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Sample records for individual-based smoking cessation

  1. Smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Scott P; Stoller, James K

    2003-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking cessation is the most effective means of stopping the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Worldwide, approximately a billion people smoke cigarettes and 80% reside in low-income and middle-income countries. Though in the United States there has been a substantial decline in cigarette smoking since 1964, when the Surgeon General's report first reviewed smoking, smoking remains widespread in the United States today (about 23% of the population in 2001). Nicotine is addictive, but there are now effective drugs and behavioral interventions to assist people to overcome the addiction. Available evidence shows that smoking cessation can be helped with counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Less-studied interventions, including hypnosis, acupuncture, aversive therapy, exercise, lobeline, anxiolytics, mecamylamine, opioid agonists, and silver acetate, have assisted some people in smoking cessation, but none of those interventions has strong research evidence of efficacy. To promote smoking cessation, physicians should discuss with their smoking patients "relevance, risk, rewards, roadblocks, and repetition," and with patients who are willing to attempt to quit, physicians should use the 5-step system of "ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange." An ideal smoking cessation program is individualized, accounting for the reasons the person smokes, the environment in which smoking occurs, available resources to quit, and individual preferences about how to quit. The clinician should bear in mind that quitting smoking can be very difficult, so it is important to be patient and persistent in developing, implementing, and adjusting each patient's smoking-cessation program. One of the most effective behavioral interventions is advice from a health care professional; it seems not to matter whether the advice is from a doctor, respiratory therapist, nurse, or other

  2. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements.

  3. Smoking Cessation

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  4. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  5. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Nunn-Thompson, C L; Simon, P A

    1989-10-01

    Nicotine dependence and the role of various pharmacotherapeutic adjuncts in the medical management of nicotine withdrawal and smoking cessation are reviewed. Nicotine has been shown to be the drug in tobacco that causes addiction. The nicotine withdrawal syndrome is primarily characterized by craving, irritability, frustration, anger, anxiety, poor concentration, restlessness, weight gain, and decreased heart rate. Pharmacotherapeutic interventions can be classified into four groups: therapy that (1) replaces nicotine, (2) antagonizes nicotine, (3) provides symptomatic treatment for nicotine withdrawal, and (4) deters smoking. Nicotine replacement therapy with nicotine polacrilex gum has had minimal effect on increasing-smoking cessation among patients seen in a general medical practice setting. It is most effective in nicotine dependent smokers when it is used concomitantly with behavioral or psychological counseling. Nicotine antagonist therapy with mecamylamine may be useful in recalcitrant cases of nicotine dependence. Clonidine, in both oral and transdermal forms, has been shown to be effective for reduction of symptoms and craving associated with smoking cessation. Research on using the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and doxepin to promote smoking cessation by reducing withdrawal symptoms is in its preliminary phases. Lobeline, an alkaloid with effects similar to those of nicotine, is an FDA Category III drug (i.e., safe, but of unknown efficacy) and is available without prescription. Silver acetate chewing gum deters smoking by producing an unpleasant metallic taste on concomitant ingestion of the agent and tobacco. It is an FDA Category III drug and is available without prescription. Drugs used in therapy of nicotine withdrawal include nicotine replacements, nicotine antagonists, agents to lessen the symptoms of withdrawal, and smoking deterrents. None of the drugs is completely effective. Successful drug use for smoking cessation involves

  6. Methods of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J L

    1992-03-01

    Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine

  7. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  8. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  9. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  10. Smoking cessation and COPD.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The mainstay in smoking cessation is counselling in combination with varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion SR. Varenicline and combination of two NRTs is equally effective, while varenicline alone is more effective than either NRT or bupropion SR. NRT is extremely safe but cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with varenicline have been reported. These treatments have also been shown to be effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A model study is the Lung Health Study from the USA. Findings from this study of 5,587 patients with mild COPD showed that repeated smoking cessation for a period of 5 yrs resulted in a quit rate of 37%. After 14.5 yrs the quitters had a higher lung function and a higher survival rate. A study with a new nicotine formulation, a mouth spray, showed high relative efficacy. As 5-10% of quitters use long-term NRT, we report the results of a study where varenicline compared with placebo increased the quit rate in long-term users of NRT. Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention in stopping the progression of COPD, as well as increasing survival and reducing morbidity. This is why smoking cessation should be the top priority in the treatment of COPD.

