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Sample records for individual traffic-related air

  1. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study with Individual Exposure Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Jerrett, Michael; Shankardass, Ketan; Berhane, Kiros; Gauderman, W. James; Künzli, Nino; Avol, Edward; Gilliland, Frank; Lurmann, Fred; Molitor, Jassy N.; Molitor, John T.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Peters, John; McConnell, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background The question of whether air pollution contributes to asthma onset remains unresolved. Objectives In this study, we assessed the association between asthma onset in children and traffic-related air pollution. Methods We selected a sample of 217 children from participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study, a prospective cohort designed to investigate associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children 10–18 years of age. Individual covariates and new asthma incidence (30 cases) were reported annually through questionnaires during 8 years of follow-up. Children had nitrogen dioxide monitors placed outside their home for 2 weeks in the summer and 2 weeks in the fall–winter season as a marker of traffic-related air pollution. We used multilevel Cox models to test the associations between asthma and air pollution. Results In models controlling for confounders, incident asthma was positively associated with traffic pollution, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.29 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–1.56] across the average within-community interquartile range of 6.2 ppb in annual residential NO2. Using the total interquartile range for all measurements of 28.9 ppb increased the HR to 3.25 (95% CI, 1.35–7.85). Conclusions In this cohort, markers of traffic-related air pollution were associated with the onset of asthma. The risks observed suggest that air pollution exposure contributes to new-onset asthma. PMID:18941591

  2. Neurotoxicity of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G; Cole, Toby B; Coburn, Jacki; Chang, Yu-Chi; Dao, Khoi; Roqué, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    The central nervous system is emerging as an important target for adverse health effects of air pollution, where it may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Air pollution comprises several components, including particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM), gases, organic compounds, and metals. An important source of ambient PM and UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, primarily diesel exhaust (DE). Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution, and to traffic-related air pollution or DE in particular, may lead to neurotoxicity. In particular, air pollution is emerging as a possible etiological factor in neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism spectrum disorders) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The most prominent effects caused by air pollution in both humans and animals are oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation. Studies in mice acutely exposed to DE (250-300μg/m(3) for 6h) have shown microglia activation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuro-inflammation in various brain regions, particularly the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. An impairment of adult neurogenesis was also found. In most cases, the effects of DE were more pronounced in male mice, possibly because of lower antioxidant abilities due to lower expression of paraoxonase 2.

  3. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  4. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy.

  5. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  6. Traffic-related air pollution and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Nicholas; Finch, Caleb E.; Morgan, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Automotive traffic-related air pollution (TRP) imposes an increasing health burden with global urbanization. Gestational and early child exposure to urban TRP is associated with higher risk of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, as well as low birth weight. While cardio-respiratory effects from exposure are well documented, cognitive effects are only recently becoming widely recognized. This review discusses effects of TRP on brain and cognition in human and animal studies. The mechanisms underlying these epidemiological associations are studied with rodent models of pre- and neonatal exposure to TRP, which show persisting inflammatory changes and altered adult behaviors and cognition. Some behavioral and inflammatory changes show male bias. Rodent models may identify dietary and other interventions for neuroprotection to TRP. PMID:27099868

  7. Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Rivas, Ioar; Brunekreef, Bert; Querol, Xavier; Morgan, Ian G.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and use of spectacles (as a surrogate measure for myopia) in schoolchildren. Methods We analyzed the impact of exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 light absorbance at home (predicted by land-use regression models) and exposure to NO2 and black carbon (BC) at school (measured by monitoring campaigns) on the use of spectacles in a cohort of 2727 schoolchildren (7–10 years old) in Barcelona (2012–2015). We conducted cross-sectional analyses based on lifelong exposure to air pollution and prevalent cases of spectacles at baseline data collection campaign as well as longitudinal analyses based on incident cases of spectacles use and exposure to air pollution during the three-year period between the baseline and last data collection campaigns. Logistic regression models were developed to quantify the association between spectacles use and each of air pollutants adjusted for relevant covariates. Results An interquartile range increase in exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance at home was respectively associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for spectacles use of 1.16 (1.03, 1.29) and 1.13 (0.99, 1.28) in cross-sectional analyses and 1.15 (1.00, 1.33) and 1.23 (1.03, 1.46) in longitudinal analyses. Similarly, odds ratio (95% CIs) of spectacles use associated with an interquartile range increase in exposures to NO2 and black carbon at school was respectively 1.32 (1.09, 1.59) and 1.13 (0.97, 1.32) in cross-sectional analyses and 1.12 (0.84, 1.50) and 1.27 (1.03, 1.56) in longitudinal analyses. These findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses that we conducted. Conclusion We observed increased risk of spectacles use associated with exposure to traffic-related air pollution. These findings require further confirmation by future studies applying more refined outcome measures such as quantified visual acuity and separating different types of refractive errors. PMID

  8. Air Quality Modeling of Traffic-related Air Pollutants for the NEXUS Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characteriz...

  9. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 μg/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 μg/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution.

  10. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...

  11. The Evaluation of Alternative Exposure Metrics for Traffic-related Air Pollutant Exposure in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transportation plays an important role in the modern society but can cause significant health impacts. To quantify the associated health impacts, an appropriate traffic-related air pollution exposure metric is required. In this study, we evaluate the suitability of four exposure ...

  12. Association of long-term exposure to community noise and traffic-related air pollution with coronary heart disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; Davies, Hugh W; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In metropolitan areas, road traffic is a major contributor to ambient air pollution and the dominant source of community noise. The authors investigated the independent and joint influences of community noise and traffic-related air pollution on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period (January 1994-December 1998) and a 4-year follow-up period (January 1999-December 2002). Individuals who were 45-85 years of age and resided in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known CHD at baseline were included (n = 445,868). Individual exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollutants, including black carbon, particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide, were estimated at each person's residence using a noise prediction model and land-use regression models, respectively. CHD deaths were identified from the provincial death registration database. After adjustment for potential confounders, including traffic-related air pollutants or noise, elevations in noise and black carbon equal to the interquartile ranges were associated with 6% (95% confidence interval: 1, 11) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 1, 8) increases, respectively, in CHD mortality. Subjects in the highest noise decile had a 22% (95% confidence interval: 4, 43) increase in CHD mortality compared with persons in the lowest decile. These findings suggest that there are independent effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution on CHD mortality.

  13. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended. PMID:25670023

  14. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended.

  15. Health effects of metropolitan traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongtip, P.; Thongsuk, W.; Yoosook, W.; Chantanakul, S.

    Traffic-related air pollutants are a commonly important source of air pollution. Research on the effects of multiple traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors is scarce. This study evaluated the health effect of traffic-related air pollutants in street vendors. It was designed as a panel study, covering 61 d of data collection, on the daily concentration of air pollutants and daily percentage of respiratory and other health symptoms reported. An adjusted odds ratio was used to estimate the risk of developing respiratory and other adverse health symptoms for street vendors exposed to multiple air pollutants, fine particulate (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), ozone (O 3), carbon monoxide (CO) and total volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), after controlling for confounding factors. In the first model, significant associations were found with the adjusted odds ratios of 1.022 and 1.027 for eye irritation and dizziness for PM 2.5 respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of total VOCs was 1.381 for phlegm, 4.840 for chest tightness and 1.429 for upper respiratory symptoms, and the adjusted odds ratio for CO was 1.748 for a sore throat and 1.880 for a cold and 1.655 for a cough. In the second model, the effect of PM 2.5, total VOCs and CO gave a slightly lower effect with the symptoms. The results clearly show the health effects of traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors, and imply suggestions about how to reduce exposure of street vendors.

  16. Traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gongbo; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan; Zou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer in order to provide evidence for control of traffic-related air pollution. Methods Several databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. The quality of articles obtained was evaluated by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Statistical analysis, including pooling effective sizes and confidential intervals, was performed. Results A total of 1106 records were obtained through the database and 36 studies were included in our analysis. Among the studies included, 14 evaluated the association between ambient exposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer and 22 studies involved occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers. Twenty-two studies were marked A level regarding quality, 13 were B level, and one was C level. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (meta-odds ratio [OR]: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–1.13), nitrogen oxide (meta-OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07), sulfur dioxide (meta-OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05), and fine particulate matter (meta-OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00–1.22) were positively associated with a risk of lung cancer. Occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers significantly increased the incidence (meta-OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.19–1.36) and mortality of lung cancer (meta-OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.26). Conclusion Exposure to traffic-related air pollution significantly increased the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26273377

  17. Traffic-related air pollution and risk for leukaemia of an adult population.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution causes lung cancer, but associations with other cancers have not been established. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with the risk of the general population for leukaemia. We identified 1,967 people in whom leukaemia was diagnosed in 1992-2010 from a nation-wide cancer registry and selected 3,381 control people at random, matched on sex and year of birth, from the entire Danish population. Residential addresses since 1971 were traced in a population registry, and outdoor concentrations of NOx and NO2 , as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, were calculated at each address in a dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the risk for leukaemia after adjustment for income, educational level, cohabitation status and co-morbidity. In linear analyses, we found odds ratios for acute myeloid leukaemia of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.38) per 20 µg/m(3) increase in NOx and 1.31 (1.02-1.68) per 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2 , calculated as time-weighted average exposure at all addresses since 1971. We found no association with chronic myeloid or lymphocytic leukaemia. This study indicates an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute myeloid leukaemia in the general population, but not for other subtypes of leukaemia.

  18. Traffic-related air pollution is related to interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Eenhuizen, Esther; Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Fischer, Paul H; Brauer, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been associated with decrements in lung function and growth of lung function in school-age children. Lung function effects have not been examined in preschoolers, with the exception of one study on minute ventilation in newborns. Our goal was to assess the relationship between long- and short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children. Lung function was measured using the interrupter resistance method in children participating in a Dutch birth cohort study. Long-term average air pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and soot at the residential address at birth were assessed using land-use regression models. Daily average air pollution concentrations on the day of clinical examination were obtained from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Significant associations were found between long-term average air pollution concentrations and interrupter resistance. Interrupter resistance increased by 0.04 kPa·s·L(-1) (95% CI 0.01-0.07) per interquartile range increase (3.3 μg·m(-3)) in fine particle concentration. Short-term exposure was not associated with interrupter resistance. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with increased interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children, supporting previous birth cohort studies reporting effects of air pollution on subjectively reported respiratory symptoms in preschool children.

  19. Clean air matters: an overview of traffic-related air pollution and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; Diniz, Carmen Simone; Ribeiro, Helena

    2017-02-16

    The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death. Thus, this commentary, based on the analysis of literature, presents the importance of the exposome concept and of epigenetics in identifying the role of the environment for better health conditions of pregnant women and newborns. In the final considerations, this study proposes the deepening of the subject and the mobilization in this regard, with a human rights-based approach to environmental health and to the increased awareness of pregnant women on the risks of air pollution and its effects on health.

  20. Clean air matters: an overview of traffic-related air pollution and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; Diniz, Carmen Simone; Ribeiro, Helena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death. Thus, this commentary, based on the analysis of literature, presents the importance of the exposome concept and of epigenetics in identifying the role of the environment for better health conditions of pregnant women and newborns. In the final considerations, this study proposes the deepening of the subject and the mobilization in this regard, with a human rights-based approach to environmental health and to the increased awareness of pregnant women on the risks of air pollution and its effects on health. PMID:28225911

  1. Climate, traffic-related air pollutants, and asthma prevalence in middle-school children in taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Y L; Lin, Y C; Sung, F C; Huang, S L; Ko, Y C; Lai, J S; Su, H J; Shaw, C K; Lin, R S; Dockery, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of asthma with climate and air pollutant data to determine the relationship between asthma prevalence and these factors. We conducted a nationwide survey of respiratory illness and symptoms in middle-school students in Taiwan. Lifetime prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma and of typical symptoms of asthma were compared to air monitoring station data for temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [less than/equal to] 10 microm (PM(10)). A total of 331,686 nonsmoking children attended schools located within 2 km of 55 stations. Asthma prevalence rates adjusted for age, history of atopic eczema, and parental education were associated with nonsummer (June-August) temperature, winter (January-March) humidity, and traffic-related air pollution, especially carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, for both girls and boys. Nonsummer temperature, winter humidity, and traffic-related air pollution, especially carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, were positively associated with the prevalence of asthma in middle-school students in Taiwan. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10585904

  2. Traffic-related air pollution. A pilot exposure assessment in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Borgie, Mireille; Garat, Anne; Cazier, Fabrice; Delbende, Agnes; Allorge, Delphine; Ledoux, Frederic; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz; Dagher, Zeina

    2014-02-01

    Traffic-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution has frequently been demonstrated to be a serious problem in the developing countries. Benzene and 1,3-butadiene (BD) have been classified as a human carcinogen based on evidence for an increased genotoxic and epigenotoxic effects in both occupational exposure assessment and in vivo/in vitro studies. We have undertaken a biomonitoring of 25 traffic policemen and 23 office policemen in Beirut, through personal air monitoring, assessed by diffusive samplers, as well as through the use of biomarkers of exposure to benzene and BD. Personal benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) exposure were quantified by GC-MS/MS, urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) by HPLC/UV, S-phenyl mercapturic acid (S-PMA), monohydroxy-butenyl mercapturic acid (MHBMA) and dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (DHBMA) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI(-)-MS/MS) in MRM (Multiple Reaction Monitoring) mode. We found that individual exposure to benzene in the traffic policemen was higher than that measured in traffic policemen in Prague, in Bologna, in Ioannina and in Bangkok. t,t-MA levels could distinguish between office and traffic policemen. However, median MHBMA levels in traffic policemen were slightly elevated, though not significantly higher than in office policemen. Alternatively, DHBMA concentrations could significantly distinguish between office and traffic policemen and showed a better correlation with personal total BTEX exposure. DHMBA, measured in the post-shift urine samples, correlated with both pre-shift MHMBA and pre-shift DHMBA. Moreover, there was not a marked effect of smoking habits on DHBMA. Taken together, these findings suggested that DHBMA is more suitable than MHBMA as biomarker of exposure to BD in humans. Traffic policemen, who are exposed to benzene and BD at the roadside in central Beirut, are potentially at a higher risk for development of

  3. Investigating the role of transportation models in epidemiologic studies of traffic related air pollution and health effects.

    PubMed

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Valois, Marie-France; Goldberg, Mark S; Crouse, Dan; Ross, Nancy; Parent, Marie-Elise; Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2015-07-01

    In two earlier case-control studies conducted in Montreal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related air pollution was found to be associated with the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer and prostate cancer. These studies relied on a land use regression model (LUR) for NO2 that is commonly used in epidemiologic studies for deriving estimates of traffic-related air pollution. Here, we investigate the use of a transportation model developed during the summer season to generate a measure of traffic emissions as an alternative to the LUR model. Our traffic model provides estimates of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the level of individual roads, as does the LUR model. Our main objective was to compare the distribution of the spatial estimates of NOx computed from our transportation model to the distribution obtained from the LUR model. A secondary objective was to compare estimates of risk using these two exposure estimates. We observed that the correlation (spearman) between our two measures of exposure (NO2 and NOx) ranged from less than 0.3 to more than 0.9 across Montreal neighborhoods. The most important factor affecting the "agreement" between the two measures in a specific area was found to be the length of roads. Areas affected by a high level of traffic-related air pollution had a far better agreement between the two exposure measures. A comparison of odds ratios (ORs) obtained from NO2 and NOx used in two case-control studies of breast and prostate cancer, showed that the differences between the ORs associated with NO2 exposure vs NOx exposure differed by 5.2-8.8%.

  4. The association between greenness and traffic-related air pollution at schools.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Rivas, Ioar; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Su, Jason; De Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Amato, Fulvio; Jerret, Michael; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Greenness has been reported to improve mental and physical health. Reduction in exposure to air pollution has been suggested to underlie the health benefits of greenness; however, the available evidence on the mitigating effect of greenness on air pollution remains limited and inconsistent. We investigated the association between greenness within and surrounding school boundaries and monitored indoor and outdoor levels of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) including NO2, ultrafine particles, black carbon, and traffic-related PM2.5 at 39 schools across Barcelona, Spain, in 2012. TRAP levels at schools were measured twice during two one-week campaigns separated by 6months. Greenness within and surrounding school boundaries was measured as the average of satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within boundaries of school and a 50m buffer around the school, respectively. Mixed effects models were used to quantify the associations between school greenness and TRAP levels, adjusted for relevant covariates. Higher greenness within and surrounding school boundaries was consistently associated with lower indoor and outdoor TRAP levels. Reduction in indoor TRAP levels was partly mediated by the reduction in outdoor TRAP levels. We also observed some suggestions for stronger associations between school surrounding greenness and outdoor TRAP levels for schools with higher number of trees around them. Our observed reduction of TRAP levels at schools associated with school greenness can be of public importance, considering the burden of health effects of exposure to TRAPs in schoolchildren.

  5. A review of traffic-related air pollution exposure assessment studies in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Han, Xianglu; Naeher, Luke P

    2006-01-01

    Exposure assessment studies in the developing world are important. Although recent years have seen an increasing number of traffic-related pollution exposure studies, exposure assessment data on this topic are still limited. Differences among measuring methods and a lack of strict quality control in carrying out exposure assessment make it difficult to generalize and compare findings between studies. In this article, exposure assessment studies carried out in the developing world on several traffic-related air pollutants are reviewed. These pollutants include particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, it discusses advantages and disadvantages of various monitoring methods (ambient fixed-site monitoring, microenvironment monitoring, and personal exposure assessment using portable samplers) for these pollutants in exposure assessment studies. Also included in this paper is a brief introduction of standards for these pollutants in ambient air or in occupational settings established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The review ends with a summary of the limitations and gaps in recent studies and suggestions for future research in the developing world.

  6. Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and birth defects in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Girguis, Mariam S; Strickland, Matthew J; Hu, Xuefei; Liu, Yang; Bartell, Scott M; Vieira, Verónica M

    2016-04-01

    Exposures to particulate matter with diameter of 2.5µm or less (PM2.5) may influence risk of birth defects. We estimated associations between maternal exposure to prenatal traffic-related air pollution and risk of cardiac, orofacial, and neural tube defects among Massachusetts births conceived 2001 through 2008. Our analyses included 2729 cardiac, 255 neural tube, and 729 orofacial defects. We used satellite remote sensing, meteorological and land use data to assess PM2.5 and traffic-related exposures (distance to roads and traffic density) at geocoded birth addresses. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models. Generalized additive models were used to assess spatial patterns of birth defect risk. There were positive but non-significant associations for a 10µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 and perimembranous ventricular septal defects (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.83), patent foramen ovale (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.54) and patent ductus arteriosus (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.62). There was a non-significant inverse association between PM2.5 and cleft lip with or without palate (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.10), cleft palate only (OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.46) and neural tube defects (OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.05). Results for traffic related exposure were similar. Only ostium secundum atrial septal defects displayed significant spatial variation after accounting for known risk factors.

  7. Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods and findings Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g) and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers’ addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10). Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP. Conclusions This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers. PMID:25426640

  8. Traffic-related Air Pollution and Attention in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Suades-González, Elisabet; García-Esteban, Raquel; Rivas, Ioar; Pujol, Jesús; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although air pollution’s short-term effects are well understood to be marked and preventable, its acute neuropsychological effects have, to our knowledge, not yet been studied. We aim to examine the association between daily variation in traffic-related air pollution and attention. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study from January 2012 to March 2013 in 2,687 school children from 265 classrooms in 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed four domains of children’s attention processes every 3 months over four repeated visits providing a total of 10,002 computerized tests on 177 different days using the child Attention Network test (ANT). Ambient daily levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and elemental carbon (EC) in particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) filters were measured at a fixed air quality background monitoring station and in schools. Results: Daily ambient levels of both NO2 and EC were negatively associated with all attention processes (e.g., children in the bottom quartile of daily exposure to ambient NO2 levels had a 14.8 msecond [95% confidence interval, 11.2, 18.4] faster response time than those in the top quartile, which was equivalent to a 1.1-month [0.84, 1.37] retardation in the natural developmental improvement in response speed with age). Similar findings were observed after adjusting for the average indoor (classroom) levels of pollutants. Associations for EC were similar to those for NO2 and robust to several sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: The short-term association of traffic-related air pollutants with fluctuations in attention adds to the evidence that air pollution may have potential harmful effects on neurodevelopment. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B158. PMID:27922536

  9. Impact analysis of traffic-related air pollution based on real-time traffic and basic meteorological information.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Yao, Enjian; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in China, traffic-related air pollution has become a major component of air pollution which constantly jeopardizes public health. This study proposes an integrated framework for estimating the concentration of traffic-related air pollution with real-time traffic and basic meteorological information and also for further evaluating the impact of traffic-related air pollution. First, based on the vehicle emission factor models sensitive to traffic status, traffic emissions are calculated according to the real-time link-based average traffic speed, traffic volume, and vehicular fleet composition. Then, based on differences in meteorological conditions, traffic pollution sources are divided into line sources and point sources, and the corresponding methods to determine the dynamic affecting areas are also proposed. Subsequently, with basic meteorological data, Gaussian dispersion model and puff integration model are applied respectively to estimate the concentration of traffic-related air pollution. Finally, the proposed estimating framework is applied to calculate the distribution of CO concentration in the main area of Beijing, and the population exposure is also calculated to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health. Results show that there is a certain correlation between traffic indicators (i.e., traffic speed and traffic intensity) of the affecting area and traffic-related CO concentration of the target grid, which indicates the methods to determine the affecting areas are reliable. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed estimating framework is verified by comparing the predicted and the observed ambient CO concentration. In addition, results also show that the traffic-related CO concentration is higher in morning and evening peak hours, and has a heavier impact on public health within the Fourth Ring Road of Beijing due to higher population density and higher CO

  10. Modeling Spatial Patterns of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants in Complex Urban Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Zwack, Leonard M.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between traffic emissions and mobile-source air pollutant concentrations is highly variable over space and time and therefore difficult to model accurately, especially in urban settings with complex terrain. Regression-based approaches using continuous real-time mobile measurements may be able to characterize spatiotemporal variability in traffic-related pollutant concentrations but require methods to incorporate temporally varying meteorology and source strength in a physically interpretable fashion. Objective We developed a statistical model to assess the joint impact of both meteorology and traffic on measured concentrations of mobile-source air pollutants over space and time. Methods In this study, traffic-related air pollutants were continuously measured in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York (USA), which is affected by traffic on a large bridge and major highway. One-minute average concentrations of ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)], and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured using a mobile-monitoring protocol. Regression modeling approaches to quantify the influence of meteorology, traffic volume, and proximity to major roadways on pollutant concentrations were used. These models incorporated techniques to capture spatial variability, long- and short-term temporal trends, and multiple sources. Results We observed spatial heterogeneity of both UFP and PM2.5 concentrations. A variety of statistical methods consistently found a 15–20% decrease in UFP concentrations within the first 100 m from each of the two major roadways. For PM2.5, temporal variability dominated spatial variability, but we observed a consistent linear decrease in concentrations from the roadways. Conclusions The combination of mobile monitoring and regression analysis was able to quantify local source contributions relative to background while

  11. The relevance of commuter and work/school exposure in an epidemiological study on traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Phuleria, Harish C; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Schindler, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Perez, Laura; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Exposure during transport and at non-residential locations is ignored in most epidemiological studies of traffic-related air pollution. We investigated the impact of separately estimating NO2 long-term outdoor exposures at home, work/school, and while commuting on the association between this marker of exposure and potential health outcomes. We used spatially and temporally resolved commuter route data and model-based NO2 estimates of a population sample in Basel, Switzerland, to assign individual NO2-exposure estimates of increasing complexity, namely (1) home outdoor concentration; (2) time-weighted home and work/school concentrations; and (3) time-weighted concentration incorporating home, work/school and commute. On the basis of their covariance structure, we estimated the expectable relative differences in the regression slopes between a quantitative health outcome and our measures of individual NO2 exposure using a standard measurement error model. The traditional use of home outdoor NO2 alone indicated a 12% (95% CI: 11-14%) underestimation of related health effects as compared with integrating both home and work/school outdoor concentrations. Mean contribution of commuting to total weekly exposure was small (3.2%; range 0.1-13.5%). Thus, ignoring commute in the total population may not significantly underestimate health effects as compared with the model combining home and work/school. For individuals commuting between Basel-City and Basel-Country, ignoring commute may produce, however, a significant attenuation bias of 4% (95% CI: 4-5%). Our results illustrate the importance of including work/school locations in assessments of long-term exposures to traffic-related air pollutants such as NO2. Information on individuals' commuting behavior may further improve exposure estimates, especially for subjects having lengthy commutes along major transportation routes.

  12. TET1 methylation is associated with childhood asthma and traffic-related air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Somineni, Hari K.; Zhang, Xue; Myers, Jocelyn M. Biagini; Kovacic, Melinda Butsch; Ulm, Ashley; Jurcak, Noelle; Ryan, Patrick H.; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma is a complex disorder influenced by genetics and the environment. Recent findings have linked abnormal DNA methylation in T cells with asthma; however, the potential dysregulation of methylation in airway epithelial cells is unknown. Studies of mouse models of asthma have observed greater levels of 5-hydoxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and TET1 expression in lungs. TET proteins are known to catalyze methylation through modification of 5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). Objective Associations between TET1 methylation and asthma and traffic-related air pollution were examined. Methods TET1 methylation levels from DNA derived from nasal airway epithelial cells collected from 12 African-American children with physician-diagnosed asthma and their non-asthmatic siblings were measured using Illumina 450K arrays. Regions of interest were verified by locus-specific pyrosequencing in 35 additional sibling pairs and replicated in an independent population (N=186). Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) at participants’ early life and current home addresses was estimated using a land-use regression model. Methylation studies in saliva, PBMCs, and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) were done to support our findings. Results Loss of methylation at a single CpG site in the TET1 promoter (cg23602092) and increased global 5hmC was significantly associated with asthma. In contrast, TRAP exposure at participants’ current homes significantly increased methylation at the same site. Patterns were consistent across tissue sample types. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and diesel exhaust particle exposure in HBEC was associated with altered TET1 methylation, expression and global 5-hmC. Conclusions Our findings suggest a possible role of TET1 methylation in asthma and response to TRAP. Capsule summary TET1 DNA methylation might serve as a biomarker for asthma and higher risk of exposure-related asthma exacerbations. PMID:26684294

  13. Scripted drives: A robust protocol for generating exposures to traffic-related air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Allison P.; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Black, Kathy; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Lioy, Paul J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2016-10-01

    Commuting in automobiles can contribute substantially to total traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure, yet measuring commuting exposures for studies of health outcomes remains challenging. To estimate real-world TRAP exposures, we developed and evaluated the robustness of a scripted drive protocol on the NJ Turnpike and local roads between April 2007 and October 2014. Study participants were driven in a car with closed windows and open vents during morning rush hours on 190 days. Real-time measurements of PM2.5, PNC, CO, and BC, and integrated samples of NO2, were made in the car cabin. Exposure measures included in-vehicle concentrations on the NJ Turnpike and local roads and the differences and ratios of these concentrations. Median in-cabin concentrations were 11 μg/m3 PM2.5, 40 000 particles/cm3, 0.3 ppm CO, 4 μg/m3 BC, and 20.6 ppb NO2. In-cabin concentrations on the NJ Turnpike were higher than in-cabin concentrations on local roads by a factor of 1.4 for PM2.5, 3.5 for PNC, 1.0 for CO, and 4 for BC. Median concentrations of NO2 for full rides were 2.4 times higher than ambient concentrations. Results were generally robust relative to season, traffic congestion, ventilation setting, and study year, except for PNC and PM2.5, which had secular and seasonal trends. Ratios of concentrations were more stable than differences or absolute concentrations. Scripted drives can be used to generate reasonably consistent in-cabin increments of exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

  14. Scripted drives: A robust protocol for generating exposures to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Patton, Allison P; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Black, Kathy; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Lioy, Paul; Kipen, Howard M

    2016-10-01

    Commuting in automobiles can contribute substantially to total traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure, yet measuring commuting exposures for studies of health outcomes remains challenging. To estimate real-world TRAP exposures, we developed and evaluated the robustness of a scripted drive protocol on the NJ Turnpike and local roads between April 2007 and October 2014. Study participants were driven in a car with closed windows and open vents during morning rush hours on 190 days. Real-time measurements of PM2.5, PNC, CO, and BC, and integrated samples of NO2, were made in the car cabin. Exposure measures included in-vehicle concentrations on the NJ Turnpike and local roads and the differences and ratios of these concentrations. Median in-cabin concentrations were 11 μg/m(3) PM2.5, 40 000 particles/cm(3), 0.3 ppm CO, 4 μg/m(3) BC, and 20.6 ppb NO2. In-cabin concentrations on the NJ Turnpike were higher than in-cabin concentrations on local roads by a factor of 1.4 for PM2.5, 3.5 for PNC, 1.0 for CO, and 4 for BC. Median concentrations of NO2 for full rides were 2.4 times higher than ambient concentrations. Results were generally robust relative to season, traffic congestion, ventilation setting, and study year, except for PNC and PM2.5, which had secular and seasonal trends. Ratios of concentrations were more stable than differences or absolute concentrations. Scripted drives can be used for generating reasonably consistent in-cabin increments of exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

  15. A comparison of exposure metrics for traffic-related air pollutants: application to epidemiology studies in Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-09-15

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  16. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Burke, Janet; Isakov, Vlad; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Robins, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studies would all benefit from an improved understanding of the key information and metrics needed to assess exposures, as well as the strengths and limitations of alternate exposure metrics. This study develops and evaluates several metrics for characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollutants for the 218 residential locations of participants in the NEXUS epidemiology study conducted in Detroit (MI, USA). Exposure metrics included proximity to major roads, traffic volume, vehicle mix, traffic density, vehicle exhaust emissions density, and pollutant concentrations predicted by dispersion models. Results presented for each metric include comparisons of exposure distributions, spatial variability, intraclass correlation, concordance and discordance rates, and overall strengths and limitations. While showing some agreement, the simple categorical and proximity classifications (e.g., high diesel/low diesel traffic roads and distance from major roads) do not reflect the range and overlap of exposures seen in the other metrics. Information provided by the traffic density metric, defined as the number of kilometers traveled (VKT) per day within a 300 m buffer around each home, was reasonably consistent with the more sophisticated metrics. Dispersion modeling provided spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations, along with apportionments that separated concentrations due to traffic emissions and other sources. While several of the exposure metrics showed broad agreement, including traffic density, emissions density and modeled concentrations, these alternatives still produced exposure classifications that differed for a substantial fraction of study participants, e.g., from 20% to 50% of

  17. Modeling exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the NEXUS respiratory health study of asthmatic children in Detroit, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-Road EXposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to investigate associations between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the respiratory health of asthmatic children living near major roadways in Detroit, MI. A combination of modeli...

  18. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas, and traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter under 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with...

  19. Influence of traffic-related noise and air pollution on self-reported fatigue.

    PubMed

    Jazani, Reza Khani; Saremi, Mahnaz; Rezapour, Tara; Kavousi, Amir; Shirzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to environmental pollutions is related to health problems. It is, however, questionable whether this condition affects working performance in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of age as well as traffic related air and noise pollutions for fatigue. 246 traffic officers participated in this study. Air pollution data were obtained from the local Air Quality Control Company. A sound level meter was used for measuring ambient noise. Fatigue was evaluated by the MFI-20 questionnaire. The general and physical scales showed the highest, while the reduced activity scale showed the lowest level of fatigue. Age had an independent direct effect on reduced activity and physical fatigue. The average of daytime equivalent noise level was between 71.63 and 88.51 dB(A). In the case of high noise exposure, older officers feel more fatigue than younger ones. Exposure to PM10 and O3 resulted in general and physical fatigue. Complex Interactions between SO2, CO and NO2 were found. Exposure to noise and some components of air pollution, especially O3 and PM10, increases fatigue. The authorities should adopt and rigorously implement environmental protection policies in order to protect people.

  20. Relationship Between Air Pollution, Weather, Traffic, and Traffic-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Idani, Esmaeil; Khanjani, Narges; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Bahrampour, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background Air pollution and weather are just two of many environmental factors contributing to traffic accidents (RTA). Objectives This study assessed the effects of these factors on traffic accidents and related mortalities in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods In this ecological study, data about RTA, traffic-related mortalities, air pollution (including NO, CO, NO2, NOx PM10, SO2, and O3 rates) and climate data from March 2008 until March 2015 was acquired from the Khuzestan State Police Force, the Environmental Protection Agency and the State Meteorological Department. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA 12 through both crude and adjusted negative binomial regression methods. Results There was a significant positive correlation between increase in the monthly average temperature, the number of rainy days, and the number of frost days with the number of RTA (P < 0.05). Increased monthly average relative humidity, evaporation, and number of sunny days were negatively correlated with the frequency of RTA (P < 0.05). We also observed an inverse significant correlation between monthly average relative humidity, evaporation, and wind speed with traffic accident mortality (P < 0.05). Some air pollutants were negatively associated with the incidence rate of RTA. Conclusions It appears that some weather variables were significantly associated with increased RTA. However, increased levels of air pollutants were not associated with increased rates of RTA and/or related mortalities. Additional studies are recommended to explore this topic in more detail. PMID:28180125

  1. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes.

  2. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P.; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Durant, John L.; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2016-01-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning. PMID:27413416

  3. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M; Durant, John L; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2015-06-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200-400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning.

  4. Traffic-related air pollution and sleep in the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shona C; Schwartz, Joel; Yang, May; Yaggi, H Klar; Bliwise, Donald L; Araujo, Andre B

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about environmental determinants of sleep. We investigated the association between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and sleep measures among participants of the Boston Area Community Health Survey. We also sought to assess the impact of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and season on associations. Residential 24-h BC was estimated from a validated land-use regression model for 3821 participants and averaged over 1-6 months and 1 year. Sleep measures included questionnaire-assessed sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep apnea. Linear and logistic regression models controlling for confounders estimated the association between sleep measures and BC. Effect modification was tested with interaction terms. Main effects were not observed between BC and sleep measures. However, in stratified models, males experienced 0.23 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.42, -0.03) and those with low SES 0.25 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.48, -0.01) per IQR increase in annual BC (0.21 μg/m(3)). In blacks, sleep duration increased with annual BC (β=0.34 per IQR; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.57). Similar findings were observed for short sleep (≤5 h). BC was not associated with sleep apnea or sleep latency, however, long-term exposure may be associated with shorter sleep duration, particularly in men and those with low SES, and longer sleep duration in blacks.

  5. Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tong; Dalman, Christina; Wicks, Susanne; Dal, Henrik; Magnusson, Cecilia; Lundholm, Cecilia; Almqvist, Catarina; Pershagen, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies from the United States indicate that exposure to air pollution in early life is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children, but the evidence is not consistent with European data. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between exposure to air pollution from road traffic and the risk of ASD in children, with careful adjustment for socioeconomic and other confounders. Method: Children born and residing in Stockholm, Sweden, during 1993–2007 with an ASD diagnosis were identified through multiple health registers and classified as cases (n = 5,136). A randomly selected sample of 18,237 children from the same study base constituted controls. Levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) from road traffic were estimated at residential addresses during mother’s pregnancy and the child’s first year of life by dispersion models. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ASD with or without intellectual disability (ID) were estimated using logistic regression models after conditioning on municipality and calendar year of birth as well as adjustment for potential confounders. Result: Air pollution exposure during the prenatal period was not associated with ASD overall (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.15 per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM10 and OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.10 per 20-μg/m3 increase in NOx during mother’s pregnancy). Similar results were seen for exposure during the first year of life, and for ASD in combination with ID. An inverse association between air pollution exposure and ASD risk was observed among children of mothers who moved to a new residence during pregnancy. Conclusion: Early-life exposure to low levels of NOx and PM10 from road traffic does not appear to increase the risk of ASD. Citation: Gong T, Dalman C, Wicks S, Dal H, Magnusson C, Lundholm C, Almqvist C, Pershagen G. 2017. Perinatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and autism spectrum

  6. Populations potentially exposed to traffic-related air pollution in seven world cities.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Apte, Joshua S; Lipsitt, Jonah; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A; Beckerman, Bernardo S; de Nazelle, Audrey; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Jerrett, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) likely exerts a large burden of disease globally, and in many places, traffic is increasing dramatically. The impact, however, of urban form on the portion of population potentially exposed to TRAP remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimate portions of population potentially exposed to TRAP across seven global cities of various urban forms. Data on population distributions and road networks were collected from the best available sources in each city and from remote sensing analysis. Using spatial mapping techniques, we first overlaid road buffers onto population data to estimate the portions of population potentially exposed for four plausible impact zones. Based on a most likely scenario with impacts from highways up to 300meters and major roadways up to 50meters, we identified that the portions of population potentially exposed for the seven cities ranged from 23 to 96%. High-income North American cities had the lowest potential exposure portions, while those in Europe had the highest. Second, we adjusted exposure zone concentration levels based on a literature suggested multiplier for each city using corresponding background concentrations. Though Beijing and Mexico City did not have the highest portion of population exposure, those in their exposure zones had the highest levels of exposure. For all seven cities, the portion of population potentially exposed was positively correlated with roadway density and, to a lesser extent, with population density. These analyses suggest that urban form may influence the portion of population exposed to TRAP and vehicle emissions and other factors may influence the exposure levels. Greater understanding of urban form and other factors influencing potential exposure to TRAP may help inform interventions that protect public health.

  7. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Asthma Hospital Readmission in Children: a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Nicholas C.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Huang, Bin; Beck, Andrew F.; Sauers, Hadley S.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and hospital readmission for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing. Study design A population-based cohort of 758 children ages 1–16 years, admitted for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing was assessed for asthma readmission within 12 months. TRAP exposure was estimated using a land use regression model using the home address at index admission; TRAP was dichotomized at the sample median (0.37 μg/m3). Covariates included allergen-specific IgE, tobacco smoke exposure, and social factors obtained at enrollment. Associations between TRAP exposure and readmission were assessed using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards. Results Study participants were 58% were African American (AA), 32% white; 19% were readmitted within 12 months. Children with higher TRAP exposure were readmitted at a higher rate overall (21% v. 16%, p = 0.05); this association was not significant after adjusting for covariates (adjusted OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9–2.2). Race modified the observed association: white children with high TRAP exposure had three-fold increased odds of asthma readmission (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1–8.1), compared with low exposed whites. TRAP exposure among AA children was not associated with increased readmission (OR.1.1; 95% CI 0.6–1.8). TRAP exposure was associated with decreased time to readmission for high TRAP-exposed white children (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.5–6.7) vs. AA children (HR 1.0; 95% CI 0.7–1.4); AA children had a higher readmission rate overall. Conclusions TRAP exposure is associated with increased odds of readmission in white children; this relationship was not observed in AA children. PMID:24680015

  8. Traffic-related air pollution and circulating levels of total and allergen-specific IgE among children in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: There is a growing body of literature suggesting a relationship between traffic-related air pollution and allergic health outcomes. Animal studies have demonstrated that air pollution, particularly diesel exhaust particles, may stimulate or enhance atopic responses...

  9. Can changing the timing of outdoor air intake reduce indoor concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in schools?

    PubMed

    MacNeill, M; Dobbin, N; St-Jean, M; Wallace, L; Marro, L; Shin, T; You, H; Kulka, R; Allen, R W; Wheeler, A J

    2016-10-01

    Traffic emissions have been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Many schools are situated close to major roads, and as children spend much of their day in school, methods to reduce traffic-related air pollutant concentrations in the school environment are warranted. One promising method to reduce pollutant concentrations in schools is to alter the timing of the ventilation so that high ventilation time periods do not correspond to rush hour traffic. Health Canada, in collaboration with the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board, tested the effect of this action by collecting traffic-related air pollution data from four schools in Ottawa, Canada, during October and November 2013. A baseline and intervention period was assessed in each school. There were statistically significant (P < 0.05) reductions in concentrations of most of the pollutants measured at the two late-start (9 AM start) schools, after adjusting for outdoor concentrations and the absolute indoor-outdoor temperature difference. The intervention at the early-start (8 AM start) schools did not have significant reductions in pollutant concentrations. Based on these findings, changing the timing of the ventilation may be a cost-effective mechanism of reducing traffic-related pollutants in late-start schools located near major roads.

  10. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (<100nm), a noticeable decrease in particle concentrations indoors with increasing distance from the road is observed due to Brownian and turbulent diffusion. In addition, the indoor concentration strongly depends on the distance between the roadway and building, particle size, wind condition, and window size and location. A break-even point is observed at D'~2.1 (normalized distance from the roadway by the width of the road). The indoor particle concentration is greater than that at the highway where D'<2.1, and vice versa. For new building planning, the distance from the roadway and the ambient wind condition need to be considered at the early design stage whereas the size and location of the window openings, the interior layout, and the placement of fresh air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways.

  11. Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Ketzel, Matthias; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The few studies conducted on short-term effects of air pollution on episodes of atrial fibrillation indicate a positive association, though not consistently. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of traffic-related air pollution on incidence of atrial fibrillation in the general population. Methods: In the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort of 57,053 people 50–64 years old at enrollment in 1993–1997, we identified 2,700 cases of first-ever hospital admission for atrial fibrillation from enrollment to end of follow-up in 2011. For all cohort members, exposure to traffic-related air pollution assessed as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) was estimated at all present and past residential addresses from 1984 to 2011 using a validated dispersion model. We used Cox proportional hazard model to estimate associations between long-term residential exposure to NO2 and NOx and risk of atrial fibrillation, after adjusting for lifestyle and socioeconomic position. Results: A 10 μg/m3 higher 10-year time-weighted mean exposure to NO2 preceding diagnosis was associated with an 8% higher risk of atrial fibrillation [incidence rate ratio: 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.14] in adjusted analysis. Though weaker, similar results were obtained for long-term residential exposure to NOx. We found no clear tendencies regarding effect modification of the association between NO2 and atrial fibrillation by sex, smoking, hypertension or myocardial infarction. Conclusion: We found long-term residential traffic-related air pollution to be associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation. Accordingly, the present findings lend further support to the demand for abatement of air pollution. Citation: Monrad M, Sajadieh A, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Tjønneland A, Overvad K

  12. Nitric Oxide and Superoxide Mediate Diesel Particle Effects in Cytokine-Treated Mice and Murine Lung Epithelial Cells ─ Implications for Susceptibility to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: Epidemiologic studies associate childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution with increased respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms. The strongest associations between traffic exposure and negative health impacts are observed in in...

