of the necessary motor actions and solved the task. PMID:16912811

  16. The Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) for OSI - Experiences from IFE14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Sick, Benjamin; Häge, Martin; Blake, Thomas; Labak, Peter; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    An on-site inspection (OSI) is the third of four elements of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The sole purpose of an OSI is to confirm whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the treaty and to gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator. It thus constitutes the final verification measure under the CTBT if all other available measures are not able to confirm the nature of a suspicious event. The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) carried out the Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14) in the Dead Sea Area of Jordan from 3 November to 9. December 2014. It was a fictitious OSI whose aim was to test the inspection capabilities in an integrated manner. The technologies allowed during an OSI are listed in the Treaty. The aim of the Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) is to detect and localize aftershocks of low magnitudes of the triggering event or collapses of underground cavities. The locations of these events are expected in the vicinity of a possible previous explosion and help to narrow down the search area within an inspection area (IA) of an OSI. The success of SAMS depends on the main elements, hardware, software, deployment strategy, the search logic and not least the effective use of personnel. All elements of SAMS were tested and improved during the Built-Up Exercises (BUE) which took place in Austria and Hungary. IFE14 provided more realistic climatic and hazardous terrain conditions with limited resources. Significant variations in topography of the IA of IFE14 in the mountainous Dead Sea Area of Jordan led to considerable challenges which were not expected from experiences encountered during BUE. The SAMS uses mini arrays with an aperture of about 100 meters and with a total of 4 elements. The station network deployed during IFE14 and results of the data analysis will be presented. Possible aftershocks of

  17. Effects of an Individual Development Account Program on Retirement Saving: Follow-up Evidence From a Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Sherraden, Michael; Gale, William G; Rohe, William M; Schreiner, Mark; Key, Clinton; Oliphant, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    We examine the 10-year follow-up effects on retirement saving of an individual development account (IDA) program using data from a randomized experiment that ran from 1998 to 2003 in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The IDA program included financial education, encouragement to save, and matching funds for several qualified uses of the saving, including contributions to retirement accounts. The results indicate that as of 2009, 6 years after the program ended, the IDA program had no impact on the propensity to hold a retirement account, the account balance, or the sufficiency of retirement balances to meet retirement expenses.

  18. The Joanna Briggs Institute Best Practice Information Sheet: the psychosocial and spiritual experiences of elderly individuals recovering from a stroke.

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    This Best Practice Information Sheet aims to synthesize the best available evidence on the psychosocial and spiritual experiences of elderly individuals recovering from a stroke. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review conducted by The Joanna Briggs Institute. Stroke is a major cause of death and disability and the risk of experiencing a stroke increases with age. A wide range of issues that are related to the experience of a stroke, from the perspective of the patient, have been identified in the research literature. This information sheet focuses on qualitative evidence on the short-term and long-term recovery process from the perspective of the elderly person, with the intention of assessing the evidence that would guide nursing practice.

  19. The SfM-monitored rill experiment, a tool to detect decisive processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remke, Alexander-André; Wirtz, Stefan; Brings, Christine; Gronz, Oliver; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The initiation of rill erosion marks the transition from sheet to linear erosion. With this transition, the relevant processes change and therefore, the observation method needs to be changed too: from observing rainfall induced drop impacts to hydraulic observations. For us, the investigation of the decisive processes in eroding rills resulted in a constantly revised and updated rill erosion experiment, that has been used for several years. Within this experiment the sediment transport behavior of rills is simulated and examined. To make the experiment repeatable and replicable, several key-variables have to be kept constant, i.e. water quantity (1000 L), test duration (approx. 4 min.) and the length of the tested rill section (20 m). For each tested rill, the topographic background is determined i.e. catchment area, aspect, slope, position and height of existing knick-points and three cross-sections. After the initial assessment, the rill is flushed with water (250 L min -1) twice in order to determine the modifications of the rill caused by the flowing water. Within these approx. 4 minutes of "controlled destruction" the velocity of the turbulently flowing water at the beginning of the erosional event and after one and two minutes is determined and the corresponding water depth is recorded using three gauges at selected measuring points. At the end of the tested rill segment, the discharge is constantly monitored. Unfortunately, the results of this rill experiment do not directly show the modifications caused by the artificial waterflow. A way out of this knowledge gap is offered by combining this experimental measurement method with a technique already used in different scientific disciplines in more large-scale applications. Structure-from-Motion technology offers the opportunity to get a different, more detailed view inside the erosion rills. A static multi-camera-array and a dynamically moved digital video-frame camera are now used to obtain three

  20. Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health. PMID:27014077

  1. Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies.

    PubMed

    Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health.

  2. Factors associated with health care discrimination experiences among a national sample of female-to-male transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Shires, Deirdre A; Jaffee, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Transgender individuals experience harassment, violence, and discrimination in a number of settings. Although health care discrimination against transgender people has been documented, this issue is understudied. Using a national cross-sectional survey data set (N = 1,711), the authors sought to determine how gender identity and presentation predict health care discrimination experiences among female-to-male (FTM) transgender people after demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are controlled. Analyses were conducted using chi-square tests and a two-step logistic regression. The majority of participants were white (73.9 percent) and between 25 and 44 years old (65.2 percent). Overall, 41.8 percent of FTM participants reported verbal harassment, physical assault, or denial of equal treatment in a doctor's office or hospital. When other factors were controlled, being Native American or multiracial, identifying as queer or asexual/other, having a graduate degree, living full-time as nonbirth gender, using hormones or surgery for medical transition, and having identification documents that list one's preferred gender were associated with increased reporting of health care discrimination experiences; being 45 years or older and reporting an annual income of $60,000 or more were associated with decreased risk. The study's findings can be useful to social workers, who play a role in educating health care providers and advocating for policies that improve health care experiences for FTM and other transgender patients.

  3. Impact of self-funding on patient experience of oral anticoagulation self-monitoring: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Alice; Heneghan, Carl; Sutton, Stephen; Fitzmaurice, David; Ward, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact self-funding has on patient experience of oral anticoagulation therapy self-monitoring. Design Semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Transcripts were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Setting England. Participants Interviewees were participants of the Cohort Study of Anticoagulation Self-Monitoring (CASM). Cohort members were recruited as they bought a monitor from the major manufacturer in the UK. A purposive sample was invited to be interviewed on completion of the 12-month cohort follow-up. Data Patient narratives on their experiences of self-monitoring their oral anticoagulation therapy in non-trial conditions. Results 26 interviews were completed. Interviewees viewed purchasing the monitoring device as a long-term commitment balancing the limitations of clinic-based monitoring against the cost. They were unable to try out the monitor prior to purchase and therefore had to be confident in their own ability to use it. The variable provision of self-monitoring equipment caused resentment, and interviewees were uncomfortable negotiating with healthcare professionals. High test strip usage while learning how to use the monitor caused anxiety that was exacerbated by worries about their cost. However, self-funding did mean that interviewees felt a sense of ownership and were determined to persevere to overcome problems. Conclusions Self-funding has negative implications in terms of equity of access; however, the money invested acts as a barrier to discontinuation. If oral anticoagulation therapy self-monitoring devices and consumables were provided free of charge in routine care, the training and support available in England may need to be reviewed to prevent discontinuation rates rising to those observed in clinical trials. PMID:28011812

  4. Dust Impact Monitor DIM onboard Rosetta/Philae: Laboratory Calibration with Impact Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, H.; Ossowski, T.; Seidensticker, K.; Apathy, I.; Fischer, H.-H.; Hirn, A.; Jünemann, M.; Loose, A.; Peter, A.; Sperl, M.

    2011-10-01

    The Rosetta lander spacecraft Philae, which will land on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko in late 2014, is equipped with the Dust Impact Monitor instrument (DIM). The DIM sensor, which is part of the SESAME instrument package [Seidensticker et al., 2007], consists of three piezoelectric detectors, each one mounted on the outer side of a cube facing in three orthogonal directions. The total sensor area is approximately 70 cm2. DIM will measure impacts of sub-millimeter and millimeter sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma by the escaping gas flow. A grain-size dependent fraction of the emitted grains is expected to fall back to the nucleus surface due to gravity. DIM will be able to detect both these components, the backfalling particles as well as the grains hitting the detector on direct trajectories from the surface. With DIM we will be able to measure fluxes, impact directions as well as the speed and size of the impacting cometary particles. Two particle acceleration devices for impact calibration experiments are presently available at Max- Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung (MPS), Katlenburg-Lindau: With (a) a dedicated dropping device and (b) a small air gun we can simulate impacts with particles of different materials (steel, glass, ruby, polyethylen, etc.), radii between 0.2 and 1mm and impact speeds up to 2msec-1. We have performed a large number of impact experiments with two flight spare units of the DIM sensor at MPS. We present the results from our impact experiments and discuss their implications for the calibration of the DIM flight instrument.

  5. A new twist to a traditional approach to environmental monitoring: differentiation of oil sands process-affected waters and natural systems by comparison of individual organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlett, A.; Lengger, S.; West, C.; Rowland, S.

    2013-12-01

    Review panels of both the Canadian Federal and Alberta Provincial governments have recommended a complete overhaul of existing monitoring programs of the Athabasca oil sands industry and have called for a greater understanding of the potential impacts of mining activities to allow for future sustainable development. Due to the no release policy, it is critical that leakages of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) from tailings ponds can be differentiated from natural waters flowing through the McMurray formation into the Athabasca river system. Environmental monitoring of oil contamination usually entails profiling of known compounds, e.g. the US EPA list of priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, but until now a similar approach has not been possible for OSPW due to its extreme complexity. It has been estimated that the number of carboxylic acids, historically referred to as ';naphthenic acids' (NA) in OSPW, to be in excess of 10000 compounds. Until recently, individual structures of these NA were unknown but analyses by tandem gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) have now begun to reveal the individual structures of alicyclic, aromatic and sulphur-containing acids within OSPWs stored in tailings ponds. Now that some individual structures present in OSPW are known and standards are available, a methodological approach similar to traditional oil monitoring can be developed using individual diamondoid NA and recently discovered diacids and applied to tailings pond OSPW and environmental waters. One obstacle to understanding whether the NA present in environmental groundwater samples are associated with particular tailings ponds is the lack of knowledge of the variability of OSPW within and between ponds. In the current study, GCxGC-MS analyses have been applied to statistically compare OSPWs of two industries, both temporally and spatially, using specific, known compounds as well as associated isomers. Although variation within individual ponds was

  6. Influence of capture method, habitat quality and individual traits on blood parameters of free-ranging lace monitors (Varanus varius).

    PubMed

    Scheelings, Tf; Jessop, Ts

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to determine baseline reference intervals for haematological and serum biochemical parameters in lace monitors, and to examine whether such values were influenced by capture method, expected differences in habitat food resource availability and a lizard's body size and body condition. METHODS Thirty-three wild Victorian lace monitors (Varanus varius) of unknown age and sex were captured by noose pole or aluminium box trap from Cape Conran in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. RESULTS No statistical differences between the two capture methods were noted for haematology. There was a significant difference in the serum glucose concentrations between the two methods of capture (higher concentration in box-trapped animals) because of a physiological response to capture stress. Habitat food quality did not appear to influence haematology or serum biochemistry. The packed cell volume (PCV) for the lace monitors was 0.29-0.43 L/L. Lymphocytes were identified as the most common leucocyte. The haemoprotozoan parasite, Haemogregarina varanicola, was found in all 33 blood samples. No correlation could be made between parasite burden and PCV, serum globulins or serum proteins, but animals in poor body condition were more likely to harbour large numbers of parasites. CONCLUSION The results of this study may be used as a basis for evaluating health in lace monitors.

  7. Nondestructive tests for railway monitoring. European Experience in COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontul, Simona; Solla, Mercedes; Loizos, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The railway monitoring is an important issue for a proper maintenance planning. With the increase in loads and travel speed, it is important to be able to diagnose the track defects and to plan the proper maintenance without interfering with the users. Traditionally, the maintenance actions are planned based on the geometric level parameters assessed without contact with the line, at traffic speed, by dedicated inspection vehicles. Nevertheless, the geometric condition of the line does not provide information on the defects causes. In order to complements the information on the causes, geophysics measurements can be performed in a nondestructive way. Among these later methods, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. A resume of the European experience in COST Action TU1208 of the application of GPR for railway monitoring and the measurement interpretation is presented in this paper. Also complementary nondestructive tests and other geophysical methods are referred, together with case studies of their application. The main troubleshooting and the needs for data analysis

  8. Multi-institutional clinical experience with the Calypso System in localization and continuous, real-time monitoring of the prostate gland during external radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kupelian, Patrick . E-mail: patrick.kupelian@orhs.org; Willoughby, Twyla; Mahadevan, Arul; Djemil, Toufik; Weinstein, Geoffrey; Jani, Shirish; Enke, Charles; Solberg, Timothy; Flores, Nicholas

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To report the clinical experience with an electromagnetic treatment target positioning and continuous monitoring system in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Calypso System is a target positioning device that continuously monitors the location of three implanted electromagnetic transponders at a rate of 10 Hz. The system was used at five centers to position 41 patients over a full course of therapy. Electromagnetic positioning was compared to setup using skin marks and to stereoscopic X-ray localization of the transponders. Continuous monitoring was performed in 35 patients. Results: The difference between skin mark vs. the Calypso System alignment was found to be >5 mm in vector length in more than 75% of fractions. Comparisons between the Calypso System and X-ray localization showed good agreement. Qualitatively, the continuous motion was unpredictable and varied from persistent drift to transient rapid movements. Displacements {>=}3 and {>=}5 mm for cumulative durations of at least 30 s were observed during 41% and 15% of sessions. In individual patients, the number of fractions with displacements {>=}3 mm ranged from 3% to 87%; whereas the number of fractions with displacements {>=}5 mm ranged from 0% to 56%. Conclusion: The Calypso System is a clinically efficient and objective localization method for positioning prostate patients undergoing radiotherapy. Initial treatment setup can be performed rapidly, accurately, and objectively before radiation delivery. The extent and frequency of prostate motion during radiotherapy delivery can be easily monitored and used for motion management.