  11. Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Ernst, E

    2002-01-01

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the allied therapies of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation, in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham treatment, b) other interventions, or c) no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, PsycINFO, Science and Social Sciences Citation Index, AMED and CISCOM. Date of last search January 2002. Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either sham treatment, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year or more follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We identified 22 studies. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.50 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 2.27) and after 12 months 1.08 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.52). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early

  12. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  13. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kindred K.; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  14. Weight gain after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Pistelli, F; Aquilini, F; Carrozzi, L

    2009-06-01

    Both overweight or obesity and cigarette smoking are relevant risk factors for public health. Cigarette smoking is associated with lower body weight while smoking cessation is associated with weight gain. Most smokers who quit experience a weight gain, particularly within one year, and it may persist up to 8 years after smoking cessation. However, only a minority of quitters gain excessive weight. Some individual characteristics have been found to be associated with excessive weight gain after smoking cessation while methodological problems may affect estimates of weight gain observed in different studies. Main mechanisms to explain weight gain after smoking cessation include increased energy intake, decreased resting metabolic rate, and decreased physical activity. The health benefits of smoking cessation far exceed any health risks that may result from smoking cessation-induced body weight gain. As weight gain may be a barrier against quitting smoking or a reason to restart smoking, behavioural and pharmacological methods have been evaluated to control weight gain after smoking cessation. Physicians should apply efficient strategies to promote smoking cessation on their weight-concerned smoking patient. This review briefly addresses some issues on the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain, with regard to the size of the problem, mechanisms, health risks and control strategies.

  15. Smoking Cessation Quitlines

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Edward; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Tedeschi, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Quitlines providing telephone counseling for smoking cessation derive from behavioral research and theory, have been shown to be effective, and have been adopted and then institutionalized at both the state and national levels. Although psychologists have made seminal contributions to quitline development and evaluation, this accomplishment has gone largely unnoticed by the practice and research communities in clinical, counseling, and health psychology. This article summarizes the development, content, structure, empirical status, and current reach of cessation quitlines. We note the rich research opportunities afforded by quitlines, describe some recent approaches to improving their effectiveness, and suggest that an understanding of how quitlines work could also improve their effectiveness. The implications for practitioners and the potential application of telephone counseling to other disorders are also considered. PMID:20455619

  16. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  17. [Medications in smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mansourati, J; Borel, M-L; Munier, S; Guevel-Jointret, A-L

    2005-10-22

    Physicians can aid their patients' smoking cessation by providing psychological support, advice, behavioral strategies, and drugs. Success depends on appropriate management, including selection of the right moment to begin treatment and an understanding of the development of the withdrawal syndrome, smoking urges, and the possibility of failure. The standard pharmacological treatment for nicotine dependence uses different forms of nicotine substitutes and bupropion, while we await data about other drugs currently under study. The score on the "simplified" Fagerström questionnaire usually determines the initial nicotine dose. Six forms of nicotine substitutes are available. They provide either prolonged nicotine release (transcutaneous patches) that prevents withdrawal symptoms, or rapid release through the buccal and nasal mucosa (chewing gum, suckers, inhalers and nasal sprays) to anticipate the positive effects represented by cigarettes and the urges occurring during withdrawal. The efficacy of these substitutes, widely studied, is approximately twice that of placebo. Their use is no longer contraindicated in patients with heart disease, when necessary. Bupropion should be used in treating nicotine dependence either as a first-line treatment, or if nicotine substitutes (150 mg/d the first week, 300 mg/d thereafter) fail. The combination of bupropion and nicotine substitutes can be considered, either from the outset for heavy or very heavy smokers, or afterwards, if withdrawal symptoms or urges to smoke persist in subjects treated by only one of these two drug classes. One of the new drugs under evaluation is rimonabant, the first representatives of a new class of drugs, selective CB1 endocannabinoid receptor antagonists. Promising results about its use in smoking cessation were released in 2004.