  13. Predicting personal exposure of pregnant women to traffic-related air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Teschke, Kay; Brauer, Michael

    2008-05-20

    As epidemiological studies report associations between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes, it is important to understand determinants of exposures among pregnant women. We measured (48-h, personal exposure) and modeled (using outdoor ambient monitors and a traffic-based land-use regression model) NO, NO(2), fine particle mass and absorbance in 62 non-smoking pregnant women in Vancouver, Canada on 1-3 occasions during pregnancy (total N=127). We developed predictive models for personal measurements using modeled ambient concentrations and individual determinants of exposure. Geometric mean exposures of personal samples were relatively low (GM (GSD) NO=37 ppb (2.0); NO(2)=17 ppb (1.6); 'soot', as filter absorbance=0.8 10(-5) m(-1) (1.5); PM(2.2)=10 microg m(-3) (1.6)). Having a gas stove (vs. electric stove) in the home was associated with exposure increases of 89% (NO), 44% (NO(2)), 20% (absorbance) and 35% (fine PM). Interpolated concentrations from outdoor fixed-site monitors were associated with all personal exposures except NO(2). Land-use regression model estimates of outdoor air pollution were associated with personal NO and NO(2) only. The effects of outdoor air pollution on personal samples were consistent, with and without adjustment for other individual determinants (e.g. gas stove). These findings improve our understanding of sources of exposure to air pollutants among pregnant women and support the use of outdoor concentration estimates as proxies for exposure in epidemiologic studies.

  14. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects Among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Isakov, Vlad; Burke, Janet; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Snyder, Michelle; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with adverse human health effects, especially in areas near major roads. In addition to emissions from vehicles, ambient concentrations of air pollutants include contributions from stationary sources and background (or regional) sources. Although dispersion models have been widely used to evaluate air quality strategies and policies and can represent the spatial and temporal variation in environments near roads, the use of these models in health studies to estimate air pollutant exposures has been relatively limited. This paper summarizes the modeling system used to estimate exposures in the Near-Roadway Exposure and Urban Air Pollutant Study, an epidemiological study that examined 139 children with asthma or symptoms consistent with asthma, most of whom lived near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. Air pollutant concentrations were estimated with a hybrid modeling framework that included detailed inventories of mobile and stationary sources on local and regional scales; the RLINE, AERMOD, and CMAQ dispersion models; and monitored observations of pollutant concentrations. The temporal and spatial variability in emissions and exposures over the 2.5-year study period and at more than 300 home and school locations was characterized. The paper highlights issues with the development and understanding of the significance of traffic-related exposures through the use of dispersion models in urban-scale exposure assessments and epidemiology studies. PMID:26139957

  15. Association between Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Schools and Cognitive Development in Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. Methods and Findings We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10–700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%–8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%–12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%–23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could

  16. Mitochondrial Genetic Background Modifies the Relationship between Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure and Systemic Biomarkers of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopp, Sharine; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Gillen, Daniel; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human mitochondrial haplogroups are linked to differences in ROS production and oxidative-stress induced inflammation that may influence disease pathogenesis, including coronary artery disease (CAD). We previously showed that traffic-related air pollutants were associated with biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a cohort panel of subjects with CAD in the Los Angeles air basin. Objective We tested whether air pollutant exposure-associated inflammation was stronger in mitochondrial haplogroup H than U (high versus low ROS production) in this panel (38 subjects and 417 observations). Methods Inflammation biomarkers were measured weekly in each subject (≤12 weeks), including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 soluble receptor and tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor II. We determined haplogroup by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Air pollutants included nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), organic carbon, elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and particulate matter mass, three size fractions (<0.25 µm, 0.25–2.5 µm, and 2.5–10 µm in aerodynamic diameter). Particulate matter extracts were analyzed for organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and in vitro oxidative potential of aqueous extracts. Associations between exposures and biomarkers, stratified by haplogroup, were analyzed by mixed-effects models. Results IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PAH), and with mass and oxidative potential of quasi-ultrafine particles <0.25 µm. These associations were stronger for haplogroup H than haplogroup U. Conclusions Results suggest that mitochondrial haplogroup U is a novel protective factor for air pollution-related systemic inflammation in this small group of subjects. PMID:23717615

  17. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson’s Disease in Denmark: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Very little is currently known about air pollutants’ adverse effects on neurodegenerative diseases even though recent studies have linked particulate exposures to brain pathologies associated with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Objective In the present study, we investigated long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and Parkinson’s disease. Methods In a case–control study of 1,696 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996–2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by sex and year of birth, we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant exposures (represented by nitrogen dioxide; NO2) from a dispersion model, using residential addresses from 1971 to the date of diagnosis or first cardinal symptom for cases and the corresponding index date for their matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with logistic regression, adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. Results We found ambient air pollution from traffic sources to be associated with risk of PD, with a 9% higher risk (95% CI: 3, 16.0%) per interquartile range increase (2.97 μg/m3) in modeled NO2. For participants living for ≥ 20 years in the capital city, ORs were larger (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.31) than in provincial towns (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.26), whereas there was no association among rural residents. Conclusions Our findings raise concerns about potential effects of air pollution from traffic and other sources on the risk of PD, particularly in populations with high or increasing exposures. Citation Ritz B, Lee PC, Hansen J, Funch Lassen C, Ketzel M, Sørensen M, Raaschou-Nielsen O. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution and Parkinson’s disease in Denmark: a case–control study. Environ Health Perspect 124:351–356; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409313 PMID:26151951

  18. Exposure Error Masks The Relationship Between Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Heart Rate Variability (HRV)

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Helen H.; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined whether more precise exposure measures would better detect associations between traffic-related pollution, elemental carbon (EC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and HRV. Methods Repeated 24-h personal and ambient PM2.5, EC, and NO2 were measured for 30 people living in Atlanta, GA. The association between HRV and either ambient concentrations or personal exposures was examined using linear mixed effects models. Results Ambient PM2.5, EC, and NO2 and personal PM2.5 were not associated with HRV. Personal EC and NO2 measured 24-h prior to HRV was associated with decreased rMSSD, PNN50, and HF and with increased LF/HF. RMSSD decreased by 10.97% (95% CI: -18.00,-3.34) for an IQR change in personal EC (0.81 ug/m3). Conclusions Results indicate decreased vagal tone in response to traffic pollutants, which can best be detected with precise personal exposure measures. PMID:20595912

  19. Spatial variations in estimated chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution in working populations: A simulation

    PubMed Central

    Setton, Eleanor M; Keller, C Peter; Cloutier-Fisher, Denise; Hystad, Perry W

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with a variety of health impacts in adults and recent studies show that exposure varies spatially, with some residents in a community more exposed than others. A spatial exposure simulation model (SESM) which incorporates six microenvironments (home indoor, work indoor, other indoor, outdoor, in-vehicle to work and in-vehicle other) is described and used to explore spatial variability in estimates of exposure to traffic-related nitrogen dioxide (not including indoor sources) for working people. The study models spatial variability in estimated exposure aggregated at the census tracts level for 382 census tracts in the Greater Vancouver Regional District of British Columbia, Canada. Summary statistics relating to the distributions of the estimated exposures are compared visually through mapping. Observed variations are explored through analyses of model inputs. Results Two sources of spatial variability in exposure to traffic-related nitrogen dioxide were identified. Median estimates of total exposure ranged from 8 μg/m3 to 35 μg/m3 of annual average hourly NO2 for workers in different census tracts in the study area. Exposure estimates are highest where ambient pollution levels are highest. This reflects the regional gradient of pollution in the study area and the relatively high percentage of time spent at home locations. However, for workers within the same census tract, variations were observed in the partial exposure estimates associated with time spent outside the residential census tract. Simulation modeling shows that some workers may have exposures 1.3 times higher than other workers residing in the same census tract because of time spent away from the residential census tract, and that time spent in work census tracts contributes most to the differences in exposure. Exposure estimates associated with the activity of commuting by vehicle to work were negligible, based on the

  20. A prediction-based approach to modelling temporal and spatial variability of traffic-related air pollution in Montreal, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouse, Dan L.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Ross, Nancy A.

    Concentrations of traffic-related air pollution can be highly variable at the local scale and can have substantial seasonal variability. This study was designed to provide estimates of intra-urban concentrations of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) in Montreal, Canada, that would be used subsequently in health studies of chronic diseases and long-term exposures to traffic-related air pollution. We measured concentrations of NO 2 at 133 locations in Montreal with passive diffusion samplers in three seasons during 2005 and 2006. We then used land use regression, a proven statistical prediction method for describing spatial patterns of air pollution, to develop separate estimates of spatial variability across the city by regressing NO 2 against available land-use variables in each of these three periods. We also developed a "pooled" model across these sampling periods to provide an estimate of an annual average. Our modelling strategy was to develop a predictive model that maximized the model R2. This strategy is different from other strategies whose goal is to identify causal relationships between predictors and concentrations of NO 2. Observed concentrations of NO 2 ranged from 2.6 ppb to 31.5 ppb, with mean values of 12.6 ppb in December 2005, 14.0 ppb in May 2006, and 8.9 ppb in August 2006. The greatest variability was observed during May. Concentrations of NO 2 were highest downtown and near major highways, and they were lowest in the western part of the city. Our pooled model explained approximately 80% of the variability in concentrations of NO 2. Although there were differences in concentrations of NO 2 between the three sampling periods, we found that the spatial variability did not vary significantly across the three sampling periods and that the pooled model was representative of mean annual spatial patterns.

  1. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-12-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in neighborhoods along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (<400 m) and background areas (>1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Spearman correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient

  2. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (<400 m) and background areas (>1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near

  3. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway.

    PubMed

    Patton, Allison P; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L

    2014-12-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (<400 m) and background areas (>1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km(2). Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near

  4. Aggregated GPS tracking of vehicles and its use as a proxy of traffic-related air pollution emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shimon; Bekhor, Shlomo; Yuval; Broday, David M.

    2016-10-01

    Most air quality models use traffic-related variables as an input. Previous studies estimated nearby vehicular activity through sporadic traffic counts or via traffic assignment models. Both methods have previously produced poor or no data for nights, weekends and holidays. Emerging technologies allow the estimation of traffic through passive monitoring of location-aware devices. Examples of such devices are GPS transceivers installed in vehicles. In this work, we studied traffic volumes that were derived from such data. Additionally, we used these data for estimating ambient nitrogen dioxide concentrations, using a non-linear optimisation model that includes basic dispersion properties. The GPS-derived data show great potential for use as a proxy for pollutant emissions from motor-vehicles.

  5. Traffic, asthma and genetics: combining international birth cohort data to examine genetics as a mediator of traffic-related air pollution's impact on childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Elaina A; Carlsten, Christopher; MacNutt, Meaghan; Fuertes, Elaine; Melén, Eric; Tiesler, Carla M T; Gehring, Ulrike; Krämer, Ursula; Klümper, Claudia; Kerkhof, Marjan; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl Peter; Herbarth, Olf; Bauer, Mario; Schaaf, Beate; Koletzko, Sibylle; Pershagen, Goran; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim; Brauer, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Associations between traffic-related air pollution and incident childhood asthma can be strengthened by analysis of gene-environment interactions, but studies have typically been limited by lack of study power. We combined data from six birth cohorts on: asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis to 7/8 years, and candidate genes. Individual-level assessment of traffic-related air pollution exposure was estimated using land use regression or dispersion modeling. A total of 11,760 children were included in the Traffic, Asthma and Genetics (TAG) Study; 6.3 % reported physician-diagnosed asthma at school-age, 16.0 % had asthma at anytime during childhood, 14.1 % had allergic rhinitis at school-age, 10.0 % had eczema at school-age and 33.1 % were sensitized to any allergen. For GSTP1 rs1138272, the prevalence of heterozygosity was 16 % (range amongst individual cohorts, 11-17 %) and homozygosity for the minor allele was 1 % (0-2 %). For GSTP1 rs1695, the prevalence of heterozygosity was 45 % (40-48 %) and homozygosity for the minor allele, 12 % (10-12 %). For TNF rs1800629, the prevalence of heterozygosity was 29 % (25-32 %) and homozygosity for the minor allele, 3 % (1-3 %). TAG comprises a rich database, the largest of its kind, for investigating the effect of genotype on the association between air pollution and childhood allergic disease.

  6. Health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution at the urban project scale: influence of variability and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Chart-Asa, Chidsanuphong; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-02-15

    This paper develops and then demonstrates a new approach for quantifying health impacts of traffic-related particulate matter air pollution at the urban project scale that includes variability and uncertainty in the analysis. We focus on primary particulate matter having a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The new approach accounts for variability in vehicle emissions due to temperature, road grade, and traffic behavior variability; seasonal variability in concentration-response coefficients; demographic variability at a fine spatial scale; uncertainty in air quality model accuracy; and uncertainty in concentration-response coefficients. We demonstrate the approach for a case study roadway corridor with a population of 16,000, where a new extension of the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill campus is slated for construction. The results indicate that at this case study site, health impact estimates increased by factors of 4-9, depending on the health impact considered, compared to using a conventional health impact assessment approach that overlooks these variability and uncertainty sources. In addition, we demonstrate how the method can be used to assess health disparities. For example, in the case study corridor, our method demonstrates the existence of statistically significant racial disparities in exposure to traffic-related PM2.5 under present-day traffic conditions: the correlation between percent black and annual attributable deaths in each census block is 0.37 (t(114)=4.2, p<0.0001). Overall, our results show that the proposed new campus will cause only a small incremental increase in health risks (annual risk 6×10(-10); lifetime risk 4×10(-8)), compared to if the campus is not built. Nonetheless, the approach we illustrate could be useful for improving the quality of information to support decision-making for other urban development projects.

  7. Traffic-related air quality assessment for open road tolling highway facility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Yu, Dan

    2008-09-01

    Open road tolling (ORT) design has been considered as an effective means of smoothing highway traffic and reducing travel delay on toll highways. In this paper it is demonstrated that ORT can also achieve significant air quality benefits over the conventional toll plaza design. The near roadside carbon monoxide (CO) concentration levels can be reduced by up to 37%, and diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions can decrease by as much as 58%. These large expected air quality benefits have great implications to the regional efforts of reducing mobile source air pollution toward achieving attainment status and healthier living environment.

  8. A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution: application and testing in four contrasting urban environments.

    PubMed

    Briggs, D J; de Hoogh, C; Gulliver, J; Wills, J; Elliott, P; Kingham, S; Smallbone, K

    2000-05-15

    Accurate, high-resolution maps of traffic-related air pollution are needed both as a basis for assessing exposures as part of epidemiological studies, and to inform urban air-quality policy and traffic management. This paper assesses the use of a GIS-based, regression mapping technique to model spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution. The model--developed using data from 80 passive sampler sites in Huddersfield, as part of the SAVIAH (Small Area Variations in Air Quality and Health) project--uses data on traffic flows and land cover in the 300-m buffer zone around each site, and altitude of the site, as predictors of NO2 concentrations. It was tested here by application in four urban areas in the UK: Huddersfield (for the year following that used for initial model development), Sheffield, Northampton, and part of London. In each case, a GIS was built in ArcInfo, integrating relevant data on road traffic, urban land use and topography. Monitoring of NO2 was undertaken using replicate passive samplers (in London, data were obtained from surveys carried out as part of the London network). In Huddersfield, Sheffield and Northampton, the model was first calibrated by comparing modelled results with monitored NO2 concentrations at 10 randomly selected sites; the calibrated model was then validated against data from a further 10-28 sites. In London, where data for only 11 sites were available, validation was not undertaken. Results showed that the model performed well in all cases. After local calibration, the model gave estimates of mean annual NO2 concentrations within a factor of 1.5 of the actual mean (approx. 70-90%) of the time and within a factor of 2 between 70 and 100% of the time. r2 values between modelled and observed concentrations are in the range of 0.58-0.76. These results are comparable to those achieved by more sophisticated dispersion models. The model also has several advantages over dispersion modelling. It is able, for example, to provide

  9. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect ...

  10. An examination of population exposure to traffic related air pollution: Comparing spatially and temporally resolved estimates against long-term average exposures at the home location.

    PubMed

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Faghih-Imani, Ahmadreza; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution in metropolitan areas is mainly caused by traffic emissions. This study presents the development of a model chain consisting of a transportation model, an emissions model, and atmospheric dispersion model, applied to dynamically evaluate individuals' exposure to air pollution by intersecting daily trajectories of individuals and hourly spatial variations of air pollution across the study domain. This dynamic approach is implemented in Montreal, Canada to highlight the advantages of the method for exposure analysis. The results for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic related air pollution, reveal significant differences when relying on spatially and temporally resolved concentrations combined with individuals' daily trajectories compared to a long-term average NO2 concentration at the home location. We observe that NO2 exposures based on trips and activity locations visited throughout the day were often more elevated than daily NO2 concentrations at the home location. The percentage of all individuals with a lower 24-hour daily average at home compared to their 24-hour mobility exposure is 89.6%, of which 31% of individuals increase their exposure by more than 10% by leaving the home. On average, individuals increased their exposure by 23-44% while commuting and conducting activities out of home (compared to the daily concentration at home), regardless of air quality at their home location. We conclude that our proposed dynamic modelling approach significantly improves the results of traditional methods that rely on a long-term average concentration at the home location and we shed light on the importance of using individual daily trajectories to understand exposure.

  11. The impacts of short-term exposure to noise and traffic-related air pollution on heart rate variability in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Lu, Henry; Hao, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with cardiovascular diseases, and alternation of heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects cardiac autonomic function, is one of the mechanisms. However, few studies considered the impacts of noise when exploring associations between air pollution and HRV. We explored whether noise modifies associations between short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and HRV in young healthy adults. In this randomized, crossover study, 40 young healthy adults stayed for 2 h in a traffic center and, on a separate occasion, in a park. Personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and noise were measured and ambulatory electrocardiogram was performed. Effects were estimated using mixed-effects regression models. Traffic-related air pollution and noise were both associated with HRV, and effects of air pollutants were amplified at high noise level (>65.6 A-weighted decibels (dB[A])) compared with low noise level (≤ 65.6 dB[A]). High frequency (HF) decreased by -4.61% (95% confidence interval, -6.75% to-2.42%) per 10 μg/m(3) increment in fine particle (PM2.5) at 5-min moving average, but effects became insignificant at low noise level (P>0.05). Similar effects modification was observed for black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). We conclude that noise is an important factor influencing the effects of air pollution on HRV.

  12. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH: BEYOND PROXIMITY TO MAJOR ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Previous studies of the respiratory health impact of mobile source air pollutants on

    children have relied heavily on simple exposure metrics such as proximity to roadways and traffic

    density near the home or school. Few studies have conducted area-wide...

  13. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of developing breast cancer among women in eight Canadian provinces: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry; Villeneuve, Paul J; Goldberg, Mark S; Crouse, Dan L; Johnson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A few recent studies have reported positive associations between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the incidence of breast cancer. We capitalized on an existing Canadian multi-site population-based case-control study to further investigate this association. We used the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System, a population-based case-control study conducted in eight of 10 Canadian provinces from 1994 to 1997. A total of 1569 breast cancer cases and 1872 population controls who reported at least 90% complete self-reported addresses over the 1975-1994 exposure period were examined. Mean exposure levels to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (an indicator of traffic-related air pollution) were estimated for this period using three different measures: (1) satellite-derived observations; (2) satellite-derived observations scaled with historical fixed-site measurements of NO2; and (3) a national land-use regression (LUR) model. Proximity to major roads was also examined. Using unconditional logistic regression, stratified by menopausal status, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for many individual-level and contextual breast cancer risk factors. We observed positive associations between incident breast cancer and all three measures of NO2 exposure from 1975 to 1994. In fully adjusted models for premenopausal breast cancer, a 10ppb increase in NO2 exposure estimated from the satellite-derived observations, the scaled satellite-derived observations, and the national LUR model produced ORs of 1.26 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.92-1.74), 1.32 (95% CI: 1.05-1.67) and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.92-1.79). For postmenopausal breast cancer, we found corresponding ORs of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.88-1.36), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.94-1.28) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.86-1.32). Substantial heterogeneity in the ORs was observed across the eight Canadian provinces and reduced ORs were observed when models were restricted to women who had received routine mammography examinations. No associations

  14. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C; Heck, Julia E; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-15

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression-based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma.

  15. Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Risk of Early Childhood Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C.; Heck, Julia E.; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression–based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:23989198

  16. Traffic-related air pollution biomonitoring with Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. cv. purpurea Boom in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Paula M; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Martinez, Carlos Alberto; Magosso Takayanagui, Angela M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to verify the capacity of Tradescantia pallida in the biomonitoring of air pollution in urban areas with different traffic intensities and under varying environmental conditions. Experiments were carried out in Ribeirão Preto, in the Southeastern Brazil, with more than 660,000 inhabitants and a fleet of more than 485,000 motor vehicles. Ten seedlings of T. pallida were exposed in three areas in the city, differing in traffic vehicle flow, in two seasons (wet and dry). At the end of each sampling period, which lasted 4 months, samples of leaves were collected, and the content of As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, S, and Zn was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The same elements were determined in soil samples for a seasonal characterization in conjunction with secondary data of environmental parameters. Additionally, micronucleus assay with early pollen tetrad cells of Tradescantia (Trad-MN) was conducted by collecting flower buds and analyzing the micronuclei frequencies in pollen mother cells. Although pollutant levels in air were below the Brazilian legal limits, plants exposed in the high-traffic flow area presented higher concentrations of elements related to vehicle emissions, especially under dry conditions, and higher micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells. These results show the sensitivity of T. pallida to low-level urban air pollution and its suitability as bioindicator for trace elements. This alternative tool for biomonitoring can serve as a support methodology for the adoption of more restrictive public environmental policies in Brazil and extendible to other developing countries.

  17. Traffic Related Air Quality Trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Martinez, P.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2014-12-01

    An air quality based approach is used to determine pollutant-trends of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), ozone (O3) and particle matter (PM10) mostly from road transport sources in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) for the years 2000-2013. Road transport sources included flex (gasoline and ethanol) cars and motorcycles and diesel trucks and buses. Air pollutant concentrations for the transport sources were measured and related with the fuel sales by the emission factors (EFs) expressed in grams of pollutant per kilometer driven or unit of fuel consumed. Over the 14- year time period, pollutant concentrations of NOX, CO and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37 and 0.71% month-1, respectively. Oppossitely during this time, fuel sales of gasoline, ethanol and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96 and 0.38% month-1. Flex engines are the prevalent road source of CO, oppositely to diesel ones which appear to be the major source of NOX and PM10. Decrease in air pollutants are partially offset by the increment of fuel sales and related transport activity. For CO, there have been steep decreases in pollutant concentrations (rate of -5 parts per billion, ppb, month-1) for gasoline and ethanol engines between 2000 and 2013. Similarly, diesel related NOX and PM10 concentrations decreased but at slower time rates (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1). Rates uncertainties are larger for diesel pollutants (coefficient of determination R of -0.47 and -0.41) than for gasoline and ethanol related CO (R equal to -0.72). This paper led to the following conclusions: (1) concentrations of gasoline and ethanol related CO, estimated by air quality network measurements, decreased at steeper rate than diesel pollutants NOX and PM10, (2) transport source contributions to the O3 formation differ significantly through the time period focus of this work, with higher contributions coming from gasoline and ethanol engines at the beinning of the reviewed period (2000-2007) and from diesel engines

  18. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. Methods: We evaluated children 7–11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012–2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Results: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. Conclusion: In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Citation: Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona

  19. Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Relation to Progression in Physical Disability among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Weuve, Jennifer; Kaufman, Joel D.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Curl, Cynthia; Puett, Robin C.; Beck, Todd; Evans, Denis A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical disability is common though not inevitable in older age and has direct bearing on a person’s ability to perform activities essential for self-care and independent living. Air pollution appears to increase the risk of several chronic diseases that contribute to the progression of disability. Objective: We evaluated long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in relation to progression in physical disability. Methods: We conducted our investigation within the Chicago Health and Aging Project. We measured participants’ exposures to TRAP using two surrogates: residential proximity to major roads (1993 onwards) and ambient concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOX; 1999 onwards), predicted via a geographic information systems-based spatiotemporal smoothing model (cross-validation R2 = 0.87) that incorporated community-based monitoring and resolved intraurban exposure gradients at a spatial scale of tens of meters. Participants’ lower-extremity physical ability was assessed every 3 years (1993–2012) via tandem stand, chair stand, and timed walking speed. Results: In multivariable-adjusted analyses (n = 5,708), higher long-term NOX exposure was associated with significantly faster progression in disability. Compared with the 5-year decline in physical ability score among participants in the lowest quartile of NOX exposure, decline among those in the highest exposure quartile was 1.14 units greater (95% confidence interval [CI]: –1.86, –0.42), equivalent to 3 additional years of decline among those in the lowest exposure quartile. The association was linear across the continuum of NOX exposure: per 10-ppb increment in exposure, the 5-year decline in physical ability score was 0.87 unit greater (95% CI: –1.35, –0.39). Proximity to a major road was not associated with disability progression (n = 9,994). Conclusions: These data join a growing body of evidence suggesting that TRAP exposures may accelerate aging

  20. Correlations between short-term mobile monitoring and long-term passive sampler measurements of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Riley, Erin A; Schaal, LaNae; Sasakura, Miyoko; Crampton, Robert; Gould, Timothy R; Hartin, Kris; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Simpson, Christopher D; Yost, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    with published source profiles traffic-related air pollutants than features based on the PSD data alone. Short-term mobile monitoring shows promise for capturing long-term spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution, and is complementary to PSD sampling strategies.

  1. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m(3), respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC.

  2. Traffic-related air quality trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pedro José; Fátima Andrade, María.; Miranda, Regina Maura

    2015-06-01

    The urban population of South America has grown at 1.05%/yr, greater urbanization increasing problems related to air pollution. In most large cities in South America, there has been no continuous long-term measurement of regulated pollutants. One exception is São Paulo, Brazil, where an air quality monitoring network has been in place since the 1970s. In this paper, we used an air quality-based approach to determine pollutant trends for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and coarse particulate matter (PM10), mostly from mobile sources, in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo for the 2000-2013 period. Mobile sources included light-duty vehicles (LDVs, comprising gasoline- or ethanol-powered cars and motorcycles) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, comprising diesel-powered trucks and buses). Pollutant concentrations for mobile source emissions were measured and correlated with fuel sales by the emission factors. Over the 2000-2013 period, concentrations of NOx, CO, and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37, and 0.71% month-1, respectively, whereas sales of gasoline, ethanol, and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96, and 0.38% month-1, respectively. LDVs were the major mobile source of CO, whereas LDVs were the major source of NOx and PM10. Increases in fuel sales and in the corresponding traffic volume were partially offset by decreases in pollutant concentrations. Between 2000 and 2013, there was a sharp (-5 ppb month-1) decrease in the concentrations of LDV-emitted CO, together with (less dramatic) decreases in the concentrations of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1, respectively). Variability was greater for HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (R = -0.47 and -0.41, respectively) than for LDV-emitted CO (R = -0.72). We draw the following conclusions: the observed concentrations of LDV-emitted CO decreased at a sharper rate than did those of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10; mobile source contributions to O3 formation varied significantly, LDVs

  3. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas ( p < 0.05). In contrast, no statically significant difference in Pla or 2 protein and mRNA expression level was found between samples from the two areas. We found greater expression of allergens involved in plant defense mechanisms (Pla or 1 and Pla or 3) in polluted sites than in unpolluted ones. The high expression of these proteins can lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. These findings suggest the necessity of supporting public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.

  4. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas (p < 0.05). In contrast, no statically significant difference in Pla or 2 protein and mRNA expression level was found between samples from the two areas. We found greater expression of allergens involved in plant defense mechanisms (Pla or 1 and Pla or 3) in polluted sites than in unpolluted ones. The high expression of these proteins can lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. These findings suggest the necessity of supporting public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide and traffic-related air pollutants in association with increased mortality: a case-crossover study in Reykjavik, Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Finnbjornsdottir, Ragnhildur Gudrun; Elvarsson, Bjarki Thor; Gislason, Thorarinn; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between daily mortality and short-term increases in air pollutants, both traffic-related and the geothermal source-specific hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Design Population-based, time stratified case-crossover. A lag time to 4 days was considered. Seasonal, gender and age stratification were calculated. Also, the best-fit lag when introducing H2S >7 µg/m3 was selected by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Setting The population of the greater Reykjavik area (n=181 558) during 2003–2009. Participants Cases were defined as individuals living in the Reykjavik capital area, 18 years or older (N=138 657), who died due to all natural causes (ICD-10 codes A00-R99) other than injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes, or cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 codes I00-I99) during the study period. Main outcome measure Percentage increases in risk of death (IR%) following an interquartile range increase in pollutants. Results The total number of deaths due to all natural causes was 7679 and due to cardiovascular diseases was 3033. The interquartile range increased concentrations of H2S (2.6 µg/m3) were associated with daily all natural cause mortality in the Reykjavik capital area. The IR% was statistically significant during the summer season (lag 1: IR%=5.05, 95% CI 0.61 to 9.68; lag 2: IR%=5.09, 95% CI 0.44 to 9.97), among males (lag 0: IR%=2.26, 95% CI 0.23 to 4.44), and among the elderly (lag 0: IR%=1.94, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.04; lag 1: IR%=1.99, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.04), when adjusted for traffic-related pollutants and meteorological variables. The traffic-related pollutants were generally not associated with statistical significant IR%s. Conclusions The results suggest that ambient H2S air pollution may increase mortality in Reykjavik, Iceland. To the best of our knowledge, ambient H2S exposure has not previously been associated with increased mortality in population-based studies and therefore the results

  6. GIS-modeled indicators of traffic-related air pollutants and adverse pulmonary health among children in El Paso, Texas, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children?s Health Study examined 5,654 children enrolled in the El Paso, Texas public school district by questionnaire in 2001. Exposure measurements were first collected in the late fall of 1999. Then school-level and residence-level exposures to traffic-related air ...

  7. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Blood Pressure, and Adaptive Response of Mitochondrial Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jia; Cayir, Akin; Trevisi, Letizia; Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Lin, Xinyi; Peng, Cheng; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Prada, Diddier; Laue, Hannah; Brennan, Kasey J.M.; Dereix, Alexandra; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to black carbon (BC), a tracer of vehicular-traffic-pollution, is associated with increased blood pressure (BP). Identifying biological factors that attenuate BC effects on BP can inform prevention. We evaluated the role of mitochondrial abundance, an adaptive mechanism compensating for cellular-redox-imbalance, in the BC-BP relationship. Methods and Results At one or more visits among 675 older men from the Normative Aging Study (observations=1,252), we assessed daily BP and ambient BC levels from a stationary monitor. To determine blood mitochondrial abundance, we used whole blood to analyze mitochondrial-to-nuclear DNA ratio (mtDNA/nDNA) using quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction. Every standard deviation (SD) increase in 28-day BC moving average (MA) was associated with 1.97 mm Hg (95%CI, 1.23–2.72; P<0.0001) and 3.46 mm Hg (95%CI, 2.06–4.87; P<0.0001) higher diastolic and systolic (SBP) BP, respectively. Positive BC-BP associations existed throughout all time windows. BC MAs (5-day to 28-day) were associated with increased mtDNA/nDNA; every SD increase in 28-day BC MA was associated with 0.12 SD (95%CI, 0.03–0.20; P=0.007) higher mtDNA/nDNA. High mtDNA/nDNA significantly attenuated the BC-SBP association throughout all time windows. The estimated effect of 28-day BC MA on SBP was 1.95-fold larger for individuals at the lowest mtDNA/nDNA quartile midpoint (4.68 mm Hg; 95%CI, 3.03–6.33; P<0.0001), compared to the top quartile midpoint (2.40 mm Hg; 95%CI, 0.81–3.99; P=0.003). Conclusions In older adults, short- to moderate-term ambient BC levels were associated with increased BP and blood mitochondrial abundance. Our findings indicate that increased blood mitochondrial abundance is a compensatory response and attenuates the cardiac effects of BC. PMID:26660284

  8. Assessment of schoolchildren's exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the French Six Cities Study using a dispersion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pénard-Morand, Céline; Schillinger, Charles; Armengaud, Alexandre; Debotte, Ginette; Chrétien, Eve; Pellier, Serge; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    The purpose of this work was to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TAP), of the 6683 schoolchildren included in a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted in six French cities to determine the effects of urban air pollution (AP) on respiratory and allergic health. Annual mean concentrations of benzene, CO, NO 2, NO x, PM 10 and SO 2 were calculated, in front of the 108 schools attended by the children, by the validated STREET 5 software, which combines data on regional and local components of AP. STREET contains a database of emissions estimated by the IMPACT 2.0 software developed by ADEME-France and results of ambient concentrations modelled by the WinMISKAM 4.2 dispersion model. The input data required were background AP, traffic conditions (daily traffic density; average speed; percentage of gridlocks and proportion of each type of vehicle) and dispersion conditions (topography of the street segments modelled and meteorology). Emissions of air pollutants in front of the 108 schools were considerably scattered. Calculated concentrations (μg m -3) also varied considerably at: [1.0-5.1] for benzene, [303.8-988.1] for CO, [17.8-78.9] for NO 2, [23.3-195.2] for NO x, [10.0-52.0] for PM 10 and [2.4-16.4] for SO 2. About 64% (29%, respectively) of the schools had annual mean concentrations of NO 2 (PM 10, respectively) exceeding the European quality objectives (40 and 30 μg m -3, respectively). These exposure indicators, capable of identifying small area variations in AP contrary to surrogate measures usually used in epidemiology, will enable better studies on the impact of urban AP on health.

  9. H3K9 acetylation change patterns in rats after exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Jin, Yongtang; Liu, Xinneng; Zhu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ting; Xu, Yinchun

    2016-03-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been acknowledged as a potential risk factor for numerous respiratory disorders including lung cancer; however, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here we investigated the effects of TRAP exposure on the H3K9 acetylation in rats. The exposure was performed in both spring and autumn with identical study procedures. In each season, 48 healthy Wistar rats were exposed to different levels of TRAP for 4 h, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d, respectively. H3K9 acetylation levels in both the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lung tissues were quantified. Multiple linear regression was applied to assess the influence of air pollutants on H3K9 acetylation levels. The levels of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in the tunnel and crossroad groups were significantly higher than in the control group. The H3K9 acetylation levels were not significantly different between spring and autumn. When spring and autumn data were analyzed together, no significant association between the TRAP and H3K9 acetylation was found in 4h exposure window. However, in the 7 d exposure window, PM2.5 and PM10 exposures were associated with changes in H3K9 acetylation ranging from 0.276 (0.053, 0.498) to 0.475 (0.103, 0.848) per 1 μg/m(3) increase in the pollutant concentration. In addition, prolonged exposure of the rats in the tunnel showed that both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were positively associated with H3k9 acetylation in both PBMCs and lung tissues. The findings showed that 7-d and prolonged TRAP exposure could effectively increase the H3K9 acetylation level in both PBMCs and lung tissues of rats.

  10. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Recent Advances and Remaining Gaps in the Exposure Assessment Methods.

    PubMed

    Khreis, Haneen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-03-17

    Background: Current levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) are associated with the development of childhood asthma, although some inconsistencies and heterogeneity remain. An important part of the uncertainty in studies of TRAP-associated asthma originates from uncertainties in the TRAP exposure assessment and assignment methods. In this work, we aim to systematically review the exposure assessment methods used in the epidemiology of TRAP and childhood asthma, highlight recent advances, remaining research gaps and make suggestions for further research. Methods: We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies published up until 8 September 2016 and available in Embase, Ovid MEDLINE (R), and "Transport database". We included studies which examined the association between children's exposure to TRAP metrics and their risk of "asthma" incidence or lifetime prevalence, from birth to the age of 18 years old. Results: We found 42 studies which examined the associations between TRAP and subsequent childhood asthma incidence or lifetime prevalence, published since 1999. Land-use regression modelling was the most commonly used method and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) was the most commonly used pollutant in the exposure assessments. Most studies estimated TRAP exposure at the residential address and only a few considered the participants' mobility. TRAP exposure was mostly assessed at the birth year and only a few studies considered different and/or multiple exposure time windows. We recommend that further work is needed including e.g., the use of new exposure metrics such as the composition of particulate matter, oxidative potential and ultra-fine particles, improved modelling e.g., by combining different exposure assessment models, including mobility of the participants, and systematically investigating different exposure time windows. Conclusions: Although our previous meta-analysis found statistically significant associations for various TRAP exposures and

  11. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Recent Advances and Remaining Gaps in the Exposure Assessment Methods

    PubMed Central

    Khreis, Haneen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) are associated with the development of childhood asthma, although some inconsistencies and heterogeneity remain. An important part of the uncertainty in studies of TRAP-associated asthma originates from uncertainties in the TRAP exposure assessment and assignment methods. In this work, we aim to systematically review the exposure assessment methods used in the epidemiology of TRAP and childhood asthma, highlight recent advances, remaining research gaps and make suggestions for further research. Methods: We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies published up until 8 September 2016 and available in Embase, Ovid MEDLINE (R), and “Transport database”. We included studies which examined the association between children’s exposure to TRAP metrics and their risk of “asthma” incidence or lifetime prevalence, from birth to the age of 18 years old. Results: We found 42 studies which examined the associations between TRAP and subsequent childhood asthma incidence or lifetime prevalence, published since 1999. Land-use regression modelling was the most commonly used method and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was the most commonly used pollutant in the exposure assessments. Most studies estimated TRAP exposure at the residential address and only a few considered the participants’ mobility. TRAP exposure was mostly assessed at the birth year and only a few studies considered different and/or multiple exposure time windows. We recommend that further work is needed including e.g., the use of new exposure metrics such as the composition of particulate matter, oxidative potential and ultra-fine particles, improved modelling e.g., by combining different exposure assessment models, including mobility of the participants, and systematically investigating different exposure time windows. Conclusions: Although our previous meta-analysis found statistically significant associations for various TRAP exposures and

  12. Presence of other allergic disease modifies the effect of early childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure on asthma prevalence.

    PubMed

    Dell, Sharon D; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernard; Brook, Jeffrey R; Foty, Richard G; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Marshall, Laura; Miller, J David; To, Teresa; Walter, Stephen D; Stieb, David M

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a surrogate measure of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), has been associated with incident childhood asthma. Timing of exposure and atopic status may be important effect modifiers. We collected cross-sectional data on asthma outcomes from Toronto school children aged 5-9years in 2006. Lifetime home, school and daycare addresses were obtained to derive birth and cumulative NO2 exposures for a nested case-control subset of 1497 children. Presence of other allergic disease (a proxy for atopy) was defined as self-report of one or more of doctor-diagnosed rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for potential confounders, and examine hypothesized effect modifiers while accounting for clustering by school. In children with other allergic disease, birth, cumulative and 2006 NO2 were associated with lifetime asthma (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08-1.98; 1.37, 95% CI 1.00-1.86; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.09-2.36 respectively per interquartile range increase) and wheeze (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10-1.89; 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.67; and 1.60, 95% CI 1.16-2.21). No or weaker effects were seen in those without allergic disease, and effect modification was amplified when a more restrictive algorithm was used to define other allergic disease (at least 2 of doctor diagnosed allergic rhinitis, eczema or food allergy). The effects of modest NO2 levels on childhood asthma were modified by the presence of other allergic disease, suggesting a probable role for allergic sensitization in the pathogenesis of TRAP initiated asthma.

  13. Timing and Duration of Traffic-related Air Pollution Exposure and the Risk for Childhood Wheeze and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Brunst, Kelly J.; Brokamp, Cole; Bernstein, David; Reponen, Tiina; Lockey, James; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Levin, Linda; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; LeMasters, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The timing and duration of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure may be important for childhood wheezing and asthma development. Objectives: We examined the relationship between TRAP exposure and longitudinal wheezing phenotypes and asthma at age 7 years. Methods: Children completed clinical examinations annually from age 1 year through age 4 years and age 7 years. Parental-reported wheezing was assessed at each age, and longitudinal wheezing phenotypes (early-transient, late-onset, persistent) and asthma were defined at age 7 years. Participants’ time-weighted exposure to TRAP, from birth through age 7 years, was estimated using a land-use regression model. The relationship between TRAP exposure and wheezing phenotypes and asthma was examined. Measurements and Main Results: High TRAP exposure at birth was significantly associated with both transient and persistent wheezing phenotypes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–2.57 and aOR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.28–4.15, respectively); exposure from birth to age 1 year and age 1 to 2 years was also associated with persistent wheeze. Only children with high average TRAP exposure from birth through age 7 years were at significantly increased risk for asthma (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.01–2.88). Conclusions: Early-life exposure to TRAP is associated with increased risk for persistent wheezing, but only long-term exposure to high levels of TRAP throughout childhood was associated with asthma development. PMID:26106807

  14. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    PubMed

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another.

  15. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy and term low birth weight: estimation of causal associations in a semiparametric model.

    PubMed

    Padula, Amy M; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B

    2012-11-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000-2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants.

  16. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study.