  9. Development of a Real-Time Monitoring System and Integration of Different Computer System in LHD Experiments Using IP Multicast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emoto, Masahiko; Nakamura, Yukio; Teramachi, Yasuaki; Okumura, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    There are several different computer systems in LHD (Large Helical Device) experiment, and therefore the coalition of these computers is a key to perform the experiment. Real-time monitoring system is also important because the long discharge is needed in the LHD experiment. In order to achieve these two requirements, the technique of IP multicast is adopted.The authors have developed three new systems, the first one is the real-time monitoring system, the next one is the delivery system of the shot number and the last one is the real-time notification system of the plasma data registration. The first system can deliver the real-time monitoring data to the LHD experimental LAN through the firewall of the LHD control LAN in NIFS. The other two systems are used to realize high coalition of the different computers in the LHD plasma experiment. We can conclude that IP multicast is very useful both in the LHD experiment and a future large plasma experiment from various experiences.

  10. Individual based, long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid zone: Integration of a field survey and a remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Ginat, Hanan; Shalmon, Benny

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation in hyper arid zones is very sparse as is. Monitoring vegetation changes in hyper arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. This study focuses on the impact of climate fluctuations on the acacia population in the southern Arava valley, Israel. The period of this survey includes a sequence of dry years with no flashfloods in most of the plots that ended in two years with vast floods. Arid zone acacia trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, humidity and precipitation. The trees also provide nutrients for the desert dwellers. Therefore, acacia trees in arid zones are considered to be `keystone species', because they have major influence over both plants and animal species, i.e., biodiversity. Long term monitoring of the acacia tree population in this area can provide insights into long term impacts of climate fluctuations on ecosystems in arid zones. Since 2000, a continuous yearly based survey on the three species of acacia population in seven different plots is conducted in the southern Arava (established by Shalmon, ecologist of the Israel nature and parks authority). The seven plots representing different ecosystems and hydrological regimes. A yearly based population monitoring enabled us to determine the mortality and recruitment rate of the acacia populations as well as growing rates of individual trees. This survey provides a unique database of the acacia population dynamics during a sequence of dry years that ended in a vast flood event during the winter of 2010. A lack of quantitative, nondestructive methods to estimate and monitor stress status of the acacia trees, led us to integrate remote sensing tools (ground and air-based) along with conventional field measurements in order to develop a long term monitoring of acacia

  11. Individual differences in fifth graders’ reading and language predict their comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth-graders’ (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter reading times overall suggesting faster processing of text. Generally fifth-graders reacted to the implausible word (i.e., longer gaze duration on the implausible v. the plausible word, which reflects lexical access). Students with stronger academic language, compared to those with weaker academic language, generally spent more time re-reading the implausible target compared to the plausible target. This difference increased from fall to spring. Results support the centrality of academic language for meaning integration, setting standards of coherence, and utilizing comprehension repair strategies. PMID:27065721

  12. Object-based inversion of crosswell radar tomography data to monitor vegetable oil injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Jr., John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2004-01-01

    Crosswell radar methods can be used to dynamically image ground-water flow and mass transport associated with tracer tests, hydraulic tests, and natural physical processes, for improved characterization of preferential flow paths and complex aquifer heterogeneity. Unfortunately, because the raypath coverage of the interwell region is limited by the borehole geometry, the tomographic inverse problem is typically underdetermined, and tomograms may contain artifacts such as spurious blurring or streaking that confuse interpretation.We implement object-based inversion (using a constrained, non-linear, least-squares algorithm) to improve results from pixel-based inversion approaches that utilize regularization criteria, such as damping or smoothness. Our approach requires pre- and post-injection travel-time data. Parameterization of the image plane comprises a small number of objects rather than a large number of pixels, resulting in an overdetermined problem that reduces the need for prior information. The nature and geometry of the objects are based on hydrologic insight into aquifer characteristics, the nature of the experiment, and the planned use of the geophysical results.The object-based inversion is demonstrated using synthetic and crosswell radar field data acquired during vegetable-oil injection experiments at a site in Fridley, Minnesota. The region where oil has displaced ground water is discretized as a stack of rectangles of variable horizontal extents. The inversion provides the geometry of the affected region and an estimate of the radar slowness change for each rectangle. Applying petrophysical models to these results and porosity from neutron logs, we estimate the vegetable-oil emulsion saturation in various layers.Using synthetic- and field-data examples, object-based inversion is shown to be an effective strategy for inverting crosswell radar tomography data acquired to monitor the emplacement of vegetable-oil emulsions. A principal advantage of

  13. Monitoring soil erosion in terraced catchments in Mediterranean regions: a field experiment in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Corrado; Djuma, Hakan; Zoumides, Christos; Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Abate, Dante; Faka, Marina; Hermon, Sorin

    2016-04-01

    monitored by sediment traps is performed. The scan produces a point cloud with a resolution close to 2 mm. The comparison of the 3D models derived in different times allows detecting changes in the terrain topography, which can be transformed in to erosion rates knowing the soil bulk density. The preliminary results of the monitoring experiment, which started at the beginning of November 2015, show erosion rates an order of magnitude higher in the collapsed sections of the terrace wall in comparison to the preserved ones. A more comprehensive analysis relating erosion rates to precipitation intensity, assessing yearly erosion rates in degraded terraced environments and comparing different monitoring techniques are expected at the end of the rainy season (April).

  14. Forest productivity and drought in tropical Africa: observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, E. S.; Lee, J. E.; Yang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of seasonal water stress on Africa's tropical regions has yet to be characterized despite drought's potential to cause famine and a reduction of biodiversity across the continent. Through the analysis of a new data set of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2, we demonstrate that fluorescence varies with water availability, particularly over regions with distinctive wet and dry seasons. Water availability was determined via both precipitation (from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project) and daytime canopy water content measurements (from the SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard the QuickSCAT satellite). Variance in SIF values was largely explained by both canopy water content and precipitation, which paralleled one-another. When viewed in the context of the previously defined relationship between fluorescence and gross primary production (GPP) - SIF scales linearly with GPP - our results suggest that photosynthetic activity in tropical Africa is limited by water availability. The characterization of this trend is critical in defining the response of tropical ecosystems to water stress and corroborating similar relationships in other tropical regions (e.g. Amazonia). Ultimately, the viability of Africa's tropical regions amidst a changing climate is rooted in its ecosystem-wide response to water stress; the future of the African tropics is limited by how well plants cope with water stress.

  15. Radiation-induced insulator discharge pulses in the CRRES internal discharge monitor satellite experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Mullen, E. G.; Brautigam, D. H.; Kerns, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Internal Discharge Monitor (IDM) was designed to observe electrical pulses from common electrical insulators in space service. The sixteen insulator samples included twelve planar printed circuit boards and four cables. The samples were fully enclosed, mutually isolated, and space radiation penetrated 0.02 cm of aluminum before striking the samples. Pulsing began on the seventh orbit, the maximum pulse rate occurred on the seventeenth orbit when 13 pulses occurred, and the pulses slowly diminished to about one per 3 orbits six months later. After 8 months, the radiation belts abruptly increased and the pulse rates attained a new high. These pulse rates were in agreement with laboratory experience on shorter time scales. Several of the samples never pulsed. If the pulses were not confined within IDM, the physical processes could spread to become a full spacecraft anomaly. The IDM results indicate the rate at which small insulator pulses occur. Small pulses are the seeds of larger satellite electrical anomalies. The pulse rates are compared with space radiation intensities, L shell location, and spectral distributions from the radiation spectrometers on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite.

  16. Micro-scale NMR Experiments for Monitoring the Optimization of Membrane Protein Solutions for Structural Biology.

    PubMed

    Horst, Reto; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2015-07-20

    Reconstitution of integral membrane proteins (IMP) in aqueous solutions of detergent micelles has been extensively used in structural biology, using either X-ray crystallography or NMR in solution. Further progress could be achieved by establishing a rational basis for the selection of detergent and buffer conditions, since the stringent bottleneck that slows down the structural biology of IMPs is the preparation of diffracting crystals or concentrated solutions of stable isotope labeled IMPs. Here, we describe procedures to monitor the quality of aqueous solutions of [(2)H, (15)N]-labeled IMPs reconstituted in detergent micelles. This approach has been developed for studies of β-barrel IMPs, where it was successfully applied for numerous NMR structure determinations, and it has also been adapted for use with α-helical IMPs, in particular GPCRs, in guiding crystallization trials and optimizing samples for NMR studies (Horst et al., 2013). 2D [(15)N, (1)H]-correlation maps are used as "fingerprints" to assess the foldedness of the IMP in solution. For promising samples, these "inexpensive" data are then supplemented with measurements of the translational and rotational diffusion coefficients, which give information on the shape and size of the IMP/detergent mixed micelles. Using microcoil equipment for these NMR experiments enables data collection with only micrograms of protein and detergent. This makes serial screens of variable solution conditions viable, enabling the optimization of parameters such as the detergent concentration, sample temperature, pH and the composition of the buffer.

  17. Micro-scale NMR Experiments for Monitoring the Optimization of Membrane Protein Solutions for Structural Biology

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Reto; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Reconstitution of integral membrane proteins (IMP) in aqueous solutions of detergent micelles has been extensively used in structural biology, using either X-ray crystallography or NMR in solution. Further progress could be achieved by establishing a rational basis for the selection of detergent and buffer conditions, since the stringent bottleneck that slows down the structural biology of IMPs is the preparation of diffracting crystals or concentrated solutions of stable isotope labeled IMPs. Here, we describe procedures to monitor the quality of aqueous solutions of [2H, 15N]-labeled IMPs reconstituted in detergent micelles. This approach has been developed for studies of β-barrel IMPs, where it was successfully applied for numerous NMR structure determinations, and it has also been adapted for use with α-helical IMPs, in particular GPCRs, in guiding crystallization trials and optimizing samples for NMR studies (Horst et al., 2013). 2D [15N, 1H]-correlation maps are used as “fingerprints” to assess the foldedness of the IMP in solution. For promising samples, these “inexpensive” data are then supplemented with measurements of the translational and rotational diffusion coefficients, which give information on the shape and size of the IMP/detergent mixed micelles. Using microcoil equipment for these NMR experiments enables data collection with only micrograms of protein and detergent. This makes serial screens of variable solution conditions viable, enabling the optimization of parameters such as the detergent concentration, sample temperature, pH and the composition of the buffer. PMID:27077076

  18. Monitoring Inland Water Quality Status Using Images from the SPOT-5 Take-5 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dona, Carolina; Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Caselles, Vicente; Camacho, Antonio; Picazo, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Galve, Joan Miquel

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to develop algorithms to estimate the water quality from SPOT-5 images in three water bodies belonging to the Jucar river basin. Images from the SPOT5 take 5 experiment were used, in the framework of the Sentinel-2 preparatory activities. Based on the spectral matching between both VNIR sensors, SPOT-5 was used to simulate Sentinel-2 products. Several experimental campaigns were carried out concurrent with SPOT-5 overpasses or close in date. Chlorophyll-a concentration [Chl-a], transparency (SD) and total suspended particles concentration [TSS] were measured. Genetic programming models were used to generate nonlinear regression equations between ground measurements and reflectance values from the SPOT-5 spectral bands. Results showed mean errors of ± 8%, ± 5% and ± 10% in the estimation of [Chl-a], SD and [TSS], respectively. These results show the potential of Sentinel-2 to monitor and study the spatio-temporal trend of these water quality parameters.