  18. Smoking cessation and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Filozof, C; Fernández Pinilla, M C; Fernández-Cruz, A

    2004-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the single most important preventable cause of death and illness. Smoking cessation is associated with substantial health benefits. Weight gain is cited as a primary reason for not trying to quit smoking. There is a great variability in the amount of weight gain but younger ages, lower socio-economic status and heavier smoking are predictors of higher weight gain. Weight change after smoking cessation appears to be influenced by underlying genetic factors. Besides, weight gain after smoking cessation is largely because of increased body fat and some studies suggest that it mostly occurs in the subcutaneous region of the body. The mechanism of weight gain includes increased energy intake, decreased resting metabolic rate, decreased physical activity and increased lipoprotein lipase activity. Although there is convincing evidence for the association between smoking cessation and weight gain, the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. This review summarizes current information of the effects of nicotine on peptides involved in feeding behaviour. Smoking was shown to impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that smokers are insulin-resistant and hyperinsulinaemic, as compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation seems to improve insulin sensitivity in spite of the weight gain. Nicotine replacement - in particular nicotine gum - appears to be effective in delaying post-cessation weight gain. In a group of women who failed to quit smoking because of weight gain, a dietary intervention (intermittent very-low-calorie diet) plus nicotine gum showed to both increase success rate in terms of smoking cessation and prevent weight gain. On the other hand, body weight gain at the end of treatment was significantly lower in the patients receiving bupropion or bupropion plus nicotine patch, compared with placebo. Studies with new drugs available for the treatment of obesity

  19. Smoking cessation in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Fishwick, D; Carroll, C; McGregor, M; Drury, M; Webster, J; Bradshaw, L; Rick, J; Leaviss, J

    2013-12-01

    The workplace is an important setting for reaching potentially large numbers of smokers. To review the evidence about smoking cessation in the workplace. Literature review including a synthesis of findings from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses of workplace smoking cessation programmes, a separate review of the qualitative evidence, case studies and an expert panel assessment. We found advantages, identified or confirmed from the mixed methods used in this work to holding smoking cessation programmes in the workplace. These included: (i) easy access to large numbers of worker populations for large workplaces, (ii) the potential improved recruitment to such programmes given this, (iii) the opportunity to access young men, traditionally difficult to achieve, (iv) access to occupational health and other staff who can assist with support and delivery and (v) ability for workers to attend relatively easily. Evidence on the importance of developing peer support at work was mixed. The simple provision or availability of programmes and interventions was unlikely to provide any beneficial behaviour change. Interventions should target workers that actively want to stop smoking, use elements that workers have identified as useful or focus on altering beliefs about smoking and the need to stop. Smoking cessation programmes at work can provide useful support for workers wishing to stop smoking. They are only likely to be effective if participants have moved beyond the contemplation stage regarding smoking cessation, so that stopping smoking is a personal priority.

  20. Factors associated with smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    França, Samires Avelino de Souza; Neves, Ana Ligian Feitosa das; de Souza, Tatiane Andressa Santos; Martins, Nandara Celana Negreiros; Carneiro, Saul Rassy; Sarges, Edilene do Socorro Nascimento Falcão; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Amine Houat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with smoking abstinence among patients who were treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation. METHODS This cross-sectional study examined the medical records of 532 patients treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation in Belém, PA, Northern Brazil, between January 2010 and June 2012. Sociodemographic variables and those related to smoking history and treatment were analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 50 years; 57.0% of the patients were women. The mean tobacco load was 30 packs/year, and the mean smoking duration was approximately 32 years. Most patients remained in treatment for four months. The rate of smoking abstinence was 75.0%. Regression analysis indicated that maintenance therapy, absence of relapse triggers, and lower chemical dependence were significantly associated with smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS The smoking abstinence rate observed was 75.0%. The cessation process was associated with several aspects, including the degree of chemical dependence, symptoms of withdrawal, and period of patient follow-up in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Studies of this nature contribute to the collection of consistent epidemiological data and are essential for the implementation of effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. PMID:25741649

  1. Complaints related to smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Can, Gamze; Oztuna, Funda; Topbaş, Murat

    2007-01-01

    Problems experienced during quitting smoking, particularly withdrawal symptoms, make giving up difficult. In this study the description of the complaints arising in individuals quitting smoking thus acts as a guide for health professional who dealt with smoking cessation. Data belonging to 194 patients applying to the smoking cessation clinic and quitting smoking were analysed. Behavioural counselling and nicotine support therapy are administered in the smoking cessation programme. Patients are followed up for at least two years after quitting cigarettes, and their complaints are determined. One hundred and two (52.6%) of the 194 patients quitting smoking had various complaints. One of the most frequently experienced problems was weight gain. According to patients' statements, an average weight gain of 6.8 +/- 3.8 kg, minimum 1 kg maximum 16 kg, occurred. Seventeen (8.7%) patients complain of increased appetite. Those with increased appetite gained the most weight, to a significant extent (p= 0.001). In terms of average weight gain, those with increased appetite gained 4.6 +/- 2.3 kg, while those without increased appetite gained 7.3 +/- 3.9 kg, and the difference was significant (p= 0.033). Thirty-eight (19.6%) patients complain of lesions in the mouth, gums or tongue. Twelve (6.1%) patients had complaints of tension, restlessness, nervousness or sleeplessness, 9 (4.6%) of a desire to smoke, 9 (4.6%) of headache, 8 (4.1%) of constipation, and 7 (3.6%) of drowsiness, numbness or concentration impairment. Forty-five (44.1%) of the 102 patients with smoking cessation related complaints and 57 (62%) of 92 patients with no complaints recommenced smoking. Significantly fewer of those with complaints began smoking (p= 0.013). Counselling services to be provided by health personnel regarding the frequency, intensity and resolutions of problems experienced by those quitting smoking will increase cessation success and duration.