    PubMed

    Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Schouten, Leo; Bausch-Goldbohm, Sandra; Fischer, Paul; Armstrong, Ben; Hughes, Edward; Jerrett, Michael; van den Brandt, Piet

    2009-03-01

    black smoke (a simple marker for soot) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, as well as nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5), as estimated from measurements of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm (PM10). Overall long-term exposure concentrations were considered to be a function of air pollution contributions at regional, urban, and local scales. We used interpolation from data obtained routinely at regional stations of the National Air Quality Monitoring Network (NAQMN) to estimate the regional component of exposure at the home address. Average pollutant concentrations were estimated from NAQMN measurements for the period 1976 through 1996. Land-use regression methods were used to estimate the urban exposure component. For the local exposure component, geographic information systems (GISs) were used to generate indicators of traffic exposure that included traffic intensity on and distance to nearby roads. A major effort was made to collect traffic intensity data from individual municipalities. The exposure variables were refined considerably from those used in the pilot study, but we also analyzed the data for the full cohort in the current study using the exposure indicators of the pilot study. We analyzed the data in models with the estimated overall pollutant concentration as a single variable and with the background concentration (the sum of regional and urban components) and the local exposure estimate from traffic indicators as separate variables. In the full-cohort analyses adjusted for the limited set of confounders, estimated overall exposure concentrations of black smoke, NO2, NO, and PM2.5 were associated with mortality. For a 10-microg/m3 increase in the black smoke concentration, the relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 1.05 (1.00-1.11) for natural-cause (nonaccidental) mortality, 1.04 (0.95-1.13) for

  17. Nrf2-related gene expression and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in elderly subjects with cardiovascular disease: An exploratory panel study

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopp, Sharine; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Stinchcombe, Timothy; Daher, Nancy; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Gillen, Daniel L.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression changes are linked to air pollutant exposures in in vitro and animal experiments. However, limited data are available on how these outcomes relate to ambient air pollutant exposures in humans. We performed an exploratory analysis testing whether gene expression levels were associated with air pollution exposures in a Los Angeles area cohort of elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Candidate genes (35) were selected from published studies of gene expression-pollutant associations. Expression levels were measured weekly in 43 subjects (≤12 weeks) using quantitative PCR. Exposures included gaseous pollutants O3, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and CO; particulate matter (PM) pollutants elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and size-fractionated PM mass. We measured organic compounds from PM filter extracts, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and determined the in vitro oxidative potential of particle extracts. Associations between exposures and gene expression levels were analyzed using mixed-effects regression models. We found positive associations of traffic-related pollutants (EC, BC, primary organic carbon, PM0.25-2.5 PAH and/or PM0.25 PAH, and NOx) with NFE2L2, Nrf2-mediated genes (HMOX1, NQO1, and SOD2), CYP1B1, IL1B, and SELP. Findings suggest that NFE2L2 gene expression links associations of traffic-related air pollution with phase I and II enzyme genes at the promoter transcription level. PMID:25564368

  18. Association between traffic-related air pollution and asthma in preschool children in a national Japanese nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Hideki; Sato, Tosiya; Iwata, Tsutomu; Kohno, Yoichi; Nitta, Hiroshi; Odajima, Hiroshi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Omori, Takashi; Ono, Masaji; Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There has been little study on the effect of traffic-related air pollution on the incidence and persistence of asthma in preschool children. We evaluated the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution with the incidence/persistence of asthma during the first 3 years of life using a population-based study. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in 1½-year-old children (n=63 266). A follow-up survey at 3 years of age (n=43 343) identified new-onset asthma cases (n=853) and persistence of asthma (n=214). In the prevalence/persistence study, the outdoor concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC) at home during the first 1½ years of life were estimated by a dispersion model. In the nested case–control study, which regarded incidence of asthma as cases, the personal exposure levels were estimated by dispersion model including time-activity pattern. Results There was no statistically significant association between the incidence of asthma between age 1½ and 3 years and personal exposure levels to NOx nor EC. However, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms (between 1½ and 3 years) was significantly associated with outdoor concentrations of NOx. ORs for the persistence of asthmatic symptoms were 6.02 (95% CI 1.51 to 23.92) for the comparison between the upper 5th and lower 25th centiles of NOx. Conclusions While no statistically significant association was observed for the incidence of asthma, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms in preschool children was significantly associated with traffic-related air pollution. This supports its importance as a risk factor in childhood airway disease. PMID:26916696

  19. A national study of the association between traffic-related air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Canada, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Stieb, David M; Chen, Li; Hystad, Perry; Beckerman, Bernardo S; Jerrett, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael; Crouse, Daniel L; Omariba, D Walter; Peters, Paul A; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Burnett, Richard T; Liu, Shiliang; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Dugandzic, Rose M

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have examined the association of air pollution with preterm birth and birth weight outcomes. Traffic-related air pollution has also increasingly been identified as an important contributor to adverse health effects of air pollution. We employed a national nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure model to examine the association between NO2 and pregnancy outcomes in Canada between 1999 and 2008. National models for NO2 (and particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) as a covariate) were developed using ground-based monitoring data, estimates from remote-sensing, land use variables and, for NO2, deterministic gradients relative to road traffic sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations with preterm birth, term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and term birth weight, adjusting for covariates including infant sex, gestational age, maternal age and marital status, parity, urban/rural place of residence, maternal place of birth, season, year of birth and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and per cent visible minority. Associations were reduced considerably after adjustment for individual covariates and neighbourhood per cent visible minority, but remained significant for SGA (odds ratio 1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06 per 20ppb NO2) and term birth weight (16.2g reduction, 95% CI 13.6-18.8g per 20ppb NO2). Associations with NO2 were of greater magnitude in a sensitivity analysis using monthly monitoring data, and among births to mothers born in Canada, and in neighbourhoods with higher incomes and a lower proportion of visible minorities. In two pollutant models, associations with NO2 were less sensitive to adjustment for PM2.5 than vice versa, and there was consistent evidence of a dose-response relationship for NO2 but not PM2.5. In this study of approximately 2.5 million Canadian births between 1999 and 2008, we found significant associations of NO2 with SGA and term birth weight which

  20. Arterial Blood Pressure and Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution: An Analysis in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

    PubMed Central

    Weinmayr, Gudrun; Foraster, Maria; Dratva, Julia; Hampel, Regina; Houthuijs, Danny; Oftedal, Bente; Oudin, Anna; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Penell, Johanna; Sommar, Johan N.; Sørensen, Mette; Tiittanen, Pekka; Wolf, Kathrin; Xun, Wei W.; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Basagaña, Xavier; Beelen, Rob; Bots, Michiel L.; Brunekreef, Bert; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cirach, Marta; de Faire, Ulf; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Elosua, Roberto; Erbel, Raimund; Forsberg, Bertil; Fratiglioni, Laura; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Hilding, Agneta; Jula, Antti; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Künzli, Nino; Lanki, Timo; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marrugat, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pershagen, Göran; Phuleria, Harish C.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Schikowski, Tamara; Schindler, Christian; Schwarze, Per E.; Søgaard, Anne J.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Swart, Wim J.R.; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Turunen, Anu W.; Vineis, Paolo; Peters, Annette; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term exposure to air pollution has been hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country specific. Objectives: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. Methods: We analyzed 15 population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). We modeled residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides with land use regression using a uniform protocol. We assessed traffic exposure with traffic indicator variables. We analyzed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and nonmedicated with BP-lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hypertension was defined as ≥ 140 mmHg systolic BP, or ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: In the main meta-analysis of 113,926 participants, traffic load on major roads within 100 m of the residence was associated with increased systolic and diastolic BP in nonmedicated participants [0.35 mmHg (95% CI: 0.02, 0.68) and 0.22 mmHg (95% CI: 0.04, 0.40) per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day, respectively]. The estimated odds ratio (OR) for prevalent hypertension was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.11) per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day. Modeled air pollutants and BP were not clearly associated. Conclusions: In this first comprehensive meta-analysis of European population-based cohorts, we observed a weak positive association of high residential traffic exposure with BP in nonmedicated participants, and an elevated OR for prevalent hypertension. The relationship of modeled air pollutants with BP was inconsistent. Citation: Fuks KB, Weinmayr G, Foraster M, Dratva J, Hampel R, Houthuijs D, Oftedal B, Oudin A, Panasevich S, Penell J, Sommar JN, S

  1. Traffic-related air pollution modeling during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: the effects of an odd-even day traffic restriction scheme.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Xie, Shaodong

    2011-04-15

    An integrated urban air quality modeling system was applied to assess the effects of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS) on traffic-related air pollution in the urban area of Beijing (UAB) before, during and after the 2008 Olympic Games. Using traffic flow data retrieved from an on-line traffic monitoring system, concentration levels of CO, PM(10), NO(2) and O(3) on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Ring Roads (RR) and Linkage Roads (LRs), the main roads distributed around the UAB, were predicted for the pre- (10th-19th, July), during- (20th July-20th September) and post-TRS (21st-30th, September) periods. A widely used statistical framework for model evaluation was adopted, the dependences of model performance on time-of-the-day and on wind direction were investigated, and the model predictions turned out reasonably satisfactory. Results showed that daily average concentrations on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th RR and LRs decreased significantly during the TRS period, by about 35.8, 38.5, 34.9 and 35.6% for CO, about 38.7, 31.8, 44.0 and 34.7% for PM(10), about 30.3, 31.9, 32.3 and 33.9% for NO(2), and about 36.7, 33.0, 33.4 and 34.7% for O(3), respectively, compared with the pre-TRS period. Hourly average concentrations were also reduced significantly, particularly for the morning and evening peaks for CO and PM(10), for the evening peak for NO(2), and for the afternoon peak for O(3). Consequently, both the daily and hourly concentration level of CO, PM(10), NO(2) and O(3) conformed to the China National Ambient Air Quality Standards Grade II during the Games. In addition, notable reduction of concentration levels was achieved in different regions of Beijing, with the traffic-related air pollution in the downwind northern and western areas relieved most significantly. The TRS policy was therefore effective in alleviating traffic-related air pollution and improving short-term air quality in Beijing during the Games.

  2. Wearable Sensors for Personal Monitoring and Estimation of Inhaled Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Evaluation of Methods.

    PubMed

    Dons, Evi; Laeremans, Michelle; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Anaya-Boig, Esther; Standaert, Arnout; De Boever, Patrick; Nawrot, Tim; Götschi, Thomas; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Int Panis, Luc

    2017-02-07

    Physical activity and ventilation rates have an effect on an individual's dose and may be important to consider in exposure-response relationships; however, these factors are often ignored in environmental epidemiology studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods of estimating the inhaled dose of air pollution and understand variability in the absence of a true gold standard metric. Five types of methods were identified: (1) methods using (physical) activity types, (2) methods based on energy expenditure, METs (metabolic equivalents of task), and oxygen consumption, (3) methods based on heart rate or (4) breathing rate, and (5) methods that combine heart and breathing rate. Methods were compared using a real-life data set of 122 adults who wore devices to track movement, black carbon air pollution, and physiological health markers for 3 weeks in three European cities. Different methods for estimating minute ventilation performed well in relative terms with high correlations among different methods, but in absolute terms, ignoring increased ventilation during day-to-day activities could lead to an underestimation of the daily dose by a factor of 0.08-1.78. There is no single best method, and a multitude of methods are currently being used to approximate the dose. The choice of a suitable method for determining the dose in future studies will depend on both the size and the objectives of the study.

  3. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between −10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NOx), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM2.5, due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  4. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-08

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NO(x), PM(2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between -10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NO(x)), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM(2.5), due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization.

  5. Association of traffic-related hazardous air pollutants and cervical dysplasia in an urban multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause in the development of cervical cancer; however, not all women infected with HPV develop cervical cancer indicating that other risk factors are involved. Our objective was to determine the association between exposure to ambient levels of common traffic-related air toxics and cervical dysplasia, a precursor lesion for cervical cancer. Methods The study sample consisted of women enrolled in a Phase II clinical trial to evaluate diagnostic techniques for cervical disease in Houston, Texas. The current assessment is a secondary data analysis in which cases were defined as women diagnosed with cervical dysplasia, while those without cervical dysplasia served as controls. Residential census tract-level estimates of ambient benzene, diesel particulate matter (DPM), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to assess exposure. Census tract-level pollutant estimates were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and HPV status. Results Women in the highest residential exposure categories for benzene and DPM had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia compared to the lowest exposure category (Benzene: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 1.97[1.07-3.62], very high exposure = 2.30[1.19-4.46]. DPM: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 2.83[1.55-5.16], very high exposure = 2.10[1.07-4.11]). Similarly, women with high residential exposure to PAHs had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia (aOR [95% CI] = 2.46[1.35-4.48]). The highest PAH exposure category was also positively associated with cervical dysplasia prevalence but was not statistically significant. Assessment of the combined effect of HAP exposure indicates that exposure to high levels of more than one HAP is

  6. Comparison of regression models with land-use and emissions data to predict the spatial distribution of traffic-related air pollution in Rome.

    PubMed

    Rosenlund, Mats; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo; Porta, Daniela; Perucci, Mara; Ranzi, Andrea; Nussio, Fabio; Perucci, Carlo A

    2008-03-01

    Spatial modeling of traffic-related air pollution typically involves either regression modeling of land-use and traffic data or dispersion modeling of emissions data, but little is known to what extent land-use regression models might be improved by incorporating emissions data. The aim of this study was to develop a land-use regression model to predict nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and compare its performance with a model including emissions data. The association between each land-use variable and NO2 concentrations at 68 locations in Rome in 1995 and 1996 was assessed by univariate linear regression and a multiple linear regression model that was constructed based on the importance of each variable. Traffic emissions (particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and benzene) were estimated for 164 areas of the city based on vehicle type, traffic counts and driving patterns. Mean NO2 concentration across the 68 sites was 46.8 microg/m3 (SD 9.8 microg/m3; inter-quartile range 11.5 microg/m3; min 24 microg/m3; max 73 microg/m3). The most important predicting variables were the circular traffic zones (main ring road, green strip, inner ring road, traffic-limited zone), distance from busy streets, size of the census block, the inverse population density, and altitude. A multiple regression model including these variables resulted in an R2 of 0.686. The best-fitting model adding an emission term of benzene resulted in an R2 of 0.690, but was not significantly different from the model without emissions (P=0.147). In conclusion, these results suggest that a land-use regression model explains the traffic-related air pollution levels with reasonable accuracy and that emissions data do not significantly improve the model.

  7. Effects of Exposure Measurement Error in the Analysis of Health Effects from Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    In large epidemiological studies, many researchers use surrogates of air pollution exposure such as geographic information system (GIS)-based characterizations of traffic or simple housing characteristics. It is important to validate these surrogates against measured pollutant co...

  8. Characterization of traffic-related air pollutant metrics at four schools in El Paso, Texas, USA: Implications for exposure assessment and siting schools in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Stock, Thomas H.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Montoya Sosa, Teresa; Ebelt Sarnat, Stefanie; Holguin, Fernando; Greenwald, Roby; Johnson, Brent; Li, Wen-Whai

    2013-12-01

    Children spend substantial amount of time within school microenvironments; therefore, assessing school-based exposures is essential for characterizing and preventing children's health risks to air pollutants. Indeed, the importance of characterizing children's exposures in schools is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency's recent initiative to promote outdoor air monitoring networks near schools. As part of a health effects study investigating the impact of traffic-related air pollution on asthmatic children along the US-Mexico border, this research examines children's exposures to, and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in concentrations of, traffic-related air pollutants at four elementary schools in El Paso, Texas. Three schools were located in an area of high traffic density and one school in an area of low traffic density. Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of 48-h fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5), 48-h black carbon (BC), 96-h nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 96-h volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured for 13 weeks at each school. Outdoor concentrations of PM, NO2, BC, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene) compounds were similar among the three schools in the high-traffic zone in contrast to the school in the low-traffic zone. Results from this study and previous studies in this region corroborate the fact that PM pollution in El Paso is dominated by coarse PM (PM10-2.5) and fine fraction (PM2.5) accounts for only 25-30% of the total PM mass in PM10. BTEX species and BC are better surrogates for traffic air pollution in this region. Correlation analyses indicate a range of association between indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations due to uncontrollable factors like student foot traffic and varying building and ventilation configurations across the four schools. Results suggest the need of micro-scale monitoring for children's exposure assessment, which may not be adequately characterized

  9. Back-extrapolating a land use regression model for estimating past exposures to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ilan; Levin, Noam; Yuval; Schwartz, Joel D; Kark, Jeremy D

    2015-03-17

    Land use regression (LUR) models rely on air pollutant measurements for their development, and are therefore limited to recent periods where such measurements are available. Here we propose an approach to overcome this gap and calculate LUR models several decades before measurements were available. We first developed a LUR model for NOx using annual averages of NOx at all available air quality monitoring sites in Israel between 1991 and 2011 with time as one of the independent variables. We then reconstructed historical spatial data (e.g., road network) from historical topographic maps to apply the model's prediction to each year from 1961 to 2011. The model's predictions were then validated against independent estimates about the national annual NOx emissions from on-road vehicles in a top-down approach. The model's cross validated R2 was 0.74, and the correlation between the model's annual averages and the national annual NOx emissions between 1965 and 2011 was 0.75. Information about the road network and population are persistent predictors in many LUR models. The use of available historical data about these predictors to resolve the spatial variability of air pollutants together with complementary national estimates on the change in pollution levels over time enable historical reconstruction of exposures.

  10. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria-Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Texcalac, Jose-Luis; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR) of PM2.5 (24-h average) was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%); an increase of 34 ppb (IQR) of NO2 (1-h maximum) was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4%) and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR) in O3 levels (1 hr maximum) to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%). Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average). Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles. PMID:19014608

  11. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Acute Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Respiratory Function in Urban Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Kulka, Ryan; Dubeau, Aimee; Martin, Christina; Wang, Daniel; Dales, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the acute health effects of air pollution exposures experienced while cycling in traffic. Objectives: We conducted a crossover study to examine the relationship between traffic pollution and acute changes in heart rate variability. We also collected spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide measures. Methods: Forty-two healthy adults cycled for 1 hr on high- and low-traffic routes as well as indoors. Health measures were collected before cycling and 1–4 hr after the start of cycling. Ultrafine particles (UFPs; ≤ 0.1 μm in aerodynamic diameter), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), black carbon, and volatile organic compounds were measured along each cycling route, and ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels were recorded from a fixed-site monitor. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between air pollutants and changes in health outcome measures relative to precycling baseline values. Results: An interquartile range increase in UFP levels (18,200/cm3) was associated with a significant decrease in high-frequency power 4 hr after the start of cycling [β = –224 msec2; 95% confidence interval (CI), –386 to –63 msec2]. Ambient NO2 levels were inversely associated with the standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (β = –10 msec; 95% CI, –20 to –0.34 msec) and positively associated with the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power (β = 1.4; 95% CI, 0.35 to 2.5) 2 hr after the start of cycling. We also observed significant inverse associations between ambient O3 levels and the root mean square of successive differences in adjacent NN intervals 3 hr after the start of cycling. Conclusions: Short-term exposures to traffic pollution may contribute to altered autonomic modulation of the heart in the hours immediately after cycling. PMID:21672679

  12. A new exposure metric for traffic-related air pollution? An analysis of determinants of hopanes in settled indoor house dust

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) can adversely impact health but epidemiologic studies are limited in their abilities to assess long-term exposures and incorporate variability in indoor pollutant infiltration. Methods In order to examine settled house dust levels of hopanes, engine lubricating oil byproducts found in vehicle exhaust, as a novel TRAP exposure measure, dust samples were collected from 171 homes in five Canadian cities and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. To evaluate source contributions, the relative abundance of the highest concentration hopane monomer in house dust was compared to that in outdoor air. Geographic variables related to TRAP emissions and outdoor NO2 concentrations from city-specific TRAP land use regression (LUR) models were calculated at each georeferenced residence location and assessed as predictors of variability in dust hopanes. Results Hopanes relative abundance in house dust and ambient air were significantly correlated (Pearson’s r=0.48, p<0.05), suggesting that dust hopanes likely result from traffic emissions. The proportion of variance in dust hopanes concentrations explained by LUR NO2 was less than 10% in Vancouver, Winnipeg and Toronto while the correlations in Edmonton and Windsor explained 20 to 40% of the variance. Modeling with household factors such as air conditioning and shoe removal along with geographic predictors related to TRAP generally increased the proportion of explained variability (10-80%) in measured indoor hopanes dust levels. Conclusions Hopanes can consistently be detected in house dust and may be a useful tracer of TRAP exposure if determinants of their spatiotemporal variability are well-characterized, and when home-specific factors are considered. PMID:23782977

  13. Effects of exposure measurement error in the analysis of health effects from traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Lisa K; Wright, Rosalind J; Paciorek, Christopher J; Laden, Francine; Suh, Helen H; Levy, Jonathan I

    2010-01-01

    In large epidemiological studies, many researchers use surrogates of air pollution exposure such as geographic information system (GIS)-based characterizations of traffic or simple housing characteristics. It is important to evaluate quantitatively these surrogates against measured pollutant concentrations to determine how their use affects the interpretation of epidemiological study results. In this study, we quantified the implications of using exposure models derived from validation studies, and other alternative surrogate models with varying amounts of measurement error on epidemiological study findings. We compared previously developed multiple regression models characterizing residential indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations to models with less explanatory power that may be applied in the absence of validation studies. We constructed a hypothetical epidemiological study, under a range of odds ratios, and determined the bias and uncertainty caused by the use of various exposure models predicting residential indoor exposure levels. Our simulations illustrated that exposure models with fairly modest R(2) (0.3 to 0.4 for the previously developed multiple regression models for PM(2.5) and NO(2)) yielded substantial improvements in epidemiological study performance, relative to the application of regression models created in the absence of validation studies or poorer-performing validation study models (e.g., EC). In many studies, models based on validation data may not be possible, so it may be necessary to use a surrogate model with more measurement error. This analysis provides a technique to quantify the implications of applying various exposure models with different degrees of measurement error in epidemiological research.

  14. The influence of childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure on asthma, allergy and sensitization: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of birth cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Bowatte, G; Lodge, C; Lowe, A J; Erbas, B; Perret, J; Abramson, M J; Matheson, M; Dharmage, S C

    2015-03-01

    The impact of early childhood traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure on development of asthma and allergies remains unclear. Birth cohort studies are the best available study design to answer this question, but the evidence from such studies has not been synthesized to date. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of published birth cohort studies to understand the association between early childhood TRAP exposure, and subsequent asthma, allergies and sensitization. Increased longitudinal childhood exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon was associated with increasing risk of subsequent asthma in childhood (PM2.5 : OR 1.14, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.30 per 2 μg/m(3) and black carbon: OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.38 per 1 × 10(-5) m(-1) ). Also, early childhood exposure to TRAP was associated with development of asthma across childhood up to 12 years of age. The magnitude of these associations increased with age, and the pattern was prominent for PM2.5 . Increasing exposure to PM2.5 was associated with sensitization to both aero- and food allergens. There was some evidence that TRAP was associated with eczema and hay fever. In summary, exposure to TRAP was related to asthma and allergic diseases. However, the substantial variability across studies warrants long-term birth cohort studies with regular repeated follow-ups to confirm these findings.

  15. A novel mobile monitoring approach to characterize spatial and temporal variation in traffic-related air pollutants in an urban community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Fan, Zhihua; Lioy, Paul J.; Baptista, Ana; Greenberg, Molly; Laumbach, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Air concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) vary in space and time within urban communities, presenting challenges for estimating human exposure and potential health effects. Conventional stationary monitoring stations/networks cannot effectively capture spatial characteristics. Alternatively, mobile monitoring approaches became popular to measure TRAPs along roadways or roadsides. However, these linear mobile monitoring approaches cannot thoroughly distinguish spatial variability from temporal variations in monitored TRAP concentrations. In this study, we used a novel mobile monitoring approach to simultaneously characterize spatial/temporal variations in roadside concentrations of TRAPs in urban settings. We evaluated the effectiveness of this mobile monitoring approach by performing concurrent measurements along two parallel paths perpendicular to a major roadway and/or along heavily trafficked roads at very narrow scale (one block away each other) within short time period (<30 min) in an urban community. Based on traffic and particulate matter (PM) source information, we selected 4 neighborhoods to study. The sampling activities utilized real-time monitors, including battery-operated PM2.5 monitor (SidePak), condensation particle counter (CPC 3007), black carbon (BC) monitor (Micro-Aethalometer), carbon monoxide (CO) monitor (Langan T15), and portable temperature/humidity data logger (HOBO U12), and a GPS-based tracker (Trackstick). Sampling was conducted for ˜3 h in the morning (7:30-10:30) in 7 separate days in March/April and 6 days in May/June 2012. Two simultaneous samplings were made at 5 spatially-distributed locations on parallel roads, usually distant one block each other, in each neighborhood. The 5-min averaged BC concentrations (AVG ± SD, [range]) were 2.53 ± 2.47 [0.09-16.3] μg/m3, particle number concentrations (PNC) were 33,330 ± 23,451 [2512-159,130] particles/cm3, PM2.5 mass concentrations were 8.87 ± 7.65 [0.27-46.5]

  16. Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Is Associated with Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Montreal, Canada: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Crouse, Dan L.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Ross, Nancy A.; Chen, Hong; Labrèche, France

    2010-01-01

    Background Only about 30% of cases of breast cancer can be explained by accepted risk factors. Occupational studies have shown associations between the incidence of breast cancer and exposure to contaminants that are found in ambient air. Objectives We sought to determine whether the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer is associated with exposure to urban air pollution. Methods We used data from a case–control study conducted in Montreal, Quebec, in 1996–1997. Cases were 383 women with incident invasive breast cancer, and controls were 416 women with other incident, malignant cancers, excluding those potentially associated with selected occupational exposures. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured across Montreal in 2005–2006. We developed a land-use regression model to predict concentrations of NO2 across Montreal for 2006, and developed two methods to extrapolate the estimates to 1985 and 1996. We linked these estimates to addresses of residences of subjects at time of interview. We used unconditional logistic regression to adjust for accepted and suspected risk factors and occupational exposures. Results For each increase of 5 ppb NO2 estimated in 1996, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.71). Although the size of effect varied somewhat across periods, we found an increased risk of approximately 25% for every increase of 5 ppb in exposure. Conclusions We found evidence of an association between the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer and exposure to ambient concentrations of NO2. Further studies are needed to confirm whether NO2 or other components of traffic-related pollution are indeed associated with increased risks. PMID:20923746

  17. Dose- and time- effect responses of DNA methylation and histone H3K9 acetylation changes induced by traffic-related air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Rui; Jin, Yongtang; Liu, Xinneng; Ye, Huaizhuang; Zhu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ting; Xu, Yinchun

    2017-01-01

    As an important risk factor of respiratory disorders, traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has caused extensive concerns. Epigenetic change has been considered a link between TRAP and respiratory diseases. However, the exact effects of TRAP on epigenetic changes are still unclear. Here we investigated the dose- and time- effect responses of TRAP on DNA methylations and H3K9 acetylation (H3K9ac) in both blood and lung tissues of rats. The findings showed that every 1 μg/m3 increase of TRAP components were associated with changes in %5 mC (95% CI) in LINE-1, iNOS, p16CDKN2A, and APC ranging from −0.088% (−0.150, −0.026) to 0.102 (0.049, 0.154), as well as 0.276 (0.053, 0.498) to 0.475 (0.103, 0.848) ng/mg increase of H3K9ac. In addition, every 1 more day exposure at high level of TRAP (in tunnel) also significantly changed the levels of DNA methylation (ranging from −0.842% to 0.248%) and H3K9ac (16.033 and 15.718 ng/mg pro in PBMC and lung tissue, respectively) changes. Season and/or sex could interact with air pollutants in affecting DNA methylation and H3K9ac. The findings showed that TRAP exposure is dose- and time- dependently associated with the changes of DNA methylation and H3K9ac. PMID:28256616

  18. Traffic-related air pollution in the community of San Ysidro, CA, in relation to northbound vehicle wait times at the US-Mexico border Port of Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Dumbauld, Jill J.; Garnica, Lynelle; Chowdhury, M. Zohir; Velascosoltero, José; Mota-Raigoza, Arturo; Flores, David; Rodríguez, Edgar; Panagon, Nicolas; Gamble, Jamison; Irby, Travis; Tran, Cuong; Elder, John; Galaviz, Vanessa E.; Hoffman, Lisa; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.

    2014-05-01

    The San Diego/Tijuana US-Mexico border crossing at the San Ysidro Port of Entry (POE) is the world's busiest international land border crossing (GSA, 2013). San Ysidro, California, is the US community immediately adjacent to the border crossing. More than 90% of San Ysidro residents are Hispanic, and the average household income is less than 60% of the San Diego regional average. This study investigated the San Ysidro POE as a source of traffic-related air pollutants in San Ysidro, especially in relation to wind direction and northbound vehicle wait times. The pollutants ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), black carbon (BC), and particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were periodically sampled through the course of 2010 at four rooftop locations: one commercial establishment near the POE, two elementary schools in San Ysidro, and a coastal estuary reference site. Weather data from two nearby sites and northbound border wait times were also collected. Results indicate consistently higher daytime BC and UFP concentrations at the measurement sites near the POE. Pollution concentrations were higher during low wind speeds or when wind was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro. In February, March and November measurements, black carbon pollution appeared to be significantly positively associated with the POE northbound wait times when the wind direction was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro or during low wind speeds, but not when the wind direction was from the west/northwest towards the POE. This pilot study is the first to investigate the potential effect of the POE, especially the long northbound traffic delays, on the nearby community of San Ysidro. Disparities in traffic exposures are an environmental justice issue and this should be taken into account during planning and operation of POEs.

  19. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on acute changes in cardiac autonomic modulation during rest and physical activity: a cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Weichenthal, Scott; Kubesch, Nadine; Foraster, Maria; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Bouso, Laura; Martínez, David; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during physical activity (PA), but it is not clear if PA modifies the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic modulation. We conducted a panel study among 28 healthy adults in Barcelona, Spain to examine how PA may modify the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic regulation. Participants completed four 2-h exposure scenarios that included either rest or intermittent exercise in high- and low-traffic environments. Time- and frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during each exposure period along with continuous measures of TRAP. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the impact of TRAP on HRV as well as potential effect modification by PA. Exposure to TRAP was associated with consistent decreases in HRV; however, exposure-response relationships were not always linear over the broad range of exposures. For example, each 10 μg/m(3) increase in black carbon was associated with a 23% (95% CI: -31, -13) decrease in high frequency power at the low-traffic site, whereas no association was observed at the high-traffic site. PA modified the impact of TRAP on HRV at the high-traffic site and tended to weaken inverse associations with measures reflecting parasympathetic modulation (P ≤ 0.001). Evidence of effect modification at the low-traffic site was less consistent. The strength and direction of the relationship between TRAP and HRV may vary across exposure gradients. PA may modify the impact of TRAP on HRV, particularly at higher concentrations.

  20. Associations of short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Samoli, Evangelia; Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian; Anderson, H Ross; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is evidence of adverse associations between short-term exposure to traffic-related pollution and health, but little is known about the relative contribution of the various sources and particulate constituents. Methods For each day for 2011–2012 in London, UK over 100 air pollutant metrics were assembled using monitors, modelling and chemical analyses. We selected a priori metrics indicative of traffic sources: general traffic, petrol exhaust, diesel exhaust and non-exhaust (mineral dust, brake and tyre wear). Using Poisson regression models, controlling for time-varying confounders, we derived effect estimates for cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions at prespecified lags and evaluated the sensitivity of estimates to multipollutant modelling and effect modification by season. Results For single day exposure, we found consistent associations between adult (15–64 years) cardiovascular and paediatric (0–14 years) respiratory admissions with elemental and black carbon (EC/BC), ranging from 0.56% to 1.65% increase per IQR change, and to a lesser degree with carbon monoxide (CO) and aluminium (Al). The average of past 7 days EC/BC exposure was associated with elderly (65+ years) cardiovascular admissions. Indicated associations were higher during the warm period of the year. Although effect estimates were sensitive to the adjustment for other pollutants they remained consistent in direction, indicating independence of associations from different sources, especially between diesel and petrol engines, as well as mineral dust. Conclusions Our results suggest that exhaust related pollutants are associated with increased numbers of adult cardiovascular and paediatric respiratory hospitalisations. More extensive monitoring in urban centres is required to further elucidate the associations. PMID:26884048

  1. Mobile monitoring of particle number concentration and other traffic-related air pollutants in a near-highway neighborhood over the course of a year

    PubMed Central

    Padró-Martínez, Luz T.; Patton, Allison P.; Trull, Jeffrey B.; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate quantification of exposures to traffic-related air pollution in near-highway neighborhoods is challenging due to the high degree of spatial and temporal variation of pollutant levels. The objective of this study was to measure air pollutant levels in a near-highway urban area over a wide range of traffic and meteorological conditions using a mobile monitoring platform. The study was performed in a 2.3-km2 area in Somerville, Massachusetts (USA), near Interstate I-93, a highway that carries 150,000 vehicles per day. The mobile platform was equipped with rapid-response instruments and was driven repeatedly along a 15.4-km route on 55 days between September 2009 and August 2010. Monitoring was performed in 4–6-hour shifts in the morning, afternoon and evening on both weekdays and weekends in winter, spring, summer and fall. Measurements were made of particle number concentration (PNC; 4–3,000 nm), particle size distribution, fine particle mass (PM2.5), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO and NOx). The highest pollutant concentrations were measured within 0–50 m of I-93 with distance-decay gradients varying depending on traffic and meteorology. The most pronounced variations were observed for PNC. Annual median PNC 0–50 m from I-93 was two-fold higher compared to the background area (>1 km from I-93). In general, PNC levels were highest in winter and lowest in summer and fall, higher on weekdays and Saturdays compared to Sundays, and higher during morning rush hour compared to later in the day. Similar spatial and temporal trends were observed for NO, CO and BC, but not for PM2.5. Spatial variations in PNC distance-decay gradients were non-uniform largely due to contributions from local street traffic. Hour-to-hour, day-to-day and season-to-season variations in PNC were of the same magnitude as spatial variations. Datasets containing fine-scale temporal and spatial

  2. The associations between traffic-related air pollution and noise with blood pressure in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Fuertes, Elaine; Tiesler, Carla M T; Birk, Matthias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Hoffmann, Barbara; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Although traffic emits both air pollution and noise, studies jointly examining the effects of both of these exposures on blood pressure (BP) in children are scarce. We investigated associations between land-use regression modeled long-term traffic-related air pollution and BP in 2368 children aged 10 years from Germany (1454 from Munich and 914 from Wesel). We also studied this association with adjustment of long-term noise exposure (defined as day-evening-night noise indicator "Lden" and night noise indicator "Lnight") in a subgroup of 605 children from Munich inner city. In the overall analysis including 2368 children, NO2, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm), PM10 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) and PM2.5 absorbance were not associated with BP. When restricting the analysis to the subgroup of children with noise information (N=605), a significant association between NO2 and diastolic BP was observed (-0.88 (95% confidence interval: -1.67, -0.08)). However, upon adjusting the models for noise exposure, only noise remained independently and significantly positively associated with diastolic BP. Diastolic BP increased by 0.50 (-0.03, 1.02), 0.59 (0.05, 1.13), 0.55 (0.03, 1.07), and 0.58 (0.05, 1.11)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lden and by 0.59 (-0.05, 1.22), 0.69 (0.04, 1.33), 0.64 (0.02, 1.27), and 0.68 (0.05, 1.32)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lnight, in different models of NO2, PM2.5 mass, PM10 mass and PM2.5 absorbance as the main exposure, respectively. In conclusion, air pollution was not consistently associated with BP with adjustment for noise, noise was independently and positively associated with BP in children.

  3. Mobile monitoring of particle number concentration and other traffic-related air pollutants in a near-highway neighborhood over the course of a year.

    PubMed

    Padró-Martínez, Luz T; Patton, Allison P; Trull, Jeffrey B; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L

    2012-12-01

    Accurate quantification of exposures to traffic-related air pollution in near-highway neighborhoods is challenging due to the high degree of spatial and temporal variation of pollutant levels. The objective of this study was to measure air pollutant levels in a near-highway urban area over a wide range of traffic and meteorological conditions using a mobile monitoring platform. The study was performed in a 2.3-km(2) area in Somerville, Massachusetts (USA), near Interstate I-93, a highway that carries 150,000 vehicles per day. The mobile platform was equipped with rapid-response instruments and was driven repeatedly along a 15.4-km route on 55 days between September 2009 and August 2010. Monitoring was performed in 4-6-hour shifts in the morning, afternoon and evening on both weekdays and weekends in winter, spring, summer and fall. Measurements were made of particle number concentration (PNC; 4-3,000 nm), particle size distribution, fine particle mass (PM(2.5)), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO(x)). The highest pollutant concentrations were measured within 0-50 m of I-93 with distance-decay gradients varying depending on traffic and meteorology. The most pronounced variations were observed for PNC. Annual median PNC 0-50 m from I-93 was two-fold higher compared to the background area (>1 km from I-93). In general, PNC levels were highest in winter and lowest in summer and fall, higher on weekdays and Saturdays compared to Sundays, and higher during morning rush hour compared to later in the day. Similar spatial and temporal trends were observed for NO, CO and BC, but not for PM(2.5). Spatial variations in PNC distance-decay gradients were non-uniform largely due to contributions from local street traffic. Hour-to-hour, day-to-day and season-to-season variations in PNC were of the same magnitude as spatial variations. Datasets containing fine-scale temporal and spatial

  4. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  5. A Modeling Investigation of Human Exposure to Select Traffic-Related Air Pollutants in the Tampa Area: Spatiotemporal Distributions of Concentrations, Social Distributions of Exposures, and Impacts of Urban Design on Both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haofei

    Increasing vehicle dependence in the United States has resulted in substantial emissions of traffic-related air pollutants that contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. Exposure to urban air pollutants trigger a number of public health concerns, including the potential of inequality of exposures and health effects among population subgroups. To better understand the impact of traffic-related pollutants on air quality, exposure, and exposure inequality, modeling methods that can appropriately characterize the spatiotemporally resolved concentration distributions of traffic-related pollutants need to be improved. These modeling methods can then be used to investigate the impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, pollution exposures, and related inequality. This work will address these needs with three objectives: 1) to improve modeling methods for investigating interactions between city and transportation design choices and air pollution exposures, 2) to characterize current exposures and the social distribution of exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the case study area of Hillsborough County, Florida, and 3) to determine expected impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, air pollution exposures, and exposure inequality. To achieve these objectives, the impacts of a small-scale transportation management project, specifically the '95 Express' high occupancy toll lane project, on pollutant emissions and nearby air quality was investigated. Next, a modeling method capable of characterizing spatiotemporally resolved pollutant emissions, concentrations, and exposures was developed and applied to estimate the impact of traffic-related pollutants on exposure and exposure inequalities among several population subgroups in Hillsborough County, Florida. Finally, using these results as baseline, the impacts of sprawl and compact urban forms, as well as vehicle fleet electrification

  6. Effectiveness of traffic-related elements in tree bark and pollen abortion rates for assessing air pollution exposure on respiratory mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Amato-Lourenço, Luís F; Moreira, Tiana C L; Silva, Douglas R Rocha; Vieira, Bruna D; Mauad, Thais; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo H Nascimento

    2017-02-01

    The majority of epidemiological studies correlate the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution exposure by considering the concentrations of pollutants measured from conventional monitoring networks. The conventional air quality monitoring methods are expensive, and their data are insufficient for providing good spatial resolution. We hypothesized that bioassays using plants could effectively determine pollutant gradients, thus helping to assess the risks associated with air pollution exposure. The study regions were determined from different prevalent respiratory death distributions in the Sao Paulo municipality. Samples of tree flower buds were collected from twelve sites in four regional districts. The genotoxic effects caused by air pollution were tested through a pollen abortion bioassay. Elements derived from vehicular traffic that accumulated in tree barks were determined using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). Mortality data were collected from the mortality information program of Sao Paulo City. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the concentrations of elements accumulated in tree barks. Pearson correlation and exponential regression were performed considering the elements, pollen abortion rates and mortality data. PCA identified five factors, of which four represented elements related to vehicular traffic. The elements Al, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn showed a strong correlation with mortality rates (R(2)>0.87) and pollen abortion rates (R(2)>0.82). These results demonstrate that tree barks and pollen abortion rates allow for correlations between vehicular traffic emissions and associated outcomes such as genotoxic effects and mortality data.

  7. A Near-Road Modeling System for Community-Scale Assessments of Traffic-Related AirPollution in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system estimates emissions and dispersion of toxic air pollutants for roadways within the continental United States. It accesses publicly available traffic and meteorological datasets, and is optimized for use on community-sized areas (...

  8. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (México).

    PubMed

    Raysoni, Amit U; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Garcia, Jośe Humberto; Holguin, Fernando; Luèvano, Silvia Flores; Li, Wen-Whai

    2011-10-01

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO(2) appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school.

  9. Assessing the influence of traffic-related air pollution on risk of term low birth weight on the basis of land-use-based regression models and measures of air toxics.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C; Wilhelm, Michelle; Su, Jason; Goldberg, Daniel; Cockburn, Myles; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2012-06-15

    Few studies have examined associations of birth outcomes with toxic air pollutants (air toxics) in traffic exhaust. This study included 8,181 term low birth weight (LBW) children and 370,922 term normal-weight children born between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2006, to women residing within 5 miles (8 km) of an air toxics monitoring station in Los Angeles County, California. Additionally, land-use-based regression (LUR)-modeled estimates of levels of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were used to assess the influence of small-area variations in traffic pollution. The authors examined associations with term LBW (≥37 weeks' completed gestation and birth weight <2,500 g) using logistic regression adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, infant gestational age, and gestational age squared. Odds of term LBW increased 2%-5% (95% confidence intervals ranged from 1.00 to 1.09) per interquartile-range increase in LUR-modeled estimates and monitoring-based air toxics exposure estimates in the entire pregnancy, the third trimester, and the last month of pregnancy. Models stratified by monitoring station (to investigate air toxics associations based solely on temporal variations) resulted in 2%-5% increased odds per interquartile-range increase in third-trimester benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene exposures, with some confidence intervals containing the null value. This analysis highlights the importance of both spatial and temporal contributions to air pollution in epidemiologic birth outcome studies.

  10. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  11. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed.

  12. Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Paul S; Galatioto, Fabio; Thorpe, Neil; Namdeo, Anil K; Davies, Richard J; Bird, Roger N

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to sanctioning the technique to provide additional security over the future supply of domestic energy. However, relatively high population densities in many countries and the potential negative environmental impacts that may be associated with fracking operations has stimulated controversy and significant public debate regarding if and where fracking should be permitted. Road traffic generated by fracking operations is one possible source of environmental impact whose significance has, until now, been largely neglected in the available literature. This paper therefore presents a scoping-level environmental assessment for individual and groups of fracking sites using a newly-created Traffic Impacts Model (TIM). The model produces estimates of the traffic-related impacts of fracking on greenhouse gas emissions, local air quality emissions, noise and road pavement wear, using a range of hypothetical fracking scenarios to quantify changes in impacts against baseline levels. Results suggest that the local impacts of a single well pad may be short duration but large magnitude. That is, whilst single digit percentile increases in emissions of CO2, NOx and PM are estimated for the period from start of construction to pad completion (potentially several months or years), excess emissions of NOx on individual days of peak activity can reach 30% over baseline. Likewise, excess noise emissions appear negligible (<1dBA) when normalised over the completion period, but may be considerable (+3.4dBA) in particular hours, especially in night-time periods. Larger, regional scale modelling of pad development scenarios over a multi-decade time horizon give modest CO2

  13. Possible markers of traffic-related emissions.

    PubMed

    Dongarrà, Gaetano; Manno, Emanuela; Varrica, Daniela

    2009-07-01

    Looking for robust indicators of motor vehicle emissions it has been found that brake wear and linings are significant contributors of Cu, Mo and Sb to air particulate matter. These trace elements, whose mutual ratios in airborne particulate matter resulted quite different from those in crustal material, appear to be available fingerprinting tools to identify the contribution of on-road vehicles to traffic-derived particulate matter. In this study, the results of analytical determinations of Cu, Mo and Sb on PM(10), PM(2.5), vegetation and brake dust samples, together with gas (CO, NOx) concentrations, are discussed. Highly significant correlations among Cu, Sb and Mo were observed in particulate matter from Palermo and between Cu-Sb and Cu-Mo at Catania. Further significant positive correlations have been found in pine needles from Palermo, Gela and in platanus leaves from Catania.