  19. Comparing Infants' Use of Featural and Spatiotemporal Information in an Object Individuation Task Using a New Event-Monitoring Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krojgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Discussions have recently taken place on whether spatiotemporal information is more important than featural information when infants attempt to individuate objects. Hitherto, spatiotemporal and featural information have only been compared directly by using cognitively demanding "event-mapping" designs" (e.g. Xu & Carey, 1996 ), whereas the simpler…

  20. Expression Profiles of the Individual Genes Corresponding to the Genes Generated by Cytotoxicity Experiments with Bortezomib in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mehdi; Alpsoy, Semih; Türk, Seyhan; Malkan, Ümit Y.; Atakan, Şükrü; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim C.; Güneş, Gürsel; Gündüz, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Burak; Etgül, Sezgin; Aydın, Seda; Aslan, Tuncay; Sayınalp, Nilgün; Aksu, Salih; Demiroğlu, Haluk; Özcebe, Osman İ.; Büyükaşık, Yahya; Göker, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Multiple myeloma (MM) is currently incurable due to refractory disease relapse even under novel anti-myeloma treatment. In silico studies are effective for key decision making during clinicopathological battles against the chronic course of MM. The aim of this present in silico study was to identify individual genes whose expression profiles match that of the one generated by cytotoxicity experiments for bortezomib. Materials and Methods: We used an in silico literature mining approach to identify potential biomarkers by creating a summarized set of metadata derived from relevant information. The E-MTAB-783 dataset containing expression data from 789 cancer cell lines including 8 myeloma cell lines with drug screening data from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute database obtained from ArrayExpress was “Robust Multi-array analysis” normalized using GeneSpring v.12.5. Drug toxicity data were obtained from the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer project. In order to identify individual genes whose expression profiles matched that of the one generated by cytotoxicity experiments for bortezomib, we used a linear regression-based approach, where we searched for statistically significant correlations between gene expression values and IC50 data. The intersections of the genes were identified in 8 cell lines and used for further analysis. Results: Our linear regression model identified 73 genes and some genes expression levels were found to very closely correlated with bortezomib IC50 values. When all 73 genes were used in a hierarchical cluster analysis, two major clusters of cells representing relatively sensitive and resistant cells could be identified. Pathway and molecular function analysis of all the significant genes was also investigated, as well as the genes involved in pathways. Conclusion: The findings of our present in silico study could be important not only for the understanding of the genomics of MM but also for the better arrangement of

  1. Individual factors that influence experiences and perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people with mental illness in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, Sebastian; Hegadoren, Kathy; Park, Tanya

    2017-03-27

    People with a mental illness often encounter stigma and discrimination from a variety of sources, reinforcing negative self-perceptions and influencing their health and well-being. Even though support systems and attitudes of the general public act as powerful sources of stigma, views and perceptions held by people with mental illness also influence their sensitivity to the experiences they encounter. The aim of the present qualitative study was to examine perceptions of stigma and discrimination and self-stigma in individuals diagnosed with a mental illness. This study adopted a narrative, descriptive method, using a semistructured interview guide to elicit participant perceptions regarding sources of stigma, discrimination, and personal factors that might influence their experiences. Twelve outpatients attending a clinic in Ghana were interviewed. Thematic content analysis was completed and augmented by field notes. Participants' perceptions about personal impacts of stigma were found to be influenced by self-stigma, anticipated stigma and discrimination, perceived discrimination, and their knowledge about their illness. For many participants, their views served to augment societal views, and thus reinforce negative self-perceptions and their future. However, for other participants, their views served as a buffer in the face of environmental situations that reflect stigma and discrimination. Stigma is a complex, socially-sanctioned phenomenon that can seriously affect the health of people with mental illness. As such, it requires coordinated strategies among public policy makers, governmental bodies, and health-care providers to address stigma on a societal level, and to address its potential impacts on broad health outcomes for individuals with mental illness.

  2. The Experience of Extended Bowel Resection in Individuals With a High Metachronous Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Emma J.; Trainer, Alison H.; Heriot, Alexander G.; Lynch, Craig; Parry, Susan; Win, Aung K.; Keogh, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To ascertain individual experiences of extended bowel resection as treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC) in those with a high metachronous CRC risk, including the self-reported adequacy of information received at different time points of treatment and recovery. Research Approach Qualitative. Setting Participants were recruited through the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry and two hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 18 individuals with a high metachronous CRC risk who had an extended bowel resection from 6–12 months ago. Methodologic Approach Semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed thematically. Findings In most cases, the treating surgeon decided on the best option regarding surgical treatment. Participants felt well informed about the surgical procedure. Information related to surgical outcomes, recovery, and lifestyle adjustment from surgery was not always adequate. Many participants described ongoing worry about developing another cancer. Conclusions Patients undergoing an extended resection to reduce metachronous CRC risk require detailed information delivered at more than one time point and relating to several different aspects of the surgical procedure and its outcomes. Interpretation An increased emphasis should be given to the provision of patient information on surgical outcomes, recovery, and lifestyle adjustment. Colorectal nurses could provide support for some of the reported unmet needs. PMID:27314187

  3. A natural experiment on plant acclimation: lifetime stomatal frequency response of an individual tree to annual atmospheric CO2 increase.

    PubMed

    Wagner, F; Below, R; Klerk, P D; Dilcher, D L; Joosten, H; Kürschner, W M; Visscher, H

    1996-10-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been increasing in atmospheric concentration since the Industrial Revolution. A decreasing number of stomata on leaves of land plants still provides the only morphological evidence that this man-made increase has already affected the biosphere. The current rate of CO2 responsiveness in individual long-lived species cannot be accurately determined from field studies or by controlled-environment experiments. However, the required long-term data sets can be obtained from continuous records of buried leaves from living trees in wetland ecosystems. Fine-resolution analysis of the lifetime leaf record of an individual birch (Betula pendula) indicates a gradual reduction of stomatal frequency as a phenotypic acclimation to CO2 increase. During the past four decades, CO2 increments of 1 part per million by volume resulted in a stomatal density decline of approximately 0.6%. It may be hypothesized that this plastic stomatal frequency response of deciduous tree species has evolved in conjunction with the overall Cenozoic reduction of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  4. Flood Detection and Monitoring by Autonomous Satellite Operations: the ASE Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, F.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Doggett, T.; Davies, A. G.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D. Q.; Rabideau, G.

    2006-05-01

    We developed a satellite-based floodwater classification algorithm, ASE_FLOOD, to autonomously detect, monitor and respond to flooding events as they occur. It monitors selected river locations around the world for flood conditions in near real time through the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE). Normally, an ongoing flood might be missed because of the time required for the spacecraft to send its data to ground controllers for image processing and data analysis. The ASE approach cuts lengthy time lags inherent to taking an observation, transmitting it to the ground for study, and subsequently deciding to direct further satellite observations of an event. By introducing spaceborne data analysis and autonomous decision-making ability, ASE provides an innovative way for early detection, tracking and "rapid response" to dynamic transient flood events without any human intervention or prior knowledge. Tested and proven on NASA's EO-1 spacecraft, ASE's onboard data analysis detects flood/non-flood/cloudy conditions on the ground, and responds to the detected conditions accordingly using its ASE-facilitated autonomous decision making ability. Cloudy scenes and scenes with no significant flooding are dropped and not be transmitted, thereby saving downlink resources. When significant flooding is detected, ASE autonomously triggers the satellite to acquire additional images of the same target or adjacent flood-affected regions on the next orbital passes to track flood progress and map flood extent. This conditional change- based triggering allows the satellite to change its acquisition priorities and retarget its sensors to the emerging flood regions. The ASE approach greatly reduces the response time to floods from 2 weeks down to a possible 3 hours. It optimizes satellite downlink resources by eliminating useless scenes (e.g., cloudy) and preferentially transmitting onboard-derived data of high science value (e.g., time series of floodwater inundation maps). This

  5. Laboratory experiments and continuous fluid monitoring at Campi Flegrei to understand pressure transients in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woith, Heiko; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Chiodini, Giovanni; Pilz, Marco; Walter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The hydrothermal system beneath Campi Flegrei is strongly affected by sub-surface processes as manifested by the existence of a geothermal "plume" below Solfatara (Bruno et al. 2007), associated with formation of new fumaroles and the spatial pattern of exhalation vents. Within the frame of MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) under Grant agreement no 308665), pressure tansients in the hydrothermal system of Campi Flegrei shall be studied using a combination of laboratory experiments and continuous pressure/temperature monitoring at fumaroles, mudpools, hot springs, and geothermal wells. Four groundwater monitoring sites were installed in September 2013: one in the Fangaia mud pool inside Solfatara and three within the geothermal area of Agnano, which is located roughly 3 km to the East of the Solfatara crater. In 2014 additional sensors were installed in Pisciarelli. Autonomous devices are being used to record the water level and water temperature at 10 minute intervals. Records reveal significant changes of the hydrothermal system in September 2013 at the Agnano main spring during the night from 23 to 24 September. Both, the water level and the water temperature dropped significantly, confirmed by visual inspection of the spa operators. The pool of the main spring almost emptied and the flow rate was significantly reduced, implying a profound change in the system. Similar water level drops occurred in the following months. Gas bubbles are likely to play a major role with respect to spatio-temporal variations in shallow fluid systems below Solfatara. Thus, additional to the field measurements we investigate potential bubble-related mechanisms capable to increase fluid pressure. The BubbleLab at GFZ has been setup. We are able to simulate earthquake ground motions with a shaking table, track the size and velocity of rising bubbles via a camera system, and quantify transients with a set of

  6. Online monitoring for the CDF Run II experiment and the remote operation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arisawa, T.; Fabiani, D.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Ikado, K.; Kubo, T.; Kusakabe, Y.; Maeshima, K.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Plager, C.; Schmidt, E.; /Fermilab /INFN, Pisa /Karlsruhe U.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of the CDF Run II online event monitoring framework, placed well before the physics runs start, allowed to develop coherent monitoring software across all the different subsystems which consequently made maintenance and operation simple and efficient. Only one shift person is needed to monitor the entire CDF detector, including the trigger system. High data quality check is assured in real time and well defined monitoring results are propagated coherently to offline datasets used for physics analyzes. We describe the CDF Run II online event monitoring system and operation, with emphasis on the remote monitoring shift operation started since November 2006 with Pisa-INFN as pilot Institution and exploiting the WEB based access to the data.

  7. Exploring Customization in Higher Education: An Experiment in Leveraging Computer Spreadsheet Technology to Deliver Highly Individualized Online Instruction to Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzler, Jayson S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes a research study designed to explore whether customization of online instruction results in improved learning in a college business statistics course. The study involved utilizing computer spreadsheet technology to develop an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) designed to: a) collect and monitor individual real-time…

  8. Implications of Childhood Experiences for the Health and Adaptation of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals: Sensitivity to Developmental Process in Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The empirical literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals has predominantly focused on sexual-orientation disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals on health and adaptation, as well as on the role of gay-related or minority stress in the health and adaptation of LGB individuals. Aside from demographic control variables, the initial predictor is a marker of sexual orientation or LGB-related experience (e.g., minority stress). Missing are potential strengths and vulnerabilities that LGB individuals develop over time and bring to bear on their sexual identity development and other LGB-related experiences. Those strengths and vulnerabilities may have profound consequences for the sexual identity development, health, and adaptation of LGB individuals. Here, I focus on one such set of strengths and vulnerabilities derived from attachment. I conclude by emphasizing the importance of attachment in the lives of LGB individuals and the need to identify other developmental processes that may be equally consequential. PMID:26900586

  9. The Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE) on the Mars Geophysical Monitoring and Sounding (GEMS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Asmar, S. W.; Dehant, V. M.; Banerdt, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Geophysical Monitoring and Sounding (GEMS) mission provides unique and critical information about the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolutions. GEMS begins the geophysical exploration of the Martian interior using seismic and thermal measurements and rotational dynamics, providing information about the initial accretion of the planet, the formation and differentiation of its core and crust, and the subsequent evolution of the interior. One of the mission's investigations is the Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE), which uses the spacecraft X-band communication link to receive Doppler and ranging observables. The objective of RISE is to determine the mineralogy, temperature, and state of the deep interior of Mars, complementing information provided by seismology. The mineralogy and temperature of the deep interior will provide key information on the accretion of the planet, and can be used to test theories of terrestrial planet accretion and thermal evolution. The interior structure will be inferred by the effect on variations in the orientation of Mars with respect to inertial space. The precession, nutation, and polar motion of Mars result from the interaction of the interior mass distribution with the gravity of the Sun. RISE will provide improved estimates of Mars' precession and nutation, polar motion, and length-of-day variations by monitoring the Doppler shift due to the rotation of Mars on the radio signal between the spacecraft and tracking stations. RISE will reduce the uncertainty in the precession rate and therefore also in the moment of inertia by a factor of ten or more. The moment of inertia can be used as a constraint on the core size and density, core temperature and mineralogy. The improved accuracy of the moment of inertia can constraint the core size and eliminate many, if not most, possible composition ratios. In addition, the measurements of the nutation of Mars will determine whether the Martian

  10. SECONDARY STANDARD CALIBRATION, MEASUREMENT AND IRRADIATION CAPABILITIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL MONITORING SERVICE AT THE HELMHOLTZ ZENTRUM MÜNCHEN: ASPECTS OF UNCERTAINTY AND AUTOMATION.

    PubMed

    Greiter, M B; Denk, J; Hoedlmoser, H

    2016-09-01

    The individual monitoring service at the Helmholtz Zentrum München has adopted the recommendations of the ISO 4037 and 6980 standards series as base of its dosimetric systems for X-ray, gamma and beta dosimetry. These standards define technical requirements for radiation spectra and measurement processes, but leave flexibility in the implementation of irradiations as well as in the resulting uncertainty in dose or dose rate. This article provides an example for their practical implementation in the Munich IAEA/WHO secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. It focusses on two aspects: automation issues and uncertainties in calibration.