  2. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  3. Interventions to facilitate smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2006-07-15

    Tobacco use, primarily cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and nearly one third of those who try a cigarette become addicted to nicotine. Family physicians, who see most of these patients in their offices every year, have an important opportunity to decrease smoking rates with office-based interventions. The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that primary care physicians use the five A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) model when treating patients with nicotine addiction. Physicians can improve screening and increase cessation rates by asking patients about tobacco use at every office visit. Behavior modification can improve long-term smoking cessation success; even brief (five minutes or less) advice on smoking cessation during an office visit can increase cessation rates. The effectiveness of nonpharmacologic treatments generally is lower; therefore, pharmacotherapy is recommended for smokers who are willing to attempt cessation, unless medical contraindications exist. The pharmacologic agents approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of tobacco dependence include bupropion (a non-nicotine therapy) and nicotine replacement therapies in the form of a gum, patch, nasal spray, inhaler, and lozenge. These agents have similar long-term success rates.

  4. Smoking Cessation Strategies in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lesley W S; Davies, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    Although pregnancy often motivates women to quit smoking, 20% to 25% will continue to smoke. Smoking is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes such as placental abruption, stillbirth, preterm birth and sudden infant death syndrome, and it is therefore important to motivate women to quit during pregnancy. In this review, we explore the efficacy and evidence for safety of strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy, including behavioural and pharmacologic therapies. The PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1990 to 2014) were accessed to identify relevant studies, using the search terms "smoking cessation," "pregnancy," "medicine, behavioural," "nicotine replacement products," "bupropion," and "varenicline." Studies were selected based on the levels of evidence presented by the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care. Based on our review of the evidence, incentives combined with behavioural therapy appear to show the greatest promise for abstaining from smoking in the pregnant population. Nicotine replacement therapy administered in the form of gum may be better than using transdermal forms to avoid high levels of nicotine in the fetal circulation. One small trial demonstrated that bupropion is an effective aid for smoking cessation and that it does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations. The currently available studies of varenicline in pregnancy are insufficient to provide evidence for the safety or efficacy of its use.

  5. Transdermal Nicotine for Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John R.; Glaser, Mitchell

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of transdermal nicotine (TN) in smoking cessation and its value as an effective procedure. The article reveals that, compared to a placebo, TN has double the quit rate percentages, and less than 5% of smokers quit TN due to side effects. (GLR)

  6. Smoking cessation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    More than 400,000 deaths occur per year in the United States that are attributable to cigarette smoking; the risks to the general public are widely known. The risk to women, especially those who are pregnant, is less commonly known. During pregnancy, smoking increases the risk of low birth weight infants, placental problems (previa and/or abruption), chronic hypertensive disorders, and fetal death. It is proposed that much of this happens because of vasoconstriction with decreased uterine blood flow from nicotine, carbon monoxide toxicity, and increased cyanide production. Infants of smoking mothers have increased risks, such as sudden infant death syndrome.

  7. Smoking cessation products and programs.

    PubMed

    Lando, H A

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral treatment techniques have facilitated smoking cessation, with intensive multicomponent interventions sometimes producing long-term abstinence rates approaching 50%. There is little evidence that either hypnosis or acupuncture are effective. Both nicotine gum and nicotine patch significantly improve treatment outcomes, although patch is easier for patients to use correctly. Self-help programs may be of benefit, however, smoking cessation products other than nicotine replacement show little evidence of effectiveness. Health professionals should be informed consumers and should be skeptical in evaluating claims for commercial programs or products. Additional information and materials are available from a number of sources including the National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Office on Smoking and Health, and the voluntary health organizations.