  14. Traffic-related pollution and asthma prevalence in children. Quantification of associations with nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Favarato, Graziella; Anderson, H Ross; Atkinson, Richard; Fuller, Gary; Mills, Inga; Walton, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Ambient nitrogen dioxide is a widely available measure of traffic-related air pollution and is inconsistently associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children. The use of this relationship to evaluate the health impact of policies affecting traffic management and traffic emissions is limited by the lack of a concentration-response function based on systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies. Using systematic methods, we identified papers containing quantitative estimates for nitrogen dioxide and the 12 month period prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in which the exposure contrast was within-community and dominated by traffic pollution. One estimate was selected from each study according to an a priori algorithm. Odds ratios were standardised to 10 μg/m(3) and summary estimates were obtained using random- and fixed-effects estimates. Eighteen studies were identified. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide were estimated for the home address (12) and/or school (8) using a range of methods; land use regression (6), study monitors (6), dispersion modelling (4) and interpolation (2). Fourteen studies showed positive associations but only two associations were statistically significant at the 5 % level. There was moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 32.8 %) and the random-effects estimate for the odds ratio was 1.06 (95 % CI 1.00 to 1.11). There was no evidence of small study bias. Individual studies tended to have only weak positive associations between nitrogen dioxide and asthma prevalence but the summary estimate bordered on statistical significance at the 5 % level. Although small, the potential impact on asthma prevalence could be considerable because of the high level of baseline prevalence in many cities. Whether the association is causal or indicates the effects of a correlated pollutant or other confounders, the estimate obtained by the meta-analysis would be appropriate for estimating impacts of traffic pollution on asthma

  15. Modification of Traffic-related Respiratory Response by Asthma Control in a Population of Car Commuters

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Golan, Rachel; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U.; Holguin, Fernando; Kewada, Priya; Winquist, Andrea; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Effects of traffic-related exposures on respiratory health are well documented, but little information is available about whether asthma control influences individual susceptibility. We analyzed data from the Atlanta Commuter Exposure study to evaluate modification of associations between rush-hour commuting, in-vehicle air pollution, and selected respiratory health outcomes by asthma control status. Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 39 adults participated in Atlanta Commuter Exposure, and each conducted two scripted rush-hour highway commutes. In-vehicle particulate components were measured during all commutes. Among adults with asthma, we evaluated asthma control by questionnaire and spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and other metrics of respiratory health were measured precommute and 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours postcommute. We used mixed effects linear regression to evaluate associations between commute-related exposures and postcommute changes in metrics of respiratory health by level of asthma control. Results We observed increased exhaled nitric oxide across all levels of asthma control compared with precommute measurements, with largest postcommute increases observed among participants with below-median asthma control (2 hours postcommute: 14.6% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 5.7, 24.2]; 3 hours postcommute: 19.5% [95% CI = 7.8, 32.5]). No associations between in-vehicle pollutants and percent of predicted FEV1 were observed, although higher PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted among participants with below-median asthma control (3 hours postcommute: −7.2 [95% CI = −11.8, −2.7]). Conclusions Level of asthma control may influence respiratory response to in-vehicle exposures experienced during rush-hour commuting. PMID:25901844

  16. Evaluating methods for estimating space-time paths of individuals in calculating long-term personal exposure to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Dijst, Martin; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major concerns for human health. Associations between air pollution and health are often calculated using long-term (i.e. years to decades) information on personal exposure for each individual in a cohort. Personal exposure is the air pollution aggregated along the space-time path visited by an individual. As air pollution may vary considerably in space and time, for instance due to motorised traffic, the estimation of the spatio-temporal location of a persons' space-time path is important to identify the personal exposure. However, long term exposure is mostly calculated using the air pollution concentration at the x, y location of someone's home which does not consider that individuals are mobile (commuting, recreation, relocation). This assumption is often made as it is a major challenge to estimate space-time paths for all individuals in large cohorts, mostly because limited information on mobility of individuals is available. We address this issue by evaluating multiple approaches for the calculation of space-time paths, thereby estimating the personal exposure along these space-time paths with hyper resolution air pollution maps at national scale. This allows us to evaluate the effect of the space-time path and resulting personal exposure. Air pollution (e.g. NO2, PM10) was mapped for the entire Netherlands at a resolution of 5×5 m2 using the land use regression models developed in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE, http://escapeproject.eu/) and the open source software PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu). The models use predictor variables like population density, land use, and traffic related data sets, and are able to model spatial variation and within-city variability of annual average concentration values. We approximated space-time paths for all individuals in a cohort using various aggregations, including those representing space-time paths as the outline of a persons' home or associated parcel

  17. TRP channels and traffic-related environmental pollution-induced pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Armen N.; Fanick, E. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollutant exposures are major risk factors for adverse health outcomes, with increased morbidity and mortality in humans. Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the major harmful components of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure to DE affects several physiological systems, including the airways, and pulmonary diseases are increased in highly populated urban areas. Hence, there are urgent needs to (1) create newer and lesser polluting fuels, (2) improve exhaust aftertreatments and reduce emissions, and (3) understand mechanisms of actions for toxic effects of both conventional and cleaner diesel fuels on the lungs. These steps could aid the development of diagnostics and interventions to prevent the negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on the pulmonary system. Exhaust from conventional, and to a lesser extent, clean fuels, contains particulate matter (PM) and more than 400 additional chemical constituents. The major toxic constituents are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PM and PAHs could potentially act via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In this review, we will first discuss the associations between DE from conventional as well as clean fuel technologies and acute and chronic airway inflammation. We will then review possible activation and/or potentiation of TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels by PM and PAHs. Finally, we will discuss and summarize recent findings on the mechanisms whereby TRPs could control the link between DE and airway inflammation, which is a primary determinant leading to pulmonary disease. PMID:26837756

  18. Prediction of traffic-related nitrogen oxides concentrations using Structural Time-Series models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anneka Ruth; Ghosh, Bidisha; Broderick, Brian

    2011-09-01

    Ambient air quality monitoring, modeling and compliance to the standards set by European Union (EU) directives and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines are required to ensure the protection of human and environmental health. Congested urban areas are most susceptible to traffic-related air pollution which is the most problematic source of air pollution in Ireland. Long-term continuous real-time monitoring of ambient air quality at such urban centers is essential but often not realistic due to financial and operational constraints. Hence, the development of a resource-conservative ambient air quality monitoring technique is essential to ensure compliance with the threshold values set by the standards. As an intelligent and advanced statistical methodology, a Structural Time Series (STS) based approach has been introduced in this paper to develop a parsimonious and computationally simple air quality model. In STS methodology, the different components of a time-series dataset such as the trend, seasonal, cyclical and calendar variations can be modeled separately. To test the effectiveness of the proposed modeling strategy, average hourly concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides from a congested urban arterial in Dublin city center were modeled using STS methodology. The prediction error estimates from the developed air quality model indicate that the STS model can be a useful tool in predicting nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides concentrations in urban areas and will be particularly useful in situations where the information on external variables such as meteorology or traffic volume is not available.

  19. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related a...

  20. The Impacts of Traffic-Related and Woodsmoke Particulate Matter on Measures of Cardiovascular Health: A HEPA Filter Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Kajbafzadeh, Majid; Brauer, Michael; Karlen, Barbara; Carlsten, Chris; van Eeden, Stephan; Allen, Ryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Combustion-generated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Both traffic-related air pollution and residential wood combustion may be important, but few studies have compared their impacts. Objectives To assess and compare effects of traffic-related and woodsmoke PM2.5 on endothelial function and systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and band cells) among healthy adults in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada using high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration to introduce indoor PM2.5 exposure gradients. Methods We recruited 83 healthy adults from 44 homes in traffic- or woodsmoke-impacted areas to participate in this randomized, single-blind crossover intervention study. PM2.5 concentrations were measured during two consecutive 7-day periods, one with filtration and the other with “placebo filtration”. Endothelial function and biomarkers of systematic inflammation were measured at the end of each 7-day period. Results HEPA filtration was associated with a 40% decrease in indoor PM2.5 concentrations. There was no relationship between PM2.5 exposure and endothelial function. There was evidence of an association between indoor PM2.5 and C-reactive protein among those in traffic-impacted locations [42.1% increase in C-reactive protein per interquartile range increase in indoor PM2.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 99.5] but not among those in woodsmoke-impacted locations. There were no associations with interleukin-6 or band cells. Conclusions Evidence of an association between C-reactive protein and indoor PM2.5 among healthy adults in traffic-impacted areas is consistent with the hypothesis that traffic-related particles, even at relatively low concentrations, play an important role in the cardiovascular effects of the urban PM mixture. Trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01570062) PMID:25896330

  1. Traffic-related differences in outdoor and indoor concentrations of particles and volatile organic compounds in Amsterdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P. H.; Hoek, G.; van Reeuwijk, H.; Briggs, D. J.; Lebret, E.; van Wijnen, J. H.; Kingham, S.; Elliott, P. E.

    Several studies have reported chronic health effects related to living near major roads. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution has generally not been well characterised in these studies. We therefore performed a study to evaluate differences in concentration of air pollutants outside and inside homes in streets with low and high traffic intensity in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The study was performed in the framework of the Small Area Variation in Air quality and Health (SAVIAH) study. In the first phase of the study, an NO 2-map was produced based upon a dense network and traffic intensity information. The present study was also designed to evaluate whether other pollutants exhibited similar spatial variation. Pollutants measured were particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), the reflectance (`blackness') of the PM10 and PM2.5 filters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Measurements were performed during 19 days in the winter and spring of 1995. Per day two to four homes were measured. In total 36 homes without major indoor sources of air pollution such as smoking were included in the study, 18 in major streets and 18 in quiet streets. Outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 15-20% higher at homes located in high traffic intensity streets compared to low traffic homes, similar to contrasts in predicted NO 2. A substantially larger contrast (about a factor two) was found for outdoor concentration of the particulate components BaP, total PAH, absorption coefficient (`soot') and the gas-phase components benzene and total VOC. The contrasts for these pollutants were substantially larger than the estimated contrast in average NO 2 (22%). Differences of a similar magnitude were also found in indoor air in these homes, with the exception of the VOCs. We conclude that PM10 and PM2.5 are not specific indicators of exposure to traffic-related air pollution. In the present study the (outdoor) contrasts of BaP, total PAH, absorption

  2. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Other Traffic-Related Airborne Pollutants in New York City

    PubMed Central

    NARVÁEZ, RAFAEL F.; HOEPNER, LORI; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.; YAN, BEIZHAN; GARFINKEL, ROBIN; WHYATT, ROBIN; CAMANN, DAVID; PERERA, FREDERICA P.; KINNEY, PATRICK L.; MILLER, RACHEL L.

    2008-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. We hypothesized that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon (EC, diesel indicator), particulate matter (PM2.5), and a suite of metals declined from 1998 to 2006 in NYC due to policy interventions. PAH levels from personal monitoring of pregnant mothers participating in the Columbia’s Center for Children’s Environmental Health birth cohort study, and EC, PM2.5, and metal data from five New York State Department of Environmental Conservation stationary monitors were compared across sites and over time (1998–2006). Univariate analysis showed a decrease in personal PAHs exposures from 1998 to 2006 (p < 0.0001). After controlling for environmental tobacco smoke, indoor heat, and cooking, year of personal monitoring remained a predictor of decline in Σ8PAHs (β = −0.269, p < 0.001). Linear trend analysis also suggested that PM2.5 declined (p = 0.09). Concentrations of EC and most metals measured by stationary site monitors, as measured by ANOVA, did not decline. Across stationary sites, levels of airborne EC and metals varied considerably. By contrast PM2.5 levels were highly intercorrelated (values ranged from 0.725 to 0.922, p < 0.01). Further policy initiatives targeting traffic-related air pollutants may be needed for a greater impact on public health. PMID:18939566

  3. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  4. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    PubMed

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  5. Consideration of Exposures to Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Smart Growth Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    We address the near-road pollution problem as it relates to smart growth design strategies. Studies have shown that pollution levels tend to be high near heavily traveled roads and that road proximity is related to adverse health effects. These findings can conflict with urban ...

  6. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN EL PASO AND DETROIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypotheses -Specific Agent • Diesel exhaust particles • Ultrafine particles • Coarse-mode particles (road dust) • Noise and stress • Nonspecific irritants Previous Epidemiology • Kanawha Valley Health Study • Munich Traffic Study • Dutch Traffic Studies • S....

  7. The role of differences in individual and community attributes in perceived air quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myounghee; Yi, Okhee; Kim, Ho

    2012-05-15

    Most epidemiological studies on the adverse effects of air pollution on health have focused on scientific measurements of air quality provided by monitoring stations. However, many studies have indicated that self-reported health status, such as disease severity and depressive symptoms, are associated with perceived air pollution rather than measured air pollution. The main goal of this study was to investigate social factors that may affect perceived local air quality using a multilevel analysis among a Korean population. We used the Seoul Citizens Health Indicator Survey (SCHIS III) and five air pollutants. The total study population was 16,041. We considered individual-level and community-level variables that may affect perceived air quality, such as the percentage of college-educated individuals aged >20 years, satisfaction with public transportation, and the percentage of individuals below the poverty line. Measured air quality showed a negative or neutral relationship with perceived air quality. We found that the degree of perceived air pollution was associated with younger age (20-34 years; OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.18-1.65), married and divorced/separated/widowed people, a higher level of education (>17 years; OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.30-2.15), and lower household income. Communities that were more economically deprived were associated with poor perceived air quality. Differences in individual and community characteristics affected perceived air quality. Perception is a key factor influencing the public acceptance of environmental policy. This study may help policymakers understand the social distribution of environmental awareness.

  8. Eddy covariance measurements and parameterisation of traffic related particle emissions in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mårtensson, E. M.; Nilsson, E. D.; Buzorius, G.; Johansson, C.

    2006-03-01

    Urban aerosol sources are important due to the health effects of particles and their potential impact on climate. Our aim has been to quantify and parameterise the urban aerosol source number flux F (particles m-2 s-1), in order to help improve how this source is represented in air quality and climate models. We applied an aerosol eddy covariance flux system 118.0 m above the city of Stockholm. This allowed us to measure the aerosol number flux for particles with diameters >11 nm. Upward source fluxes dominated completely over deposition fluxes in the collected dataset. Therefore, the measured fluxes were regarded as a good approximation of the aerosol surface sources. Upward fluxes were parameterised using a traffic activity (TA) database, which is based on traffic intensity measurements.

    The footprint (area on the surface from which sources and sinks affect flux measurements, located at one point in space) of the eddy system covered road and building construction areas, forests and residential areas, as well as roads with high traffic density and smaller streets. We found pronounced diurnal cycles in the particle flux data, which were well correlated with the diurnal cycles in traffic activities, strongly supporting the conclusion that the major part of the aerosol fluxes was due to traffic emissions.

    The emission factor for the fleet mix in the measurement area EFfm=1.4±0.1×1014 veh-1 km-1 was deduced. This agrees fairly well with other studies, although this study has an advantage of representing the actual effective emission from a mixed vehicle fleet. Emission from other sources, not traffic related, account for a F0=15±18×106 m-2 s-1. The urban aerosol source flux can then be written as F=EFfmTA+F0. In a second attempt to find a parameterisation, the friction velocity U* normalised with the average friction velocity overline{U_ast} -> overline{U_ast} has been included, F=EF fm TA

  9. A Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect of Roadway Configurations on the Dispersion of Traffic-Related Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we examine the effect of different roadway configurations, including noise barriers and roadway elevation or depression relative to surrounding terrain, on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants from winds perpendicular to the roadway.

  10. Low and room temperature magnetic features of the traffic related urban airborne PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, A.; Sagnotti, L.

    2012-04-01

    We used magnetic measurements and analyses - such as hysteresis loops and FORCs both at room temperature and at 10K, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) vs temperature curves (from 10K to 293K) and IRM vs time decay curves - to characterize the magnetic properties of the traffic related airborne particulate matter (PM) in Rome. This study was specifically addressed to the identification of the ultrafine superparamagnetic (SP) particles, which are particularly sensitive to thermal relaxation effects, and on the eventual detection of low temperature phase transitions which may affect various magnetic minerals. We compared the magnetic properties at 10K and at room temperature of Quercus ilex leaves, disk brakes, diesel and gasoline exhaust pipes powders collected from vehicles circulating in Rome. The magnetic properties of the investigated powders significantly change upon cooling, and no clear phase transition occurs, suggesting that the thermal dependence is mainly triggered by the widespread presence of ultrafine SP particles. The contribution of the SP fraction to the total remanence of traffic related PM samples was quantified at room temperature measuring the decay of a IRM 100 s after the application of a saturation magnetic field. This same method has been also tested at 10K to investigate the temperature dependence of the observed time decay.

  11. Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS).

    PubMed

    Napier, F; Jefferies, C; Heal, K V; Fogg, P; Arcy, B J D; Clarke, R

    2009-01-01

    SUDS are being increasingly employed to control highway runoff and have the potential to protect groundwater and surface water quality by minimising the risks of both point and diffuse sources of pollution. While these systems are effective at retaining polluted solids by filtration and sedimentation processes, less is known of the detail of pollutant behaviour within SUDS structures. This paper reports on investigations carried out as part of a co-ordinated programme of controlled studies and field measurements at soft-engineered SUDS undertaken in the UK, observing the accumulation and behaviour of traffic-related heavy metals, oil and PAHs. The field data presented were collected from two extended detention basins serving the M74 motorway in the south-west of Scotland. Additional data were supplied from an experimental lysimeter soil core leaching study. Results show that basin design influences pollutant accumulation and behaviour in the basins. Management and/or control strategies are discussed for reducing the impact of traffic-related pollutants on the aqueous environment.

  12. Distribution of platinum and other traffic related metals in sediments and clams (Corbicula sp.).

    PubMed

    Ruchter, Nadine; Sures, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    Platinum is part of traffic-emitted metals since the introduction of automotive catalyst converters. Still, automobile emissions are one of the major sources for metals in European river systems. However, field data on Pt is scarce and there is a lack of knowledge concerning the distribution and biological availability of Pt. Therefore, the distribution of traffic related metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt, and Zn) was analyzed in sediment samples and in the Asian clam Corbicula sp. Samples were taken from three transects following road runoff inlets. Pt was introduced into the river by road runoff. The highest Pt concentrations in sediments were analyzed in the silt/clay fraction (45 ng/g), while the highest total Pt burden was obtained for the sand fraction, that makes up more than 60% of the sediment. Metal concentrations were related to the area of the drained street section as well as to their distance from the discharge point, and to grain size distribution within the sediment. Pt and other traffic related metals were accumulated by clams. Due to the feeding behavior of the freshwater mussel Corbicula sp. Pt concentrations in the soft tissue remain relatively low (max Pt concentration: 1.3 ng/g freeze dried soft tissue) and acute lethal or toxic effects therefore appear to be unlikely. Nonetheless, chronic exposure effects still have to be examined.

  13. Personal exposures to traffic-related particle pollution among children with asthma in the South Bronx, NY.

    PubMed

    Spira-Cohen, Ariel; Chen, Lung Chi; Kendall, Michaela; Sheesley, Rebecca; Thurston, George D

    2010-07-01

    Personal exposures to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM(2.5)), and to its traffic-related fraction, were investigated in a group of urban children with asthma. The relationships of personal and outdoor school-site measurements of PM(2.5) and elemental carbon (EC) were characterized for a total of 40 fifth-grade children. These students, from four South Bronx, NY schools, each carried air pollution monitoring equipment with them for 24 h per day for approximately 1 month. Daily EC concentrations were estimated using locally calibrated reflectance of the PM(2.5) samples. Personal EC concentration was more closely related to outdoor school-site EC (median subject-specific: r=0.64) than was personal PM(2.5) to school-site PM(2.5) concentration (median subject-specific: r=0.33). Regression models also showed a stronger, more robust association of school site with personal measurements for EC than those for PM(2.5). High traffic pollution exposure was found to coincide with the weekday early morning rush hour, with higher personal exposures for participants living closer to a highway (<500 ft). A significant linear relationship of home distance from a highway with personal EC pollution exposure was also found (up to 1000 ft). This supports the assumptions by previous epidemiological studies using distance from a highway as an index of traffic PM exposure. These results are also consistent with the assumption that traffic, and especially smoke emitted from diesel vehicles, is a significant contributor to personal PM exposure levels in children living in urban areas such as the South Bronx, NY.

  14. The Air Force’s Individual Mobilization Augmentee Program: Is the Current Organizational Structure Viable?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Lt Gen George E. Stratemeyer, commander of Air Defense Command, assigned reservists to key command positions for training as understudies and...Management, 10 December 2001, http://www .e-publishing.af.mil/shared/ media /epubs/AFI36-2629.pdf; and Readiness Management Group, Readiness Management Group...Individual Reserve Guide [Robins AFB, GA: Air Force Reserve Command, March 2008], http://www.afrc.af.mil/shared/ media /document /AFD-080408-050.pdf

  15. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  16. Traffic-related injury prevention interventions for low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2003-01-01

    Traffic-related injuries have become a major public health concern worldwide. However, unlike developed or high-income countries (HICs), many developing or low-income countries (LICs) have made very little progress towards addressing this problem. Lack of the progress in LICs is attributable, in part, to their economic situation in terms of their governments' lack of resources to invest in traffic safety, cultural beliefs regarding the fatalism of injuries, competing health problems particularly with the emergence of HIV/AIDS, distinctive traffic mixes comprising a substantial number of vulnerable road users for whom less research has been done, low literacy rates precluding motorists to read and understand road signs, and peculiar political situations occasionally predominated by dictatorship and non-democratic governments. How then can LICs tackle the challenge of traffic safety from the experiences of HICs without reinventing the wheel? This paper reviews selected interventions and strategies that have been developed to counter traffic-related injuries in HICs in terms of their effectiveness and their applicability to LICs. Proven and promising interventions or strategies such as seat belt and helmet use, legislation and enforcement of seat belt use, sidewalks, roadway barriers, selected traffic-calming designs (e.g., speed ramps/bumps), pedestrian crossing signs combined with clearly marked crosswalks, and public education and behavior modification targeted at motorists are all feasible and useable in LICs as evidenced by data from many LICs. While numerous traffic-related injury policy interventions and strategies developed largely in HICs are potentially transferable to LICs, it is important to consider country-specific factors such as costs, feasibility, sustainability, and barriers, all of which must be factored into the assessment of effectiveness in specific LIC settings. Almost all interventions and strategies that have been proven effective in HICs will

  17. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-07-15

    Vehicular traffic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with breast cancer incidence in epidemiologic studies, including our own. Because PAHs damage DNA by forming adducts and oxidative lesions, genetic polymorphisms that alter DNA repair capacity may modify associations between PAH-related exposures and breast cancer risk. Our goal was to examine the association between vehicular traffic exposure and breast cancer incidence within strata of a panel of nine biologically plausible nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) genotypes. Residential histories of 1,508 cases and 1,556 controls were assessed in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project between 1996 and 1997 and used to reconstruct residential traffic exposures to benzo[a]pyrene, as a proxy for traffic-related PAHs. Likelihood ratio tests from adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess multiplicative interactions. A gene-traffic interaction was evident (p = 0.04) for ERCC2 (Lys751); when comparing the upper and lower tertiles of 1995 traffic exposure estimates, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.09 (1.13, 3.90) among women with homozygous variant alleles. Corresponding odds ratios for 1960-1990 traffic were also elevated nearly 2-3-fold for XRCC1(Arg194Trp), XRCC1(Arg399Gln) and OGG1(Ser326Cys), but formal multiplicative interaction was not evident. When DNA repair variants for ERCC2, XRCC1 and OGG1 were combined, among women with 4-6 variants, the odds ratios were 2.32 (1.22, 4.49) for 1995 traffic and 2.96 (1.06, 8.21) for 1960-1990 traffic. Our study is first to report positive associations between traffic-related PAH exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with select biologically plausible DNA repair genotypes.

  18. Status and determinants of individual actions to reduce health impacts of air pollution in US adults.

    PubMed

    Lissåker, Claudia T K; Talbott, Evelyn O; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Although regulation of emissions is the primary strategy to reduce air pollution-related morbidity, individual-level interventions are also helpful in mitigating health impacts. We used data from 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to study the prevalence of individual-level action among the US adult population if informed of air pollution, and to see if this differed by demographic and health factors. Only 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.6-15.4%) of participants aware of air quality reported changing their individual behaviors. Males (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.77) and those without cardiovascular disease (AOR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.47-0.71) were least likely to take action. Results show that individual action was infrequent among the population. Health promotion of individual intervention is necessary, and this effort may need to target specific subgroups of the population. Further studies on effective individual interventions are needed.

  19. Individual Oral Exams in Mathematics Courses: 10 Years of Experience at the Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Ralph; Ghrist, Michelle; Peterson, Dale; Kallemyn, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years faculty members in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Air Force Academy have incorporated individual oral exams into mathematics courses. We have experimented with various approaches, shared results and ideas with other department members, and refined our techniques. We have found that this…

  20. U.S. Air Force Turbine Engine Emission Survey. Volume II. Individual Engine Test Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    1» I MI HU III.I11M1,|IHIIPH|I»^^—»^ II 111.11 l|. I I | mi | . I I. I.,.L ENGINE J85 -5 17 ^ ^_._. rr •Wl...AD-AÜbl 665 UNCLASSIFIED SCOTT ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY INC PLUMSTEAOVILLE PA F/G 21/5 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY...i run’ LEVEL CEEDOTR-7834 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY VOL II INDIVIDUAL ENGINE TEST REPORTS v o-< 3 „ fi-^\\^92 ANTHONY F

  1. On the magnetic characterization and quantification of the superparamagnetic fraction of traffic-related urban airborne PM in Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Winkler, Aldo

    2012-11-01

    The magnetic properties of traffic-related airborne particulate matter (PM) in the city of Rome, Italy, have been previously analyzed and interpreted as suitable proxies to discriminate between different vehicular sources. In this study, we carried out a new set of measurements and analyses specifically devoted to the identification and evaluation of the contribution of ultrafine superparamagnetic (SP) particles to the overall magnetic assemblage of traffic-related PM in Rome. In particular, the presence and the concentration of SP particles have been estimated on powders collected from disk brakes and gasoline exhaust pipes of circulating vehicles and from Quercus ilex leaves grown along high-traffic roads, measuring their hysteresis parameters in a range of temperatures from 293 K to 10 K and measuring the time decay of their saturation remanent magnetization (MRS) at room temperature. The SP fraction contributes for the 10-15% to the overall room temperature MRS and causes the observed changes in the hysteresis properties measured upon cooling down to 10 K. In all the analyzed samples the SP fraction is associated to a generally prevailing population of larger ferrimagnetic multidomain (MD) particles and we suppose that in traffic-related PM the SP fraction mainly occurs as coating of MD particles and originated by localized stress in the oxidized outer shell surrounding the unoxidized core of magnetite-like grains. Under this hypothesis, the estimate of SP content in traffic-related PM cannot be considered a robust proxy to estimate the overall concentration of nanometric particles.

  2. Evaluating socioeconomic and racial differences in traffic-related metrics in the United States using a GIS approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have reported that lower-income and minority populations are more likely to live near major roads. This study quantifies associations between socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic variables, and traffic-related exposure metrics for the United States. Using geograph...

  3. Urban traffic-related determinants of health questionnaire (UTDHQ): an instrument developed for health impact assessments

    PubMed Central

    Nadrian, Haidar; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traffic and transport is a substantial part of a range of economic, social and environmental factors distinguished to have impact on human health. This paper is a report on a preliminary section of a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) on urban traffic and transport initiatives, being conducted in Sanandaj, Iran. In this preliminary study, the psychometric properties of Urban Traffic related Determinants of Health Questionnaire (UTDHQ) were investigated. Methods: Multistage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 476 key informants in Sanandaj from April to June 2013 to participate in the study. The development of UTDHQ began with a comprehensive review of the literature. Then face, content and construct validity as well as reliability were determined. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis showed optimal reduced solution including 40 items and 8 factors. Three of the factors identified were Physical Environment, Social Environment, Public Services Delivery and Accessibility. UTDHQ demonstrated an appropriate validity, reliability, functionality and simplicity. Conclusion: Despite the need for further studies on UTDHQ, this study showed that it can be a practical and useful tool for conducting HIAs in order to inform decision makers and stakeholders about the health influences of their decisions and measures. PMID:25664285

  4. Magnetic responses to traffic related contamination recorded by backfills: A case study from Tongling City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, M. M.; Hu, S. Y.; Lin, H.; Cao, L. W.; Wang, L. S.

    2014-08-01

    With the development of urbanization and industrialization, traffic is creating a serious contamination problem. Conventional methods for contamination testing are generally expensive and time-consuming, while magnetic methods have been suggested to be an economic and non-destructive alternative. In this study, we measured magnetic properties and heavy metal contents in backfills along an urban road side in China, in situ on surface and on samples in vertical sections. Magnetic results and SEM images show the dominance of coarse magnetite, supposed to origin from human activities. Furthermore, there is an obvious decreasing trend of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and several heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb) with increasing distance from the road edge, symmetrically at both road sides, indicating that this is a typical traffic-related contamination signal. The detailed distribution patterns of χ and heavy metals exhibit slight variations in the surface data, probably due to the local topography and surface runoff due to rainfall. In vertical soil cores magnetic parameters show significant positive relationships (r = 0.88-0.99) with concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe). Our results suggest that backfills unaffected by the traffic contamination signal and characterized by low χ value can be chosen for contamination monitoring. Despite the complex nature of backfills and the possibility of contamination prior to their transportation to the site, they are especially important for areas where undisturbed soil is not available.

  5. Determination of traffic-related palladium in tunnel dust and roadside soil.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Kerstin; Wörle, Katharina; Schindl, Roland; Huber, Lars; Maier, Marina; Schuster, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Roadside dust and soil samples were collected at different sites in the area of Ulm and Munich in Germany. Road dust samples were collected in tunnels where the traffic-related dust is less influenced by atmospheric conditions. Soil samples were taken with a drill bar at varying distances to motorways, district and regional roads with different traffic densities. The soil cylinders of 30cm length were divided into four sections in order to obtain depth profiles for palladium (Pd) distribution. Determination of Pd in total digests of the samples was performed by ligand-assisted selective separation and preconcentration of Pd(II) using solid phase extraction followed by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace spectrometry. The analytical procedure was successfully validated using the certified reference material BCR-723 Road Tunnel Dust and by recovery experiments in spiked soil samples. The average Pd concentration found in the road dusts was 311μgkg(-1), the maximum Pd concentration in the topsoil layer was 193μgkg(-1). Pd depth profiles reveal transportation of Pd into deeper soil layers, where even at a depth of 25 to 30cm a Pd concentration of 19μgkg(-1) was found, proving the high mobility of Pd. Different factors like traffic density and age of the soils are discussed in the context of the found Pd depth profiles.

  6. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  7. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  8. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  9. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  10. EXPOSURE VERSION 2 - A COMPUTER MODEL FOR ANALYZING THE EFFECTS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANT SOURCES ON INDIVIDUAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a model for calculating individual exposure to indoor pollutants from sources. The model calculates exposure due to individual, as opposed to population, activity patterns and source use. The model uses data on source emissions, room- to- room air flows, air e...

  11. Participatory measurements of individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madelin, Malika; Duché, Sarah; Dupuis, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Chronic and high concentration exposure presents a health risk with cardiovascular and respiratory problems and longer term nervous, carcinogenic and endocrine problems. In addition to the estimations based on simulations of both background and regional pollution and of the pollution induced by the traffic, knowing exposure of each individual is a key issue. This exposure reflects the high variability of pollution at fine spatial and time scales, according to the proximity of emission sources and the urban morphology outside. The emergence of citizen science and the progress of miniaturized electronics, low-cost and accessible to (almost) everyone, offers new opportunities for the monitoring of air pollution, but also for the citizens' awareness of their individual exposure to air pollution. In this communication, we propose to present a participatory research project 'What is your air?' (project funded by the Île-de-France region), which aims at raising awareness on the theme of air quality, its monitoring with sensors assembled in a FabLab workshop and an online participatory mapping. Beyond the discussion on technical choices, the stages of manufacture or the sensor calibration procedures, we discuss the measurements made, in this case the fine particle concentration measurements, which are dated and georeferenced (communication via a mobile phone). They show high variability between the measurements (in part linked to the substrates, land use, traffic) and low daily contrasts. In addition to the analysis of the measurements and their comparison with the official data, we also discuss the choice of representation of information, including mapping, and therefore the message about pollution to communicate.

  12. Individual exposure estimates may be erroneous when spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and human mobility are ignored.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Min; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to empirically demonstrate the necessity to consider both the spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and individual daily movement patterns in exposure and health risk assessment. It compares four different types of exposure estimates generated by using (1) individual movement data and hourly air pollution concentrations; (2) individual movement data and daily average air pollution data; (3) residential location and hourly pollution levels; and (4) residential location and daily average pollution data. These four estimates are significantly different, which supports the argument that ignoring the spatiotemporal variability of environmental risk factors and human mobility may lead to misleading results in exposure assessment. Additionally, three-dimensional (3D) geovisualization presented in the paper shows how person-specific space-time context is generated by the interactions between air pollution and an individual, and how the different individualized contexts place individuals at different levels of health risk.

  13. Assessment of Traffic-Related Noise in Three Cities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunice Y.; Jerrett, Michael; Ross, Zev; Coogan, Patricia F.; Seto, Edmund Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traffic-related noise is a growing public health concern in developing and developed countries due to increasing vehicle traffic. Epidemiological studies have reported associations between noise exposure and high blood pressure, increased risk of hypertension and heart disease, and stress induced by sleep disturbance and annoyance. These findings motivate the need for regular noise assessments within urban areas. This paper assesses the relationships between traffic and noise in three US cities. Methods Noise measurements were conducted in downtown areas in three cities in the United States: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and New York City. For each city, we measured ambient noise levels, and assessed their correlation with simultaneously measured vehicle counts, and with traffic data provided by local Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO). Additionally, measured noise levels were compared to noise levels predicted by the Federal Highway Administration’s Traffic Noise Model using (1) simultaneously measured traffic counts or (2) MPO traffic data sources as model input. Results We found substantial variations in traffic and noise within and between cities. Total number of vehicle counts explained a substantial amount of variation in measured ambient noise in Atlanta (78%), Los Angeles (58%), and New York City (62%). Modeled noise levels were moderately correlated with measured noise levels when observed traffic counts were used as model input. Weaker correlations were found when MPO traffic data was used as model input. Conclusions Ambient noise levels measured in all three cities were correlated with traffic data, highlighting the importance of traffic planning in mitigating noise-related health effects. Model performance was sensitive to the traffic data used as input. Future noise studies that use modeled noise estimates should evaluate traffic data quality and should ideally include other factors, such as local roadway, building, and meteorological

  14. Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Traffic-related Particulate Matter at New York City High Schools.

    PubMed

    Patel, Molini M; Chillrud, Steven N; Correa, Juan C; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Kc, Deepti; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L

    2009-10-01

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM(2.5) and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 20 kilometers upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM(2.5) concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM(2.5) concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 mug/m(3) increase in hourly average BC at a NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM(2.5) concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM(2.5), is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  16. Spatio-temporal modelling of individual exposure to air pollution and its uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerharz, Lydia E.; Klemm, Otto; Broich, Anna V.; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-01-01

    We developed a generic spatio-temporal model to quantify individual exposure to air pollution, using personal activity profiles derived from GPS and diaries, ambient air quality, and an indoor model. To enhance accessibility and reusability, the model approach is deployed as a web service. The model is applied to estimate personal exposure towards PM10 and PM2.5 for ten individuals in Münster, Germany. Modelled daily averages range for PM10 between 17 and 126 and between 6 and 84 μg m-3 for PM2.5. Comparison with personal monitoring data shows good agreement at temporal resolutions from 5 min to one day. Uncertainties in the model results are considerable and increase with higher exposure levels. Large deviations between modelled and measured exposure can often be explained by missing data on indoor emissions or insufficiently detailed activity diaries. The developed model allows the assessment of individual exposure with uncertainties on a high spatio-temporal resolution. By providing the methodology through a web service interface and using generic indoor parameter distributions, the model can be easily transferred to new application areas or could be provided for public use to identify hazardous exposure events.

  17. Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and the Association between Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Gloria C.; Hajat, Anjum; Bird, Chloe E.; Cullen, Mark R.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Miller, Kristin A.; Shih, Regina A.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Vedal, Sverre; Whitsel, Eric A.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is linked with cardiovascular disease, and disadvantaged status may increase susceptibility to air pollution-related health effects. In addition, there are concerns that this association may be partially explained by confounding by socioeconomic status (SES). Objectives: We examined the roles that individual- and neighborhood-level SES (NSES) play in the association between PM2.5 exposure and cardiovascular disease. Methods: The study population comprised 51,754 postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. PM2.5 concentrations were predicted at participant residences using fine-scale regionalized universal kriging models. We assessed individual-level SES and NSES (Census-tract level) across several SES domains including education, occupation, and income/wealth, as well as through an NSES score, which captures several important dimensions of SES. Cox proportional-hazards regression adjusted for SES factors and other covariates to determine the risk of a first cardiovascular event. Results: A 5 μg/m3 higher exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of cardiovascular event [hazard ratio (HR) 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.26]. Adjustment for SES factors did not meaningfully affect the risk estimate. Higher risk estimates were observed among participants living in low-SES neighborhoods. The most and least disadvantaged quartiles of the NSES score had HRs of 1.39 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.61) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.07), respectively. Conclusions: Women with lower NSES may be more susceptible to air pollution-related health effects. The association between air pollution and cardiovascular disease was not explained by confounding from individual-level SES or NSES. Citation: Chi GC, Hajat A, Bird CE, Cullen MR, Griffin BA, Miller KA, Shih RA, Stefanick ML, Vedal S, Whitsel EA, Kaufman JD. 2016. Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status and the

  18. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military... military, naval, or air service: (a) Aerial transportation of mail (Pub. L. 140, 73d Congress). Persons...

  19. Characterizing exposure in community health studies: A participant-based approach to indoor/outdoor air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Traffic-related air pollution has been associated with numerous adverse outcomes. However, community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with estimating household-level exposure through te...

  20. Modeling dispersion of traffic-related pollutants in the NEXUS health study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dispersion modeling tools have traditionally provided critical information for air quality management decisions, but have been used recently to provide exposure estimates to support health studies. However, these models can be challenging to implement, particularly in near-road s...

  1. Exciton diffusion, end quenching, and exciton-exciton annihilation in individual air-suspended carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, A.; Yoshida, M.; Kato, Y. K.

    2015-03-01

    Luminescence properties of carbon nanotubes are strongly affected by exciton diffusion, which plays an important role in various nonradiative decay processes. Here we perform photoluminescence microscopy on hundreds of individual air-suspended carbon nanotubes to elucidate the interplay between exciton diffusion, end quenching, and exciton-exciton annihilation processes. A model derived from random-walk theory as well as Monte Carlo simulations are utilized to analyze nanotube length dependence and excitation power dependence of emission intensity. We have obtained the values of exciton diffusion length and absorption cross section for different chiralities, and diameter-dependent photoluminescence quantum yields have been observed. The simulations have also revealed the nature of a one-dimensional coalescence process, and an analytical expression for the power dependence of emission intensity is given.

  2. Factors Affecting Parent’s Perception on Air Quality—From the Individual to the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents’ perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan’s environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170–9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244–25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212–21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents’ perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public’s perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  3. Daily and seasonal variation of traffic related aerosol pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece, during the financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouitsis, Ilias; Amanatidis, Stavros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kelessis, Apostolos; Petrakakis, Maximos; Stamos, Iraklis; Mitsakis, Evangelos; Samaras, Zissis

    2015-12-01

    Airborne urban particulate and gaseous pollutants measurements were conducted at the kerbside of a busy road and at a nearby urban background site of Thessaloniki, Greece, during a winter and a summer period. The main objective was to observe how the financial crisis has affected the air quality in the city, compared to previous measurements. Compared to a study conducted in 2006, the current work suggests that although average concentrations at the traffic affected site remain higher that in the urban background station, the differences are much smaller than in the past. A number of observations suggest a scenario of decrease in traffic activity and increase in biomass burning for residential heating. On this basis, the results suggest that traffic may be less important as an air quality contributor in a financially hit city. On the contrary, domestic heating appears as a significant contributor and affects areas of the city that were earlier not being of environmental concern. Because of the impact of biomass burning in residential areas, exposure calculations are required to estimate whether traffic or biomass burning is the overall highest contributors to daily PM dosages that citizens of the city are exposed to.

  4. Air Pollution and Its Effects on an Individual's Health and Exercise Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, A. I. Clifford

    1988-01-01

    Air Pollution is a common environmental stressor affecting the training and competitive performance of athletes, commonly irritating the eyes, nose, and throat. The health and exercise effects of such primary and secondary air pollutants as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, air particulates, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide are discussed. (CB)

  5. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  6. MICA-AIR: A PARTICIPANT-BASED APPROACH TO EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC AND COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective. Epidemiologic and community health studies of traffic-related air pollution and childhood asthma have been limited by resource intensive exposure assessment techniques. The current study utilized a novel participant-based approach to collect air monitoring data f...

  7. Use of lidar for the evaluation of traffic-related urban pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, William E.; Cooper, D. I.; Buttler, William T.; Cottingame, William; Tellier, Larry

    1994-03-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) is demonstrated as a tool for the detection and tracking of sources of aerosol pollution. Existing elastic lidars have been used to demonstrate the potential of the application of this technology in urban areas. Data from several experiments is shown along with analysis methods used for interpretation of the data. The goal of the project is to develop a light-weight, low-cost, lidar system and data analysis methods which can be used by urban planners and local air quality managers. The ability to determine the sources, i.e., causes, of non-attainment may lead to more effective use of tax dollars. Future directions for the project are also discussed.