  11. Equatorial Kelvin wave signatures in ozone profile measurements from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, R. M. A.; van Oss, R. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2005-11-01

    This study investigates the ability to derive height-resolved information on equatorial Kelvin wave activity from three different Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profile data sets. The ozone profiles derived using the Ozone Profile Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) based on optimal estimation and the Neural Network Ozone Retrieval System (NNORSY) both show Kelvin wave signals in agreement with previously identified signals in the GOME total ozone columns. However, because of the inadequate vertical resolution, these two data sets are not able to resolve the vertical structure of the Kelvin wave activity. The third data set, consisting of assimilated OPERA ozone profiles, does provide height-resolved information on Kelvin wave activity that is consistent with results from the analysis of GOME total ozone columns and ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) temperature data. Largest Kelvin-wave-induced perturbations of up to 0.69 DU/km coincide with the maximum vertical gradient in ozone around 35 hPa and show an in-phase relationship with temperature perturbations in ERA-40 as expected from theoretical considerations. These results indicate that the ozone perturbations in the lower stratosphere and in the total column of ozone are transport related. Between 10 and 1 hPa, large Kelvin-wave-induced fluctuations in ozone mixing ratio are present that, however, because of their small contribution to the total column, do not constitute a large contribution to the total ozone column perturbations. The ozone perturbations between 10 and 1 hPa show an out-of-phase relationship with temperature perturbations in ERA-40, indicating that the perturbations can either be caused by transport effects or photochemical influences.

  12. Space Environment NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) - A New Frontier in Operational Space Environmental Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamaroff, K. I.; Thompson, D. C.; Cooke, D. L.; Gentile, L. C.; Bonito, N. A.; La Tour, P.; Sondecker, G.; Bishop, R. L.; Nicholas, A. C.; Doe, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) program is a rapid development effort of the USAF Space and Missiles Center Development Planning Directorate (SMC/XR) which will demonstrate the capability of NanoSats to perform space missions in an affordable and resilient manner. The three primary objectives for the SENSE mission are: 1) to develop best practices for operational CubeSat/NanoSat procurement, development, test, and operations; 2) to mature CubeSat bus and sensor component technology readiness levels; and 3) to demonstrate the operational utility of CubeSat measurements by flowing validated, low-latency data into operational space weather models. SENSE consists of two 3-U CubeSats built by Boeing Phantom Works. Both satellites are 3-axis stabilized with star cameras for attitude determination and are equipped with a Compact Total Electron Density Sensor (CTECS) to provide radio occultation measurements of total electron content and L-band scintillation. One satellite has a Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) monitoring 135.6 nm photons produced by the recombination of O+ ions and electrons. The other satellite has a Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (WINCS) to acquire simultaneous co-located, in situ measurements of atmospheric and ionospheric density, composition, temperature and winds/drifts. Mission data will be used to improve current and future space weather models and demonstrate the utility of data from CubeSats for operational weather requirements. Launch is scheduled for November 2013, and we will discuss the first 30 days of on-orbit operations.

  13. Arctic Observing Experiment - An Assessment of Instruments Used to Monitor the Polar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, I. G.; Johnson, J.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Valentic, T. A.; Henderson, G. R.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.; Zook, J.; Davis, Z.

    2014-12-01

    To understand and predict weather and climate require an accurate observing network that measures the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. Measuring these parameters autonomously in the polar regions is especially challenging. To assess the accuracy of polar measurement networks, we established the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) test site in March 2013 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation and Meteorology (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. We deployed a myriad of data loggers and autonomous buoys, which represent most of the instruments that are commonly deployed by the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) to measure temperature, air pressure and wind. Estimates of temperature over this area have also been analyzed from satellites (e.g., using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ice-surface temperature (IST)) product, and can complement data from in-situ sensors and provide consistent measurements under clear-sky conditions. Preliminary results reveal that some of the buoys are susceptible to solar heating, icing can block barometers for short periods, and frosting may insulate air temperature sensors and freeze-lock anemometers. Some of these issues may be addressed by simply painting the buoys white to reduce solar heating of the buoys, and using better temperature shields and barometer ports. Nevertheless, frosting of ultrasonic and mechanical anemometers remains a significant challenge. These results will be useful to initiate a protocol to obtain accurate and consistent measurements from the IABP, the Arctic Observing Network (AON), the International Program for Antarctic Buoys, and the Southern Ocean Observing System to monitor polar environments.

  14. Monitoring grazing intensity: an experiment with canopy spectra applied to satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Zhao, Ying; Zheng, Jiajia; Luo, Juhua; Zhang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of grassland grazing intensity (GI) and its detailed spatial distribution are important for grassland management and ecological protection. Remote sensing has great potential in these areas, but its use is still limited. This study analyzed the impacts of grazing on biophysical properties of vegetation and suggested using biomass to quantify GI because of its stability and interpretability. In comparison to a single spectral index, such as the red edge index (REI), combining REI and a cellulose absorption ratio index calculated from hyperspectral data performs better for biomass estimation. Further, an auxiliary spectral index, called the grazing monitoring index (GMI), was developed based on differences in spectral reflectance in the infrared range. Experiments in a grazing area of the Inner Mongolia grassland indicated that GMI can identify GI, with three range intervals (GMI <0, 0-1, and ≥1) used to describe the biomass distribution. The results showed that combining GMI and biomass was more successful than existing approaches for identifying the grassland variability resulting from the spatial heterogeneity of grazing behavior. The thresholds of biomass for four GI levels (ungrazed, lightly grazed, moderately grazed, and heavily grazed) could be determined by the intersections of biomass distributions. In addition, the approach developed at the on-ground canopy scale was extended to remotely sensed Hyperion data. The results showed that the approach could successfully identify the grazing treatments of blocks in the experimental grazing area. Overall, our study provides inspiration and ideas for using satellite remote sensing for evaluating plant production, standing biomass, and livestock impacts.

  15. Older Adults’ Experiences Using a Commercially Available Monitor to Self-Track Their Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity contributes to older adults’ autonomy, mobility, and quality of life as they age, yet fewer than 1 in 5 engage in activities as recommended. Many older adults track their exercise using pencil and paper, or their memory. Commercially available physical activity monitors (PAM) have the potential to facilitate these tracking practices and, in turn, physical activity. An assessment of older adults’ long-term experiences with PAM is needed to understand this potential. Objective To assess short and long-term experiences of adults >70 years old using a PAM (Fitbit One) in terms of acceptance, ease-of-use, and usefulness: domains in the technology acceptance model. Methods This prospective study included 95 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom received a PAM as part of randomized controlled trial piloting a fall-reducing physical activity promotion intervention. Ten-item surveys were administered 10 weeks and 8 months after the study started. Survey ratings are described and analyzed over time, and compared by sex, education, and age. Results Participants were mostly women (71/95, 75%), 70 to 96 years old, and had some college education (68/95, 72%). Most participants (86/95, 91%) agreed or strongly agreed that the PAM was easy to use, useful, and acceptable both 10 weeks and 8 months after enrolling in the study. Ratings dropped between these time points in all survey domains: ease-of-use (median difference 0.66 points, P=.001); usefulness (median difference 0.16 points, P=.193); and acceptance (median difference 0.17 points, P=.032). Differences in ratings by sex or educational attainment were not statistically significant at either time point. Most participants 80+ years of age (28/37, 76%) agreed or strongly agreed with survey items at long-term follow-up, however their ratings were significantly lower than participants in younger age groups at both time points. Conclusions Study results indicate it is feasible for older

  16. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems: Command and service module entry monitor subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reina, B., Jr.; Patterson, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual aspects of the command and service module entry monitor subsystem, together with an interpretation of the displays and their associated relationship to entry trajectory control, are presented. The entry monitor subsystem is described, and the problems encountered during the developmental phase and the first five manned Apollo flights are discussed in conjunction with the design improvements implemented.

  17. CO2-water-mineral reactions during CO2 leakage into glauconitic sands: geochemical and isotopic monitoring of batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Lions, J.; Lagneau, V.; Negrel, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    experiment; (2) dissolved iron strongly decreases immediately after CO2 injection; (3) potassium, sodium and fluorine concentrations increase at the start of CO2 injection and then stabilize to levels higher than the pre-injection concentrations, (4) chlorides and sulfates are stable. These variations indicate dissolution/precipitation and surface reactions involving mineral phases such as glauconite, siderite/iron hydroxide. The experimental results were interpreted and the geochemical mechanisms involved were included in geochemical modeling using PHREEQC, an essential step to quantify the overall effect of the combined individual reactions and processes. These mechanisms were corroborated with isotopic ratio variations. E.g. the variations of δ13CDIC (from -15.7 ‰ to -21 ‰ vs. PDB) cannot be explained solely by the CO2 dissolution, and indicate additional chemical processes. Likewise, shifts of δ11B towards more negative values stress the implication of the glauconitic minerals, mainly B-bearing phase in the system. These experimental results, and their numerical simulation, are promising for the development of our indirect geochemical and isotopic monitoring technique.

  18. Real-time monitoring of changes in plasma membrane potential via imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer at individual cell resolution in suspension.

    PubMed

    Sabati, Tzachi; Galmidi, Bat-Sheva; Korngreen, Alon; Zurgil, Naomi; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2013-12-01

    A method for monitoring heterogeneity in changes of plasma membrane potential (PMP) at an individual cell resolution while in suspension, utilizing a simple and low-cost wide-field illumination arrangement, is presented. The method is modeled via HEK-293 cell line in suspension, double stained with coumarin and oxonol (donor and acceptor), which were loaded into an array of nanoliter wells, each designed to preserve the individuality of the nontethered cell it holds during vigorous biomanipulation. Depolarization of PMP was induced by high K(+) solution, reducing the proximity between the membrane fluorophores and subsequently reducing the efficiency (E%) of resonance energy transfer between them. Spatial plots of E% were produced from both images of fluorescence intensity and polarization. The spatial resolution of E% plots seem to be higher, and their contrast greater, when calculated from the polarization, rather than from the intensity of the fluorescence.

  19. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  20. Proof of concept experiments of the multi-isotope process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near real-time monitor for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard N.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-01

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the multi-isotope process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to monitoring and safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of ±1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  1. Systematic review of patients' participation in and experiences of technology-based monitoring of mental health symptoms in the community

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Eoin; Priebe, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review systematically the literature on patients’ experiences of, and participation in, technology-based monitoring of mental health symptoms. This practice was defined as patients monitoring their mental health symptoms, emotions or behaviours outside of routine clinical appointments by submitting symptom data using technology, with feedback arising from the data (for example, supportive messages or symptom summaries, being sent to the patient, clinician or carer). Design Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines of studies evaluating technology-based symptom monitoring. Tools from narrative synthesis were used to analyse quantitative findings on participation rates and qualitative findings on patient views. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, BNI, CINAHL, Cochrane Registers and Web of Science electronic databases were searched using a combination of ‘psychiatry’, ‘symptom monitoring’ and ‘technology’ descriptors. A secondary hand search was performed in grey literature and references. Results 57 papers representing 42 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Technology-based symptom monitoring was used for a range of mental health conditions, either independently of a specific therapeutic intervention or as an integrated component of therapeutic interventions. The majority of studies reported moderate-to-strong rates of participation, though a third reported lower rates. Qualitative feedback suggests that acceptability of monitoring is related to perceived validity, ease of practice, convenient technology, appropriate frequency and helpfulness of feedback, as well as the impact of monitoring on participants’ ability to manage health and personal relationships. Conclusions Such symptom monitoring practices appear to be well accepted and may be a feasible complement to clinical practice. However, there is limited availability of data and heterogeneity of studies. Future research should examine robustly patients’ role

  2. iPod-based in-home system for monitoring gaze-stabilization exercise compliance of individuals with vestibular hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the physical therapy setting, physical therapists (PTs) often prescribe exercises for their clients to perform at home. However, it is difficult for PTs to obtain information about their clients’ compliance with the prescribed exercises, the quality of performance and symptom magnitude. We present an iPod-based system for capturing this information from individuals with vestibular hypofunction while they perform gaze stabilization exercises at home. Method The system’s accuracy for measurement of rotational velocity against an independent motion tracker was validated. Then a seven day in-home trial was conducted with 10 individuals to assess the feasibility of implementing the system. Compliance was measured by comparing the recorded frequency and duration of the exercises with the exercise prescription. The velocity and range of motion of head movements was recorded in the pitch and yaw planes. The system also recorded dizziness severity before and after each exercise was performed. Each patient was interviewed briefly after the trial to ascertain ease of use. In addition, an interview was performed with PTs in order to assess how the information would be utilized. Results The correlation of the velocity measurements between the iPod-based system and the motion tracker was 0.99. Half of the subjects were under-compliant with the prescribed exercises. The average head velocity during performance was 140 deg/s in the yaw plane and 101 deg/s in the pitch plane. Conclusions The iPod-based system was able to be used in-home. Interviews with PTs suggest that the quantitative data from the system will be valuable for assisting PTs in understanding exercise performance of patients, documenting progress, making treatment decisions, and communicating patient status to other PTs. PMID:24746068

  3. "I Just Don't Fit Anywhere": Support Experiences and Future Support Needs of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Nash, Susie; Hastings, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of individuals in middle adulthood with Asperger syndrome have been the subject of little previous research, especially in terms of their experience of support services. In the present research, 11 adults with Asperger syndrome were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to interpret the interviews.…

  4. Repeated Assessment of Exploration and Novelty Seeking in the Human Behavioral Pattern Monitor in Bipolar Disorder Patients and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.; Masten, Virginia; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2011-01-01

    Background Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD) and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM), a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. Methodology and Principal Findings Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability) patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. Conclusions/Significance Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design to characterize

  5. 'I just don't fit anywhere': support experiences and future support needs of individuals with Asperger syndrome in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Gemma M; Totsika, Vasiliki; Nash, Susie; Hastings, Richard P

    2012-09-01

    The experiences of individuals in middle adulthood with Asperger syndrome have been the subject of little previous research, especially in terms of their experience of support services. In the present research, 11 adults with Asperger syndrome were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to interpret the interviews. Four themes emerged from the analysis: living with Asperger syndrome; employment issues; experiences with mainstream support; and future steps towards supporting adults with Asperger syndrome. The findings highlighted the anxiety, depression, and communication difficulties that people with Asperger syndrome may experience. Much of the available support is perceived as unsuitable for individuals with Asperger syndrome. All participants wanted to remain as independent as possible, and believed an individualized approach to support would be greatly beneficial. Recommendations are made for future practice to help support adults with Asperger syndrome.