  8. The use of lidar for the evaluation of traffic-related urban pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, W.; Cooper, D.; Buttler, W.; Cottingame, W.; Tellier, L.

    1993-10-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) is demonstrated as a tool for the detection and tracking of sources of aerosol pollution. Existing elastic lidars have been used to demonstrate the potential of the application of this technology in urban areas. Data from several experiments is shown along with analysis methods used for interpretation of the data. The goal of the project is to develop a light-weight, low-cost, lidar system and data analysis methods which can be used by urban planners and local air quality managers. The ability to determine the sources, i.e. causes, of non-attainment may lead to more effective use of tax dollars. Future directions for the project are also discussed.

  9. The impact of decreases in air temperature and increases in ozone on markers of endothelial function in individuals having type-2 diabetes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have reported an association between air pollution and endothelial dysfunction, especially in individuals having diabetes. However, very few studies have examined the impact of air temperature on endothelial function. The objective of this analysis was to investig...

  10. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lepicier, Veronique; Chiron, Mireille; Joumard, Robert

    2013-01-15

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The

  11. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies: Evaluation for Ambient PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health studies of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates, which fail to account for indoor attenuation of ambient PM2.5 and time indoors. To address these limitations, we developed an air pollution exposure model for individuals (E...

  12. Multimedia Approach to Self-Paced Individualized Instruction in Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Heating and Other Vocational Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oil Belt Vocational Technical School, El Dorado, AR.

    A multimedia, self-paced, individualized instructional program was designed to meet the needs of students in air conditioning, refrigeration, and heating programs at Oil Belt Vocational Technical School (Arkansas). The multimedia approach provided for video-based presentations to meet the needs for visual contact with the classroom and for…

  13. Effects of physical activity on the deposition of traffic-related particles into the human lungs in silico.

    PubMed

    Oravisjärvi, Kati; Pietikäinen, Mari; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Rautio, Arja; Voutilainen, Arto; Keiski, Riitta L

    2011-10-01

    Traffic-related particle emissions have been a great concern over a number of years due to their adverse health effects. In this research project, traffic-related particle deposition in the human lungs is studied using lung deposition estimates based on the ICRP 66 model. This study covers four human groups, i.e. adult males, adult females and two groups of children aged 5 and 10 years. The study examines particle deposition in the human lungs in relation to four different physical exercise levels, i.e. sleeping, sitting, light exercise and heavy exercise. To conduct the study, the particle size distributions of diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) busses were monitored in field laboratory conditions. The study indicates that the total number of diesel particles measured is greater than the total number of CNG particles. The results further display that most of the diesel particles measured are smaller than 0.2 μm, whereas the CNG particles are smaller than 0.05 μm in aerodynamic diameter. The level of physical exercise, as well as the age and gender of a person affects the deposition of particles in the lungs. An increase in the physical activity results in larger amounts of small-size particles penetrating deeper into the respiratory system. The lung deposition of particles in males was substantially different compared to that of females and children. The deposited dose of particles was generally lower for females than for males and further lower for children than for females. This article argues that these groups should be discussed separately when conducting exposure assessments and that the level of physical activity should be taken into account when assessing potential health consequences.

  14. Effect of time-activity adjustment on exposure assessment for traffic-related ultrafine particles.

    PubMed

    Lane, Kevin J; Levy, Jonathan I; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Patton, Allison P; Durant, John L; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to ultrafine particles (<100 nm, estimated as particle number concentration, PNC) differ from ambient concentrations because of the spatial and temporal variability of both PNC and people. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of time-activity adjustment on exposure assignment and associations with blood biomarkers for a near-highway population. A regression model based on mobile monitoring and spatial and temporal variables was used to generate hourly ambient residential PNC for a full year for a subset of participants (n=140) in the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health study. We modified the ambient estimates for each hour using personal estimates of hourly time spent in five micro-environments (inside home, outside home, at work, commuting, other) as well as particle infiltration. Time-activity adjusted (TAA)-PNC values differed from residential ambient annual average (RAA)-PNC, with lower exposures predicted for participants who spent more time away from home. Employment status and distance to highway had a differential effect on TAA-PNC. We found associations of RAA-PNC with high sensitivity C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6, although exposure-response functions were non-monotonic. TAA-PNC associations had larger effect estimates and linear exposure-response functions. Our findings suggest that time-activity adjustment improves exposure assessment for air pollutants that vary greatly in space and time.

  15. Effect of time-activity adjustment on exposure assessment for traffic-related ultrafine particles

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Kevin J; Levy, Jonathan I; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Patton, Allison P; Durant, John L; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to ultrafine particles (<100 nm, estimated as particle number concentration, PNC) differ from ambient concentrations because of the spatial and temporal variability of both PNC and people. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of time-activity adjustment on exposure assignment and associations with blood biomarkers for a near-highway population. A regression model based on mobile monitoring and spatial and temporal variables was used to generate hourly ambient residential PNC for a full year for a subset of participants (n=140) in the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health study. We modified the ambient estimates for each hour using personal estimates of hourly time spent in five micro-environments (inside home, outside home, at work, commuting, other) as well as particle infiltration. Time-activity adjusted (TAA)-PNC values differed from residential ambient annual average (RAA)-PNC, with lower exposures predicted for participants who spent more time away from home. Employment status and distance to highway had a differential effect on TAA-PNC. We found associations of RAA-PNC with high sensitivity C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6, although exposure-response functions were non-monotonic. TAA-PNC associations had larger effect estimates and linear exposure-response functions. Our findings suggest that time-activity adjustment improves exposure assessment for air pollutants that vary greatly in space and time. PMID:25827314

  16. Increased health risk in Bangkok children exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traffic-related sources.

    PubMed

    Tuntawiroon, Jantamas; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Navasumrit, Panida; Autrup, Herman; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess potential health risk of exposure to particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in children living in a megacity with traffic congestion such as Bangkok. The study population comprised 184 Thai schoolboys (aged 8-13 years) attending schools adjacent to high-density traffic areas in Bangkok and schools located in the provincial area of Chonburi. The ambient concentration of total PAHs at roadsides in proximity to the Bangkok schools was 30-fold greater than at roadsides in proximity to the provincial schools (30.39 +/- 5.80 versus 1.50 +/- 0.28 ng/m(3); P < 0.001). Benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), an indicator of automobile exhaust emission, was the predominant PAH. Personal exposure to total PAHs and the corresponding benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations in Bangkok schoolchildren were 3.5-fold higher than in provincial schoolchildren (4.13 +/- 0.21 versus 1.18 +/- 0.09 ng/m(3); P < 0.001 and 1.50 +/- 0.12 versus 0.43 +/- 0.05 ng/m(3); P < 0.001, respectively). The concentration of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) was significantly higher in Bangkok schoolchildren. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in peripheral lymphocytes were also significantly higher (0.45 +/- 0.03 versus 0.09 +/- 0.00 adducts/10(8) nt; P < 0.001). Finally, a significantly higher level of DNA strand breaks and a significantly lower level of DNA repair capacity were observed in Bangkok schoolchildren (P < 0.001). This study indicates that Bangkok schoolchildren exposed to a high level of genotoxic PAHs in ambient air may be more vulnerable to the health impacts associated with the exposure to genotoxic pollutants than children in provincial areas and may have increased health risks for the development of certain diseases such as cancer.

  17. Traffic-related immissions and their impact on historic buildings and monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auras, M.; Beer, S.; Bundschuh, P.; Eichhorn, J.; Mach, M.; Scheuvens, D.; Schorling, M.; von Schumann, J.; Snethlage, R.; Weinbruch, S.

    2012-04-01

    Air quality in Germany has improved essentially over the last decades. Because the concentrations of sulfur dioxide were reduced by more than 90% between 1990 and 2007 acid rain no longer seems to play a relevant role in the weathering of natural stone facades of historic buildings. But in the surroundings of urban traffic hot spots high emissions of nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter (PM10) are observed. Therefore the question arises whether these airborne pollutants bear a potential for future damage of natural stone and other construction materials. In an interdisciplinary research program different approaches were pursued to evaluate the damage potential of today's traffic-induced immissions by exemplarily investigating two German cities, Mainz and Munich. First calculations of average weathering rates for the stones concerned were made using the dose-response functions of the MULTI ASSESS program and the immission data from survey stations at traffic hot spots and at housing areas. Than the distribution of traffic-induced immissions (NO2 and PM10) in the surrounding areas of major traffic pathways was calculated for both cities with the simulation program WINkfz. The resulting maps of mean pollutant concentrations were superimposed to inventory maps of historical monuments to allow the identification of monuments with high pollution loads. Additionally different classes of natural stones were distinguished regarding their chemical reactivity. Two prominent monuments with high traffic-induced pollution loads were selected for small scale simulations of pollutant immissions with the simulation program MISKAM. The dispersion of pollutants to different directions and building heights were calculated and the influence of broadleaf trees in the surrounding of the buildings was evaluated (summer versus winter situation). PM10 measurements were carried out at different building heights of the two buildings. Collection of PM10 dust and single-particle analyses

  18. Brain inflammation and Alzheimer's-like pathology in individuals exposed to severe air pollution.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reed, William; Maronpot, Robert R; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Delgado-Chavez, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Dragustinovis, Irma; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Solt, Anna C; Altenburg, Michael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Swenberg, James A

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities with high levels of air pollution is associated with human brain inflammation. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), an inflammatory mediator, and accumulation of the 42-amino acid form of beta-amyloid (Abeta42), a cause of neuronal dysfunction, were measured in autopsy brain tissues of cognitively and neurologically intact lifelong residents of cities having low (n:9) or high (n:10) levels of air pollution. Genomic DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, nuclear factor-kappaB activation and apolipoprotein E genotype were also evaluated. Residents of cities with severe air pollution had significantly higher COX2 expression in frontal cortex and hippocampus and greater neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of Abeta42 compared to residents in low air pollution cities. Increased COX2 expression and Abeta42 accumulation were also observed in the olfactory bulb. These findings suggest that exposure to severe air pollution is associated with brain inflammation and Abeta42 accumulation, two causes of neuronal dysfunction that precede the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Characterising socio-economic inequalities in exposure to air pollution: a comparison of socio-economic markers and scales of measurement.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Wilkinson, Paul; Stafford, Mai; Tonne, Cathryn

    2011-05-01

    This study examines traffic-related air pollution in London in relation to area- and individual-level socio-economic position (SEP). Mean air pollution concentrations were generally higher in postcodes of low SEP as classified by small-area markers of deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) domains) and by the postcode-level ACORN geodemographic marker. There were exceptions, however, including reversed directions of associations in central London and for SEP markers relating to education. ACORN predicted air pollution independently of IMD and explained additional variation at the postcode level, indicating the potential value of using both markers in air pollution epidemiology studies. By contrast, after including IMD and ACORN there remained little relationship between air pollution and individual-level SEP or smoking, suggesting limited residual socio-economic confounding in epidemiological studies with comprehensive area-level adjustment.

  20. Teaching Activity Report: A Concise and Simple Summary of Individual Instructional Effort. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollester, Charles W.; Farrell, Richard L., Jr.

    The University of Notre Dame developed the Teaching Activity Report in an effort to present professors with meaningful summaries of their individual instructional efforts each semester. Geared to meet the needs of the individual instructors and their superiors, the Teaching Activity Report synthesizes all facets of the individual's instructional…

  1. Respiratory hospitalizations of children and residential exposure to traffic air pollution in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Nirel, Ronit; Schiff, Michal; Paltiel, Ora

    2015-01-01

    Although exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been reported to be associated with respiratory morbidity in children, this association has not been examined in Israel. Jerusalem is ranked among the leading Israeli cities in transport-related air pollution. This case-control study examined whether pediatric hospitalization for respiratory diseases in Jerusalem is related to residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Cases (n=4844) were Jerusalem residents aged 0-14 years hospitalized for respiratory illnesses between 2000 and 2006. These were compared to children admitted electively (n=2161) or urgently (n=3085) for non-respiratory conditions. Individual measures of exposure included distance from residence to nearest main road, the total length of main roads, traffic volume, and bus load within buffers of 50, 150, and 300m around each address. Cases were more likely to have any diesel buses passing within 50m of their home (adjusted odds ratios=1.16 and 1.10, 95% confidence intervals 1.04-1.30 and 1.01-1.20 for elective and emergency controls, respectively). Our findings indicated that older girls (5-14) and younger boys (0-4) had increased risks of respiratory hospitalization, albeit with generally widened confidence intervals due to small sample sizes. Our results add to the limited body of evidence regarding associations between diesel exhaust particles and respiratory morbidity. The findings also point to possible differential associations between traffic-related air pollution and pediatric hospitalization among boys and girls in different age groups.

  2. Traffic-related pedestrian injuries amongst expatriate workers in Qatar: a need for cross-cultural injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Zarour, Ahmad; Parchani, Ashok; Abdulrahman, Husham; Asim, Mohammad; Peralta, Ruben; Consunji, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Qatar is a rapidly developing country in which expatriate workers constitute the majority of population. Also, Qatar is an example of right-sided road driving convention (RDC) country. The aim of our study is to analyse the traffic-related pedestrian injuries (TRPI) amongst expatriates in relation to RDC. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of TRPI patients who were admitted to the only Level I trauma centre in Qatar between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Demographics, country of origin, time of injury, injury severity score (ISS), RDC, morbidity and mortality were analysed. Of the 4997 injured patients, 601 (12%) were pedestrians. Of these, 92% were expatriates. The mean age was 31.8 ± 17 and 64% of them were 18-45 years old. Mean ISS was higher in those who were injured on weekends (15.4 ± 10) in comparison to working days (13.5 ± 10) (p = 0.04). The overall mortality was 15%. Sixty-seven percent of those who died were from left RDC countries. Expatriate workers, originally from left RDC countries are disproportionately affected by TRPI. This group of injured patients requires focused injury prevention programmes that are culture and language appropriate.

  3. Environmental and traffic-related parameters affecting road dust composition: A multi-technique approach applied to Venice area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Visin, Flavia; Gonella, Francesco; Cattaruzza, Elti; Glisenti, Antonella; Formenton, Gianni; Tieppo, Paulo

    2015-12-01

    Road dust is a non-exhaust source of atmospheric particulate by re-suspension. It is composed of particles originating from natural sources as well as other non-exhaust source such as tire, brake and asphalt wear. The discrimination between atmospheric particles directly emitted from abrasion process and those related to re-suspension is therefore an open issue, as far as the percentage contribution of non-exhaust emissions is becoming more considerable due also to the recent policy actions and the technological upgrades in the automotive field, focused on the reduction of exhaust emissions. In this paper, road dust collected along the bridge that connects Venice (Italy) to the mainland is characterized with a multi-technique approach in order to determine its composition depending on environmental as well as traffic-related conditions. Six pollutant sources of road dust particles were identified by cluster analysis: brake, railway, tire, asphalt, soil + marine, and mixed combustions. Considering the lack of information on this matrix in this area, this study is intended to provide useful information for future identification of road dust re-suspension source in atmospheric particulate.

  4. Air Pollution and Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Adar, Sara D.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Lovasi, Gina S.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although research has shown that low socioeconomic status (SES) and minority communities have higher exposure to air pollution, few studies have simultaneously investigated the associations of individual and neighborhood SES with pollutants across multiple sites. Objectives: We characterized the distribution of ambient air pollution by both individual and neighborhood SES using spatial regression methods. Methods: The study population comprised 6,140 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Year 2000 annual average ambient PM2.5 and NOx concentrations were calculated for each study participant’s home address at baseline examination. We investigated individual and neighborhood (2000 U.S. Census tract level) SES measures corresponding to the domains of income, wealth, education, and occupation. We used a spatial intrinsic conditional autoregressive model for multivariable analysis and examined pooled and metropolitan area–specific models. Results: A 1-unit increase in the z-score for family income was associated with 0.03-μg/m3 lower PM2.5 (95% CI: –0.05, –0.01) and 0.93% lower NOx (95% CI: –1.33, –0.53) after adjustment for covariates. A 1-SD–unit increase in the neighborhood’s percentage of persons with at least a high school degree was associated with 0.47-μg/m3 lower mean PM2.5 (95% CI: –0.55, –0.40) and 9.61% lower NOx (95% CI: –10.85, –8.37). Metropolitan area–specific results exhibited considerable heterogeneity. For example, in New York, high-SES neighborhoods were associated with higher concentrations of pollution. Conclusions: We found statistically significant associations of SES measures with predicted air pollutant concentrations, demonstrating the importance of accounting for neighborhood- and individual-level SES in air pollution health effects research. Citation: Hajat A, Diez-Roux AV, Adar SD, Auchincloss AH, Lovasi GS, O’Neill MS, Sheppard L, Kaufman JD. 2013. Air pollution and

  5. RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF NO, NO2, NOY, AND INDIVIDUAL NOZ SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most appropriate monitoring methods for reactive nitrogen oxides are identified subject to the requirements for diagnostic testing of air quality simulation models. Measurements must be made over 1 h or less and with an uncertainty of

  6. Relationships Among an Individual Intelligence Test and Two Air Force Screening and Selection Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrevy, David F.; And Others

    With the implementation of the all volunteer force concept, the Air Force must ensure that the objectively measurable range of ability in its manpower pool is being utilized. This is especially true for minority groups who have been categorized and channeled into military career areas based on their performance on two selection tests: the Armed…

  7. Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Järup, L

    2001-01-01

    A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods. PMID:11445519

  8. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using intake air heating for a GDCI engine

    DOEpatents

    Roth, Gregory T.; Sellnau, Mark C.

    2016-08-09

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of heaters, at least one heater per cylinder, with each heater configured to heat air introduced into a cylinder. Independent control of the heaters is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the heater for that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in a cylinder of the engine and controlling a heater configured to heat air introduced into that cylinder, is also provided.

  9. Visual Evoked Responses and EEGS for Divers Breathing Hyperbaric Air: An Assessment of Individual Differences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-03

    PAGE THE PROBLEM To find and assess quantitatively electrophysiologieal corre- lates of nitrogen narcosis in divers. FINDINGS Marked decrements in...visual evoked responses were found in most divers under conditions conducive to nitrogen narcosis . Results of this study show the average sizes of...the decrements and their probability of occurrence in a large group of subjects. APPLICATION Since nitrogen narcosis is a major problem deterring air

  10. Characterization of traffic-related PM concentration distribution and fluctuation patterns in near-highway urban residential street canyons.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Intaek; Brixey, Laurie A; Wiener, Russell W; Henkle, Stacy W; Baldauf, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Analyses of outdoor traffic-related particulate matter (PM) concentration distribution and fluctuation patterns in urban street canyons within a microscale distance of less than 500 m from a highway source are presented as part of the results from the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study. Various patterns of spatial and temporal changes in the street canyon PM concentrations were investigated using time-series data of real-time PM concentrations measured during multiple monitoring periods. Concurrent time-series data of local street canyon wind conditions and wind data from the John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport National Weather Service (NWS) were used to characterize the effects of various wind conditions on the behavior of street canyon PM concentrations.Our results suggest that wind direction may strongly influence time-averaged mean PM concentration distribution patterns in near-highway urban street canyons. The rooftop-level wind speeds were found to be strongly correlated with the PM concentration fluctuation intensities in the middle sections of the street blocks. The ambient turbulence generated by shifting local wind directions (angles) showed a good correlation with the PM concentration fluctuation intensities along the entire distance of the first and second street blocks only when the wind angle standard deviations were larger than 30 degrees. Within-canyon turbulent shearing, caused by fluctuating local street canyon wind speeds, showed no correlation with PM concentration fluctuation intensities. The time-averaged mean PM concentration distribution along the longitudinal distances of the street blocks when wind direction was mostly constantly parallel to the street was found to be similar to the distribution pattern for the entire monitoring period when wind direction fluctuated wildly. Finally, we showed that two different PM concentration metrics-time-averaged mean

  11. Traffic-related trace elements in soils along six highway segments on the Tibetan Plateau: Influence factors and spatial variation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanxing; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yili; Scott, Christopher A; Yan, Xuedong

    2017-03-01

    The accumulation of traffic-related trace elements in soil as the result of anthropogenic activities raises serious concerns about environmental pollution and public health. Traffic is the main source of trace elements in roadside soil on the Tibetan Plateau, an area otherwise devoid of industrial emissions. Indeed, the rapid development of tourism and transportation in this region means it is becoming increasingly important to identify the accumulation levels, influence distance, spatial distribution, and other relevant factors influencing trace elements. In this study, 229 soil samples along six segments of the major transportation routes on the Tibetan Plateau (highways G214, S308, and G109), were collected for analysis of eight trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb). The results of statistical analyses showed that of the eight trace elements in soils, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were primarily derived from traffic. The relationship between the trace element accumulation levels and the distance from the roadside followed an exponential decline, with the exception of Segment 3, the only unpaved gravel road studied. In addition, the distance of influence from the roadside varied by trace element and segment, ranging from 16m to 144m. Background values for each segment were different because of soil heterogeneity, while a number of other potential influencing factors (including traffic volume, road surface material, roadside distance, land cover, terrain, and altitude) all had significant effects on trace-element concentrations. Overall, however, concentrations along most of the road segments investigated were at, or below, levels defined as low on the Nemero Synthesis index.

  12. Oxidative DNA damage and inflammatory responses in cultured human cells and in humans exposed to traffic-related particles.

    PubMed

    Vattanasit, Udomratana; Navasumrit, Panida; Khadka, Man Bahadur; Kanitwithayanun, Jantamas; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Autrup, Herman; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2014-01-01

    Particulate pollution is a major public health concern because epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to particles is associated with respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP), which is classified as a human carcinogen (IARC, 2012), are considered a major contributor to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) in urban areas. DEP consists of various compounds, including PAHs and metals which are the principal components that contribute to the toxicity of PM. The present study aimed to investigate effects of PM on induction of oxidative DNA damage and inflammation by using lymphocytes in vitro and in human exposed to PM in the environment. Human lymphoblasts (RPMI 1788) were treated with DEP (SRM 2975) at various concentrations (25-100 μg/ml) to compare the extent of responses with alveolar epithelial cells (A549). ROS generation was determined in each cell cycle phase of DEP-treated cells in order to investigate the influence of the cell cycle stage on induction of oxidative stress. The oxidative DNA damage was determined by measurement of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) whereas the inflammatory responses were determined by mRNA expression of interleukin-6 and -8 (IL-6 and IL-8), Clara cell protein (CC16), and lung surfactant protein-A (SP-A). The results showed that RPMI 1788 and A549 cells had a similar pattern of dose-dependent responses to DEP in terms of particle uptake, ROS generation with highest level found in G2/M phase, 8-OHdG formation, and induction of IL-6 and IL-8 expression. The human study was conducted in 51 healthy subjects residing in traffic-congested areas. The effects of exposure to PM2.5 and particle-bound PAHs and toxic metals on the levels of 8-OHdG in lymphocyte DNA, IL-8 expression in lymphocytes, and serum CC16 were evaluated. 8-OHdG levels correlated with the exposure levels of PM2.5 (P<0.01) and PAHs (P<0.05), but this was not the case with IL-8. Serum CC16 showed significantly negative

  13. GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) Model to Estimate Time-Location of Individuals for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments: Model Evaluation in Central North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure...

  14. The toll of traffic-related fatalities in a metropolitan Italian area through the experience of the Department of Legal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Cerutti, Elisa; Spagnoli, Laura; Blandino, Alberto; Rancati, Alessandra; Gallo, Carlotta; Mancini, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Vittorio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the introduction of new traffic laws in Italy, traffic-related deaths are still a huge burden. The study presents data and medico-legal issues behind traffic deaths in Milan between 2001 and 2012 (1506 traffic-related deaths). Data were collected from the database of the Department of Legal Medicine: 79.4% males and 20.6% females (mean age 44.14). The target group concerned traumatic deaths as a consequence of the accident as well as deaths not directly related to an accident. Although 6.1% were non-traumatic deaths (cause of death unconnected to the accident, i.e. because of a heart attack, or when death occurred after survival and cause of death was not related certainly to the accident), multiple skeletal/visceral injuries were the main cause of death (57.9%), occurring in motorcyclists the most (63.7%). Injuries to the skull and brain were the second cause of death (25.9%). Victims were mostly males (79.4%) and drivers (77.6%). Fifty-five per cent were deaths on-scene, while 45% survived. Other variables were also considered: medications, medical history, and drugs/alcohol/smoke. A downward trend in traffic-related fatalities was evident, but the toll is still high. This study should be a glimpse at the actual situation, since it is indicative of a metropolitan area where autopsies are systematically performed.

  15. Microfluidic device for robust generation of two-component liquid-in-air slugs with individually controlled composition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Using liquid slugs as microreactors and microvessels enable precise control over the conditions of their contents on short-time scales for a wide variety of applications. Particularly for screening applications, there is a need for control of slug parameters such as size and composition. We describe a new microfluidic approach for creating slugs in air, each comprising a size and composition that can be selected individually for each slug. Two-component slugs are formed by first metering the desired volume of each reagent, merging the two volumes into an end-to-end slug, and propelling the slug to induce mixing. Volume control is achieved by a novel mechanism: two closed chambers on the chip are initially filled with air, and a valve in each is briefly opened to admit one of the reagents. The pressure of each reagent can be individually selected and determines the amount of air compression, and thus the amount of liquid that is admitted into each chamber. We describe the theory of operation, characterize the slug generation chip, and demonstrate the creation of slugs of different compositions. The use of microvalves in this approach enables robust operation with different liquids, and also enables one to work with extremely small samples, even down to a few slug volumes. The latter is important for applications involving precious reagents such as optimizing the reaction conditions for radiolabeling biological molecules as tracers for positron emission tomography. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10404-010-0617-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20930933

  16. Background concentrations of individual and total volatile organic compounds in residential indoor air of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hippelein, Martin

    2004-09-01

    During a monitoring campaign concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in indoor air of 79 dwellings where occupants had not complained about health problems or unpleasant odour. Parameters monitored were the individual concentration of 68 VOCs and the total concentration of all VOCs inside the room. VOCs adsorbed by Tenax TA were then analysed by means of thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The analytical procedure and quantification was done according to the recommendation of the ECA-IAQ Working Group 13 which gave a definition of the total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentration. Using this recommendation TVOC-concentrations ranged between 33 and 1600 microg m(-3) with a median of 289 microg m(-3). Compounds found in every sample and with the highest concentrations were 2-propanol, alpha-pinene and toluene. Save for a few samples, all concentrations measured have been a factor 2 to 10 lower, compared to data from similar studies. Only a few terpenes and aldehydes were found exceeding published reference data or odour threshold concentrations. However, it has been found that sampling and analysing methods do have a considerable impact on the results, making direct comparisons of studies somewhat questionable. 47% of all samples revealed concentrations exceeding the threshold value of 300 microg TVOC m(-3) set by the German Federal Environmental Agency as a target for indoor air quality. Using the TVOC concentration as defined in the ECA-IAQ methodology is instrumental in assessing exposure to VOCs and identifying sources of VOCs. The background concentrations determined in this study can be used to discuss and interpret target values for individual and total volatile organic compounds in indoor air.

  17. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO, AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler; Robert G. Mudry

    2004-10-01

    Instrumentation difficulties encountered in the previous reporting period were addressed early in this reporting period, resulting in a new instrumentation configuration that appears to be free of the noise issues found previously. This permitted the collection of flow calibration data to begin. The first issues in question are the effects of the type and location of the transducer mount. Data were collected for 15 different transducer positions (upstream and downstream of an elbow in the pipe), with both a stud mount and a magnetic transducer mount, for each of seven combinations of air and coal flow. Analysis of these data shows that the effects of the transducer mount type and location on the resulting dynamics are complicated, and not easily captured in a single analysis. To maximize the practical value of the calibration data, further detailed calibration data will be collected with both the magnetic and stud mounts, but at a single mounting location just downstream of a pipe elbow. This testing will be performed in the Coal Flow Test Facility in the next reporting period. The program progress in this reporting period was sufficient to put us essentially back on schedule.

  18. Fine-scale characterization of traffic-related mortality associated with exposure to PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission from on-road vehicles is a major contributor of air pollution-related premature death. Previous studies have estimated that on-road emissions in the U.S. cause 29,000 to 53,000 ozone and PM2.5-related premature deaths. In these studies, air quality chemical transport mod...

  19. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) has been implicated in asthma development, persistence, and exacerbation. This exposure is highly significant because increasingly large segments of the population worldwide reside in zones that have high levels of TRAP (1), including children since schools are often located in high traffic pollution exposure areas. Recent findings Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of traffic pollution on allergic diseases and the biology underlying this impact. In addition, new innovative methods to assess and quantify traffic pollution have been developed to assess exposure and identify vulnerable populations and individuals. Summary This review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas. These findings will have substantial impact on clinical practice and research by development of novel methods to quantify exposure and identify at-risk individuals, as well as mechanistic studies that identify new targets for intervention for individuals most adversely affected by TRAP exposure. PMID:26474340

  20. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Dispersion Model Results in the NEXUS Health Study Due to Uncertainties in Traffic-Related Emissions Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dispersion modeling tools have traditionally provided critical information for air quality management decisions, but have been used recently to provide exposure estimates to support health studies. However, these models can be challenging to implement, particularly in near-road s...

  2. The Impact of Individual Anthropogenic Emissions Sectors on the Global Burden of Human Mortality due to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Raquel A.; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; West, J. Jason

    2016-01-01

    , Adelman Z, Fry MM, West JJ. 2016. The impact of individual anthropogenic emissions sectors on the global burden of human mortality due to ambient air pollution. Environ Health Perspect 124:1776–1784; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP177 PMID:27177206

  3. Modelling of human exposure to air pollution in the urban environment: a GPS-based approach.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniela; Tchepel, Oxana

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this work was the development of a new modelling tool for quantification of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution within distinct microenvironments by using a novel approach for trajectory analysis of the individuals. For this purpose, mobile phones with Global Positioning System technology have been used to collect daily trajectories of the individuals with higher temporal resolution and a trajectory data mining, and geo-spatial analysis algorithm was developed and implemented within a Geographical Information System to obtain time-activity patterns. These data were combined with air pollutant concentrations estimated for several microenvironments. In addition to outdoor, pollutant concentrations in distinct indoor microenvironments are characterised using a probabilistic approach. An example of the application for PM2.5 is presented and discussed. The results obtained for daily average individual exposure correspond to a mean value of 10.6 and 6.0-16.4 μg m(-3) in terms of 5th-95th percentiles. Analysis of the results shows that the use of point air quality measurements for exposure assessment will not explain the intra- and inter-variability of individuals' exposure levels. The methodology developed and implemented in this work provides time-sequence of the exposure events thus making possible association of the exposure with the individual activities and delivers main statistics on individual's air pollution exposure with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  4. Influence of angular exposure and proximity to vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Munzi, Silvana; Fiorini, Elisa; Gaggi, Carlo; Loppi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of angular exposure and distance from vehicular traffic on the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements in a town of central Italy. An Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) was calculated on the street-facing and the opposite side of road-lining trees and in a urban park 250 m away, and the content of selected trace elements (Al, Ba, Ce, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn) was determined in samples of the lichen Punctelia borreri (Sm.) Krog growing on tree bark, both on the exposed and opposite sides. ILD increases with distance from traffic emissions. However, at the site with vehicle traffic, non-nitrophilous lichens decreased while nitrophilous ones increased. The concentration of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sb, and Zn accumulated in thalli of P. borreri was higher on roadside trees than in trees from the urban park. ILD was not affected by the angular exposure to the road and the bioaccumulation of traffic-related elements was similar in lichens from the side of the bole exposed to traffic emissions and particulate resuspension and from the opposite side. The angular exposure in respect to the traffic source does not influence trace element accumulation. These results are important when using lichens for biomonitoring purposes, both for planning future studies and for the reliability of the interpretation of past surveys that do not report information about the angular exposure of the collected lichen material.

  5. Identification of traffic-related metals and the effects of different environments on their enrichment in roadside soils along the Qinghai-Tibet highway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yili; Ding, Mingjun; Li, Lanhui

    2015-07-15

    The road transportation could affect roadside soils environment detrimentally, including heavy metal enrichment. In order to identify and evaluate the enrichment of heavy metals resulted from road transportation on the Tibetan Plateau, the 11 heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Rb, Pb and Tl) in the topsoil (0-10 cm depth) from four sites along the Qinghai-Tibet highway were discussed in this study. Our results indicate that heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb are related to road transportation. The content of most of these heavy metals in roadside soils decreased exponentially with the distance from the road, as did some of the Nemero Synthesis Indexes (PN values). The contamination factor for the traffic-related metals ranged from 0.56 (no pollution) to 5.67 (considerable pollution) and the Nemero Synthesis Indexes of these heavy metals ranged from 0.80 (no pollution) to 4.49 (severe pollution). Cd was of priority concern as it had the highest contamination factor. The highest PN value for these traffic-related heavy metals was found in soils at site TTH (alpine steppe). Although transportation contributed to the high contents of these traffic-related metals in roadside environments, regional differences such as wind and the terrain also had significant relationship with their enrichment in these roadside soils. The roadside distance at which there is a potential risk to livestock and wildlife from the contamination of soils by heavy metals should be determined scientifically along the Qinghai-Tibet highway, based on the different natural environments found in the region.

  6. The role of the African-American physician in reducing traffic-related injury and death among African Americans: consensus report of the National Medical Association.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Fernando; Moore, Wayne; Conti, Christopher; Norville Perez, Lucille C.; Gaines, Beverly M.; Hood, Rodney G.; Swain, Ian J. J.; Williams, Rudolph; Burgess, Chaka T.

    2002-01-01

    ISSUE: Traffic-related injuries and fatalities disproportionately affect the African American community. These high rates of traffic-related death and injury among African Americans manifest in multiple areas of traffic safety, including: Failure to use seat belts and child restraints. High incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Failure to follow child passenger and seat belt safety laws and recommendations. High rates of pedestrian accidents, ofen brought on by impairments of drivers and/or pedestrians. Research indicates that national public information campaigns, with general messages only slightly modified for African American audiences, have not been culturally appropriate or effective in changing traffic safety behavior. In addition, traditional distribution mechanisms for these messages have not effectively reached the target population. Evidence suggests that in the African American community, there is a pervasive lack of knowledge of the devastating impact of traffic-related accidents on the overall health status of the community. This lack of information has resulted in a tragic cycle, in which parents fail to model safe operation of motor vehicles, and generation after generation copy this behavior, increasing the community's vulnerability to serious injuries and untimely deaths. This trend toward improper traffic safety habits among African Americans persists despite federal, state and local laws to enforce and promote sound traffic safety practices. OBJECTIVE: To study the existence of disparities in traffic-related injury and death among African Americans and to determine what kinds of traffic safety messages and campaigns will be effective in encouraging African Americans to respond to safety laws in sufficient numbers to reduce the disproportionately high rate of injury and death. Traffic safety issues were examined to effectively recommend policy, address barriers, best practices, and intervention strategies for the National Medical Association

  7. Investigation of 5-HT3A receptor gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals who had been exposed to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahangari, Ghasem; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Mozafari, Sona; Majeidi, Ali; Deilami, Gholamreza Derkhshan

    2013-12-01

    The role of air pollution in exacerbation of allergic symptoms is well known. Several studies have shown the effect of air pollution on serotonergic system. The changes in serotonergic system could trigger several allergic symptoms. 5-HT(3A) is among serotonin receptors on the peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) as well as other cells. In the present study we compared the 5-HT(3A) gene expression in PBMCs of the asthmatic patients as well as individuals who had been exposed to the air pollution. Normal individuals were also included in the study as control for comparison of 5-HT(3A) gene expression. Following the synthesis of the cDNA using mRNA extracted from PBMCs the level of 5- HT(3A) gene expression was measured using real-time PCR. The results showed t a significant increase in the relative expression level of 5-HT(3A) receptor in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and individuals exposed to the air pollutants compared to normal controls. Our result indicates that significant increase in 5-HT(3A) receptor may contribute to the pathogenesis as well as allergic symptoms which resulted from air pollution.

  8. Gene-environment interactions linking air pollution and inflammation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Lill, Christina M; Bertram, Lars; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Hansen, Johnni; Ritz, Beate

    2016-11-01

    Both air pollution exposure and systemic inflammation have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). In the PASIDA study, 408 incident cases of PD diagnosed in 2006-2009 and their 495 population controls were interviewed and provided DNA samples. Markers of long term traffic related air pollution measures were derived from geographic information systems (GIS)-based modeling. Furthermore, we genotyped functional polymorphisms in genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, namely rs1800629 in TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and rs16944 in IL1B (interleukin-1β). In logistic regression models, long-term exposure to NO2 increased PD risk overall (odds ratio (OR)=1.06 per 2.94μg/m(3) increase, 95% CI=1.00-1.13). The OR for PD in individuals with high NO2 exposure (≧75th percentile) and the AA genotype of IL1B rs16944 was 3.10 (95% CI=1.14-8.38) compared with individuals with lower NO2 exposure (<75th percentile) and the GG genotype. The interaction term was nominally significant on the multiplicative scale (p=0.01). We did not find significant gene-environment interactions with TNF rs1800629. Our finds may provide suggestive evidence that a combination of traffic-related air pollution and genetic variation in the proinflammatory cytokine gene IL1B contribute to risk of developing PD. However, as statistical evidence was only modest in this large sample we cannot rule out that these results represent a chance finding, and additional replication efforts are warranted.

  9. Traffic-related metal(loid) status and uptake by dominant plants growing naturally in roadside soils in the Tibetan plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yili; Wang, Zhaofeng; Ding, Mingjun; Jiang, Yinghui; Xie, Zhenglei

    2016-12-15

    To understand traffic-related metal(loid) status and uptake by dominant plants growing naturally in roadside soils in the Tibetan plateau, China, aboveground parts and root samples of three dominant plant species (Kalidium slenderbranch, Stipa purpurea, Kobresia pygmaea) were collected along the Qinghai-Tibet highway, and were analyzed for concentrations of traffic-related metal(loid)s such as chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb). The results indicated that concentrations of metal(loid)s in plant tissues varied greatly among plant species and sites. Tissue distribution of metal(loid)s was significantly related to distance and demonstrated variability as an exponential function of traffic proximity. It was deduced that Cd in Kalidium slenderbranch and Cu and Zn in S. purpurea were mainly derived from soil; Kalidium slenderbranch and Kobresia pygmaea absorbed Zn, and S. purpurea absorbed Cd, mainly through stomata, from atmospheric deposition; enrichments of Pb and As in S. purpurea presented similar characteristics to those of Cd and Pb in Kobresia pygmaea and were affected by both soil and atmospheric deposition. After excluding the effects of the traffic, the highest value obtained for metal(loid)-translocation capacity (7.51 for translocation factor, TF) was observed for S. purpurea collected from Tuotuohe, while the lowest value for metal(loid)-uptake capacity (0.015 for bioaccumulation factor, BF) was for Kalidium slenderbranch collected from Golmud. The three plant species showed limited soil-to-root transfer of metal(loid)s, possibly due to the high soil pH along the Qinghai-Tibet highway, but demonstrated great potential for metal(loid) transfer from roots to aboveground parts.

  10. Short-term Effects of Air Temperature on Blood Markers of Coagulation and Inflammation in Potentially Susceptible Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: Changes in air temperature are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events, but the role of pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory blood markers is still poorly understood. We investigated the association between air temperature and fibrinogen, plasminogen act...

  11. Modification in the soil and traffic-related sources of particle matter between 1998 and 2007 in Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro; Rubio, Maria Angélica

    2010-12-01

    Santiago de Chile is one of the most polluted South American cities, concentrating its pollution episodes during winter. Daily PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations over 80 microg/m3 have been reached frequently since 1998. Despite several regulations introduced over the past 20 yr to improve the air quality, PM concentration levels remain high. In this work, sampling in downtown Santiago was conducted from April 1998 to August 2007 for PM2.5 and from October 2003 to March 2006 for PM10-2.5 (PM between 2.5 and 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) with dichotomous samplers. Elemental analysis was performed on the samples with X-ray fluorescence. The resuming series of 859 samples and 216 elements identified were divided into semiannual periods and analyzed with factor analysis. Five factors are clearly discerned: soil, motor vehicles, residual oil, marine aerosols, and secondary sulfates. The soil factor in the fine fraction shows a clear increase from 2002 to 2006, whereas the coarse fraction of this factor shows a stable trend. The most probable cause for this trend is the growth in the number of vehicles in Santiago (6.5%/yr), which increases the resuspension of particles from the ground. Another cause for the increase is the growth in the construction activity (4.2%/yr). The motor vehicle factor in the fine fraction shows a decrease between 1998 and 2006. The decrease in the apportionment of this factor can be explained by the improvement in the vehicle fleet. In Santiago, the number of noncatalytic vehicles has been reduced from 389,000 in 2001 to 275,000 in 2006. The residual oil factor also shows a decrease between 1998 and 2006. The decrease could be attributed to the adoption of cleaner technologies and norms regarding gasoline and diesels.

  12. Ambient ultrafine particles provide a strong adjuvant effect in the secondary immune response: implication for traffic-related asthma flares.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Harkema, Jack R; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Wang, Meiying; Bramble, Lori A; Gookin, Glenn R; Ning, Zhi; Kleinman, Michael T; Sioutas, Constantinos; Nel, Andre E

    2010-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that intranasal administration of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP) acts as an adjuvant for primary allergic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) in Balb/c mice. It is important to find out whether inhaled UFP exert the same effect on the secondary immune response as a way of explaining asthma flares in already-sensitized individuals due to traffic exposure near a freeway. The objective of this study is to determine whether inhalation exposure to ambient UFP near an urban freeway could enhance the secondary immune response to OVA in already-sensitized mice. Prior OVA-sensitized animals were exposed to concentrated ambient UFP at the time of secondary OVA challenge in our mobile animal laboratory in Los Angeles. OVA-specific antibody production, airway morphometry, allergic airway inflammation, cytokine gene expression, and oxidative stress marker were assessed. As few as five ambient UFP exposures were sufficient to promote the OVA recall immune response, including generating allergic airway inflammation in smaller and more distal airways compared with the adjuvant effect of intranasally instilled UFP on the primary immune response. The secondary immune response was characterized by the T helper 2 and IL-17 cytokine gene expression in the lung. In summary, our results demonstrated that inhalation of prooxidative ambient UFP could effectively boost the secondary immune response to an experimental allergen, indicating that vehicular traffic exposure could exacerbate allergic inflammation in already-sensitized subjects.

  13. A PARTICIPANT-BASED APPROACH TO INDOOR/OUTDOOR AIR MONITORING IN COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a novel participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring da...