  6. Synchronised electrical monitoring and high speed video of bubble growth associated with individual discharges during plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troughton, S. C.; Nominé, A.; Nominé, A. V.; Henrion, G.; Clyne, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Synchronised electrical current and high speed video information are presented from individual discharges on Al substrates during PEO processing. Exposure time was 8 μs and linear spatial resolution 9 μm. Image sequences were captured for periods of 2 s, during which the sample surface was illuminated with short duration flashes (revealing bubbles formed where the discharge reached the surface of the coating). Correlations were thus established between discharge current, light emission from the discharge channel and (externally-illuminated) dimensions of the bubble as it expanded and contracted. Bubbles reached radii of 500 μm, within periods of 100 μs, with peak growth velocity about 10 m/s. It is deduced that bubble growth occurs as a consequence of the progressive volatilisation of water (electrolyte), without substantial increases in either pressure or temperature within the bubble. Current continues to flow through the discharge as the bubble expands, and this growth (and the related increase in electrical resistance) is thought to be responsible for the current being cut off (soon after the point of maximum radius). A semi-quantitative audit is presented of the transformations between different forms of energy that take place during the lifetime of a discharge.

  7. Fiber-optic combined FPI/FBG sensors for monitoring of radiofrequency thermal ablation of liver tumors: ex vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Daniele; Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Braschi, Giovanni; Cigada, Alfredo; Gallati, Mario; Rossi, Sandro; Poeggel, Sven; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-04-01

    We present a biocompatible, all-glass, 0.2 mm diameter, fiber-optic probe that combines an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry and a proximal fiber Bragg grating sensor; the probe enables dual pressure and temperature measurement on an active 4 mm length, with 40 Pa and 0.2°C nominal accuracy. The sensing system has been applied to monitor online the radiofrequency thermal ablation of tumors in liver tissue. Preliminary experiments have been performed in a reference chamber with uniform heating; further experiments have been carried out on ex vivo porcine liver, which allowed the measurement of a steep temperature gradient and monitoring of the local pressure increase during the ablation procedure.

  8. Revising river water quality monitoring networks using discrete entropy theory: the Jajrood River experience.

    PubMed

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Kerachian, Reza

    2011-04-01

    This paper aims at evaluating and revising the spatial and temporal sampling frequencies of the water quality monitoring system of the Jajrood River in the Northern part of Tehran, Iran. This important river system supplies 23% of domestic water demand of the Tehran metropolitan area with population of more than 10 million people. In the proposed methodology, by developing a model for calculating a discrete version of pair-wise spatial information transfer indices (SITIs) for each pair of potential monitoring stations, the pair-wise SITI matrices for all water quality variables are formed. Also, using a similar model, the discrete temporal information transfer indices (TITIs) using the data of the existing monitoring stations are calculated. Then, the curves of the pair-wise SITI versus distance between monitoring stations and TITI versus time lags for all water quality variables are derived. Then, using a group pair-wise comparison matrix, the relative weights of the water quality variables are calculated. In this paper, a micro-genetic-algorithm-based optimization model with the objective of minimizing a weighted average spatial and temporal ITI is developed and for a pre-defined total number of stations, the best combination of monitoring stations is selected. The results show that the existing monitoring system of the Jajrood River should be partially strengthened and in some cases the sampling frequencies should be increased. Based on the results, the proposed approach can be used as an effective tool for evaluating, revising, or redesigning the existing river water quality monitoring systems.

  9. Leak Rate Test for a Fiber Beam Monitor Contained in a Vacuum for the Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mara, Bridget; Lane, Noel; Gross, Eisen; Gray, Frederick; Muon g-2 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment with a precision of 0.14 parts per million (ppm). The measurement will build on the Brookhaven-based E821 experiment, which yielded results suggesting new physics such as supersymmetry. The Fiber Beam Monitors (FBMs) are used in the experiment to determine the position and observe the motion of a muon beam and monitor the properties of the beam over time. The FBMs support a 9 cm × 8 cm ``harp'' with 7 scintillating fibers separated from each other by 13 mm, each with a diameter of 0.5 mm. The experiment requires a vacuum of less than 1 ×10-6 Torr to prevent trapping of electrons ionized from the residual gas by the electrostatic quadrupoles. To meet this requirement the FBMs must have a leak rate of less than 5 ×10-5 Torr L/s. We have constructed a vacuum system to simulate these conditions and have determined the leak rate of the FBMs within the constructed vacuum apparatus. This leak rate will be reported, along with preliminary results from tests of the light output from the scintillating fibers. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment with a precision of 0.14 parts per million (ppm). The measurement will build on the Brookhaven-based E821 experiment, which yielded results suggesting new physics such as supersymmetry. The Fiber Beam Monitors (FBMs) are used in the experiment to determine the position and observe the motion of a muon beam and monitor the properties of the beam over time. The FBMs support a 9 cm × 8 cm ``harp'' with 7 scintillating fibers separated from each other by 13 mm, each with a diameter of 0.5 mm. The experiment requires a vacuum of less than 1 ×10-6 Torr to prevent trapping of electrons ionized from the residual gas by the electrostatic quadrupoles. To meet this requirement the FBMs must have a leak rate of less than 5 ×10-5 Torr L/s. We have constructed a vacuum system to simulate these conditions

  10. Large-scale laboratory testing of bedload-monitoring technologies: overview of the StreamLab06 Experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Gray, John R.; Davis, Broderick E.; Ellis, Chris; Johnson, Sara; Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month-long, large-scale flume experiment involving research and testing of selected conventional and surrogate bedload-monitoring technologies was conducted in the Main Channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory under the auspices of the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics. These experiments, dubbed StreamLab06, involved 25 researchers and volunteers from academia, government, and the private sector. The research channel was equipped with a sediment-recirculation system and a sediment-flux monitoring system that allowed continuous measurement of sediment flux in the flume and provided a data set by which samplers were evaluated. Selected bedload-measurement technologies were tested under a range of flow and sediment-transport conditions. The experiment was conducted in two phases. The bed material in phase I was well-sorted siliceous sand (0.6-1.8 mm median diameter). A gravel mixture (1-32 mm median diameter) composed the bed material in phase II. Four conventional bedload samplers – a standard Helley-Smith, Elwha, BLH-84, and Toutle River II (TR-2) sampler – were manually deployed as part of both experiment phases. Bedload traps were deployed in study Phase II. Two surrogate bedload samplers – stationarymounted down-looking 600 kHz and 1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers – were deployed in experiment phase II. This paper presents an overview of the experiment including the specific data-collection technologies used and the ambient hydraulic, sediment-transport and environmental conditions measured as part of the experiment. All data collected as part of the StreamLab06 experiments are, or will be available to the research community.

  11. Testing of microsatellite multiplexes for individual identification of Cape Parrots (Poicephalus robustus): paternity testing and monitoring trade

    PubMed Central

    Coetzer, Willem G.; Downs, Colleen T.; Perrin, Mike R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Illegal trade in rare wildlife species is a major threat to many parrot species around the world. Wildlife forensics plays an important role in the preservation of endangered or threatened wildlife species. Identification of illegally harvested or traded animals through DNA techniques is one of the many methods used during forensic investigations. Natural populations of the South African endemic Cape Parrot (Poicephalus robustus) are negatively affected by the removal of eggs and chicks for the pet trade. Methods In this study, 16 microsatellite markers specifically designed for the South African endemic Cape Parrot (P. robustus) are assessed for their utility in forensic casework. Using these 16 loci, the genetic diversity of a subset of the captive Cape Parrot population was also assessed and compared to three wild Cape Parrot populations. Results It was determined that the full 16 locus panel has sufficient discriminatory power to be used in parentage analyses and can be used to determine if a bird has been bred in captivity and so can be legally traded or if it has been illegally removed from the wild. In cases where birds have been removed from the wild, this study suggests that a reduced 12 locus microsatellite panel has sufficient power to assign confiscated birds to geographic population of origin. Discussion The level of genetic diversity observed within the captive Cape Parrot population was similar to that observed in the wild populations, which suggests that the captive population is not suffering from decreased levels of genetic diversity. The captive Cape Parrots did however have double the number of private alleles compared to that observed in the most genetically diverse wild population. This is probably due to the presence of rare alleles present in the founder population, which has not been lost due to genetic drift, as many of the individuals tested in this study are F1–F3 wild descendants. The results from this study provide a suit

  12. Clinical, socio-demographic and psychological characteristics in individuals with persistent psychotic experiences with and without a "need for care".

    PubMed

    Peters, Emmanuelle; Ward, Thomas; Jackson, Mike; Morgan, Craig; Charalambides, Monica; McGuire, Philip; Woodruff, Peter; Jacobsen, Pamela; Chadwick, Paul; Garety, Philippa A

    2016-02-01

    Individuals reporting persistent psychotic experiences (PEs) in the general population, but without a "need for care", are a unique group of particular importance in identifying risk and protective factors for psychosis. We compared people with persistent PEs and no "need for care" (non-clinical, N=92) with patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (clinical, N=84) and controls without PEs (N=83), in terms of their phenomenological, socio-demographic and psychological features. The 259 participants were recruited from one urban and one rural area in the UK, as part of the UNIQUE (Unusual Experiences Enquiry) study. Results showed that the non-clinical group experienced hallucinations in all modalities as well as first-rank symptoms, with an earlier age of onset than in the clinical group. Somatic/tactile hallucinations were more frequent than in the clinical group, while commenting and conversing voices were rare. Participants in the non-clinical group were differentiated from their clinical counterparts by being less paranoid and deluded, apart from ideas of reference, and having fewer cognitive difficulties and negative symptoms. Unlike the clinical group, they were characterized neither by low psychosocial functioning nor by social adversity. However, childhood trauma featured in both groups. They were similar to the controls in psychological characteristics: they did not report current emotional problems, had intact self-esteem, displayed healthy schemas about the self and others, showed high life satisfaction and well-being, and high mindfulness. These findings support biopsychosocial models postulating that environmental and psychological factors interact with biological processes in the aetiology of psychosis. While some PEs may be more malign than others, lower levels of social and environmental adversity, combined with protective factors such as intact IQ, spirituality, and psychological and emotional well-being, may reduce the likelihood of persistent

  13. Inadequacy of 3-month Oswestry Disability Index outcome for assessing individual longer-term patient experience after lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    MCID at 3 and 12 months. The discordance rates of achieving or not achieving MCID for ODI were in the range of 19% to 27% for all diagnoses and treatments (decompression with and without fusion). The positive and negative predictive value of 3-months ODI to predict 12-month ODI was 86% and 60% for MCID and 82% and 67% for SCB. CONCLUSIONS Based on their findings, the authors conclude the following: 1) Predictive methods for functional outcome based on early patient experience (i.e., baseline and/or 3-month data) should be used to help evaluate the effectiveness of procedures in patient populations, rather than serving as a proxy for long-term individual patient experience. 2) Prospective longitudinal registries need to span at least 12 months to determine the effectiveness of spine care at the individual patient and practitioner level.

  14. The Experience of Caring For or Living with an Individual with an Eating Disorder: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Fox, John Re; Dean, Madeleine; Whittlesea, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) has the highest mortality rate of psychiatric disorders and a high incidence of comorbidity. Because of the average age of onset, care typically befalls family members. However, despite the severity of the disorder and the burden placed on the family, research into the caregiving experience is still developing. Studies have shown caregivers of individuals with ED to experience high levels of distress, burden and expressed emotion. Recent theoretical models have underscored the importance of caregivers' responses as a maintenance factor for the ED, and family therapy has proved efficacious. However, the literature pertaining to the experience of family members living with or caring for an individual with an ED has not been systematically reviewed. This review aimed to synthesize qualitative studies relating to the caring experience and its impact, thereby gaining an understanding from the perspective of the individuals themselves. Relevant search terms were utilized to systematically search key databases. Twenty studies, with a total sample of 239 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Nine core themes emerged from the synthesis, forming the basis of an explanatory theory. The ED was found to have a pervasive impact upon family members, mediated by a number of factors. Cognitive appraisals affected the caregiving experience and responses to the individual. The experience of caregiving was continually reappraised leading to a process of adaptation. The majority of studies identified unmet carer needs. The implications of the findings are discussed with reference to existing theoretical models and in terms of clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for monitoring CO2 injection: Demonstration of leakage detection during bench-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, S. J.; Carrigan, C. R.; LaBrecque, D. J.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Field-scale studies have shown Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to be an effective tool for imaging resistivity anomalies and monitoring infiltration events in the near subsurface. ERT also shows potential for monitoring CO2 injections, despite deployment challenges in the deep subsurface. We present results from analog bench-scale experiments aimed at evaluating the ability of ERT to quantify the volume and spatial distribution of a gas injected into a brine-saturated porous medium. We injected measured volumes of gas into translucent chambers filled with quartz sand, lined with electrodes, and saturated with a low resistivity salt solution. Between injections, a CCD camera captured high-resolution images, and an ERT data acquisition system scanned the chamber. Using the CCD images, quantitative visualization techniques resulted in high-resolution measurements of the spatial distribution and saturation of the injected gas. Direct comparison to inverted resistivity fields then provided a quantitative measure of the ability of ERT to estimate the total volume of injected gas and its spatial distribution within the chamber. We present results from two experiments designed to represent different injection scenarios: (A) low injection rate and strong capillary barrier, and (B) high injection rate and weaker capillary barrier. Results show that ERT provides good estimates of the shape, size and location of the primary gas plume, but underestimates gas content and does not detect thin pathways of gas from the injection port or within the overlying capillary barrier. However, ERT measurements did detect a change in saturation within the primary plume caused by leakage through the capillary barrier in (B), demonstrating the potential utility of ERT as a leakage-monitoring tool. Repeated ERT scans during our experiments led to degradation in data quality that corresponded with an increase in measured contact resistance. Decreased data quality over time is clearly a

  16. Therapeutic drug monitoring of monoclonal antibodies in inflammatory and malignant disease: Translating TNF-α experience to oncology.