  14. *A participant-based approach to indoor/outdoor air monitoring in Community Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring data from...

  15. Biomonitoring of traffic-related nitrogen oxides in the Maurienne valley (Savoie, France), using purple moor grass growth parameters and leaf (15)N/(14)N ratio.

    PubMed

    Laffray, Xavier; Rose, Christophe; Garrec, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Effects of traffic-related nitrogenous emissions on purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench) transplants, used here as a new biomonitoring species, were assessed along 500 m long transects orthogonal to roads located in two open areas in the Maurienne valley (French Alps). Leaves were sampled during summer 2004 and 2005 for total N-content and (15)N-abundance determination while nitrogen oxides (NO and NO(2)) concentrations were determined using passive diffusion samplers. A significant and negative correlation was observed between plant total N-content, and (15)N-abundance and the logarithm of the distance to the road axis. The strongest decreases in plant N parameters were observed between 15 and 100 m from road axis. They were equivalent to background levels at a distance of about 800 m from the roads. In addition, motor vehicle pollution significantly affected vegetation at road edge, as was established from the relationship between leaf (15)N-abundance, total N-content and road traffic densities.

  16. The effect of infrastructure and demographic change on traffic-related fatalities and crashes: a case study of Illinois county-level data.

    PubMed

    Noland, Robert B; Oh, Lyoong

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the State of Illinois. Our analyses focuses on whether various changes in road network infrastructure and geometric design can be associated with changes in road fatalities and reported accidents. We also evaluate models that control for demographic changes. County-level time-series data is used and fixed effect negative binomial models are estimated. Results cannot confirm the hypothesis that changes in road infrastructure and geometric design have been beneficial for safety. Increases in the number of lanes appears to be associated with both increased traffic-related accidents and fatalities. Increased lane widths appears to be associated with increased fatalities. Increases in outside shoulder width appear to be associated with a decrease in accidents. Inclusion of demographic results does not significantly change these results but does capture much of the residual time trend in the models. Potentially mis-leading results are found when the time trend is not included. In this case a negative association between vertical curvature and both accidents and fatalities. No statistical association with changes in safety is found for median widths, inside shoulder widths, and horizontal and vertical curvature.

  17. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  18. Lung cancer risk in relation to traffic-related nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs exposure: a preliminary probabilistic assessment.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chio, Chia-Pin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Ju, Yun-Ru; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Ling, Min-Pei

    2011-06-15

    Exposures to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been linked to human lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess lung cancer risk caused by inhalation exposure to nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs at the population level in Taiwan appraised with recent published data. A human respiratory tract model was linked with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to estimate deposition fraction and internal organic-specific PAHs doses. A probabilistic risk assessment framework was developed to estimate potential lung cancer risk. We reanalyzed particle size distribution, total-PAHs, particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) and PM concentrations. A dose-response profile describing the relationships between external B[a]P concentration and lung cancer risk response was constructed based on population attributable fraction (PAF). We found that 90% probability lung cancer risks ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) for traffic-related nano and ultrafine particle-bound PAHs, indicating a potential lung cancer risk. The particle size-specific PAF-based excess annual lung cancer incidence rate due to PAHs exposure was estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 population, indicating a mild risk factor for lung cancer. We concluded that probabilistic risk assessment linked PAF for limiting cumulative PAHs emissions to reduce lung cancer risk plays a prominent role in future government risk assessment program.

  19. Diagnosing the traffic impact on roadside soils through a multianalytical data analysis of the concentration profiles of traffic-related elements.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Jose Antonio; Arrizabalaga, Iker; Bustamante, Julen; Goienaga, Naiara; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The road traffic has become one of the most serious environmental problems in many cities and the main source of pollution of urban soils. To diagnose properly the magnitude of such impacts on roadside soils, eight urban and metropolitan soils were selected as a function of traffic density, distance to the road and years of operation, for which the concentration of 60 elements (major, minor and trace elements) were measured by semi-quantitative ICP-MS after acid digestion, as a first step in assessing the traffic impact. With this information, a comprehensive study was carried out focusing on the quantitative analysis of the concentration of 46 elements from the 8 sampling areas, analyzing the vertical and horizontal distributions of the metals in the roadside soils. The chemometric analysis showed that only the traffic-related elements accumulate in topsoil and present a high decreasing profile with depth and the distance to the road; however, this clear behavior takes places only in old roads that have undergone the traffic impact for a long time, but not in new roads or roads with low traffic density. Finally, the geoaccumulation indexes are suggested to be used instead of the local guidelines to assess the pollution state of the roadside soils, especially for the emerging trace elements like Antimony.

  20. [Air pollution and health - counselling options for physicians].

    PubMed

    Künzli, Nino; Kutlar, Meltem

    2013-12-01

    While air quality is usually an environmental condition patients can little do about, there are a few options and decisions that modify the personal exposure and risk. Location - in particular the residence - time and activity are the key determinants of personal exposure. Traffic-related primary pollutants such as ultrafine particles or diesel soot are highly concentrated along busy roads but reach urban background concentrations already some 100 - 200 meters off. Morbidity and mortality follow this spatial pattern, which is usually attributed to these pollutants. Depending on ventilation systems, indoor exposure can be substantially lower. Studies done in China confirm that the use of face masks in extremely polluted cities can reduce exposure, resulting in lower inflammatory and cardiovascular responses. A diet rich in antioxidants appears to also reduce some of the oxidative and inflammatory effects of air pollution and treatments such as leucotrien receptor antagonists or statins pay interfere with some of the adverse effects of pollution. However, the benefits, if any, are unlikely to be large. A quantitative comparison of the various pollution related health effects - namely from smoking, passive smoking and air pollution - reveal a typical paradox to be well understood: the individual risks related to air pollution and that one may reduce through personal decisions are rather small. However, given the large number of people exposed (i. e. in essence the entire population), the overall air pollution related health burden is rather substantial. This underscores that sustained clean air policies are indeed the most important and efficient solution to reduce the air pollution related health effects.

  1. Meta-Analysis on Near-Road Air Pollutants Concentrations for Developing Traffic Indicators for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road air pollution has been associated with various health risks in human populations living near roadways. To better understand relationship between vehicle emissions and spatial profiles of traffic-related air pollutants we performed a comprehensive and systematic literat...

  2. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  3. Evaluation of US and UK Models in Simulating the Impact of Barriers on Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility that roadside noise barriers can act to mitigate traffic-related air pollution exposures for people living and working near major roadways is being considered in the context of public health protection. Air pollution dispersion models that can accurately simulate ...

  4. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  5. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Breton, Carrie V; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children's Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children's health while control measures are being implemented.

  6. The impact of decreases in air temperature and increases in ozone on markers of endothelial function in individuals having type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, Stefanie; Breitner, Susanne; Neas, Lucas; Cascio, Wayne; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Hinderliter, Alan; Peters, Annette; Devlin, Robert B; Schneider, Alexandra

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have reported an association between air pollution and endothelial dysfunction, especially in individuals having diabetes. However, very few studies have examined the impact of air temperature on endothelial function. The objective of this analysis was to investigate short-term effects of temperature and ozone on endothelial function in individuals having diabetes. Moreover, we investigated interactive effects between air temperature and air pollution on markers of endothelial function. Between November 2004 and December 2005 flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation (NTGMD) and several blood markers representing endothelial function were measured using brachial artery ultrasound on four consecutive days in 22 individuals with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Chapel Hill, North Carolina (USA). Daily measurements of meteorological parameters, ozone and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) were obtained from fixed monitoring sites. We used additive mixed-models adjusting for time trend, day of the week, relative humidity and barometric pressure to assess temperature and ozone associations with endothelial function. A 1 °C decrease in the 24-h temperature average was associated with a decrease in mean FMD on the same day (-2.2% (95%-confidence interval:[-4.7;0.3%])) and with a delay of one and four days. A temperature decrement also led to an immediate (-1.7%[-3.3;-0.04]) decrease in NTGMD. Moreover, we observed an immediate (-14.6%[-26.3;-2.9%]) and a one day delayed (-13.5%[-27.0; 0.04%]) decrease in FMD in association with a 0.01 ppm increase in the maximum 8-h moving average of ozone. Temperature effects on FMD strengthened when PM2.5 and ozone concentrations were high. The associations were similar during winter and summer. We detected an association between temperature decreases and ozone increases on endothelial dysfunction in individuals having diabetes. We conclude that endothelial dysfunction

  7. Properties of individual aerosol particles and their relation to air mass origins in a south China coastal city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zongbo; He, Kebin; Xue, Zhigang; Yang, Fumo; Chen, Yanju; Ma, Yongliang; Luo, Jiaojiao

    2009-05-01

    Atmospheric particles in urban and rural areas in Shenzhen city were collected in summer and winter 2004. The particles were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The fine particles (<1 μm) were categorized into chain-like, elongated, rounded, and others on the basis of their morphology. Chain-like particles were likely soot aggregates. In summer and winter, chain-like particles accounted for 43% and 42% of total particles in the urban area, and 22% and 43% in the rural area, respectively. The elongated particles were mixtures of aged sea salts and ammonium sulfate, suggesting an aqueous phase reaction mechanism, i.e., in-cloud sulfate formation. Such particles occupied 12% of total particles in the urban area in the summer and were rarely observed in the wintertime samples. The rounded particles were mainly composed of sulfate and/or carbon. Their number concentration in the urban area was more than three times higher in the winter. In addition, we found that air masses from northern inland contained much higher concentrations of particles than those from the ocean. This was particularly evident in the rural area, where concentrations of chain-like and rounded particles were eight times higher in the continental air masses. These results suggest the strong influence of regional pollution on the particle number concentrations in the coastal city.

  8. GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time–location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: Model evaluation in central North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Michael S.; Long, Thomas C.; Schultz, Bradley D.; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E.; Isaacs, Kristin K.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W.; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M.; Devlin, Robert B.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Buckley, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time–location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. PMID:24619294

  9. A modeling framework for characterizing near-road air pollutant concentration at community scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we combine information from transportation network, traffic emissions, and dispersion model to develop a framework to inform exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) with a high spatial resolution. A Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LIN...

  10. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    R. Demler

    2006-04-01

    uniformity of the air or coal profile, the installation location need not be on a long, straight run of pipe. In fact, an optimal signal is obtained near a pipe elbow. This is fortuitous, as bends are often more accessible on pipes in a power plant than straight sections. In contrast to measurement systems that rely on the uniformity of the air and coal profile, the accuracy of the system under development will not compromised by varying levels of flow uniformity.

  11. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Breton, Carrie V.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children’s Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children’s health while control measures are being implemented. PMID:25694817

  12. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler

    2004-06-01

    The project's overall objective is to develop a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the nonspecific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to pulverized

  13. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF COAL FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill

    2004-02-01

    The project's overall objective is to development a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the non-specific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to

  14. Individual growth of Drepanotrema cimex (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) from Arenalcito pond, natural reserve multiple uses Martin García Island, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martín-Stella, M; Díaz-Ana, C; Rumi, A

    2013-11-01

    The species of the genus Drepanotrema, most of them endemic to the Neotropical region, belong to the Planorbidae. Of the nine species of this genus, six are found in Argentina. The present investigation analysed the individual growth of Drepanotrema cimex in Arenalcito pond (34°11' S, 58°15' W), Martín García Island Natural Reserve of Multiple Uses, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. A total of 14 samples were collected (n = 1931) from February 2006 to June 2007. Five environmental variables were measured: water temperature, dissolved oxygen (mg L-1), electrical conductivity (µS cm-1), total dissolved solids, and pH. The individual growth of the species was analysed mathematically by means of the von Bertalanffy equation, where: Lt = 5,6(1-e-2,0592 (t-0,293)). The parameter L∞ was estimated by the Ford-Walford Method. The population of D. cimex was characterised by a complex and dynamic size structure throughout the annual cycle. The analysis of the curves revealed unimodal (2006) and polymodal (April to June 2007) distributions, which pattern served to identify the existence of cohorts within the population studied.

  15. Local-Scale Exposure Assessment of Air Pollutants in Source-Impacted Neighborhoods in Detroit, MI (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vette, A. F.; Bereznicki, S.; Sobus, J.; Norris, G.; Williams, R.; Batterman, S.; Breen, M.; Isakov, V.; Perry, S.; Heist, D.; Community Action Against Asthma Steering Committee

    2010-12-01

    modeling techniques. Concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants will be measured and modeled indoors and outdoors of the children’s homes. Measurements will be made in a subset of homes each during fall 2010 and early spring 2011. High-time resolution measurements will be made of the chemical composition of traffic-related pollutants in the gas and particle phases adjacent to selected roadways. These data will be used to quantify the impact of traffic on the observed air quality data. Air pollutant dispersion and exposure models will be used in combination with measured data to estimate indoor/outdoor concentrations and personal exposures. Near-road spatial concentration patterns will be estimated at the children’s residences and schools across the study domain using dispersion modeling. These data will be used as input for an individual-level exposure model to estimate personal exposures from meteorology and questionnaire data on indoor sources, residential characteristics and operation, and time-location-activity patterns.

  16. Application of alternative spatiotemporal metrics of ambient air pollution exposure in a time-series epidemiological study in Atlanta

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure error in studies of ambient air pollution and health that use city-wide measures of exposure may be substantial for pollutants that exhibit spatiotemporal variability. Alternative spatiotemporal metrics of exposure for traffic-related and regional pollutants were applied...

  17. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  18. Heart rate and heart rate variability assessment identifies individual differences in fear response magnitudes to earthquake, free fall, and air puff in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Wei; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z; Zhao, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Fear behaviors and fear memories in rodents have been traditionally assessed by the amount of freezing upon the presentation of conditioned cues or unconditioned stimuli. However, many experiences, such as encountering earthquakes or accidental fall from tree branches, may produce long-lasting fear memories but are behaviorally difficult to measure using freezing parameters. Here, we have examined changes in heartbeat interval dynamics as physiological readout for assessing fearful reactions as mice were subjected to sudden air puff, free-fall drop inside a small elevator, and a laboratory-version earthquake. We showed that these fearful events rapidly increased heart rate (HR) with simultaneous reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiac changes can be further analyzed in details by measuring three distinct phases: namely, the rapid rising phase in HR, the maximum plateau phase during which HRV is greatly decreased, and the recovery phase during which HR gradually recovers to baseline values. We showed that durations of the maximum plateau phase and HR recovery speed were quite sensitive to habituation over repeated trials. Moreover, we have developed the fear resistance index based on specific cardiac response features. We demonstrated that the fear resistance index remained largely consistent across distinct fearful events in a given animal, thereby enabling us to compare and rank individual mouse's fear responsiveness among the group. Therefore, the fear resistance index described here can represent a useful parameter for measuring personality traits or individual differences in stress-susceptibility in both wild-type mice and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models.

  19. Novel slanted incidence air-coupled ultrasound method for delamination assessment in individual bonding planes of structural multi-layered glued timber laminates.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Sergio J; Furrer, Roman; Neuenschwander, Jürg; Niemz, Peter; Sennhauser, Urs

    2013-09-01

    Non-destructive assessment of delaminations in glued laminated timber structures is required during their full life cycle. A novel air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) method has been developed, which is able to separately detect delaminations in individual bonding planes of arbitrarily high and long laminated stacks and typically 200 mm wide. The 120 kHz ACU transmitter-receiver pair is positioned at two opposite lateral faces of the sample, with a small inclination with respect to the inspected bonding planes, so that an ultrasound beam is excited at a user-defined refraction angle within the sample, interacting with defects in a limited height portion of the stack. The attenuation of the ultrasound beam transmitted across the defect (negative detection) provided better sensitivity to defects than the scattered fields (positive detection), which are masked by spurious fields. Dedicated finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations provided understanding on the wave propagation and defect detectability limits, with respect to the heterogeneous anisotropic material structure introduced by the curvature of the annual rings in individual timber lamellas. A simplified analytical expression was derived to calculate refraction angles in timber in function of insonification angle and ring angle. Experimental results show that the method is able to detect >20% wide defects in both isotropic material and in glulam with straight year rings, and >50% wide and 100mm long defects in commercial glulam beams. The discrimination of defects from background variability is optimized by normalizing the images with respect to reference defect-free sample sections (normalization) or previous measurements (difference imaging), and by combining readings obtained with distinct ultrasound beam refraction angles (spatial diversity). Future work aims at the development of a tomographic defect inspection by combining the described theoretical and experimental methods.

  20. Modelling the contribution of individual radionuclides to the total gamma air kerma rate for the sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; McDonald, P; Williams, M; Parker, A; Rae, J E

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the performance of a published dose-rate model, investigate the contribution of individual radionuclides to the total gamma air kerma rate (GAKR) and derive external doses to man in the Ribble Estuary, NW England. GAKRs were measured and sediment cores were collected in order to determine radionuclide specific activities with depth. The latter values were used as input data for the external dose-rate model. The model has a slight tendency to over-predict the GAKR, but, on average, the model predictions fall within +/-26% of the measured value. Improvements, in the present case, might be made by accounting for core shortening and variations in soil density in the input data. The model predicted that, for exposed intertidal mud sites, a range of GAKRs between 0.011 and 0.022 microGy h(-1) was attributable to Springfields discharges alone. The contribution due to 234mPa and 234Th ranged between 20 and 60%. An excess GAKR (GAKR arising from anthropogenic emissions alone) of 0.139-0.150 microGy h(-1), used in conjunction with relevant habit-survey data (for a potential critical group) and conversion factors, yielded a dose to man of 0.029-0.031 mSv year(-1).

  1. Individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural populations (Gastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the multiple use natural Reserve Isla Martin Garcia, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martin, S M

    2008-08-01

    The present work analyses the individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural conditions in coastal drainage channels of the Multiple Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Isla Martín García is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay river (34 degrees 11' 25" S and 58 degrees 15' 38" W). Monthly collections were made from July 2005 to July 2006 in the eastern part of the island (Arena Beach). The population of H. piscium showed a complex and dynamic structure of sizes during a long period of the annual cycle. Two cohorts could be detected. The Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 6 (1-e -1.85 (t+0.38)) and Lt = 3.9 (1-e -0.19 (t+4.84)) for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. The pattern of population growth displayed a staggered model, where the greatest growth is observed during the summer. The reproductive period occurred during six months, from the beginning of summer to middle of fall. Based on only one reproductive effort, this pattern is not similar to that of other cogeneric species already studied.

  2. Proximity to Traffic, Ambient Air Pollution, and Community Noise in Relation to Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Tamburic, Lillian; Davies, Hugh W.; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with living near traffic; however, there is evidence suggesting that air pollution may not be responsible for this association. Noise, another traffic-generated exposure, has not been studied as a risk factor for RA. Objectives: We investigated proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to RA in the Vancouver and Victoria regions of British Columbia, Canada. Methods: Cases and controls were identified in a cohort of adults that was assembled using health insurance registration records. Incident RA cases from 1999 through 2002 were identified by diagnostic codes in combination with prescriptions and type of physician (e.g., rheumatologist). Controls were matched to RA cases by age and sex. Environmental exposures were assigned to each member of the study population by their residential postal code(s). We estimated relative risks using conditional logistic regression, with additional adjustment for median income at the postal code. Results: RA incidence was increased with proximity to traffic, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.68) for residence ≤ 50 m from a highway compared with residence > 150 m away. We found no association with traffic-related exposures such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, or noise. Ground-level ozone, which was highest in suburban areas, was associated with an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36 per interquartile range increase). Conclusions: Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship. Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for RA. Citation: De Roos AJ, Koehoorn M, Tamburic L, Davies HW, Brauer M. 2014. Proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community

  3. Effects of travel mode on exposures to particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David J; de Hoogh, Kees; Morris, Chloe; Gulliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring was carried out of particulate concentrations whilst simultaneously walking and driving 48 routes in London, UK. Monitoring was undertaken during May and June 2005. Route lengths ranged from 601 to 1351 m, and most routes were travelled in both directions. Individual journey times ranged from 1.5 to 15 min by car (average 3.7 min) and 7.3 to 30 min (average 12.8 min) whilst walking; car trips were therefore repeated up to 5 times for each single walking trip and the results averaged for the route. Car trips were made with windows closed and the ventilation system on a moderate setting. Results show that mean exposures while walking are greatly in excess of those while driving, by a factor 4.7 for the coarse particle mass (PM10-PM2.5), 2.2 for the fine particle mass (PM2.5-PM1), 1.9 for the very fine particle mass (air pollution present in the street. When account is also taken of the additional travel time involved in walking, these excesses are further increased: to factors of 15.6, 7.4, 6.5 and 4.4, respectively. Individuals who change their travel mode from car to walking in response to policies aimed at encouraging a modal shift in travel behavior are thus likely to experience considerably increased journey-time personal exposures to traffic-related air pollution. More effort is consequently needed to increase separation between road vehicles and pedestrians if negative effects of these policies are to be avoided.

  4. Usage of Social Media and Smartphone Application in Assessment of Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Individuals in Times of a Major Air Pollution Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cyrus SH; Fang, Pan; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Roger CM

    2014-01-01

    Background Crisis situations bring about many challenges to researchers, public institutions, and governments in collecting data and conducting research in affected individuals. Recent developments in Web-based and smartphone technologies have offered government and nongovernment organizations a new system to disseminate and acquire information. However, research into this area is still lacking. The current study focuses largely on how new social networking websites and, in particular, smartphone technologies could have helped in the acquisition of crucial research data from the general population during the recent 2013 Southeast Asian Haze. This crisis lasted only for 1 week, and is unlike other crisis where there are large-scale consequential after-effects. Objective To determine whether respondents will make use of Internet, social media, and smartphone technologies to provide feedback regarding their physical and psychological wellbeing during a crisis, and if so, will these new mechanisms be as effective as conventional, technological, Internet-based website technologies. Methods A Web-based database and a smartphone application were developed. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. The participants were recruited either via a self-sponsored Facebook post featuring a direct link to the questionnaire on physical and psychological wellbeing and also a smartphone Web-based application; or via dissemination of the questionnaire link by emails, directed to the same group of participants. Information pertaining to physical and psychological wellbeing was collated. Results A total of 298 respondents took part in the survey. Most of them were between the ages of 20 to 29 years and had a university education. More individuals preferred the option of accessing and providing feedback to a survey on physical and psychological wellbeing via direct access to a Web-based questionnaire. Statistical analysis showed that demographic variables like age, gender, and

  5. The Fort Collins Commuter Study: Impact of route type and transport mode on personal exposure to multiple air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Ackerson, Charis; Bachand, Annette; Carpenter, Taylor; Clark, Maggie L; Fedak, Kristen M; Kayne, Ashleigh; Koehler, Kirsten; Moore, Brianna; L'Orange, Christian; Quinn, Casey; Ugave, Viney; Stuart, Amy L; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2016-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have examined strategies to reduce individual exposure while commuting. The present study aimed to quantify how choice of mode and route type affects personal exposure to air pollutants during commuting. We analyzed within-person difference in exposures to multiple air pollutants (black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)) during commutes between the home and workplace for 45 participants. Participants completed 8 days of commuting by car and bicycle on direct and alternative (reduced traffic) routes. Mean within-person exposures to BC, PM2.5, and PNC were higher when commuting by cycling than when driving, but mean CO exposure was lower when cycling. Exposures to CO and BC were reduced when commuting along alternative routes. When cumulative exposure was considered, the benefits from cycling were attenuated, in the case of CO, or exacerbated, in the case of particulate exposures, owing to the increased duration of the commute. Although choice of route can reduce mean exposure, the effect of route length and duration often offsets these reductions when cumulative exposure is considered. Furthermore, increased ventilation rate when cycling may result in a more harmful dose than inhalation at a lower ventilation rate. PMID:26507004

  6. Ambient carbon monoxide and daily mortality in three Chinese cities: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES).

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Pan, Guowei; Zhang, Yanping; Xu, Qun; Zeng, Guang; Xu, Xiaohui; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2011-11-01

    Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is an air pollutant primarily generated by traffic. CO has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity in developed countries, but few studies have been conducted in Asian developing countries. In the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES), the short-term associations between ambient CO and daily mortality were examined in three Chinese cities: Shanghai, Anshan and Taiyuan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for long-term and seasonal trend of mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant associations of CO with both total non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality were observed. In the combined analysis, a 1 mg/m(3) increase of 2-day moving average concentrations of CO corresponded to 2.89% (95%CI: 1.68, 4.11) and 4.17% (95%CI: 2.66, 5.68) increase of total and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. CO was not significantly associated with respiratory mortality. Sensitivity analyses showed that our findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. In conclusion, ambient CO was associated with increased risk of daily mortality in these three cities. Our findings suggest that the role of exposure to CO and other traffic-related air pollutants should be further investigated in China.

  7. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability of Residential Air Exchange Rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Michael S.; Burke, Janet M.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Vette, Alan F.; Godwin, Christopher; Croghan, Carry W.; Schultz, Bradley D.; Long, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. The residential air exchange rate (AER), which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for house-to-house (spatial) and temporal variations of air pollution infiltration. Our goal was to evaluate and apply mechanistic models to predict AERs for 213 homes in the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS), a cohort study of traffic-related air pollution exposures and respiratory effects in asthmatic children living near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. We used a previously developed model (LBL), which predicts AER from meteorology and questionnaire data on building characteristics related to air leakage, and an extended version of this model (LBLX) that includes natural ventilation from open windows. As a critical and novel aspect of our AER modeling approach, we performed a cross validation, which included both parameter estimation (i.e., model calibration) and model evaluation, based on daily AER measurements from a subset of 24 study homes on five consecutive days during two seasons. The measured AER varied between 0.09 and 3.48 h−1 with a median of 0.64 h−1. For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 29% (0.19 h‑1) for both the LBL and LBLX models. The LBL and LBLX models predicted 59% and 61% of the variance in the AER, respectively. Daily AER predictions for all 213 homes during the three year study (2010–2012) showed considerable house-to-house variations from building leakage differences, and temporal variations from outdoor temperature and wind speed fluctuations. Using this novel approach, NEXUS will be one of the first epidemiology studies to apply calibrated

  8. Modeling spatial and temporal variability of residential air exchange rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS).

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Burke, Janet M; Batterman, Stuart A; Vette, Alan F; Godwin, Christopher; Croghan, Carry W; Schultz, Bradley D; Long, Thomas C

    2014-11-07

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. The residential air exchange rate (AER), which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for house-to-house (spatial) and temporal variations of air pollution infiltration. Our goal was to evaluate and apply mechanistic models to predict AERs for 213 homes in the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS), a cohort study of traffic-related air pollution exposures and respiratory effects in asthmatic children living near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. We used a previously developed model (LBL), which predicts AER from meteorology and questionnaire data on building characteristics related to air leakage, and an extended version of this model (LBLX) that includes natural ventilation from open windows. As a critical and novel aspect of our AER modeling approach, we performed a cross validation, which included both parameter estimation (i.e., model calibration) and model evaluation, based on daily AER measurements from a subset of 24 study homes on five consecutive days during two seasons. The measured AER varied between 0.09 and 3.48 h(-1) with a median of 0.64 h(-1). For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 29% (0.19 h‑1) for both the LBL and LBLX models. The LBL and LBLX models predicted 59% and 61% of the variance in the AER, respectively. Daily AER predictions for all 213 homes during the three year study (2010-2012) showed considerable house-to-house variations from building leakage differences, and temporal variations from outdoor temperature and wind speed fluctuations. Using this novel approach, NEXUS will be one of the first epidemiology studies to apply calibrated and

  9. Comparison of three different sample preparation procedures for the determination of traffic-related elements in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Ivan N B; Welz, Bernhard; Vale, Maria Goreti R; de Andrade, Jailson B; Smichowski, Patricia; Shaltout, Abdallah A; Colares, Lígia; Carasek, Eduardo

    2012-01-15

    Three different procedures for sample preparation have been compared for the determination of Cu, Mo and Sb in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). Direct solid sample analysis of the ground filters was compared with microwave-assisted acid leaching with aqua regia and ultrasound-assisted extraction also using aqua regia. The main absorption line at 324.754 nm or the secondary line at 216.509 nm was used for the determination of Cu, depending on the analyte content in the samples. The primary absorption line at 313.259 nm was used for Mo and the secondary line at 212.739 nm for Sb determination. The limits of detection (LOD, 3σ) found for the direct solid sampling method, based on ten atomizations of an unused filter were 15 μg g(-1) for all three analytes, corresponding to 40 ng m(-3) for a typical air volume of 1,440 m(3) collected over a period of 24h. The LOD for the other two methods were less than a factor of two inferior, but the total time required for an analysis was significantly longer. The repeatability of the measurements was between 3 and 9% (n=5), and the results obtained with the three methods did not show any significant difference. The ratio between the three analytes on the filters from areas of intense traffic was found to be around Cu:Mo:Sb≈4:1:1.4, which suggests that the source of all three elements is brake linings, i.e., related to automobile traffic. When the ratio deviated significantly from the above values, the source of contamination was assumed to be of different origin.

  10. Traffic-related exposures and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress: a panel study in the US trucking industry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Experimental evidence suggests that inhaled particles from vehicle exhaust have systemic effects on inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress. In the present study we assess the relationships of short-term exposures with inflammatory endothelial activation and oxidative stress biomarker levels in a population of trucking industry workers. Methods Blood and urine samples were collected pre and post-shift, at the beginning and end of a workweek from 67 male non-smoking US trucking industry workers. Concurrent measurements of microenvironment concentrations of elemental and organic carbon (EC & OC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) combined with time activity patterns allowed for calculation of individual exposures. Associations between daily and first and last-day average levels of exposures and repeated measures of intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 & VCAM-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) blood levels and urinary 8-Hydroxy-2′-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were assessed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures. Results There was a statistically significant association between first and last-day average PM2.5 and 8-OHdG (21% increase, 95% CI: 2, 42%) and first and last-day average OC and IL-6 levels (18% increase 95% CI: 1, 37%) per IQR in exposure. There were no significant findings associated with EC or associations suggesting acute cross-shift effects. Conclusion Our findings suggest associations between weekly average exposures of PM2.5 on markers of oxidative stress and OC on IL-6 levels. PMID:24314116

  11. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  12. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  13. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies: Evaluation for Ambient PM2.5 in Central North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies of fine particulate matter (diameter ≤2.5 μm, PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of indoor infiltration of ambient PM2.5 and time indoors can induce exposure errors. We developed an...

  14. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe-A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-12-02

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO₂ were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no

  15. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no consistent

  16. Quantile Regression Analysis of the Distributional Effects of Air Pollution on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability, Blood Lipids, and Biomarkers of Inflammation in Elderly American Men: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Peters, Annette; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have observed associations between air pollution and heart disease. Susceptibility to air pollution effects has been examined mostly with a test of effect modification, but little evidence is available whether air pollution distorts cardiovascular risk factor distribution. Objectives: This paper aims to examine distributional and heterogeneous effects of air pollution on known cardiovascular biomarkers. Methods: A total of 1,112 men from the Normative Aging Study and residents of the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area with mean age of 69 years at baseline were included in this study during the period 1995–2013. We used quantile regression and random slope models to investigate distributional effects and heterogeneity in the traffic-related responses on blood pressure, heart rate variability, repolarization, lipids, and inflammation. We considered 28-day averaged exposure to particle number, PM2.5 black carbon, and PM2.5 mass concentrations (measured at a single monitor near the site of the study visits). Results: We observed some evidence suggesting distributional effects of traffic-related pollutants on systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability, corrected QT interval, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). For example, among participants with LDL cholesterol below 80 mg/dL, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 black carbon exposure was associated with a 7-mg/dL (95% CI: 5, 10) increase in LDL cholesterol, while among subjects with LDL cholesterol levels close to 160 mg/dL, the same exposure was related to a 16-mg/dL (95% CI: 13, 20) increase in LDL cholesterol. We observed similar heterogeneous associations across low versus high percentiles of the LDL distribution for PM2.5 mass and particle number. Conclusions: These results suggest that air pollution distorts the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors, and that, for several outcomes, effects may be

  17. Investigation of gene expression pattern of 5HTR2a and MAO-A in PBMCs of individuals who had been exposed to air pollution in highly polluted area.

    PubMed

    Sheikhha, Hajar; Emadi, Somayeh; Jorbozedar, Saman; Deilami, Gholamreza D; Ahangari, Ghasem

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants can lead to lung inflammatory responses such as allergic asthma. Serotonin elevation is shown to be present in peripheral blood of symptomatic asthmatic patients. In this study, two genes, 5HTR2a and MAO-A playing important roles in serotonin function, were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals who had been exposed to air pollution and allergic asthmatic patients as well. Thus, cDNA was synthesized from PBMCs' mRNA of the subjects and then gene expression was measured by real-time PCR. 5HTR2A gene expression in PBMCs of both exposed individuals and allergic asthmatic patients was significantly increased compared with control group, whereas MAO-A gene expression showed no significant changes in neither groups. These results indicate that there may be association between increased 5HTR2a gene expression and exposure to air pollution as well as asthma incidence. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this article.

  18. [Indoor air pollution by emissions from individual fossil fuel stoves. Possibly a so-far underestimated risk factor in development of cancers of the head and neck area].

    PubMed

    Dietz, A; Sennewald, E; Maier, H

    1994-01-01

    We have carried out three case-control studies on the relative risk of head and neck cancer in association with indoor air pollution. The studies performed at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the University of Heidelberg comprised 369 male patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx; one thousand, four hundred and seventy-six healthy subjects were used as controls and were matched for sex, age and residential area. The relative risk (RR) of laryngeal cancer related to daily exposure to fossil fuels due to stove heating with oil, coal, gas and wood in a period longer than 40 years was 2.5 [confidence interval (CI): 1.51-4.05]. After adjustment for tobacco and alcohol the RR declined slightly to 2.0 [CI: 1.10-3.46] but was still significant. Increased risks were also found for daily exposure in a kitchen containing air oil, coal or wood oven for a period longer than 40 years (RR = 1.7; CI: 1.01-2.71). In this latter group the RR because 1.4 after adjustments for use of tobacco and alcohol [CI: 0.76-2.41]). The RR of pharyngeal cancer related to daily exposure to fossil fuels due to stove heating with oil, coal, gas and wood in a period longer than 40 years was 3.6 [CI: 2.04-6.41]. After adjustments were made for tobacco and alcohol, the RR declined slightly to 3.3 [CI: 1.43-7.55] but was still significant. Elevated risks were also found for daily presence in a kitchen with oil, coal or wood ovens for a period longer than 40 years (RR = 1.6 [CI: 0.89-2.77].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  20. In situ measurements of particle number concentration, chemically resolved size distributions and black carbon content of traffic-related emissions on German motorways, rural roads and in city traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Kirchner, U.; Borrmann, S.; Vogt, R.; Scheer, V.

    2008-06-01

    In-situ measurements of various properties of traffic-related aerosol particles have been performed with a mobile laboratory. The measured aerosol quantities include particle chemical composition (sulfate, nitrate, total organic matter, ammonium, black carbon) as well as particle size distributions covering diameters from 10 to 300 nm, and total particle number density. Additionally, gas phase emissions (CO2, NO, NO2) were monitored. We performed six measurement drives in the vicinity of the city of Aachen (population ca. 260,000) at 50.8°N, 6.1°E in Germany on motorways, rural roads, and in the inner city of Aachen in June 2005. The results indicate that the main influence of traffic on the aerosol properties results in soot particles coated with organic matter, having a modal diameter around 100 nm ("soot mode"). The abundance of these particles was found to be highest in the inner city traffic. Nucleation mode particles (around 30 nm) have been observed occasionally during truck chasings on motorways. These particles consisted mainly of organic compounds but included possibly also a sulfuric acid core. Data observed under "motorway background" conditions were similar to the rural regional road data. Highest number concentrations have been observed during truck chasings. Comparison between non-refractory (here with respect to 600 °C) and total particle volume indicated a higher contribution of refractory material under all traffic-influenced conditions compared to rural road data. Fuel specific emission ratios were derived for a subset of 18 truck-chasing experiments, yielding (8.3±5.8)×1015 kg-1 for particle number, 224±136 mg kg-1 for black carbon, 125±125 mg kg-1 for organic matter, 17±12 g kg-1 for NO and 18±14 g kg-1 for NOx (mean values and standard deviations).

  1. Urban air pollution and lung cancer in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, F; Gustavsson, P; Järup, L; Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Jakobsson, R; Pershagen, G

    2000-09-01

    We conducted a population-based case-control study among men 40-75 years of age encompassing all cases of lung cancer 1985-1990 among stable residents of Stockholm County 1950-1990. Questionnaires to subjects or next-of-kin (primarily wives or children) elicited information regarding smoking and other risk factors, including occupational and residential histories. A high response rate (>85%) resulted in 1,042 cases and 2,364 controls. We created retrospective emission databases for NOx/NO2 and SO2 as indicators of air pollution from road traffic and heating, respectively. We estimated local annual source-specific air pollution levels using validated dispersion models and we linked these levels to residential addresses using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Average traffic-related NO2 exposure over 30 years was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.6) for the top decile of exposure, adjusted for tobacco smoking, socioeconomic status, residential radon, and occupational exposures. The data suggested a considerable latency period; the RR for the top decile of average traffic-related NO2 exposure 20 years previously was 1.4 (1.0-2.0). Little association was observed for SO2. Occupational exposure to asbestos, diesel exhaust, and other combustion products also increased the risk of lung cancer. Our results indicate that urban air pollution increases lung cancer risk and that vehicle emissions may be particularly important.

  2. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen E; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S; Bremner, Stephen A; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B; Kelly, Frank J; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions.

  3. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Helen E.; Marlin, Nadine; Mudway, Ian S.; Bremner, Stephen A.; Cross, Louise; Dundas, Isobel; Grieve, Andrew; Grigg, Jonathan; Jamaludin, Jeenath B.; Kelly, Frank J.; Lee, Tak; Sheikh, Aziz; Walton, Robert; Griffiths, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children’s respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8–9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02), NO2 (1.03, 1.00–1.06), PM10 (1.16, 1.04–1.28) and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08–1.78), all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions. PMID:26295579

  4. Associations of Residential Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Satellite-Derived Greenness with Insulin Resistance in German Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Markevych, Iana; Brüske, Irene; Fuertes, Elaine; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Sugiri, Dorothea; Hoffmann, Barbara; von Berg, Andrea; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have identified associations between air pollution and green space access with type 2 diabetes in adults. However, it remains unclear to what extent associations with greenness are attributable to air pollution exposure. Objectives: We aimed to investigate associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and satellite-derived greenness with insulin resistance in adolescents. Methods: A total of 837 participants of two German birth cohorts (LISAplus and GINIplus) were included in the analysis. Generalized additive models were used to determine the association of individual satellite-derived greenness defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), long-term air pollution exposure estimated by land-use regression (LUR) models with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 15-year-old adolescents. Models were adjusted for study area, cohort, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics such as body mass index, physical activity, and smoking. Results: Increases of 2 SDs in nitrogen dioxide (NO2; 8.9 μg/m3) and particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10; 6.7 μg/m3) were significantly associated with 11.4% (95% CI: 4.4, 18.9) and 11.4% (95% CI: 0.4, 23.7) higher HOMA-IR. A 2-SD increase in NDVI in a 1,000-m buffer (0.2 units) was significantly associated with a lower HOMA-IR (–7.4%; 95% CI: –13.3, –1.1). Associations tended to be stronger in adolescents who spent more time outside and in those with lower socioeconomic status. In combined models including both air pollution and greenness, only NO2 remained significantly associated with HOMA-IR, whereas effect estimates for all other exposures attenuated after adjustment for NO2. Conclusions: NO2, often considered as a marker of traffic, was independently associated with insulin resistance. The observed association between higher greenness exposure and lower HOMA-IR in adolescents might thus be attributable mainly to the lower co-exposure to traffic-related air

  5. A Flexible Spatio-Temporal Model for Air Pollution with Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implemented in an R package, SpatioTemporal, available on CRAN. The model is used by the EPA funded Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) to produce estimates of ambient air pollution; MESA Air uses the estimates to investigate the relationship between chronic exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular disease. In this paper we use the model to predict long-term average concentrations of NOx in the Los Angeles area during a ten year period. Predictions are based on measurements from the EPA Air Quality System, MESA Air specific monitoring, and output from a source dispersion model for traffic related air pollution (Caline3QHCR). Accuracy in predicting long-term average concentrations is evaluated using an elaborate cross-validation setup that accounts for a sparse spatio-temporal sampling pattern in the data, and adjusts for temporal effects. The predictive ability of the model is good with cross-validated R2 of approximately 0.7 at subject sites. Replacing four geographic covariate indicators of traffic density with the Caline3QHCR dispersion model output resulted in very similar prediction accuracy from a more parsimonious and more interpretable model. Adding traffic-related geographic covariates to the model that included Caline3QHCR did not further improve the prediction accuracy. PMID:25264424

  6. Impacts of air pollution exposure on the allergenic properties of Arizona cypress pollens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahali, Y.; Pourpak, Z.; Moin, M.; Zare, A.; Majd, A.

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.

  7. Ambient air pollution: a cause of COPD?

    PubMed

    Schikowski, Tamara; Mills, Inga C; Anderson, H Ross; Cohen, Aaron; Hansell, Anna; Kauffmann, Francine; Krämer, Ursula; Marcon, Alessandro; Perez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino

    2014-01-01

    The role of ambient air pollution in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be uncertain. We review the evidence in the light of recent studies. Eight morbidity and six mortality studies were identified. These were heterogeneous in design, characterisation of exposure to air pollution and methods of outcome definition. Six morbidity studies with objectively defined COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio) were cross-sectional analyses. One longitudinal study defined incidence of COPD as the first hospitalisation due to COPD. However, neither mortality nor hospitalisation studies can unambiguously distinguish acute from long-term effects on the development of the underlying pathophysiological changes. Most studies were based on within-community exposure contrasts, which mainly assess traffic-related air pollution. Overall, evidence of chronic effects of air pollution on the prevalence and incidence of COPD among adults was suggestive but not conclusive, despite plausible biological mechanisms and good evidence that air pollution affects lung development in childhood and triggers exacerbations in COPD patients. To fully integrate this evidence in the assessment, the life-time course of COPD should be better defined. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods, specific definitions of COPD phenotypes, and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments are needed.

  8. Roadside air quality and implications for control measures: A case study of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.; Lee, H. C.