    PubMed

    Oude Munnink, T H; Henstra, M J; Segerink, L I; Movig, K L L; Brummelhuis-Visser, P

    2016-04-01

    Lack of response to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been associated with inadequate mAb serum concentrations. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of mAbs has the potential to guide to more effective dosing in individual patients. This review discusses the mechanisms responsible for interpatient variability of mAb pharmacokinetics, summarizes exposure-response data of mAbs used in inflammatory and malignant disease, presents current evidence of mAb-TDM in inflammatory disease, and provides hurdles and required future steps for further implementing mAb-TDM.

  17. Telemetric Catheter-Based Pressure Sensor for Hemodynamic Monitoring: Experimental Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Urban, Ute; Fassbender, Holger; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Schoth, Felix; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and animal experimental feasibility of a percutaneously implantable pulmonary arterial implant for permanent hemodynamic monitoring. Two systems for measuring pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) as well as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) were developed by modifying a commercially available pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). First, a cable-bound catheter-based system was designed by implementation of a capacitive absolute-pressure sensor in the catheter tip. This system was developed further into a completely implantable telemetric system. The devices were tested in an acute setting in a total of 10 sheep. The implant was placed with its tip in the descending pulmonary artery via the right jugular approach. Results were compared with conventional PAC positioned in the contralateral pulmonary artery using Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Implantation of the monitoring systems was uneventful in 10 animals. Data from two fully functional cable-bound and telemetric pressure monitoring systems were available, with a total of 18,506 measurements. There was an excellent correlation between reference data and the data obtained with the implants (r = 0.9944). Bland-Altman plots indicated a very good agreement between the techniques. We report the development and successful initial test of an implantable catheter-based device for long-term measurement of PAP and PAOP. Both devices may be applicable for hemodynamic monitoring. Further long-term studies for assessing reliability and durability of the device are warranted.

  18. Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A.; Mackay, Clare E.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Most people will experience or witness a traumatic event. A common occurrence after trauma is the experience of involuntary emotional memories of the traumatic event, herewith “flashbacks”. Some individuals, however, report no flashbacks. Prospective work investigating psychological factors associated with an absence of flashbacks is lacking. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis on 16 experiments (n = 458) using the trauma film paradigm to investigate the association of emotional response to traumatic film footage and commonly collected baseline characteristics (trait anxiety, current depression, trauma history) with an absence of analogue flashbacks. An absence of analogue flashbacks was associated with low emotional response to the traumatic film footage and, to a lesser extent, low trait anxiety and low current depression levels. Trauma history and recognition memory for the film were not significantly associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks. Understanding why some individuals report an absence of flashbacks may aid preventative treatments against flashback development. PMID:24920083

  19. Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: an individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-01-01

    Most people will experience or witness a traumatic event. A common occurrence after trauma is the experience of involuntary emotional memories of the traumatic event, herewith "flashbacks". Some individuals, however, report no flashbacks. Prospective work investigating psychological factors associated with an absence of flashbacks is lacking. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis on 16 experiments (n = 458) using the trauma film paradigm to investigate the association of emotional response to traumatic film footage and commonly collected baseline characteristics (trait anxiety, current depression, trauma history) with an absence of analogue flashbacks. An absence of analogue flashbacks was associated with low emotional response to the traumatic film footage and, to a lesser extent, low trait anxiety and low current depression levels. Trauma history and recognition memory for the film were not significantly associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks. Understanding why some individuals report an absence of flashbacks may aid preventative treatments against flashback development.

  20. Post-Marketing Health Technology Monitoring. The Analysis of an Experience from a Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ibargoyen-Roteta, Nora; Cabriada-Nuño, Jose Luis; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hernández-Ramírez, Vicent; Clofent-Vilaplana, Juan; Domènech-Morral, Eugeni; Ginard-Vicens, Daniel; Oliva-Oliva, Gloria; Queiro-Verdes, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A system for monitoring the use of aphaeresis in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), named system for monitoring aphaeresis in ulcerative colitis (SiMAC), was designed in 2006 in the Basque Country. In the present study, the opinion of the clinicians who participated in SiMAC was evaluated, in order to identify the barriers and gather suggestions that could improve implementation of this kind of system. Methods: A mixed questionnaire was designed, in order to gather clinicians’ assessments of the SiMAC monitoring system. Results: The response rate was 73.9% (17/23). The data from 40.96% (159/388) of patients with UC treated with aphaeresis was recorded. The main reasons for not including the data from all treated patients were a lack of required data or not meeting the study inclusion criteria. Positive aspects of the SiMAC were identified, as the simplicity of data collection and its systematic, multi-center approach. The negative aspects mentioned were the use of a local computer application and the lack of time for health professionals to enter data. Discussion: The use of monitoring systems helps to formalize the introduction of technologies of little-known effectiveness; involve clinicians and medical societies in coming to agreement and obtaining information about the safety, effectiveness or efficiency of new technologies; and provide relevant information to healthcare administrations for making decisions about the introduction of new technologies into healthcare practice. In order for a monitoring system to work, the process must be straightforward. A minimum set of key variables that are easy to collect must be selected, and an effort made to involve a range of stakeholders, especially institutions and scientific societies, to support the work group. PMID:21863141

  1. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J.

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  2. Relevance of individual participant data meta-analysis for studies in obstetrics: delivery versus expectant monitoring for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Broekhuijsen, Kim; Bernardes, Thomas; van Baaren, Gert-Jan; Tajik, Parvin; Novikova, Natalia; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Boers, Kim; Koopmans, Corine M; Wallace, Kedra; Shennan, Andrew H; Langenveld, Josje; Groen, Henk; van den Berg, Paul P; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franssen, Maureen T M

    2015-08-01

    Like many other research subjects in obstetrics, research on immediate delivery versus expectant monitoring for women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy faces certain challenges when it comes to interpretation and generalisation of the results; relatively rare outcomes are studied, in a clinically heterogeneous population, while the clinical practice in some countries has dictated that studies in term pregnancy were completed before earlier gestational ages could be studied. This has resulted in multiple smaller studies, some studying surrogate outcome measures, with different in- and exclusion criteria, and without enough power for reliable subgroup analyses. All this complicates the generation of definitive answers and implementation of the results into clinical practice. Performing multiple studies and subsequently pooling their results in a meta-analysis can be a way to overcome the difficulties of studying relatively rare outcomes and subgroups with enough power, as well as a solution to reach a final answer on questions involving an uncertain and possibly harmful intervention. However, in the case of the current studies on delivery versus expectant monitoring in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, differences regarding eligibility criteria, outcome measures and subgroup definitions make it difficult to pool their results in an aggregate meta-analysis. Individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA) has the potential to overcome these challenges, because it allows for flexibility regarding the choice of endpoints and standardisation of inclusion and exclusion criteria across studies. In addition, it has more statistical power for informative subgroup analyses. We therefore propose an IPDMA on immediate delivery versus expectant monitoring for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and advocate the use of IPDMA for research questions in obstetrics that face similar challenges.

  3. Geophysical monitoring of near surface CO2 injection at Svelvik - Learnings from the CO2FieldLab experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querendez, Etor; Romdhane, Anouar; Jordan, Michael; Eliasson, Peder; Grimstad, Alv-Arne

    2014-05-01

    A CO2 migration field laboratory for testing monitoring methods and tools has been established in the glaciofluvial-glaciomarine Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, near Oslo (Norway). At the site, feasibility, sensitivity, acquisition geometry and usefulness of various surface and subsurface monitoring tools are investigated during controlled CO2 injection experiments. In a first stage, a shallow CO2 injection experiment was conducted in September 2011. Approximately 1700 kg of CO2 was injected at 18 m depth below surface in an unconsolidated sand formation. The objectives of this experiment were to (i) detect and, where possible, quantify migrated CO2 concentrations at the surface and very shallow subsurface, (ii) evaluate the sensitivity of the monitoring tools and (iii) study the impact of the vadose zone on observed measurements. Results showed that all deployed monitoring tools (for surface and near-surface gas monitoring, subsurface water monitoring and subsurface geophysical monitoring) where able to detect the presence of CO2 even though the CO2 plume did not migrate vertically as expected in what was thought to be an homogeneous unconsolidated sand structure. The upper part of the site revealed to be more heterogeneous than expected, mainly due to the highly variable lamination and channelling of the morainic sediments and to the presence of pebble and cobble beds sporadically showing throughout the deposits. Building on the learnings from the 18m depth injection experiment, a second experiment is being planned for a deeper injection, at a depth of 65m. Re-processing of the appraisal 2D multi-channel seismic with state-of-the-art processing techniques, like Linear Radon coherent and random noise attenuation and Full Waveform Inversion followed by pre-stack depth migration, corroborate the presence of heterogeneities at the near surface. Based on the re-interpreted seismic sections, a more realistic 3D geomodel, where the complex topography of the site

  4. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon radiography: a calibration experiment using a water tower

    PubMed Central

    Jourde, Kevin; Gibert, Dominique; Marteau, Jacques; de Bremond d’Ars, Jean; Gardien, Serge; Girerd, Claude; Ianigro, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Usage of secondary cosmic muons to image the geological structures density distribution significantly developed during the past ten years. Recent applications demonstrate the method interest to monitor magma ascent and volcanic gas movements inside volcanoes. Muon radiography could be used to monitor density variations in aquifers and the critical zone in the near surface. However, the time resolution achievable by muon radiography monitoring remains poorly studied. It is biased by fluctuation sources exterior to the target, and statistically affected by the limited number of particles detected during the experiment. The present study documents these two issues within a simple and well constrained experimental context: a water tower. We use the data to discuss the influence of atmospheric variability that perturbs the signal, and propose correction formulas to extract the muon flux variations related to the water level changes. Statistical developments establish the feasibility domain of muon radiography monitoring as a function of target thickness (i.e. opacity). Objects with a thickness comprised between ≈50 ± 30 m water equivalent correspond to the best time resolution. Thinner objects have a degraded time resolution that strongly depends on the zenith angle, whereas thicker objects (like volcanoes) time resolution does not. PMID:26971718

  5. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon radiography: a calibration experiment using a water tower.

    PubMed

    Jourde, Kevin; Gibert, Dominique; Marteau, Jacques; de Bremond d'Ars, Jean; Gardien, Serge; Girerd, Claude; Ianigro, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-14

    Usage of secondary cosmic muons to image the geological structures density distribution significantly developed during the past ten years. Recent applications demonstrate the method interest to monitor magma ascent and volcanic gas movements inside volcanoes. Muon radiography could be used to monitor density variations in aquifers and the critical zone in the near surface. However, the time resolution achievable by muon radiography monitoring remains poorly studied. It is biased by fluctuation sources exterior to the target, and statistically affected by the limited number of particles detected during the experiment. The present study documents these two issues within a simple and well constrained experimental context: a water tower. We use the data to discuss the influence of atmospheric variability that perturbs the signal, and propose correction formulas to extract the muon flux variations related to the water level changes. Statistical developments establish the feasibility domain of muon radiography monitoring as a function of target thickness (i.e. opacity). Objects with a thickness comprised between ≈50 ± 30 m water equivalent correspond to the best time resolution. Thinner objects have a degraded time resolution that strongly depends on the zenith angle, whereas thicker objects (like volcanoes) time resolution does not.

  6. Systematic Review of Articles Describing Experience and Supports of Individuals with Autism Enrolled in College and University Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Smith, Isaac; Reichow, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number of higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is likely to lead to an increased interest in postsecondary opportunities including degree-granting college and university programs. To provide an understanding of the current evidence-base for supporting individuals with ASD in higher education, this…

  7. Adherence to and effectiveness of an individually tailored home-based exercise program for frail older adults, driven by mobility monitoring: design of a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the number of older adults in society rising, frailty becomes an increasingly prevalent health condition. Regular physical activity can prevent functional decline and reduce frailty symptoms. In particular, home-based exercise programs can be beneficial in reducing frailty of older adults and fall risk, and in improving associated physiological parameters. However, adherence to home-based exercise programs is generally low among older adults. Current developments in technology can assist in enlarging adherence to home-based exercise programs. This paper presents the rationale and design of a study evaluating the adherence to and effectiveness of an individually tailored, home-based physical activity program for frail older adults driven by mobility monitoring through a necklace-worn physical activity sensor and remote feedback using a tablet PC. Methods/design Fifty transitionally frail community-dwelling older adults will join a 6-month home-based physical activity program in which exercises are provided in the form of exercise videos on a tablet PC and daily activity is monitored by means of a necklace-worn motion sensor. Participants exercise 5 times a week. Exercises are built up in levels and are individually tailored in consultation with a coach through weekly telephone contact. Discussion The physical activity program driven by mobility monitoring through a necklace-worn sensor and remote feedback using a tablet PC is an innovative method for physical activity stimulation in frail older adults. We hypothesize that, if participants are sufficiently adherent, the program will result in higher daily physical activity and higher strength and balance assessed by physical tests compared to baseline. If adherence to and effectiveness of the program is considered sufficient, the next step would be to evaluate the effectiveness with a randomised controlled trial. The knowledge gained in this study can be used to develop and fine-tune the application

  8. Monitoring signals for vaccine safety: the assessment of individual adverse event reports by an expert advisory committee. Advisory Committee on Causality Assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Collet, J. P.; MacDonald, N.; Cashman, N.; Pless, R.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring vaccine safety is a complex and shared responsibility. It can be carried out in many ways, one of which is the reporting of individual cases of adverse reactions thought to be due to vaccination. The task is difficult because ascribing causality to an individual case report is fraught with challenges. A standardized evaluation instrument--known as the causality assessment form--was therefore developed for use by an expert advisory committee to facilitate the process. By following the several sections in this form, the members of the committee are taken through a series of points to establish causality. These points include the basic criteria for causation such as biological plausibility, the time elapsed between the vaccine administration and the onset of the adverse event, and whether other factors (drugs, chemicals or underlying disease) could account for the adverse symptoms. The form concludes with a consensus assessment of causality, a commentary about the assessment, and advice for further study or follow-up. This method of assessing the more serious cases of adverse reaction reported to vaccination has proven useful in evaluating ongoing safety of vaccines in Canada. Through analyses such as this, new signals can be identified and investigated further. PMID:10743282

  9. Parallel Reaction Monitoring: A Targeted Experiment Performed Using High Resolution and High Mass Accuracy Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rauniyar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    The parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay has emerged as an alternative method of targeted quantification. The PRM assay is performed in a high resolution and high mass accuracy mode on a mass spectrometer. This review presents the features that make PRM a highly specific and selective method for targeted quantification using quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid instruments. In addition, this review discusses the label-based and label-free methods of quantification that can be performed with the targeted approach. PMID:26633379

  10. Monitoring of microvascular free flaps following oropharyngeal reconstruction using infrared thermography: first clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Just, Maren; Chalopin, Claire; Unger, Michael; Halama, Dirk; Neumuth, Thomas; Dietz, Andreas; Fischer, Miloš

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate static and dynamic infrared (IR) thermography for intra- and postoperative free-flap monitoring following oropharyngeal reconstruction. Sixteen patients with oropharyngeal reconstruction by free radial forearm flap were included in this prospective, clinical study (05/2013-08/2014). Prior ("intraop_pre") and following ("intraop_post") completion of the microvascular anastomoses, IR thermography was performed for intraoperative flap monitoring. Further IR images were acquired one day ("postop_1") and 10 days ("postop_10") after surgery for postoperative flap monitoring. Of the 16, 15 transferred free radial forearm flaps did not show any perfusion failure. A significant decreasing mean temperature difference (∆T: temperature difference between the flap surface and the surrounding tissue in Kelvin) was measured at all investigation points in comparison with the temperature difference at "intraop_pre" (mean values on all patients: ∆T intraop_pre = -2.64 K; ∆T intraop_post = -1.22 K, p < 0.0015; ∆T postop_1 = -0.54 K, p < 0.0001; ∆T postop_10 = -0.58 K, p < 0.0001). Intraoperative dynamic IR thermography showed typical pattern of non-pathological rewarming due to re-established flap perfusion after completion of the microvascular anastomoses. Static and dynamic IR thermography is a promising, objective method for intraoperative and postoperative monitoring of free-flap reconstructions in head and neck surgery and to detect perfusion failure, before macroscopic changes in the tissue surface are obvious. A lack of significant decrease of the temperature difference compared to surrounding tissue following completion of microvascular anastomoses and an atypical rewarming following a thermal challenge are suggestive of flap perfusion failure.

  11. The experience of family members of ICU patients who require extensive monitoring: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claudia DiSabatino; Custard, Kristi

    2014-09-01

    A mixed methods study using family research with a phenomenological approach (n = 5 families) was conducted to explore family members' perceptions about the extensive monitoring technology used on their critically ill family member after cardiac surgery, as experienced when family members initially visited the patient in the cardiovascular intensive care unit. Five relevant themes emerged: overwhelmed by all of the machines; feelings of uncertainty; methods of coping; meaning of the numbers on the machines; and need for education.

  12. Bacterial monitoring with adhesive sheet in the international space station-"Kibo", the Japanese experiment module.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-"Kibo" module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (10(5) cells [cm(2)](-1)), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments, continuous bacterial monitoring in Kibo is required.

  13. Design and Experiment of FBG-Based Icing Monitoring on Overhead Transmission Lines with an Improvement Trial for Windy Weather

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Xing, Yimeng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Qiguan

    2014-01-01

    A scheme for monitoring icing on overhead transmission lines with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors is designed and evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The influences of temperature and wind are considered. The results of field experiments using simulated ice loading on windless days indicate that the scheme is capable of monitoring the icing thickness within 0–30 mm with an accuracy of ±1 mm, a load cell error of 0.0308v, a repeatability error of 0.3328v and a hysteresis error is 0.026%. To improve the measurement during windy weather, a correction factor is added to the effective gravity acceleration, and the absolute FBG strain is replaced by its statistical average. PMID:25615733

  14. Geophysical monitoring of the submerged area of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy): experiences and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; De Martino, Prospero; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Bobbio, Antonella; Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring system of the Campi Flegrei caldera is made up of a dense geophysical network of seismological and geodetic instruments with data acquired and processed at the Monitoring Center of INGV in Naples. As one third of the caldera is covered by the sea, a marine monitoring system has been operating since 2008 in the center of the gulf of Pozzuoli, where the sea depth is about 100 m at ~2.5 km from the coast. The main component of the monitoring system is CUMAS (Cabled Underwater Multidisciplinary Acquisition System), which consists of a sea floor module equipped with geophysical and oceanographic sensors (broad band seismometer, accelerometer, hydrophone, bottom pressure recorder and single point three component water-current meter) and status and control sensors. CUMAS is connected by cable to the top of an elastic beacon buoy equipped with the power supply and data transmission devices. The buoy consists of a float placed below sea level, surrounding and holding a steel pole that supports a turret structure above sea level. The pole, turret and float system are rigidly connected to the ballast on the sea bottom. Thus a GPS installed on the turret can record the vertical sea floor displacement related to the volcanic activity of the area. The GPS has operated since January 2012 with continuous acquisition lasting more than three years and has recorded a cumulative seafloor uplift of about 7-8 cm. The comparison of the pattern of the GPS buoy data with those of the land stations confirms a quasi-symmetrical vertical displacement field of the caldera area. Measurement of vertical sea floor displacement has also been obtained by the analysis of bottom pressure recorder data. These results, in conjunction with the analysis of seismic and hydrophone data, have encouraged us to extend the marine monitoring system with the deployment in the Gulf of Pozzuoli of three new similar systems. We also present preliminary results of the first few months of activity of

  15. Experience of the multi-parameters electromagnetic monitoring in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraev, A.; Antaschuk, K.; Simakov, A.

    2013-12-01

    Development of the multi-parameters electromagnetic (EM) monitoring technology in frequency range 0.1 Hz - 1 MHz is carried out in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). The technology includes registration of such EM earthquake precursors, as apparent resistivity variations, ULF magnetic and electrotelluric anomalies, electromagnetic emission and ionosphere disturbances. Two types of equipment are used for the EM monitoring: the audiomagnetotelluric system ACF-4M (0.1-1000 Hz) and the radiomagnetotelluric system RMT-F (1-1000 kHz). The equipment ensure time series registration of electric and magnetic field components, robust data processing, spectral parameters calculations, apparent resistivity and impedance phase determination. The integrated multi-parameters monitoring of the considered precursors is carried out simultaneously and obtaining of informative parameters is differed by methods of measured time series data processing only. For the apparent resistivity variations monitoring we apply the audiomagnetotelluric sounding method in frequency range 7-300 Hz with the sufficiently large investigation depth for decreasing of seasonal and daily factors influence, temperature changes and other weather conditions. In this frequency range natural EM fields are quite stable for reliable data obtaining in any time of day and season with accuracy 0.3 % for apparent resistivity. For ULF magnetic, electrotelluric and electromagnetic emission anomalies study we use the wide-band registration of time-series of electric and magnetic fields in frequency range from 0.1 Hz up to 1 MHz. Ionosphere disturbances are studied in radio (observations of remote radio transmitter's signals) and audio (Schumann resonances observations) frequency ranges. EM emission anomaly was registered before the earthquake of M=3.3 on 4 April 2013 in the monitoring station at 100 km distance to the West from the earthquake epicenter (Issyk-Kul lake area). In the dynamic spectrum of magnetic field

  16. Flow experience in the daily lives of older adults: an analysis of the interaction between flow, individual differences, serious leisure, location, and social context.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Lee, Youngkhill; Pedersen, Paul M; McCormick, Bryan P

    2010-09-01

    This study examined how serious leisure, individual differences, social context, and location contribute to older adults' experiences of flow - an intense psychological state - in their daily lives. The Experience Sampling Method was used with 19 older adults in a Midwestern city in the United States. Experience of flow was the outcome measure, and the data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that location and employment status influenced the subjects' flow experience. Furthermore, the findings revealed that retirement was negatively related to experiencing flow, and there was a significant association between home and the flow experience. The results of this study enhance the understanding of flow experiences in the everyday lives of older adults.

  17. Use of Glucose Rate of Change Arrows to Adjust Insulin Therapy Among Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes Who Use Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pettus, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study was performed to understand and to compare differences in utilization of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and the rate of change (ROC) arrow to adjust insulin therapy among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), comparing those treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) with those treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Research Design and Methods: We surveyed 222 T1D individuals who regularly used real-time CGM to obtain information about general CGM use and response to glucose ROC arrows in managing their diabetes. Results: The survey was completed by 222 T1D individuals. Respondents included CSII (n = 166) and MDI (n = 56) users. MDI and CSII respondents reported similar substantial increases in correction dosages (from 220 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL) in response to increasing glucose (one ROC arrow up: rising 2–3 mg/dL/min): +120% and +108%, respectively (P = 0.13). MDI and CSII respondents reported similar substantial increases in correction dosages in response to rapidly increasing glucose (two arrows up: rising >3 mg/dL/min): +146% and +138%, respectively (P = 0.72). When correcting from 220 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL, MDI respondents reported larger correction dosage reductions than CSII respondents in response to decreasing glucose (one ROC down arrow: decreasing 2–3 mg/dL/min) and rapidly decreasing glucose (two ROC down arrows: decreasing >3 mg/dL/min): −50% versus −37%, respectively (P = 0.024) and −52% versus 38%, respectively (P = 0.034). Similar between-group differences were observed in mealtime dosage adjustments. Conclusions: CGM users often rely on ROC information when determining insulin doses and tend to make larger changes than current recommendations suggest regardless of insulin delivery method. PMID:26784128

  18. Flight Validation of On-Demand Operations: The Deep Space One Beacon Monitor Operations Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Jay; Sherwood, Rob; Sue, Miles; Szijjarto, John

    2000-01-01

    After a brief overview of the operational concept, this paper will provide a detailed description of the _as-flown_ flight software components, the DS1 experiment plan, and experiment results to date. Special emphasis will be given to experiment results and lessons learned since the basic system design has been previously reported. Mission scenarios where beacon operations is highly applicable will be described. Detailed cost savings estimates for a sample science mission will be provided as will cumulative savings that are possible over the next fifteen years of NASA missions.

  19. Systematic review of articles describing experience and supports of individuals with autism enrolled in college and university programs.

    PubMed

    Gelbar, Nicholas W; Smith, Isaac; Reichow, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The increase in the number of higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is likely to lead to an increased interest in postsecondary opportunities including degree-granting college and university programs. To provide an understanding of the current evidence-base for supporting individuals with ASD in higher education, this article reports the results of a systematic review of the literature concerning college students with ASD. Overall, 20 articles describing 69 individuals met the inclusion criteria. This small number of articles and participants indicates the scarcity of research on this topic and only two of these studies were experimental in nature. These studies described a video-self modeling intervention and a counseling intervention respectively. Eighteen "case studies" were also present in the literature that described difficulties ranging from anxiety to housing concerns. This review deliniates the limitation of our understanding of effective college programming for individuals with ASD.