    2016-07-01

    Traffic related air pollution is one of major environmental issues in densely populated urban areas including Hong Kong. A series of control measures has been implemented by Hong Kong government to cut traffic related air pollutants, including retrofitting the Euro II and Euro III buses with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices to lower nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. In order to reveal the real-life roadside air quality and evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures, this study first analyzed the recent six-year data regarding concentrations of pollutants typically associated with traffic recorded in two governmental roadside monitoring stations and second conducted on-site measurements of concentration of pollutants at pedestrian level near five selected roads. Given that there is a possibility of ammonia leakage as a secondary pollutant from SCR devices, a special attention was paid to the measurements of ammonia level in bus stations and along roadsides. Important influencing factors, such as traffic intensity, street configuration and season, were analyzed. Control measures implemented by the government are effective to decrease the traffic emissions. In 2014, only NO2 cannot achieve the annual air quality objective of Hong Kong. However, it is important to find that particulate matters, rather than NO2, post potentially a short-term exposure risk to passengers and pedestrians. Based on the findings of this study, specific control measures are suggested, which are intended to further improve the roadside air quality.

  9. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near

  10. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  11. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  12. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  13. On-road emission factor distributions of individual diesel vehicles in and around Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Westerdahl, Dane; Wu, Ye; Pan, Xiaochuan; Zhang, K. Max

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a recent field study that characterized the on-road emissions of individual diesel vehicles in and around Beijing, China during November and December of 2009. We successfully sampled 230 individual trucks on 4 major expressways around the city as well as 57 individual buses in the city using refined mobile chasing techniques and fast response instruments. Emission factors (EF) for carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC) and particulate matter with diameters less than 0.5 μm (PM 0.5) are derived from the measurements, which are consistent with the results from laboratory dynamometer tests. The PM 0.5 number emission factor distributions demonstrate consistent bimodal modes with peaks around 10 nm and 80 nm, while the mass emission factor distributions demonstrate a unimodal maximum around 110 nm for a majority of the trucks. The BC emissions are shown to be highly correlated with the mass emission of particles with 100-250 nm diameters, which are in good agreement with the results from previous studies. A number of important policy implications are discussed based on the results from this study. First, we identified "heavy emitters" in the on-road fleet we encountered, finding that 5% of diesel trucks in this sample are responsible for 50% of total BC emissions, and 20% of the trucks are responsible for 50% CO and PM 0.5 number emissions, 60% PM 0.5 mass emissions and over 70% of BC emissions. This suggests that emissions control programs should include identifying and removing heavy emitters from the road or improving their emissions. Second, the BC and PM 0.5 number emission factors of trucks registered in regions outside Beijing are significantly higher than those of Beijing-registered trucks, suggesting that improving engine and fuel standards in Beijing alone is not sufficient in reducing the traffic-related air pollution in Beijing. Third, the significantly lower emissions from Euro IV and CNG buses compared to the Euro II and

  14. Simulation of Population-Based Commuter Exposure to NO2 Using Different Air Pollution Models

    PubMed Central

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; de Nazelle, Audrey; Schindler, Christian; Ineichen, Alex; Ducret-Stich, Regina E.; Perez, Laura; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C.

    2014-01-01

    We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD) NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21–61) than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–51), and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–54). Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas. PMID:24823664

  15. Simulation of population-based commuter exposure to NO₂ using different air pollution models.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; de Nazelle, Audrey; Schindler, Christian; Ineichen, Alex; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Perez, Laura; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Phuleria, Harish C

    2014-05-12

    We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD) NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m(-3), range: 21-61) than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m(-3); range: 24-51), and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m(-3); range: 24-54). Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas.

  16. Modeling the Concentrations of On-Road Air Pollutants in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lianfa; Wu, Jun; Hudda, Neelakshi; Sioutas, Constantinos; Fruin, Scott A.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of air pollutants on roadways, relative to ambient concentrations, contribute significantly to total personal exposure. Estimation of these exposures requires measurements or prediction of roadway concentrations. Our study develops, compares and evaluates linear regression and non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) to estimate on-road concentrations of four key air pollutants, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH), particle number count (PNC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter with diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) using traffic, meteorology, and elevation variables. Critical predictors included wind speed and direction for all the pollutants, traffic-related variables for PB-PAH, PNC, and NOx, and air temperatures and relative humidity for PM2.5. GAMs explained 50%, 55%, 46%, and 71% of the variance for log or square-root transformed concentrations of PB-PAH, PNC, NOx, and PM2.5 respectively, an improvement of 5 to over 15% over the linear models. Accounting for temporal autocorrelation in the GAMs further improved the prediction, explaining 57-89% of the variance. We concluded that traffic and meteorological data are good predictors in estimating on-road traffic-related air pollutant concentrations and GAMs perform better for non-linear variables, such as meteorological parameters. PMID:23859442

  17. Combining regression analysis and air quality modelling to predict benzene concentration levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Achillas, Ch.; Chourdakis, E.; Moussiopoulos, N.

    2011-05-01

    State of the art epidemiological research has found consistent associations between traffic-related air pollution and various outcomes, such as respiratory symptoms and premature mortality. However, many urban areas are characterised by the absence of the necessary monitoring infrastructure, especially for benzene (C 6H 6), which is a known human carcinogen. The use of environmental statistics combined with air quality modelling can be of vital importance in order to assess air quality levels of traffic-related pollutants in an urban area in the case where there are no available measurements. This paper aims at developing and presenting a reliable approach, in order to forecast C 6H 6 levels in urban environments, demonstrated for Thessaloniki, Greece. Multiple stepwise regression analysis is used and a strong statistical relationship is detected between C 6H 6 and CO. The adopted regression model is validated in order to depict its applicability and representativeness. The presented results demonstrate that the adopted approach is capable of capturing C 6H 6 concentration trends and should be considered as complementary to air quality monitoring.

  18. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  19. Estimation of spatial patterns of urban air pollution over a 4-week period from repeated 5-min measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Jonathan; Masey, Nicola; Heal, Mathew R.; Hamilton, Scott; Beverland, Iain J.

    2017-02-01

    Determination of intra-urban spatial variations in air pollutant concentrations for exposure assessment requires substantial time and monitoring equipment. The objective of this study was to establish if short-duration measurements of air pollutants can be used to estimate longer-term pollutant concentrations. We compared 5-min measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) concentrations made once per week on 5 occasions, with 4 consecutive 1-week average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at 18 locations at a range of distances from busy roads in Glasgow, UK. 5-min BC and PN measurements (averaged over the two 5-min periods at the start and end of a week) explained 40-80%, and 7-64% respectively, of spatial variation in the intervening 1-week NO2 concentrations for individual weeks. Adjustment for variations in background concentrations increased the percentage of explained variation in the bivariate relationship between the full set of NO2 and BC measurements over the 4-week period from 28% to 50% prior to averaging of repeat measurements. The averages of five 5-min BC and PN measurements made over 5 weeks explained 75% and 33% respectively of the variation in average 1-week NO2 concentrations over the same period. The relatively high explained variation observed between BC and NO2 measured on different time scales suggests that, with appropriate steps to correct or average out temporal variations, repeated short-term measurements can be used to provide useful information on longer-term spatial patterns for these traffic-related pollutants.

  20. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Sustainable development of urban transport systems and human exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Colvile, R N; Kaur, S; Britter, R; Robins, A; Bell, M C; Shallcross, D; Belcher, S E

    2004-12-01

    DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollution and Penetration into the Local Environment, http://www.dapple.org.uk) is a major research project that will provide the understanding necessary to assess the sustainability of urban road transport in terms of exposure to traffic-related air pollution as an alternative to current indicators based on emissions, roadside, or far-from-road air pollution levels. The methodology is described, which combines on-street and laboratory measurement with modelling of the movement of air, vehicles, and vehicle exhaust emissions. The relationship between this kind of assessment and more realistic indicators of sustainability is discussed. The value of large-scale interdisciplinary research in this area is thus demonstrated.

  3. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  4. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  5. [Individualizing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, William J.

    The individually guided education (IGE) program developed by the Kettering Foundation was implemented in September of 1973 at the John F. Kennedy Memorial Junior High School in Woburn, Massachusetts. The components of the program described in this speech include pupil and teacher scheduling, physical layout, pupil selection and adjustment,…

  6. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  7. STEMS-Air: a simple GIS-based air pollution dispersion model for city-wide exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David

    2011-05-15

    Current methods of air pollution modelling do not readily meet the needs of air pollution mapping for short-term (i.e. daily) exposure studies. The main limiting factor is that for those few models that couple with a GIS there are insufficient tools for directly mapping air pollution both at high spatial resolution and over large areas (e.g. city wide). A simple GIS-based air pollution model (STEMS-Air) has been developed for PM(10) to meet these needs with the option to choose different exposure averaging periods (e.g. daily and annual). STEMS-Air uses the grid-based FOCALSUM function in ArcGIS in conjunction with a fine grid of emission sources and basic information on meteorology to implement a simple Gaussian plume model of air pollution dispersion. STEMS-Air was developed and validated in London, UK, using data on concentrations of PM(10) from routinely available monitoring data. Results from the validation study show that STEMS-Air performs well in predicting both daily (at four sites) and annual (at 30 sites) concentrations of PM(10). For daily modelling, STEMS-Air achieved r(2) values in the range 0.19-0.43 (p<0.001) based solely on traffic-related emissions and r(2) values in the range 0.41-0.63 (p<0.001) when adding information on 'background' levels of PM(10). For annual modelling of PM(10), the model returned r(2) in the range 0.67-0.77 (P<0.001) when compared with monitored concentrations. The model can thus be used for rapid production of daily or annual city-wide air pollution maps either as a screening process in urban air quality planning and management, or as the basis for health risk assessment and epidemiological studies.

  8. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach For Use in the Near ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Near-road EXposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigated whether children with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways in Detroit, MI, (particularly near roadways with high diesel traffic) have greater health impacts associated with exposure to air pollutants than those living farther away. A major challenge in such health and exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. This paper presents a hybrid air quality modeling approach and its application in NEXUS in order to provide spatial and temporally varying exposure estimates and identification of the mobile source contribution to the total pollutant exposure. Model-based exposure metrics, associated with local variations of emissions and meteorology, were estimated using a combination of the AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion models, local emission source information from the National Emissions Inventory, detailed road network locations and traffic activity, and meteorological data from the Detroit City Airport. The regional background contribution was estimated using a combination of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and the Space/Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) model. To capture the near-road pollutant gradients, refined “mini-grids” of model recep

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INJURY SEVERITY AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: A SURVEY IN SOUTHERN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaiyong; Liang, Wenjie; Han, Shanshan; Abdullah, Abu S; Yang, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships between road traffic injury severity and individual characteristics in Liuzhou, a city in southern China. Data for this study were collected from the Guangxi Public Security Bureau Traffic Police Corps. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used. Of all 14,595 individuals involved in accidents, males, motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and those aged 21-45 years accounted for the great proportion of all injuries. Children, the elderly, pedestrians, farmers and migrant workers, unemployed people, and novice drivers were at higher risk of serious injury in crashes. These findings suggest that individual characteristics (age, modes of transport, profession, driving experience) are strongly related to injury severity. To address road traffic related mortality and injuries, there is a need to develop policy strategies, strengthen road supervision, and improve public consciousness of road safety.

  10. Toward a better understanding of the impact of mass transit air pollutants on human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Pawan; Szulejko, Jan E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Junaid, Muhammad Faisal; Uchimiya, Minori; Chambers, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Globally, modern mass transport systems whether by road, rail, water, or air generate airborne pollutants in both developing and developed nations. Air pollution is the primary human health concern originating from modern transportation, particularly in densely-populated urban areas. This review will specifically focus on the origin and the health impacts of carbonaceous traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental carbon (EC). We conclude that the greatest current challenge regarding urban TRAP is understanding and evaluating the human health impacts well enough to set appropriate pollution control measures. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion regarding the effects of TRAP on local environments and pedestrian health in low and high traffic-density environments.

  11. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  12. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  13. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  14. [Individual consciousness].

    PubMed

    Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2009-01-01

    The main modern concepts on the consciousness nature are considered. Together with the dualistic concepts, there exist concepts the adherents of which find it possible to get to know the origin of consciousness on the basis of natural science. A critical analysis of those concepts brings the author to the conclusion that they do not solve the main problem of individual consciousness: how subjective elements of consciousness arise in the brain as a result of objectively registered processes. The main reason of failures to solve said problem is considered by the author in the fact that the subjective categories of consciousness are not really subject to science. Nevertheless, it does not mean the dualism is to be inevitably accepted. In fact, the subjective categories arise in the limits of a life the area of which is substantially wider than that of science. An original information and physical hypothesis is being set up that provides for necessary premises and conditions enabling the origination of subjective categories of consciousness during the progressive natural evolution of living systems.

  15. Analysis of the association between air pollution and allergic diseases exposure from nearby sources of ambient air pollution within elementary school zones in four Korean cities.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-H; Lee, C-S; Jeon, J-M; Yu, S-D; Lee, C-W; Park, J-H; Shin, D-C; Lim, Y-W

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey elementary school students regarding the environmental conditions of their elementary schools and to assess the relationship between air pollution and allergic disease using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Therefore, this study was designed as a cross-sectional study. In this study, seven elementary schools were selected and they were classified into three categories. The selection included one school with no traffic-related or other pollutants, three with traffic-related pollutants, and three with traffic-related and other pollutants from industrial and filling station sources. The ISAAC questionnaire survey was given to all of the students except to those in the 1st grade who were presumed to be less likely to be exposed to the school environment than the remainder of the students attending those seven schools. The assessment of allergic disease was conducted on a total of 4,545 students. Three school zones with critical exposure were selected within each school and they were evaluated based on the levels of black carbon (BC), PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3. There was a significant increase in the risks based on the odds ratios of treatment experiences (within 1 year) for allergy-related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (a) in the school group with traffic-related pollutants and the school group with complex pollutants were 2.12 (1.41-3.19) and 1.59 (1.06-2.37), respectively, in comparison to the school groups with no exposure to pollutants. This was determined based on the odds ratio of symptoms and treatment experiences for allergy-related diseases by group based on the home town zone as a reference. Also, in the case of atopic dermatitis, the odds ratio of treatment experiences (within 1 year) was 1.42 (1.02-1.97), which indicated elevated risks compared to the students in the S1 school. A regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the

  16. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  17. Predictors of intra-community variation in air quality

    PubMed Central

    FRANKLIN, MEREDITH; VORA, HITA; AVOL, EDWARD; McCONNELL, ROB; LURMANN, FRED; LIU, FEIFEI; PENFOLD, BRYAN; BERHANE, KIROS; GILLILAND, FRANK; GAUDERMAN, W. JAMES

    2015-01-01

    Air quality has emerged as a key determinant of important health outcomes in children and adults. This study aims to identify factors that influence local, within-community air quality, and to build a model for traffic-related air pollution (TRP).We utilized concentrations of NO2, NO, and total oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which were measured at 942 locations in 12 southern California communities. For each location, population density, elevation, land-use, and several indicators of traffic were calculated. A spatial random effects model was used to study the relationship of these predictors to each TRP.Variation in TRP was strongly correlated with traffic on nearby freeways and other major roads, and also with population density and elevation. After accounting for traffic, categories of land-use were not associated with the pollutants. Traffic had a larger relative impact in small urban (low regional pollution) communities than in large urban (high regional pollution) communities. For example, our best fitting model explained 70% of the variation in NOx in large urban areas and 76% in small urban areas. Compared with living at least 1,500m from a freeway, living within 250m of a freeway was associated with up to a 41% increase in TRP in a large urban area, and up to a 75% increase in small urban areas.Thus, traffic strongly affects local air quality in large and small urban areas, which has implications for exposure assessment and estimation of health risks. PMID:22252279

  18. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts.

  19. Clean Air Excellence Award Recipients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recipients are organized by award category within each year: Clean Air Technology, Community Action, Education/Outreach, Regulatory/Policy Innovations, Transportation Efficiency Innovations, Thomas W. Zosel individual, and Gregg Cooke Visionary Program.

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Climate Change on Children's Health: Session Two: Air Quality Impacts MODERATOR: Susan Anenberg, EPA Meredith McCormack, Johns ... University • Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health: Air Quality Impacts Frederica Perera, Columbia University • Air quality Impacts ...

  2. Urban air pollution and emergency room admissions for respiratory symptoms: a case-crossover study in Palermo, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Air pollution from vehicular traffic has been associated with respiratory diseases. In Palermo, the largest metropolitan area in Sicily, urban air pollution is mainly addressed to traffic-related pollution because of lack of industrial settlements, and the presence of a temperate climate that contribute to the limited use of domestic heating plants. This study aimed to investigate the association between traffic-related air pollution and emergency room admissions for acute respiratory symptoms. Methods From January 2004 through December 2007, air pollutant concentrations and emergency room visits were collected for a case-crossover study conducted in Palermo, Sicily. Risk estimates of short-term exposures to particulate matter and gaseous ambient pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide were calculated by using a conditional logistic regression analysis. Results Emergency departments provided data on 48,519 visits for respiratory symptoms. Adjusted case-crossover analyses revealed stronger effects in the warm season for the most part of the pollutants considered, with a positive association for PM10 (odds ratio = 1.039, 95% confidence interval: 1.020 - 1.059), SO2 (OR = 1.068, 95% CI: 1.014 - 1.126), nitrogen dioxide (NO2: OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.021 - 1.065), and CO (OR = 1.128, 95% CI: 1.074 - 1.184), especially among females (according to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10, NO2, SO2, and 1 mg/m3 in CO exposure). A positive association was observed either in warm or in cold season only for PM10. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, in our setting, exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of emergency room (ER) visits for acute respiratory symptoms, particularly during the warm season. ER admittance may be considered a good proxy to evaluate the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health. PMID:21489245

  3. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling.

  4. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  5. Advances in Understanding Air Pollution and CVD.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joel D; Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Hajat, Anjum; Jones, Miranda R; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Szpiro, Adam A; Gassett, Amanda; Sheppard, Lianne; Daviglus, Martha L; Adar, Sara D

    2016-09-01

    The MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information. Together with extensive phenotyping in MESA-and adding participants and health measurements to the cohort-MESA Air investigated environmental exposures on a wide range of outcomes. Advances by the MESA Air team included not only a new approach to exposure modeling, but also biostatistical advances in addressing exposure measurement error and temporal confounding. The MESA Air study advanced our understanding of the impact of air pollutants on cardiovascular disease and provided a research platform for advances in environmental epidemiology.

  6. Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Response in a Panel of Asthmatic Children along the U.S.–Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Li, Wen-Whai; Holguin, Fernando; Johnson, Brent A.; Luevano, Silvia Flores; Garcia, Jose Humberto

    2011-01-01

    Background: Concerns regarding the health impact of urban air pollution on asthmatic children are pronounced along the U.S.–Mexico border because of rapid population growth near busy border highways and roads. Objectives: We conducted the first binational study of the impacts of air pollution on asthmatic children in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, USA, and compared different exposure metrics to assess acute respiratory response. Methods: We recruited 58 asthmatic children from two schools in Ciudad Juarez and two schools in El Paso. A marker of airway inflammation [exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)], respiratory symptom surveys, and pollutant measurements (indoor and outdoor 48-hr size-fractionated particulate matter, 48-hr black carbon, and 96-hr nitrogen dioxide) were collected at each school for 16 weeks. We examined associations between the pollutants and respiratory response using generalized linear mixed models. Results: We observed small but consistent associations between eNO and numerous pollutant metrics, with estimated increases in eNO ranging from 1% to 3% per interquartile range increase in pollutant concentrations. Effect estimates from models using school-based concentrations were generally stronger than corresponding estimates based on concentrations from ambient air monitors. Both traffic-related and non–traffic-related particles were typically more robust predictors of eNO than was nitrogen dioxide, for which associations were highly sensitive to model specification. Associations differed significantly across the four school-based cohorts, consistent with heterogeneity in pollutant concentrations and cohort characteristics. Models examining respiratory symptoms were consistent with the null. Conclusions: The results indicate adverse effects of air pollution on the subclinical respiratory health of asthmatic children in this region and provide preliminary support for the use of air pollution monitors close to schools to track exposure and

  7. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  9. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  10. Interventions to reduce individual exposure of elderly individuals and children to haze: a review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sini; Li, Lingling; Gao, Wei; Wang, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Given rapid economic developments and urbanization over the last few decades, China has experienced frequent haze episodes, which have adverse effects on public health. Children and elderly individuals are more susceptible than the general population to air pollution. In this study, we introduce interventions to reduce the exposure of elderly individuals and children to air pollution during hazy weather. These interventions include avoiding outdoor activities, wearing a dust mask, reducing burning biomass fuels, reducing frying and smoking at home, using an air filtration unit and taking supplemental antioxidants. However, the actual benefits of these measures remain unproven and are unlikely to be adequate. Sustained clean air policies remain the most important and efficient solution to reduce air pollution-related health effects. PMID:26904254

  11. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  12. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  13. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  14. Impact on air quality of measures to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in Basel, Rotterdam, Xi'an and Suzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Jonkers, S.; Verhagen, H. L. M.; Perez, L.; Trüeb, S.; Okkerse, W.-J.; Liu, J.; Pan, X. C.; Zheng, L.; Wang, H.; Xu, R.; Sabel, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Two traffic scenarios to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in two European cities (Basel and Rotterdam) and two Chinese cities (Xi'an and Suzhou) were evaluated in terms of their impact on air quality. The two scenarios, one modelling a reduction of private vehicle kilometres driven by 10% on urban streets and the other modelling the introduction of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometres on urban streets, were both compared to a scenario following “business-as-usual”: 2020-BAU. The annual average concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) were modelled separately in busy street canyons, near urban motorways and in the remainder of the urban area. It was concluded that traffic-related CO2 emissions in 2020-BAU could be expected to remain at the levels of 2010 in Basel and Rotterdam, while in Xi'an and Suzhou to increase 30-50% due to growth in the traffic volume. Traffic-related CO2 emissions may be reduced by up to 5% and 25%, respectively using the first and second scenarios. Air pollution in the Chinese cities is a factor 3 to 5 higher than in the European cities in 2010 and 2020-BAU. The impact of both CO2 reduction scenarios on air quality in 2020-BAU is limited. In Europe, due to implementation of stringent emission standards in all sectors, air quality is expected to improve at both the urban background and near busy road traffic. In China, the regional background is expected to improve for EC, stabilize for PM2.5 and PM10, and decrease for NO2. The urban background follows this regional trend, while near busy road traffic, air pollution will remain elevated due to the considerable growth in traffic volume. A major constraint for modelling air quality in China is access to the input data required and lack of measurements at ground level for validation.

  15. Roadside vegetation barrier designs to mitigate near-road air pollution impacts.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheming; Baldauf, Richard W; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Zhang, K Max

    2016-01-15

    With increasing evidence that exposures to air pollution near large roadways increases risks of a number of adverse human health effects, identifying methods to reduce these exposures has become a public health priority. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; however, the characteristics of these barriers needed to ensure pollution reductions are not well understood. Designing vegetation barriers to mitigate near-road air pollution requires a mechanistic understanding of how barrier configurations affect the transport of traffic-related air pollutants. We first evaluated the performance of the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to capture the effects of vegetation barriers on near-road air quality, compared against field data. Next, CTAG with LES was employed to explore the effects of six conceptual roadside vegetation/solid barrier configurations on near-road size-resolved particle concentrations, governed by dispersion and deposition. Two potentially viable design options are revealed: a) a wide vegetation barrier with high Leaf Area Density (LAD), and b) vegetation-solid barrier combinations, i.e., planting trees next to a solid barrier. Both designs reduce downwind particle concentrations significantly. The findings presented in the study will assist urban planning and forestry organizations with evaluating different green infrastructure design options.

  16. Impact of temporary freeway closure on regional air quality: a lesson from Carmageddon in Los Angeles, United States.

    PubMed

    Hong, Andy; Schweitzer, Lisa; Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-03-03

    Large cities in the United States face multiple challenges in meeting federal air quality standards. One difficulty arises from the uncertainties in evaluating traffic-related air pollution, especially the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and some particulate matter. Current air quality models are not well suited to evaluate the impact of a short-term traffic change on air quality. Using regional traffic and ambient air quality data from Southern California, we examine the impact of a two-day freeway closure on traffic and several criteria air pollutants (CO, NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5). The results indicate that regional traffic decreased about 14% on average during the closure. Daily average PM2.5 levels decreased by about 32%, and daily 8 h maximum ozone levels decreased by about 16%. However, the daily 1 h maximum NO2 concentration was higher at some sites during the closure. Despite the mixed results with NO2, this study provides empirical evidence to support traffic reduction as an effective strategy to address chronic air pollution problems, especially with regard to ozone, in Southern California.

  17. Individualized Training and the Training of Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, William A.

    Two current instructional research efforts relating to the problem of an individual student's learning and personal needs are reported. Characteristics of individualized instruction (e.g., terminal course objectives, remedial materials, measurement procedures), administrative constraints (e.g., fixed time, cost of equipment, lack of skilled…

  18. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Toxics Website Rules and Implementation Related Information Air Quality Data and Tools Clean Air Act Criteria Air ... Resources Visibility and Haze Voluntary Programs for Improving Air Quality Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  19. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  20. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  1. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  2. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  4. Association between GIS-Based Exposure to Urban Air Pollution during Pregnancy and Birth Weight in the INMA Sabadell Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Guxens, Mònica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Corbella, Teresa; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Foradada, Carles M.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that traffic-related air pollution reduces birth weight. Improving exposure assessment is a key issue to advance in this research area. Objective We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution via geographic information system (GIS) models on birth weight in 570 newborns from the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Sabadell cohort. Methods We estimated pregnancy and trimester-specific exposures to nitrogen dioxide and aromatic hydrocarbons [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX)] by using temporally adjusted land-use regression (LUR) models. We built models for NO2 and BTEX using four and three 1-week measurement campaigns, respectively, at 57 locations. We assessed the relationship between prenatal air pollution exposure and birth weight with linear regression models. We performed sensitivity analyses considering time spent at home and time spent in nonresidential outdoor environments during pregnancy. Results In the overall cohort, neither NO2 nor BTEX exposure was significantly associated with birth weight in any of the exposure periods. When considering only women who spent < 2 hr/day in nonresidential outdoor environments, the estimated reductions in birth weight associated with an interquartile range increase in BTEX exposure levels were 77 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 7–146 g] and 102 g (95% CI, 28–176 g) for exposures during the whole pregnancy and the second trimester, respectively. The effects of NO2 exposure were less clear in this subset. Conclusions The association of BTEX with reduced birth weight underscores the negative role of vehicle exhaust pollutants in reproductive health. Time–activity patterns during pregnancy complement GIS-based models in exposure assessment. PMID:19672415

  5. Air Quality Instrumentation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, John W., Ed.

    To insure a wide dissemination of information describing advances in measurement and control techniques, the Instrument Society of America (ISA) has published this monograph of selected papers, the second in a series, from recent ISA symposia dealing with air pollution. Papers range from a discussion of individual pollutant measurements to…

  6. The neurobiology of individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  7. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  8. Air pollution and cytokine responsiveness in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Klümper, Claudia; Krämer, Ursula; Lehmann, Irina; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Herberth, Gunda; Beckmann, Christina; Link, Elke; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schins, Roel P F

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that asthmatic children are more susceptible to traffic-related air pollution exposure than non-asthmatic children. Local and systemic inflammation in combination with oxidative stress have been suggested as a possible susceptibility factor. We investigated effect modification by asthma status for the association between air pollution exposure and systemic effects using whole blood cytokine responsiveness as an inflammatory marker. The study was nested within the two German birth cohort studies GINIplus and LISAplus and initially designed as a random sub-sample enriched with asthmatic children. Using data from 27 asthmatic and 59 non-asthmatic six-year-old children we measured the production of Interleukin-6 (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in whole blood after ex-vivo stimulation with urban particulate matter (EHC-93). Air pollution exposure (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10μm (PM10), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm (PM2.5mass), coarse particulate matter (PMcoarse) and PM2.5absorbance (PM2.5abs)) was modelled for children´s home addresses applying land-use regression. To assess effect modification by asthma status linear regression models with multiplicative interaction terms were used. In asthmatics exposure to NO2 was associated with higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines: adjusted means ratio (MR) 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.22-4.04) for IL-6 per 2.68µg/m³ NO2. The interaction term between asthma status and NO2 exposure was significant. Results for NOx, PM10, PM2.5mass and PM2.5abs were in the same direction. No association between air pollution and cytokine responsiveness was found in the group of non-asthmatic children and in the overall group. Traffic-related air pollution exposure is associated with higher pro

  9. Urban air quality estimation study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Possibilities are explored for applying estimation theory to the analysis, interpretation, and use of air quality measurements in conjunction with simulation models to provide a cost effective method of obtaining reliable air quality estimates for wide urban areas. The physical phenomenology of real atmospheric plumes from elevated localized sources is discussed. A fluctuating plume dispersion model is derived. Individual plume parameter formulations are developed along with associated a priori information. Individual measurement models are developed.

  10. Precision Measuring Equipment (PME) Individualized Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William E.; And Others

    Self-paced programed and audiovisual (AV) instructional materials covering portions of the Air Force course, Precision Measuring Equipment (PME) Specialist, were developed, administered, and evaluated as means of assessing the feasibility of individualizing the PME course as part of the Air Force's Advanced Instructional System (AIS). The…

  11. Modeling Individual Performance Criteria in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    7 include the Specialty Knowledge Test (SKT) and the Promotion Fitness Examination ( PFE ). These multiple-choice exams measure job-related knowledge...The SKT, PFE , and USAFSE are not norm referenced tests. This is a major deficiency in terms of their potential utility as criteria for studies

  12. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  13. Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Allergies in the Anthropocene: Abundance, Interaction, and Modification of Allergens and Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Reinmuth-Selzle, Kathrin; Kampf, Christopher J; Lucas, Kurt; Lang-Yona, Naama; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Lakey, Pascale S J; Lai, Senchao; Liu, Fobang; Kunert, Anna T; Ziegler, Kira; Shen, Fangxia; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Weber, Bettina; Bellinghausen, Iris; Saloga, Joachim; Weller, Michael G; Duschl, Albert; Schuppan, Detlef; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2017-04-06

    Air pollution and climate change are potential drivers for the increasing burden of allergic diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which air pollutants and climate parameters may influence allergic diseases, however, are complex and elusive. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical and biological interactions between air pollution, climate change, allergens, adjuvants and the immune system, addressing how these interactions may promote the development of allergies. We reviewed and synthesized key findings from atmospheric, climate, and biomedical research. The current state of knowledge, open questions, and future research perspectives are outlined and discussed. The Anthropocene, as the present era of globally pervasive anthropogenic influence on planet Earth and, thus, on the human environment, is characterized by a strong increase of carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and combustion- or traffic-related particulate matter in the atmosphere. These environmental factors can enhance the abundance and induce chemical modifications of allergens, increase oxidative stress in the human body, and skew the immune system toward allergic reactions. In particular, air pollutants can act as adjuvants and alter the immunogenicity of allergenic proteins, while climate change affects the atmospheric abundance and human exposure to bioaerosols and aeroallergens. To fully understand and effectively mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution and climate change on allergic diseases, several challenges remain to be resolved. Among these are the identification and quantification of immunochemical reaction pathways involving allergens and adjuvants under relevant environmental and physiological conditions.

  14. Air transparent soundproof window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  15. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  16. The statistical evaluation and comparison of ADMS-Urban model for the prediction of nitrogen dioxide with air quality monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Dėdelė, Audrius; Miškinytė, Auksė

    2015-09-01

    In many countries, road traffic is one of the main sources of air pollution associated with adverse effects on human health and environment. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is considered to be a measure of traffic-related air pollution, with concentrations tending to be higher near highways, along busy roads, and in the city centers, and the exceedances are mainly observed at measurement stations located close to traffic. In order to assess the air quality in the city and the air pollution impact on public health, air quality models are used. However, firstly, before the model can be used for these purposes, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of the dispersion modelling as one of the most widely used method. The monitoring and dispersion modelling are two components of air quality monitoring system (AQMS), in which statistical comparison was made in this research. The evaluation of the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) was made by comparing monthly modelled NO2 concentrations with the data of continuous air quality monitoring stations in Kaunas city. The statistical measures of model performance were calculated for annual and monthly concentrations of NO2 for each monitoring station site. The spatial analysis was made using geographic information systems (GIS). The calculation of statistical parameters indicated a good ADMS-Urban model performance for the prediction of NO2. The results of this study showed that the agreement of modelled values and observations was better for traffic monitoring stations compared to the background and residential stations.

  17. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality.

  18. Effects of commuting mode on air pollution exposure and cardiovascular health among young adults in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Te; Ma, Chih-Ming; Liu, I-Jung; Han, Bor-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2015-05-01

    The association between traffic-related air pollution and adverse cardiovascular effects has been well documented; however, little is known about whether different commuting modes can modify the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system in human subjects in urban areas with heavy traffic. We recruited 120 young, healthy subjects in Taipei, Taiwan. Each participant was classified with different commuting modes according to his/her own commuting style. Three repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices {standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD)}, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), temperature, humidity and noise level were conducted for each subject during 1-h morning commutes (0900-1000 h) in four different commuting modes, including an electrically powered subway, a gas-powered bus, a gasoline-powered car, and walking. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the association of PM2.5 with HRV indices. The results showed that decreases in the HRV indices were associated with increased levels of PM2.5. The personal exposure levels to PM2.5 were the highest in the walking mode. The effects of PM2.5 on cardiovascular endpoints were the lowest in the subway mode compared to the effects in the walking mode. The participants in the car and bus modes had reduced effects on their cardiovascular endpoints compared to the participants in the walking mode. We concluded that traffic-related PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Commuting modes can modify the effects of PM2.5 on HRV indices among young, healthy subjects.

  19. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  20. Statistical analysis of Seoul air quality to assess the efficacy of emission abatement strategies since 1987.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Scott D; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E; Brown, Richard J C; Griffiths, Alan D; Crawford, Jagoda

    2017-02-15

    The combined influences of recent mitigation measures on urban air quality have been assessed using hourly observations of the criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, O3, CO, and SO2) made from the Yongsan district of Seoul, Korea, over 26years (1987 to 2013). A number of data selection criteria are proposed in order to minimize variability associated with temporal changes (at diurnal, weekly, and seasonal timescales) in source strengths, their spatial distribution, and the atmospheric volume into which they mix. The temporal constraints required to better characterize relationships between observed air quality and changes in source strengths in Seoul were identified as: (i) a 5-hour diurnal sampling window (1300-1700h), (b) weekday measurements (Monday to Friday only), and (c) summer measurements (when pollutant fetch is mostly Korea-specific, and mean wind speeds are the lowest). Using these selection criteria, we were able to closely relate long-term trends identified in criteria pollutants to a number of published changes to traffic-related source strengths brought about by mitigation measures adopted over the last 10-15years.

  1. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  2. 77 FR 63242 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 821 Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings AGENCY: National Transportation... immediately changing its Rules of Practice applicable to air safety proceedings. The statute is effective... the releasable portions of the EIR to each individual, and provide certain air traffic data....

  3. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  4. Problems of Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Clarence

    Due in part to the open enrollment policy in junior colleges, there is a great diversity in student reading ability that dictates a need to individualize reading instruction. Individualization, defined as personalized instruction, may be accomplished through helping the student to read course materials, helping him to read special materials, or…

  5. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  6. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different…

  7. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  8. Elements of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svara, Ronald

    Although many schools claim to make use of individualized instruction, no common definition of this term has been agreed on. The author reviewed definitions of "individualized instruction" in five studies and then surveyed 30 community and junior colleges who claimed to be using this method of instruction to learn what their programs…

  9. Individual and Family Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jean; Simpson, Elizabeth

    This curriculum guide, in working paper form, for a semester-long three-credit course in individual and family development is one of nine technical core courses in an associate degree consumer/family manager program. The course studies individual and family development through the life cycle. Emphasis is on the relationship of basic needs to the…

  10. [Evaluating individual occupational risk in teachers].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, E G; Ishmukhametov, I B

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyzed work conditions of comprehensive school teachers according to workplace assessment. Additional studies covered opportunistic pathogens content of air in classrooms. Auxiliary medical examination evaluated health state of the teachers. Individual occupational risk was calculated with consideration of actual work conditions and health state. Comprehensive school teacher's work is characterized by constant or transitory influence by complex of occupational and work hazards that are mostly (according to to workplace assessment) increased work intensity, noise and inadequate illumination parameters. Ambient air of classrooms constantly contains high number of opportunistic pathogens, that could decrease immune system parameters and cause more droplet infections. Individual occupational risk of teachers, calculated with consideration of work conditions and health state parameters, appears to be high and proves high possibility of teachers' health damage at work. Recommendations cover evaluation of biologic factors within the workplace assessment, obligatory preliminary (before employment) and periodic medical examinations for comprehensive school teachers as for workers exposed to occupational hazards.

  11. Conceptual Model for Assessing Criteria Air Pollutants in a Multipollutant Context: A Modified Adverse Outcome Pathway Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Air pollution consists of a complex mixture of particulate and gaseous components. Individual criteria and other hazardous air pollutants have been linked to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health outcomes. However, assessing risk of air pollutant mixtures is d...

  12. Traffic Impacts on PM(2.5) Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Patrick L; Gichuru, Michael Gatari; Volavka-Close, Nicole; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter K; Law, Anna; Gachanja, Anthony; Gaita, Samuel Mwaniki; Chillrud, Steven N; Sclar, Elliott

    2011-06-01

    Motor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in the air. However, a lack of air monitoring data hinders health impact assessments and the development of transportation and land use policies that could reduce health burdens due to outdoor air pollution. To address this important need, a study of traffic-related PM(2.5) was carried out in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, a model city for sub-Saharan Africa, in July 2009. Sampling was carried out using portable filter-based air samplers carried in backpacks by technicians on weekdays over two weeks at several sites in and around Nairobi ranging from high-traffic roadways to rural background. Mean daytime concentrations of PM(2.5) ranged from 10.7 at the rural background site to 98.1 μg/m(3) on a sidewalk in the central business district. Horizontal dispersion measurements demonstrated a decrease in PM(2.5) concentration from 128.7 to 18.7 μg/m(3) over 100 meters downwind of a major intersection in Nairobi. A vertical dispersion experiment revealed a decrease from 119.5 μg/m(3) at street level to 42.8 μg/m(3) on a third-floor rooftop in the central business district. Though not directly comparable to air quality guidelines, which are based on 24-hour or annual averages, the urban concentrations we observed raise concern with regard to public health and related policy. Taken together with survey data on commuting patterns within Nairobi, these results suggest that many Nairobi residents are exposed on a regular basis to elevated concentrations of fine particle air pollution, with potentially serious long-term implications for health.

  13. Exposure to Moderate Air Pollution during Late Pregnancy and Cord Blood Cytokine Secretion in Healthy Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs; Armann, Jakob; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Oliver; Röösli, Martin; Schaub, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Ambient air pollution can alter cytokine concentrations as shown in vitro and following short-term exposure to high air pollution levels in vivo. Exposure to pollution during late pregnancy has been shown to affect fetal lymphocytic immunophenotypes. However, effects of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of air pollutants on cytokine regulation in cord blood of healthy infants are unknown. Methods In a birth cohort of 265 healthy term-born neonates, we assessed maternal exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10), as well as to indoor air pollution during the last trimester, specifically the last 21, 14, 7, 3 and 1 days of pregnancy. As a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, we determined the distance of mothers' homes to major roads. We measured cytokine and chemokine levels (MCP-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, TNF-α and GM-CSF) in cord blood serum using LUMINEX technology. Their association with pollution levels was assessed using regression analysis, adjusted for possible confounders. Results Mean (95%-CI) PM10 exposure for the last 7 days of pregnancy was 18.3 (10.3–38.4 µg/m3). PM10 exposure during the last 3 days of pregnancy was significantly associated with reduced IL-10 and during the last 3 months of pregnancy with increased IL-1ß levels in cord blood after adjustment for relevant confounders. Maternal smoking was associated with reduced IL-6 levels. For the other cytokines no association was found. Conclusions Our results suggest that even naturally occurring prenatal exposure to moderate amounts of indoor and outdoor air pollution may lead to changes in cord blood cytokine levels in a population based cohort. PMID:21826232

  14. Traffic Impacts on PM2.5 Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Patrick L.; Gichuru, Michael Gatari; Volavka-Close, Nicole; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter K.; Law, Anna; Gachanja, Anthony; Gaita, Samuel Mwaniki; Chillrud, Steven N.; Sclar, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Motor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM2.5) in the air. However, a lack of air monitoring data hinders health impact assessments and the development of transportation and land use policies that could reduce health burdens due to outdoor air pollution. To address this important need, a study of traffic-related PM2.5 was carried out in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, a model city for sub-Saharan Africa, in July 2009. Sampling was carried out using portable filter-based air samplers carried in backpacks by technicians on weekdays over two weeks at several sites in and around Nairobi ranging from high-traffic roadways to rural background. Mean daytime concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 10.7 at the rural background site to 98.1 μg/m3 on a sidewalk in the central business district. Horizontal dispersion measurements demonstrated a decrease in PM2.5 concentration from 128.7 to 18.7 μg/m3 over 100 meters downwind of a major intersection in Nairobi. A vertical dispersion experiment revealed a decrease from 119.5 μg/m3 at street level to 42.8 μg/m3 on a third-floor rooftop in the central business district. Though not directly comparable to air quality guidelines, which are based on 24-hour or annual averages, the urban concentrations we observed raise concern with regard to public health and related policy. Taken together with survey data on commuting patterns within Nairobi, these results suggest that many Nairobi residents are exposed on a regular basis to elevated concentrations of fine particle air pollution, with potentially serious long-term implications for health. PMID:21779151

  15. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  16. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  17. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  18. Air quality risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article provides (1) a synthesis of the literature on the linkages between air pollution and human health, (2) an overview of quality management approaches in Canada, the United States, and the European Union (EU), and (3) future directions for air quality research. Numerous studies examining short-term effects of air pollution show significant associations between ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants and increases in premature mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Several well-designed epidemiological studies confirmed the adverse long-term effects of PM on both mortality and morbidity. Epidemiological studies also document significant associations between ozone (O3), sulfur (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and adverse health outcomes; however, the effects of gaseous pollutants are less well documented. Subpopulations that are more susceptible to air pollution include children, the elderly, those with cardiorespiratory disease, and socioeconomically deprived individuals. Canada-wide standards for ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 were set in 2000, providing air quality targets to be achieved by 2010. In the United States, the Clean Air Act provides the framework for the establishment and review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants and the establishment of emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants. The 1996 European Union's enactment of the Framework Directive for Air Quality established the process for setting Europe-wide limit values for a series of pollutants. The Clean Air for Europe program was established by the European Union to review existing limit values, emission ceilings, and abatement protocols, as set out in the current legislation. These initiatives serve as the legislative framework for air quality management in North America and Europe.

  19. Individual, social, and environmental barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among Latinas living in San Diego County: focus group results.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Arredondo, Elva M; Perez, Gabriela; Baquero, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to and facilitators of physical activity (PA) relevant to a faith-based community living in a border region. Two focus groups were conducted with 25 Latina churchgoers. Latinas identified barriers to PA that included individual (eg, lack of motivation and time, language, economics, social support, family/household responsibilities), sociocultural (eg, fear of border patrol, machismo, and neighborhood safety), and environmental barriers (eg, traffic-related and dogs). Facilitators of PA were PA knowledge, child care, time management, and advocacy skills. The authors concluded that a church-based multilevel intervention targeting Latinas may be ideal for promoting PA and facilitating environmental changes.

  20. Global Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  1. Global air quality and climate.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  2. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  3. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  4. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  5. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  6. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  7. Air Force Resiliency Program Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Community that fosters mental, physical, social and spiritual fitness. Vision: A resilient Air Force Community ready to meet any challenge Whole Person...complete on-line survey to provide feedback on usefulness/helpfulness of SRS-I in assessing individual resiliency  AF Teen Council: First-ever AF-wide... Teen Leadership Council kicked off 6 Jan 11 with conf call  Focus: Collect info affecting teens ; address issues  Annual Youth of the Year Award

  8. The Italian Air Force rehabilitation programme for air-sickness.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, M; Lugli, V

    2004-08-01

    Motion Sickness, or kinetosis, is a complex clinical syndrome usually classified according to the environmental situation evoking the symptoms. Among the various forms of motion sickness, air sickness has a significant impact on aircrew readiness and is often a cause for the grounding of aircrew. Unfortunately, standards for clinical testing to accurately predict the sensitivity of each individual to air-sickness are currently lacking. Furthermore, pharmacological prevention is contraindicated for aircrews, whose cognitive tasks involve a high level of vigilance. Therefore, a number of Air Forces have developed their own rehabilitation programmes to counteract air-sickness effects on flight personnel. These programmes may differ in several aspects, such as their duration, instruments used, costs and the technical characteristics of the rehabilitation team. However, reports in the specialized literature, refer to high rates of success, despite the above-mentioned differences. In the autumn of 2000, the Italian Air Force (ITAF) also began its own rehabilitation programme for air-sickness desensitisation. The programme was developed at the Aerospace Medicine Department of the ITAF Flight Test Centre, at the Pratica di Mare Air Force Base, Italy. The ITAF rehabilitation course lasts two weeks, and candidates are first classified according to their clinical history and to their reaction to the Coriolis Stress Test. Thereafter, subjects undergo a personalized desensitisation programme, involving increasingly more intense nauseogenic stimuli by means of various devices. At the same time, a psychological approach, based on autogenous training and cognitive-behavioural therapy, is adopted. The present report refers to data from 17 subjects treated from January 2001. The current clinical outcome is extremely encouraging, with a success rate of 88%. Nevertheless, several aspects of motion sickness rehabilitation are still under investigation, and further research programmes

  9. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  10. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  11. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  12. The elusive quantal individual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    In the formal hedgehog representation of quantum mechanics [5] (ambiguous) weights are derived for hedgehogs with a finite number of questions and answers, in particular applied to spin {1}/{2} and to correlated spin {1}/{2} pairs. Unavoidable negative weights are a clear signal for conceptual difficulties in quantum mechanical interpretation. If these weights had been presupposed to be non-negative, they could have led to Bell-like inequalities inconsistent with quantum mechanics. This is what has happened already in various special models. Owing to the indefinite weights, the hedgehog hypothesis of one-to-one mapping between individual physical samples and individual fictitious hedgehogs cannot be maintained. If no physical interpretation is conceived for the negative weights, the only way to avoid unsolved conceptual difficulties appears to resign (even in the hedgehog representation) to the skeptical ensemble interpretation [1], without theorizing about individual physical samples at all.

  13. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  14. Associations between urban air pollution and pediatric asthma control in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Zora, Jennifer E; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Raysoni, Amit U; Johnson, Brent A; Li, Wen-Whai; Greenwald, Roby; Holguin, Fernando; Stock, Thomas H; Sarnat, Jeremy A

    2013-03-15

    Exposure to traffic-related pollutants poses a serious health threat to residents of major urban centers around the world. In El Paso, Texas, this problem is exacerbated by the region's arid weather, frequent temperature inversions, heavy border traffic, and an aged, poorly maintained vehicle fleet. The impact of exposure to traffic pollution, particularly on children with asthma, is poorly understood. Tracking the environmental health burden related to traffic pollution in El Paso is difficult, especially within school microenvironments, because of the lack of sensitive environmental health indicator data. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) is a survey tool for the measurement of overall asthma control, yet has not previously been considered as an outcome in air pollution health effect research. We conducted a repeated measure panel study to examine weekly associations between ACQ scores and traffic- and non-traffic air pollutants among asthmatic schoolchildren in El Paso. In the main one- and two-pollutant epidemiologic models, we found non-significant, albeit suggestive, positive associations between ACQ scores and respirable particulate matter (PM10), coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), benzene, toluene, and ozone (O3). Notably, associations were stronger and significant for some subgroups, in particular among subjects taking daily inhaled corticosteroids. This pattern may indicate heightened immune system response in more severe asthmatics, those with worse asthma "control" and higher ACQ scores at baseline. If the ACQ is appropriately used in the context of air pollution studies, it could reflect clinically measurable and biologically relevant changes in lung function and asthma symptoms that result from poor air quality and may increase our understanding of how air pollution influences asthma exacerbation.

  15. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children < age 6, and 19,209 controls from California birth records within 2km (1.3 miles) (ALL) and 6km (3.8 miles) (AML) of an air toxics monitoring station between 1990–2007. Information on air toxics exposures was taken from community air monitors. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3rd trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95%CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95%CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child’s first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children. PMID:24472648

  16. Concentrations of vehicle-related air pollutants in an urban parking garage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung R; Dominici, Francesca; Buckley, Timothy J

    2007-11-01

    There is growing evidence that traffic-related air pollution poses a public health threat, yet the dynamics of human exposure are not well understood. The urban parking garage is a microenvironment that is of concern but has not been characterized. Using time-resolved measurement methods, we evaluated air toxics levels within an urban parking garage and assessed the influence of vehicle activity and type on their levels. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) were measured with direct-reading instruments. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in 30 min intervals using a sorbent tube loaded sequential sampler. Vehicle volume and type were evaluated by video recording. Sampling was conducted from June 24 to July 17, 2002. We observed garage traffic median volumes of 71 counts/h on weekdays and 6 counts/h on weekends. The 12-fold reduction in traffic volume from weekday to weekend corresponded with a decrease in median air pollution that varied from a minimum 2- (CO) to a maximum 7 (pPAH)-fold. The actual 30-min median weekday and weekend values were: CO--2.6/1.2 ppm; pPAH--19/2.6 ng/m(3); 1,3-butadiene-0.5/0.2 microg/m(3), MTBE-7.4/0.4 microg/m(3); and benzene-2.7/0.3 microg/m(3). The influence of traffic was quantified using longitudinal models. The pollutant coefficients provide an indication of the average air pollution vehicle source contribution and ranged from 0.31 (CO) to 1.08 (pPAH) percent increase/vehicle count. For some pollutants, a slightly higher (0.5-0.6%) coefficient was observed for light-trucks relative to cars. This study has public health relevance in providing a unique assessment of air pollution levels and source contribution for the urban parking garage.

  17. In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Ma, Chih-Ming; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) is considered a potential risk for cardiovascular events. Little is known about whether improving air quality in car can modify cardiovascular effects among human subjects during commuting. We recruited a panel of 60 healthy subjects to commute for 2 h by a car equipped with an air conditioning (AC) system during the morning rush hour in Taipei. Operation modes of AC system using outside air (OA-mode), circulating inside air (IA-mode) and turning off (Off-mode) were examined. Repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices, PM≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and noise level were conducted for each participant in different modes during the commute. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate HRV indices with in-car PM2.5. We found that decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of in-car PM2.5. For Off-mode, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average was associated with 2.7% and 4.1% decreases in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), respectively. During OA and IA modes, participants showed slight decreases in SDNN (OA mode: 0.1%; IA mode: 1.3%) and r-MSSD (OA mode: 1.1%; IA mode: 1.8%) by an IQR increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average. We concluded that in-car PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Utilization of the car's AC system can improve air quality and modify the effects of in-car PM2.5 on HRV indices among human subjects during the commute.

  18. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Ultrasound Measures of Fetal Growth in Los Angeles, California

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Beate; Qiu, Jiaheng; Lee, Pei-Chen; Lurmann, Fred; Penfold, Bryan; Weiss, Robert Erin; McConnell, Rob; Arora, Chander; Hobel, Calvin; Wilhelm, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Few previous studies examined the impact of prenatal air pollution exposures on fetal development based on ultrasound measures during pregnancy. Methods In a prospective birth cohort of more than 500 women followed during 1993-1996 in Los Angeles, California, we examined how air pollution impacts fetal growth during pregnancy. Exposure to traffic related air pollution was estimated using CALINE4 air dispersion modeling for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and a land use regression (LUR) model for nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and NOx. Exposures to carbon monoxide (CO), NO2, ozone (O3) and particles <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were estimated using government monitoring data. We employed a linear mixed effects model to estimate changes in fetal size at approximately 19, 29 and 37 weeks gestation based on ultrasound. Results Exposure to traffic-derived air pollution during 29 to 37 weeks was negatively associated with biparietal diameter at 37 weeks gestation. For each interquartile range (IQR) increase in LUR-based estimates of NO, NO2 and NOx, or freeway CALINE4 NOx we estimated a reduction in biparietal diameter of 0.2-0.3 mm. For women residing within 5 km of a monitoring station, we estimated biparietal diameter reductions of 0.9-1.0 mm per IQR increase in CO and NO2. Effect estimates were robust to adjustment for a number of potential confounders. We did not observe consistent patterns for other growth endpoints we examined. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to traffic-derived pollution was negatively associated with fetal head size measured as biparietal diameter in late pregnancy. PMID:24517884

  19. An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene tailpipe emissions and ambient air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Riservato, Manuela; Rolla, Antonio; Davoli, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene analysis in gaseous samples is presented. The methodology is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and subsequent analysis by thermal desorption into a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. By adding a perdeuterated internal standard onto the sorbent tubes before sampling, and using mass spectrometric detection, the methodology gives high accuracy for this unstable analyte. The method has been used to monitor 1,3-butadiene ambient air concentrations in a residential area in proximity to a heavy-traffic roadway over a one-week period, for comparison with other traffic-related pollutants analysed by standard procedures. It has also been used to determine tailpipe emissions of two vehicles by standard emission testing procedures in a dynamometer. These vehicles were chosen as examples of low- and high-end emission rate vehicles, i.e., an old no-catalytic converter Otto engine and a new direct-injection diesel engine with catalytic converter. Exhaust gas emissions were 0.052 and 35.85 mg/km, reflecting differences in fuel, engine design, age, and presence (or not) of a catalytic abatement system. The ambient air results showed a weekly average concentration of 1,3-butadiene of 0.53 microg/m(3).

  20. The Influence of Traffic on Air Quality in an Urban Neighborhood: A Community–University Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Harrison J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the spatial and temporal patterns of traffic-related air pollutants in an urban neighborhood to determine factors contributing to elevated concentrations and to inform environmental justice concerns. Methods. In the summer of 2007, we continuously monitored multiple air pollutants at a community site in the Mission Hill neighborhood of Boston, Massachussetts, and local high school students conducted mobile continuous monitoring throughout the neighborhood. We used regression models to explain variability in concentrations, considering various attributes of traffic, proximity to major roadways, and meteorology. Results. Different attributes of traffic explained variability in fixed-site concentrations of ultrafine particles, fine particulate matter, and black carbon, with diurnal patterns and meteorological effects indicative of a greater local effect on ultrafine particles and black carbon. Mobile monitoring demonstrated that multiple traffic variables predict elevated levels of ultrafine particles, with concentrations of ultrafine particles decreasing by 50% within 400 meters of 2 major roadways. Conclusions. Unlike fine particulate matter, ultrafine particles demonstrate significant spatial and temporal variability within an urban neighborhood, contributing to environmental justice concerns, and patterns can be well characterized with a community-based participatory research design. PMID:19890168

  1. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  2. Individual Differences in Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  3. AN INDIVIDUALIZED SCIENCE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIPSON, JOSEPH I.

    THE LEARNING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH IS WORKING ON AN EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT TO EXAMINE METHODS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN SCIENCE AT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LEVEL. AT THIS TIME, THE EXPERIMENT IS FOCUSED UPON NON-READERS IN GRADES K-3. EACH STUDENT RECEIVES A TAPE CARTRIDGE AND A PLASTIC BOX CONTAINING…

  4. Individualized Systems of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.

    The techniques and effectiveness of systems for adjusting the pace, content, sequence, and style of instruction to fit the needs of individual learners are briefly reviewed. These systems are all designed to function in group instructional settings. They may be separated into print-oriented approaches (programmed instruction, personalized system…

  5. An Individualized Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy B.

    The operating procedures of a university reading and study skills center for completely individualized reading instruction are described. The program is offered as a student service (no fee) on a voluntary, noncredit basis. A prepared set of instructional tapes is used whereby students can largely serve themselves, proceeding at their own rates,…

  6. Individualized Instruction and Unipacs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.

    Individualized instruction is an educational program in which grade levels and time units are designed to permit the student to work at his own pace and level with the use of unipacs. The unipac, a "unique package," is a specially designed group of learning activities based on specific behavioral objectives chosen by the student. Unipacs consist…

  7. Individual Instruction: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirr, Peter J.

    The bibliography lists 58 references (1969-74) on individualized instruction. Topics covered include computer assisted instruction, diagnostic teaching, and instructional materials, for handicapped as well as nonhandicapped children. Entries are listed in alphabetical order by author (or source) and usually include name of publisher, date, and…

  8. Individual Differences in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on individual differences in learning. "Novice and Expert Learning: Impact on Training" (Barbara J. Daley) reports on a study in which 20 novice and expert nurses were interviewed to identify their different learning processes and the factors that facilitated or hindered their learning.…

  9. Individual Folk Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jean L.

    An individual folk anthology unit covering eight topics is described in this paper. The eight topics include (1) I have an identity, (2) my interesting name, (3) mandalas and sentences, (4) rhythms and rhymes of old times, (5) myths of my childhood, (6) folk legends/old and new, (7) aspects of folklore, and (8) slang. The activities accompanying…

  10. Individual Voices, Common Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausslein, Evelyn, Comp.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the "Early Childhood Bulletin" describes some of the ways in which parents are learning to speak out on behalf of young children and their families being served through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part H early intervention programs. The document consists of four sections in which parents share…

  11. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    PubMed

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  12. Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-30

    U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier flights. For these purposes, CBP administers the Automated Targeting...Passenger Screening at Airport Security Checkpoints ................................. 14 9/11 Commission Recommendations and CAPPS II...individuals at either international ports of entries upon arrival at a U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier

  13. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    traffic-related air pollution can be reliably determined within London.

  14. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  15. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these

  16. Perspective on Air Pollution: The Canadian Scene

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Despite the large ratio of land mass to population, Canada has significant air pollution problems, some being due to our cold climate, the long arctic nights, and a mineral-based economy. Routes of intoxication include the respiration of polluted air and the secondary contamination of food and water. Although pollution is often measured in terms of industrial emissions, the physician must be concerned rather with the dose of pollutants to which the individual is exposed. The principal air pollutants, in terms of emitted tonnage, are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, particulates, and oxides of nitrogen. Sources of these various materials are discussed. PMID:20469224

  17. Coordination of energy and air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

  18. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions.

  19. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  20. Understanding individual routing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779–782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65–100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325–362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin–destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  1. Individuality of handwriting.

    PubMed

    Srihari, Sargur N; Cha, Sung-Hyuk; Arora, Hina; Lee, Sangjik

    2002-07-01

    Motivated by several rulings in United States courts concerning expert testimony in general, and handwriting testimony in particular, we undertook a study to objectively validate the hypothesis that handwriting is individual. Handwriting samples of 1,500 individuals, representative of the U.S. population with respect to gender, age, ethnic groups, etc., were obtained. Analyzing differences in handwriting was done by using computer algorithms for extracting features from scanned images of handwriting. Attributes characteristic of the handwriting were obtained, e.g., line separation, slant, character shapes, etc. These attributes, which are a subset of attributes used by forensic document examiners (FDEs), were used to quantitatively establish individuality by using machine learning approaches. Using global attributes of handwriting and very few characters in the writing, the ability to determine the writer with a high degree of confidence was established. The work is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting handwriting evidence in court. The mathematical approach and the resulting software also have the promise of aiding the FDE.

  2. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates. PMID:25844042

  3. Applicability of the environmental relative moldiness index for quantification of residential mold contamination in an air pollution health effects study.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ali; Burke, Janet; Vesper, Stephen; Batterman, Stuart; Vette, Alan; Godwin, Christopher; Chavez-Camarena, Marina; Norris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n = 112) to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5 ± 7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n = 52) were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r = 0.69, n = 66). Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r = 0.58, n = 28). These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  4. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates.

  5. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates.

  6. In-vehicle exposures to particulate air pollution in Canadian metropolitan areas: the urban transportation exposure study.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Kulka, Ryan; Sun, Liu; Wallace, Lance; Joseph, Lawrence

    2015-01-06

    Commuters may be exposed to increased levels of traffic-related air pollution owing to close proximity to traffic-emissions. We collected in-vehicle and roof-top air pollution measurements over 238 commutes in Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, Canada between 2010 and 2013. Voice recordings were used to collect real-time information on traffic density and the presence of diesel vehicles and multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the impact of these factors on in-vehicle pollutant concentrations (and indoor/outdoor ratios) along with parameters for road type, land use, and meteorology. In-vehicle PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations consistently exceeded regional outdoor levels and each unit increase in the rate of encountering diesel vehicles (count/min) was associated with substantial increases (>100%) in in-vehicle concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, and PM2.5 as well as strong increases (>15%) in indoor/outdoor ratios. A model based on meteorology and the length of highway roads within a 500 m buffer explained 53% of the variation in in-vehicle UFPs; however, models for PM2.5 (R(2) = 0.24) and black carbon (R(2) = 0.30) did not perform as well. Our findings suggest that vehicle commuters experience increased exposure to air pollutants and that traffic characteristics, land use, road types, and meteorology are important determinants of these exposures.

  7. Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

  8. Ambient air pollution particles and the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation has repeatedly demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient air pollution particles and numerous indices of human morbidity and mortality. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are among those with an increased sensitivity to air p...

  9. Allometric scaling of UK urban emissions: interpretation and implications for air quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Rob; Barnes, Matt; Whyatt, Duncan; Hewitt, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Allometry uncovers structures and patterns by relating the characteristics of complex systems to a measure of scale. We present an allometric analysis of air quality for UK urban settlements, beginning with emissions and moving on to consider air concentrations. We consider both airshed-average 'urban background' concentrations (cf. those derived from satellites for NO2) and local pollution 'hotspots'. We show that there is a strong and robust scaling (with respect to population) of the non-point-source emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, as well as the toxic pollutants nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5, and 1,3-butadiene. The scaling of traffic-related emissions is not simply a reflection of road length, but rather results from the socio-economic patterning of road-use. The recent controversy regarding diesel vehicle emissions is germane to our study but does not affect our overall conclusions. We next develop an hypothesis for the population-scaling of airshed-average air concentrations, with which we demonstrate that, although average air quality is expected to be worse in large urban centres compared to small urban centres, the overall effect is an economy of scale (i.e., large cities reduce the overall burden of emissions compared to the same population spread over many smaller urban settlements). Our hypothesis explains satellite-derived observations of airshed-average urban NO2 concentrations. The theory derived also explains which properties of nature-based solutions (urban greening) can make a significant contribution at city scale, and points to a hitherto unforeseen opportunity to make large cities cleaner than smaller cities in absolute terms with respect to their airshed-average pollutant concentration.

  10. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  11. Pulmonary Health Effects of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Zhang, Jingjing; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of ten individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infection. Recent findings A total of 53 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Considerable past evidence suggests that air pollution is an important factor that enhances pulmonary disease, while also causing greater harm in susceptible populations, such as children, the elderly and those of low socio-economic status worldwide. Asthma, COPD, lung cancer and respiratory infections all seem to be exacerbated due to exposure to a variety of environmental air pollutants with the greatest effects due to particulate matter (PM), ozone and nitrogen oxides. New publications reviewed reaffirm these findings. Summary Continued vigilence will be essential to lessen the effects of air pollution on human health and pulmonary disease. Cooperation at a multi-national level will be required on the part of governments, industry, energy-based enterprises and the public working together to solve our air quality issues at the local, national and global level. PMID:26761628

  12. Adult air pollution exposure and risk of infertility in the Nurses' Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, S.; Hart, J.E; Laden, F.; Farland, L.V.; Hewlett, M.M.; Chavarro, J.; Aschengrau, A.; Missmer, S.A

    2016-01-01

    among women with primary infertility was 1.10 (CI: 0.96–1.27), and similarly was 1.10 (CI: 0.94–1.28) for those with secondary infertility. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Within the 2 year window of infertility diagnosis, we do not have the exact date of diagnosis or the exact timing of the start of attempting conception. As infertility status and subtypes of infertility were prospectively collected biennially, we were unable to tightly examine the timing of exposures on incidence of infertility. In terms of exposure quantification, we used ambient air pollution exposures as a proxy for personal exposures, potentially leading to exposure misclassification. However, several studies suggest that ambient measurements are an acceptable surrogate for individual level exposures in most populations. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS We observed an association between all size fractions of PM exposure, as well as traffic-related air pollution, and incidence of infertility. Of note, the strongest association was observed between cumulative average exposures over the course of follow-up and the risk of infertility, suggesting that chronic exposures may be of greater importance than short-term exposures. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The work for this paper was supported by the following: S.M.: Reproductive Scientist Development Program HD000849, and the Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health HD043444, the Boston University CTSI 1UL1TR001430, and a research grant from the Boston University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, S.A.M.: R01HD57210 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Environmental Health Sciences Translational Pilot Project Program, R01CA50385 from the National Cancer Institute, J.E.H. and F.L.: 5R01ES017017 from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, 5 P42 ES007381 from the National Institute of Environmental Health at the

  13. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Hall

    2008-12-08

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 & Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent! deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  14. Individual susceptibility to toxicity.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    1992-12-01

    Individual variation in susceptibility to chemical toxicity may be due to differences in toxicokinetic patterns or effect modification. Well-documented interspecies genetic differences in susceptibility to chemicals had lead to studies of such variation also within species. Epidemiological evidence now suggests that common variations, particularly in the P-450 enzymes, may play a major role in determining individual susceptibility to chemically-induced disease. Physiologic factors are involved in the particular susceptibility of the fetus, the newborn, and the old. Constitutional susceptibility is also affected by acquired conditions, including chronic disease, such as diabetes mellitus. Perhaps the most complex area relates to the increase in vulnerability caused by previous or contemporary exposure to other factors, thus eliciting, e.g., synergistic effects. Although amply demonstrated by experimental studies, epidemiological or clinical confirmation is generally lacking. One hypothesis suggests that a chemical exposure may affect the reserve capacity of the body, though not resulting in any immediate adverse effect. Subsequently, the body becomes unable to compensate for an additional stress, and toxicity then develops. Epidemiological approaches are available and need to be expanded. Research in this area has potential ethical implications which should be dealt with in an open, informed forum.

  15. Susceptibility of inflamed ariway and alveolar epithelial cells to injury induced by diesel exhaust particles of varying organic carbon content

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to traffic-related ambient air pollution, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is associated with adverse health outcomes, especially in individuals with preexisting inflammatory respiratory diseases. Using an analogous in vitro system to model both the healthy and a...

  16. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  17. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    PubMed Central

    Tattersfield, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during high pollution episodes in the UK. The possible exception is SO2 where sensitive asthmatic patients may show a greater response at concentrations that are seen from time to time in certain areas and in proximity to power stations. There is no convincing evidence of potentiation between pollutants in chamber studies. Epidemiological studies are more difficult to carry out and require considerable epidemiological and statistical expertise to deal with the main problem-confounding by other factors. Although the health effects seen with current levels of pollution are small compared with those seen in the 1950s and close to the limits of detection, this should not be interpreted as being unimportant. A small effect may have large consequences when the population exposed is large (the whole population in this case). Recent data suggest that particles have more important health effects than the pollutant gases that have been studied. Much of this information comes from the USA though the findings are probably applicable in the UK. More information is needed on the size of the health effects that occur during the three types of air pollution episodes seen in this country and the relative contributions of particles, pollutant gases, pollen, and other factors such as temperature. Research into air pollution declined in the UK following the introduction of the Clean Air Acts; it is now increasing again following pressure from certain individuals and ginger groups, including the British

  18. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Burger, Mary R.; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schlaug, Gottfried; Gold, Diane R.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The link between daily changes in ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is well established. Whether PM2.5 at levels below current US National Ambient Air Quality Standards also increases the risk of ischemic stroke remains uncertain. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 1705 Boston-area patients hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed ischemic stroke and abstracted data on the time of symptom onset and clinical characteristics. PM2.5 concentrations were measured at a central monitoring station. We used the time-stratified case-crossover study design to assess the association between the risk of ischemic stroke onset and PM2.5 levels in the hours and days preceding each event. We examined whether the association with PM2.5 differed by ischemic stroke etiology and patient characteristics. Results The estimated odds ratio of ischemic stroke onset was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.58; p<0.001) following a 24-hour period classified as “moderate” (PM2.5 15–40 μg/m3) by the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Air Quality Index compared to a 24-hour period classified as “good” (≤15 μg/m3). Considering PM2.5 as a continuous variable, the estimated odds ratio of ischemic stroke onset was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20; p=0.006) per interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (6.4 μg/m3). The increase in risk was greatest within 12–14 hours of exposure to PM2.5 and was most strongly associated with markers of traffic-related pollution. Conclusion These results suggest that exposure to PM2.5 levels considered generally safe by the US EPA increase the risk of ischemic stroke onset within hours of exposure. PMID:22332153

  19. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel better ... and getting rid of pollutants can improve the quality of your indoor air. Environmental Protection Agency

  20. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 2014. In 2008, EPA significantly strengthened the air quality standards for lead to provide health protection for ... time? Setting and Reviewing Standards What are lead air quality standards? How are they developed and reviewed? What ...

  1. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. National Air Toxics Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NATA is an ongoing comprehensive evaluation of air toxics in the U.S. As a screening tool, it helps air agencies prioritize pollutants, emission sources and locations of interest for further study to gain a better understanding of risks.

  3. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  4. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  5. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  6. Air Data - Concentration Map

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  7. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  8. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  9. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  10. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  11. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  12. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  13. Clean Air Act Text

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  14. 49 CFR 1546.207 - Screening of individuals and property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Screening of individuals and property. 1546.207 Section 1546.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR...

  15. 49 CFR 1546.207 - Screening of individuals and property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Screening of individuals and property. 1546.207 Section 1546.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR...

  16. 49 CFR 1546.207 - Screening of individuals and property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Screening of individuals and property. 1546.207 Section 1546.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR...

  17. 49 CFR 1546.207 - Screening of individuals and property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening of individuals and property. 1546.207 Section 1546.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR...

  18. 49 CFR 1546.207 - Screening of individuals and property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Screening of individuals and property. 1546.207 Section 1546.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR...

  19. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  20. Iron-air battery development program

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzelli, E.S.; Liu, C.T.; Bryant, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The progress and status of the research and development program on the iron-air advanced technology battery system at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation during the period June 1978-December 1979 are described. This advanced battery system is being developed for electric vehicle propulsion applications. Testing and evaluation of 100 cm/sup 2/ size cells was undertaken while individual iron and air electrode programs continued. Progress is reported in a number of these study areas. Results of the improvements made in the utilization of the iron electrode active material coupled with manufacturing and processing studies related to improved air electrodes continue to indicate that a fully developed iron-air battery system will be capable of fulfilling the performance requirements for commuter electric vehicles.

  1. Air National Guard Installation Restoration Program: Community Relations Plan. 153rd Airlift Wing, Wyoming Air National Guard, Cheyenne, Wyoming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    environmental concerns , with respect to the Air National Guard operations in Cheyenne. Most individuals interviewed expressed no concern over activities at the...installation and only moderate interest with environmental concerns in general. Most interviewed believed that the best way for the Air National Guard

  2. Handle With Care: An Air Pollution Module for Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grade Teachers of Health Education, Science, and Other Subject Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Dolores

    Presented is a module on air pollution for sixth through eighth graders. Six subsections address the many aspects of air and air pollution: (1) sensory awareness, (2) the nature of the atmosphere, (3) air pollution's effects on health and property, (4) values conflicts, (5) air quality control, and (6) individual responsibility. Learning…

  3. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  4. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AIR PARITY: RE-DISCOVERING CONTESTED AIR OPERATIONS BY CHRISTOPHER LAZIDIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF...THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR ...UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA JUNE 2016 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited ii APPROVAL The

  5. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  6. Spatial associations between socioeconomic groups and NO2 air pollution exposure within three large Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Pinault, Lauren; Crouse, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of environmental justice in Canadian cities have linked lower socioeconomic status to greater air pollution exposures at coarse geographic scales, (i.e., Census Tracts). However, studies that examine these associations at finer scales are less common, as are comparisons among cities. To assess differences in exposure to air pollution among socioeconomic groups, we assigned estimates of exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related pollution, from city-wide land use regression models to respondents of the 2006 Canadian census long-form questionnaire in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Data were aggregated at a finer scale than in most previous studies (i.e., by Dissemination Area (DA), which includes approximately 400-700 persons). We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models, which account for spatial autocorrelation, to identify associations between NO2 exposure and indicators of social and material deprivation. In Canada's three largest cities, DAs with greater proportions of tenants and residents who do not speak either English or French were characterised by greater exposures to ambient NO2. We also observed positive associations between NO2 concentrations and indicators of social deprivation, including the proportion of persons living alone (in Toronto), and the proportion of persons who were unmarried/not in a common-law relationship (in Vancouver). Other common measures of deprivation (e.g., lone-parent families, unemployment) were not associated with NO2 exposures. DAs characterised by selected indicators of deprivation were associated with higher concentrations of ambient NO2 air pollution in the three largest cities in Canada.

  7. Exposure to hazardous air pollutants along Oba Akran road, Lagos-Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olajire, A A; Azeez, L; Oluyemi, E A

    2011-08-01

    We measured toxic air pollutants along Oba Akran road in Lagos to evaluate pedestrian exposure. PM10, CO, O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, noise, wind velocity and temperature were measured simultaneously with portable analyzers. Our results showed that pedestrian exposure to PM10 (with an average of 274.6 μg m(-3) for all samples) and CO (with an average of 19.27 ppm for all samples) was relatively high. CO is a traffic-related pollutant, so the influence of the local traffic emissions on CO levels is strong. The high concentration of the PM10 measured at the three environments also suggests that the traffic is a major source of ultrafine particles. The overall average concentrations for the 72-day experimental period for SO2, NO2 and O3 are 101.2, 62.5 and 0.32 ppb respectively, all of which are below the US national ambient air quality standards. Strong traffic impacts can be observed from the concentrations of some of these pollutants measured in these three environments. Most clear is a reflection of diesel truck traffic activity rich in black carbon concentrations. The diurnal variation of O3 and NO2 also showed that NO2 was depleted by photochemically formed O3 during the day and replenished at night as O3 was destroyed. A multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis) has been applied to a set of data in order to determine the contribution of different sources. It was found that the main principal components, extracted from the air pollution data, were related to gasoline combustion, oil combustion and ozone interactions.

  8. An analysis of asthma hospitalizations, air pollution, and weather conditions in Los Angeles County, California

    PubMed Central

    Delamater, Paul L.; Finley, Andrew O.; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2012-01-01

    There is now a large body of literature supporting a linkage between exposure to air pollutants and asthma morbidity. However, the extent and significance of this relationship varies considerably between pollutants, location, scale of analysis, and analysis methods. Our primary goal is to evaluate the relationship between asthma hospitalizations, levels of ambient air pollution, and weather conditions in Los Angeles (LA) County, California, an area with a historical record of heavy air pollution. County-wide measures of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), Particulate Matter < 10 μ m (PM10), Particulate Matter < 2.5 μ m (PM2.5), maximum temperature, and relative humidity were collected for all months from 2001 to 2008. We then related these variables to monthly asthma hospitalization rates using Bayesian regression models with temporal random effects. We evaluated model performance using a goodness of fit criterion and predictive ability. Asthma hospitalization rates in LA County decreased between 2001 and 2008. Traffic-related pollutants, CO and NO2, were significant and positively correlated with asthma hospitalizations. PM2.5 also had a positive, significant association with asthma hospitalizations. PM10, relative humidity, and maximum temperature produced mixed results, whereas O3 was non-significant in all models. Inclusion of temporal random effects satisfies statistical model assumptions, improves model fit, and yields increased predictive accuracy and precision compared to their non-temporal counterparts. Generally, pollution levels and asthma hospitalizations decreased during the 9 year study period. Our findings also indicate that after accounting for seasonality in the data, asthma hospitalization rate has a significant positive relationship with ambient levels of CO, NO2, and PM2.5. PMID:22475217

  9. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  10. Modeling Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for the Diabetes and Environment Panel Study (DEPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies of fine particulate matter (PM) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. To improve exposure assessments, we developed and evaluated an exposure model for individuals (EMI), which predicts five tiers of individual-level exposure metric...

  11. A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF AIR POLLUTION AND PRETERM BIRTH IN PENNSYLVANIA, 1997-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Small increases in risk for preterm delivery in relation to air pollution have been reported, but prior investigations may have inadequately controlled for individual factors, such as maternal smoking. To eliminate confounding by known and unknown individual risk f...

  12. Relationship between vehicle count and particulate air pollution in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alnawaiseh, Nedal Awad; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional comparative study is to observe the relationship between traffic-related air pollutants, particularly particulate matter (PM) of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM of size 10 µm (PM10), and vehicle traffic in Amman, Jordan. Two study areas were chosen randomly as a high-polluted area (HPA) and low-polluted area (LPA). The findings indicate that TSP and PM10 were still significantly correlated with traffic count even after controlling for confounding factors (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed): TSP, r = 0.726, P < .001; PM10, r = 0.719, P < .001). There was a significant positive relationship between traffic count and PM level: TSP, P < .001; PM10, P < .001. Moreover, there was a significant negative relationship between temperature and PM10 level (P = .018). Traffic volume contributed greatly to high concentrations of TSP and PM10 in areas with high traffic count, in addition to the effect of temperature.

  13. Structural equation modeling of the inflammatory response to traffic air pollution.

    PubMed

    Baja, Emmanuel S; Schwartz, Joel D; Coull, Brent A; Wellenius, Gregory A; Wellenuis, Gregory A; Vokonas, Pantel S; Suh, Helen H

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results on the effect of traffic-related pollutants on markers of inflammation. In a Bayesian framework, we examined the effect of traffic pollution on inflammation using structural equation models (SEMs). We studied measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) for 749 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Using repeated measures SEMs, we fit a latent variable for traffic pollution that is reflected by levels of black carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide to estimate its effect on a latent variable for inflammation that included sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and CRP. Exposure periods were assessed using 1-, 2-, 3-, 7-, 14- and 30-day moving averages previsit. We compared our findings using SEMs with those obtained using linear mixed models. Traffic pollution was related to increased inflammation for 3-, 7-, 14- and 30-day exposure periods. An inter-quartile range increase in traffic pollution was associated with a 2.3% (95% posterior interval (PI): 0.0-4.7%) increase in inflammation for the 3-day moving average, with the most significant association observed for the 30-day moving average (23.9%; 95% PI: 13.9-36.7%). Traffic pollution adversely impacts inflammation in the elderly. SEMs in a Bayesian framework can comprehensively incorporate multiple pollutants and health outcomes simultaneously in air pollution-cardiovascular epidemiological studies.

  14. Do Variants in GSTs Modify the Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Asthma in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Erbas, Bircan; Dennekamp, Martine; Marks, Guy B.; Perret, Jennifer; Hui, Jennie; Wjst, Matthias; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Allen, Katrina J.; Abramson, Michael J.; Matheson, Melanie C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. TRAP exposure during the first year of life was defined as the cumulative length of major roads within 150 m of each participant’s residence during the first year of life. Wheeze, asthma and hay fever were measured at ages 12 (n = 370) and 18 (n = 434) years. The associations and interactions with glutathione S-transferases (GST s) were investigated using regression models. Overall, there was no relationship between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and current asthma, wheeze and hay fever at ages 12 or 18 years. However, in GSTT1 null carriers, every 100 m increase in cumulative lengths of major road exposure during the first year of life was associated with a 2.31-fold increased risk of wheeze and a 2.15-fold increased risk of asthma at 12 years. TRAP is associated with some respiratory outcomes in carriers of genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress metabolism genes. PMID:27043549

  15. Particulate Air Pollution and the Rate of Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure among Medicare Beneficiaries in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bateson, Thomas F.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz., Joel

    2006-01-01

    We used a case-crossover approach to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and the rate of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) among Medicare recipients (age ≥ 65) residing in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh area), PA, during 1987–1999. We also explored effect modification by age, gender, and specific secondary diagnoses. During follow-up, there were 55,019 admissions with a primary diagnosis of CHF. We found that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide – but not ozone – were positively and significantly associated with the rate of admission on the same day in single-pollutant models. The strongest associations were observed with CO, NO2 and PM10. The associations with CO and NO2 were the most robust in two-pollutant models, remaining statistically significant even after adjusting for other pollutants. Patients with a recent myocardial infarction were at greater risk of particulate-related admission, but there was otherwise no significant effect modification by age, gender, or other secondary diagnoses. These results suggest that short-term elevations in air pollution from traffic-related sources may trigger acute cardiac decompensation of heart failure patients and that those with certain comorbid conditions may be more susceptible to these effects. PMID:15901623

  16. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  17. A Viable Individualized Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubillo, James M.

    1977-01-01

    An individualized learning system for college algebra was devised and tested. Results indicated that the individualized system was at least as effective as traditional approaches, and superior with respect to student attitudes toward the course. (SD)

  18. Air pollution and survival within the Washington University-EPRI Veterans Cohort: risks based on modelled estimates of ambient levels of hazardous and criteria air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick W. Lipfert; Ronald E. Wyzga; Jack D. Baty; J. Philip Miller

    2009-04-15

    For this paper, we considered relationships between mortality, vehicular traffic density, and ambient levels of 12 hazardous air pollutants, elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup -2}). These pollutant species were selected as markers for specific types of emission sources, including vehicular traffic, coal combustion, smelters, and metal-working industries. Pollutant exposures were estimated using emissions inventories and atmospheric dispersion models. We analyzed associations between county ambient levels of these pollutants and survival patterns among approximately 70,000 U.S. male veterans by mortality period (1976-2001 and subsets), type of exposure model, and traffic density level. We found significant associations between all-cause mortality and traffic-related air quality indicators and with traffic density per se, with stronger associations for benzene, formaldehyde, diesel particulate, NOx, and EC. The maximum effect on mortality for all cohort subjects during the 26-yr follow-up period is approximately 10%, but most of the pollution-related deaths in this cohort occurred in the higher-traffic counties, where excess risks approach 20%. However, mortality associations with diesel particulates are similar in high- and low-traffic counties. Sensitivity analyses show risks decreasing slightly over time and minor differences between linear and logarithmic exposure models. We conclude that tailpipe emissions of both gases and particles are among the most significant and robust predictors of mortality in this cohort and that most of those associations have weakened over time. There may be concerns associated with large stationary sources burning coal, residual fuel oil and municipal solid wastes. Nickel and arsenic have been identified in coal fly ash and residual oil. 81 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Pedro; Miranda, Regina

    2013-04-01

    The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air toxic pollutants (ATPs), are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid, Spain. Carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter (PM) translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality (CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents) impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution. First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid (used as a case study). The local air quality model (LAQM) is based on gridded and shaped emission fields. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) COPERT modeling system will provide GHGs and ATPs gridded and shaped emission data and mobile source parameters, available for Madrid from preliminary emission inventory records of the Municipality of Madrid and from disaggregated traffic counts of the Traffic Engineering Company and the Metropolitan Company of Metro (METRO-Madrid). The paper intends to obtain estimates of GHGs and ATPs concentrations commensurate with available ground measurements, 24-hour average values, from the Municipality of Madrid. The comparison between estimated concentrations and measurements must show small errors (e.g. fractional error, fractional bias and coefficient of determination). The paper's expected results must determine spatial and temporal patterns in Madrid. The estimates will be used to cross check the primary local

  20. The Science of the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to establish a science of the individual, grounded in dynamic systems, and focused on the analysis of individual variability. Our argument is that individuals behave, learn, and develop in distinctive ways, showing patterns of variability that are not captured by models based on statistical averages. As such, any meaningful attempt to…

  1. Individualizing Secondary School Chemistry Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses a study comparing the effectiveness of the group studies approach recommended in the teacher's guide for CBA chemistry with an individualized approach utilizing CBA materials. The individualized group did a well as or better than the other group. Reviews students' attitudes toward individualized course. Twenty-four references. (PR)

  2. Individual health services

    PubMed Central

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hunger, Theresa; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin Regina; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Background The German statutory health insurance (GKV) reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK), individual health services (IGeL) are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. Research questions The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL? What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? For two of the most common IGeL, the screening for glaucoma and the screening for ovarian and endometrial cancer by vaginal ultrasound (VUS), the following questions are addressed: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness? Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? Methods The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. Results 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by ultrasound assessments

  3. Draft air deflecting device

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J.E.

    1982-05-18

    A draft air deflecting device is mountable proximate to a window contained in a firebox and serves as a conduit which directs draft air across the inner surface of the window prior to its supporting combustion of the fuel in the firebox. In this respect , the draft air deflecting device is formed as a box which communicates with draft air holes located in the firebox and which includes a forwardly extending lip serving to define a nozzle for both increasing the velocity and directing the incoming draft air across the firebox window. The incoming draft air is thus utilized to cool and to prevent soot, creosote and other particulates from accumulating on the window.