  20. Crafts and Craft Education as Expressions of Cultural Heritage: Individual Experiences and Collective Values among an International Group of Women University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores relationships between crafts, craft education and cultural heritage as reflected in the individual experiences and collective values of fifteen female university students of different nationalities. The students (all trainee teachers) were following a course in crafts and craft education as part of an International Study…

  1. "It's One of the Hardest Jobs in the World": The Experience and Understanding of Qualified Nurses Who Work with Individuals Diagnosed with Both Learning Disability and Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amy; Kiemle, Gundi

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examines the experiences of qualified nurses working with individuals diagnosed with both intellectual disability and personality disorder (PD) in a medium-secure forensic intellectual disability setting. Potential training needs are highlighted, as well as other ways in which services could better support staff to work…

  2. A Cross-Cultural Exploration of the Everyday Social Participation of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Australia and Taiwan: An Experience Sampling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita C.; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder commonly have limited social participation. This study aimed to examine the similarities and differences of everyday participation among males and females with autism spectrum disorder in Australia and Taiwan, using an experience sampling methodology. A total of 14 Australians (4 males, aged 16-43…

  3. Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Who Live with Family and Experience Psychiatric Crisis: Who Uses the Emergency Department and Who Stays Home?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Slusarczyk, Maggie; Lunsky, Yona

    2011-01-01

    Many individuals with intellectual disabilities who live with their families experience mental health problems and ensuing psychiatric emergencies. During periods of crisis, families may require additional services, including going to the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to elucidate demographic, clinical, and crisis features…

  4. Customer Choice or Business as Usual?: Promoting Innovation in the Design of WIA Training Programs Through the Individual Training Account Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Johnson, Irma; Decker, Paul

    The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 requires that workforce investment areas establish individual training accounts (ITAs) that provide vouchers customers can use to pay for training. The United States Department of Labor is supporting the ITA experiment, during which new customers determined to be eligible for training will be randomly…

  5. We Still Have a Lot to Learn: Learning Experiences of Individuals Age 80 and Older in Care Facilities in a Midwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebert, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the learning experiences of individuals, age 80 and older, in care facilities in a Midwestern state. Even with the well documented growth of the over age 85 demographic, there are few studies about learning that included this demographic or considered the wants and needs of this group. Using a phenomenological…

  6. Life Experiences of People Who Stutter, and the Perceived Impact of Stuttering on Quality of Life: Personal Accounts of South African Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klompas, Michelle; Ross, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the life experiences of a group of South African adults who stutter and the impact of stuttering on their quality of life. Participants were 16 adults with a mean age of 28.9 and ranging from 20 to 59 years. Methods involved individual interviews designed to explore the life domains of education; social…

  7. High Latitude Scintillation Monitoring at UHF with the COMMX Experiment on TACSat4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Akins, K.; Nurnberger, M.

    2013-12-01

    UHF Beacon Transmissions at 253 MHz have provided high latitude scintillation monitoring from Gakona Alaska using the COMMX instrument on TACSat4. TACSat4 was constructed by the Naval Research Laboratory and was launched in September 2011 as an experimental communications satellite. Ground UHF transmissions are uplinked to TACSat4 using the 4 meter diameter antenna deployed to view the earth. These signals are coherently translated to other UHF frequency to be rebroadcast to the ground. Scintillation monitoring is achieved by taking the 401.25 MHz signals from ground DORIS beacons located in Cold Bay, Alaska; Yellowknife, Canada; Kauai, Hawaii; and Soccoro Island, Mexico. These signals are translated to 253 MHz and broadcast with the 4 meter antenna pointed to the UHF receiver located at Gakona, Alaska. The satellite antenna gain is 18 dB in this UHF band and the transmitter power is 2 Watts. The satellite is in an elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63 degrees and a perigee of 12,000 km. Doppler frequency shifts allow separation of each uplink from the ground DORIS beacons. This new scintillation monitoring system has been used to detect natural and artificial field aligned irregularity effects on the amplitude and phase of UHF carriers where typical scintillation amplitudes are 2dB or less. Using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska, TACSat4 was used to discover the artificial ionization clouds produce scintillation with as much as 16 dB and amplitude indices S4 greater than unity. This is the first demonstration of significant effects on radio scintillations using high power HF radio waves to disturb the ionosphere.

  8. Invited Article: Radon and thoron intercomparison experiments for integrated monitors at NIRS, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Janik, M. Ishikawa, T.; Omori, Y.; Kavasi, N.

    2014-02-15

    Inhalation of radon ({sup 222}Rn) and its short-lived decay products and of products of the thoron ({sup 220}Rn) series accounts for more than half of the effective dose from natural radiation sources. At this time, many countries have begun large-scale radon and thoron surveys and many different measurement methods and instruments are used in these studies. Consequently, it is necessary to improve and standardize technical methods of measurements and to verify quality assurance by intercomparisons between laboratories. Four international intercomparisons for passive integrating radon and thoron monitors were conducted at the NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan). Radon exercises were carried out in the 24.4 m{sup 3} inner volume walk-in radon chamber that has systems to control radon concentration, temperature, and humidity. Moreover, the NIRS thoron chamber with a 150 dm{sup 3} inner volume was utilized to provide three thoron intercomparisons. At present, the NIRS is the only laboratory world-wide that has carried out periodic thoron intercomparison of passive monitors. Fifty laboratories from 26 countries participated in the radon intercomparison, using six types of detectors (charcoal, CR-39, LR 115, polycarbonate film, electret plate, and silicon photodiode). Eighteen laboratories from 12 countries participated in the thoron intercomparisons, using two etch-track types (CR-39 and polycarbonate) detectors. The tests were made under one to three different exposures to radon and thoron. The data presented in this paper indicated that the performance quality of laboratories for radon measurement has been gradually increasing. Results of thoron exercises showed that the quality for thoron measurements still needs further development and additional studies are needed to improve its measuring methods. The present paper provides a summary of all radon and thoron international intercomparisons done at NIRS from 2007 to date and it describes the

  9. Invited Article: Radon and thoron intercomparison experiments for integrated monitors at NIRS, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Omori, Y.; Kavasi, N.

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its short-lived decay products and of products of the thoron (220Rn) series accounts for more than half of the effective dose from natural radiation sources. At this time, many countries have begun large-scale radon and thoron surveys and many different measurement methods and instruments are used in these studies. Consequently, it is necessary to improve and standardize technical methods of measurements and to verify quality assurance by intercomparisons between laboratories. Four international intercomparisons for passive integrating radon and thoron monitors were conducted at the NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan). Radon exercises were carried out in the 24.4 m3 inner volume walk-in radon chamber that has systems to control radon concentration, temperature, and humidity. Moreover, the NIRS thoron chamber with a 150 dm3 inner volume was utilized to provide three thoron intercomparisons. At present, the NIRS is the only laboratory world-wide that has carried out periodic thoron intercomparison of passive monitors. Fifty laboratories from 26 countries participated in the radon intercomparison, using six types of detectors (charcoal, CR-39, LR 115, polycarbonate film, electret plate, and silicon photodiode). Eighteen laboratories from 12 countries participated in the thoron intercomparisons, using two etch-track types (CR-39 and polycarbonate) detectors. The tests were made under one to three different exposures to radon and thoron. The data presented in this paper indicated that the performance quality of laboratories for radon measurement has been gradually increasing. Results of thoron exercises showed that the quality for thoron measurements still needs further development and additional studies are needed to improve its measuring methods. The present paper provides a summary of all radon and thoron international intercomparisons done at NIRS from 2007 to date and it describes the present status on radon and

  10. Photographic coronagraph, Skylab particulate experiment T025. [earth atmospheric pollution and Kohoutek Comet monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovane, F.; Schuerman, D. W.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A photographic coronagraph, built to monitor Skylab's extravehicular contamination, is described. This versatile instrument was used to observe the earth's vertical aerosol distribution and Comet Kohoutek (1973f) near perihelion. Although originally designed for deployment from the solar airlock, the instrument was modified for EVA operation when the airlock was rendered unusable. The results of the observations made in four EVA's were almost completely ruined by the failure of a Skylab operational camera used with the coronagraph. Nevertheless, an aerosol layer at 48 km was discovered in the southern hemisphere from the few useful photographs.

  11. A prototype experiment for cooperative monitoring of nuclear reactors with cubic meter scale antineutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, A.; Allen, M.; Bowden, N.; Brennan, J.; Carr, D. J.; Estrada, J.; Hagmann, C.; Lund, J. C.; Madden, N. W.; Winant, C. D.

    2005-09-01

    Our Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/Sandia National Laboratories collaboration has deployed a cubic-meter-scale antineutrino detector to demonstrate non-intrusive and automatic monitoring of the power levels and plutonium content of a nuclear reactor. Reactor monitoring of this kind is required for all non-nuclear weapons states under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), and is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Since the antineutrino count rate and energy spectrum depend on the relative yields of fissioning isotopes in the reactor core, changes in isotopic composition can be observed without ever directly accessing the core. Data from a cubic meter scale antineutrino detector, coupled with the well-understood principles that govern the core's evolution in time, can be used to determine whether the reactor is being operated in an illegitimate way. Our group has deployed a detector at the San Onofre reactor site in California to demonstrate this concept. This paper describes the concept and shows preliminary results from 8 months of operation.

  12. Technologies and experience with monitoring sediments for protecting turbines from abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Y.; Slade, W.; Pottsmith, C.; Dana, D.

    2016-11-01

    Abrasion of turbines by sediments is a constant threat in high head and high sediment load situations. It is widely recognized that larger grains cause abrasion, although no consensus on a critical size exists. Grain hardness plays a second key role. Thus monitoring of sediment concentration is highly desirable, particularly with attention paid to the large grains. This has recently become possible with LISST instruments that use laser diffraction (LD) technology. These in-line instruments measure multi-angle laser light scattering, which is converted to a particle size distribution in a pre-defined size range. In order to reach high concentrations, the instruments incorporate auto-dilution capability. The data are transmitted to the control room. Provided software displays concentration history in up to 4 size classes, and the software is capable of generating alarms when sufficiently high concentrations occur. Since no definition exists for this sufficiently high concentration, in this paper we propose an objective criterion based on the rate of revenue generation contrasted with rate of cost of turbine repair. This simple idea helps guide the plant operator to set shut-down thresholds during sediment transport events. We also introduce a lower cost, high-frequency pulsed acoustic sensor for sediment monitoring. The rather lower accuracy of this device is offset by its lower cost that is suitable for small plants.

  13. Data Pre-Processing for Label-Free Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Lisa M.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Zhao, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) conducted on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allows researchers to quantify the expression levels of a set of target proteins. Each protein is often characterized by several unique peptides that can be detected by monitoring predetermined fragment ions, called transitions, for each peptide. Concatenating large numbers of MRM transitions into a single assay enables simultaneous quantification of hundreds of peptides and proteins. In recognition of the important role that MRM can play in hypothesis-driven research and its increasing impact on clinical proteomics, targeted proteomics such as MRM was recently selected as the Nature Method of the Year. However, there are many challenges in MRM applications, especially data pre‑processing where many steps still rely on manual inspection of each observation in practice. In this paper, we discuss an analysis pipeline to automate MRM data pre‑processing. This pipeline includes data quality assessment across replicated samples, outlier detection, identification of inaccurate transitions, and data normalization. We demonstrate the utility of our pipeline through its applications to several real MRM data sets. PMID:24905083

  14. Debris flow monitoring experience in the Cancia basin (Dolomites, Northeast Italian Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancanelli, Laura; Bernard, Martino; Gregoretti, Carlo; Berti, Matteo; Simoni, Alessandro; Lanzoni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring campaign presented here aims to understand the dynamics of sediment transport processes in small head-water catchments of the Italian Alps and to evaluate the rainfall thresholds for debris flow triggering. The monitored basin of Cancia is located on the Eastern Italian Dolomites, in the Belluno Province. In particular, it is situated on the left side on the Boite river valley, next to the Borca di Cadore village, and is delimited by the western slope of the Mt. Antelao. The drainage area is 1.8 km2 while the elevation ranges from 2451 m a.s.l. to 880 m a.s.l., with a slope varying from 30-40° in the upper part to 10-15° in the lower part (fan area). The basin is characterized by a lithology very common in the Italian Alps, which consist of high permeability, poorly sorted rock debris, containing boulders up to 3-4 m in diameter, and include heterogeneous scree, alluvium and old debris flow deposits. The spatial distribution of sediment is characterized by: an upper part where prevails the presence of rocks, a medium part characterized by poorly sorted rock debris and fine sediment material, and a downstream part plenty of sediment material The Cancia basin is prone to stony debris flows, owing to the plenty availability of loose and coarse sediments and frequent convective events. In particular, the smaller grain sized material is provided by the erosion of lateral slope, while gravel, pebbles and cobbles are provided by the upper part of the basin, characterized by rocky material. The precipitation regime is marked by rainfalls of short duration and high intensity, usually occurring in the summer period. The debris flow channel has began to be surveyed in August 2009 to identify the debris flow generation area. At the beginning of July 2013 topographical surveys of the channel downstream the triggering area began in order to investigate the morphological evolution of the debris flow channel from 2013 until 2015. Moreover, at the beginning of

  15. Am I "That" Talented? The Experiences of Gifted Individuals from Diverse Educational Backgrounds at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Arízaga, María P.; Conejeros-Solar, M. Leonor

    2013-01-01

    The experiences of gifted students at the postsecondary level have not been studied widely. The goal of the present study was to explore and describe gifted students' perceptions of their first year after high school regarding experiences of success and failure. Two focus groups were conducted with 12 students (8 males, 4 females) from different…

  16. Constructing a Theory of Individual Space: Understanding Transnational Migration through the Experience of Return Chinese Immigrants from Canada in Beijing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information