  8. Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

  9. Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

  10. [The ABC of smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Bölcskei, Pál L; Walden, Kerstin

    2008-05-01

    The professional support increased chances of success for smoking cessation and is an important goal in health politics. A short advice by pharmacists can make a significant contribution to this. This article describes tobacco dependence and the "stages of change-model". Afterwards we explain possible therapies: besides cognitive-behavioral intervention, different forms of medical treatment, e.g. nicotin replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, will be discussed.

  11. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  12. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  13. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  14. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  15. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  16. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  17. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Asfar, Taghrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL, using variant terms and spellings (‘waterpipe’ or ‘narghile’ or ‘arghile’ or ‘shisha’ or ‘goza’ or ‘narkeela’ or ‘hookah’ or ‘hubble bubble’). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. Selection criteria We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or

  18. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Asfar, Taghrid

    2015-07-31

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL , using variant terms and spellings ('waterpipe' or 'narghile' or 'arghile' or 'shisha' or 'goza' or 'narkeela' or 'hookah' or 'hubble bubble'). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion) or behavioural, or both, and could be directed at individual waterpipe users or

  19. Smoking cessation and bone healing: optimal cessation timing.

    PubMed

    Truntzer, Jeremy; Vopat, Bryan; Feldstein, Michael; Matityahu, Amir

    2015-02-01

    Smoking is a worldwide epidemic. Complications related to smoking behavior generate an economic loss around $193 billion annually. In addition to impacting chronic health conditions, smoking is linked to increased perioperative complications in those with current or previous smoking history. Numerous studies have demonstrated more frequent surgical complications including higher rates of infection, poor wound healing, heightened pain complaints, and increased pulmonary morbidities in patients with a smoking history. Longer preoperative cessation periods also seem to correlate with reduced rates. At roughly 4 weeks of cessation prior to surgery, complication rates more closely reflect individuals without a smoking history in comparison with those that smoke within 4 weeks of surgery. In the musculoskeletal system, a similar trend has been observed in smokers with higher rates of fractures, nonunions, malunions, infections, osteomyelitis, and lower functional scores compared to non-smoking patients. Unfortunately, the present literature lacks robust data suggesting a temporal relationship between smoking cessation and bone healing. In our review, we analyze pseudoarthrosis rates following spinal fusion to suggest that bone healing in the context of smoking behavior follows a similar time sequence as observed in wound healing. We also discuss the implications for further clarity on bone healing and smoking cessation within orthopedics including improved risk stratification and better identification of circumstances where adjunct therapy is appropriate.

  20. Predictors of adolescent smoking cessation and smoking reduction.

    PubMed

    Haug, Severin; Schaub, Michael P; Schmid, Holger

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the processes of change, demographic, health- and smoking-related predictors of both smoking cessation and smoking reduction in adolescents. Data were drawn from a sample of 755 adolescent smokers who participated in a study testing the efficacy of a text messaging-based intervention for smoking cessation. Demographic, health- and smoking-related variables were assessed at baseline. Five processes of smoking cessation, derived from the Transtheoretical Model and the Social Cognitive Theory, as well as outcome measures were assessed at 6-month follow up. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify baseline and process variables to predict smoking abstinence and smoking reduction. Male gender (OR=0.43, p<.01), lower alcohol consumption (OR=0.90, p=.05) and a lower number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline (OR=0.87, p<.01) predicted smoking abstinence. Baseline physical activity predicted smoking reduction (OR=1.04, p=.03). None of the examined process variables significantly predicted smoking abstinence. The process variable "counter-conditioning" predicted smoking reduction (OR=1.46, p=.03). Baseline predictors of smoking cessation differ from predictors of smoking reduction. Dynamic or modifiable variables play an important role in predicting adolescent smoking cessation. Counter-conditioning might be an important element in adolescent smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  2. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  3. Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P; Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F; Evins, A. Eden; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-01-01

    Background The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be mediated through release of various neurotransmitters both centrally and systemically. People who smoke report positive effects such as pleasure, arousal, and relaxation as well as relief of negative affect, tension, and anxiety. Opioid (narcotic) antagonists are of particular interest to investigators as potential agents to attenuate the rewarding effects of cigarette smoking. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of opioid antagonists in promoting long-term smoking cessation. The drugs include naloxone and the longer-acting opioid antagonist naltrexone. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for trials of naloxone, naltrexone and other opioid antagonists and conducted an additional search of MEDLINE using ’Narcotic antagonists’ and smoking terms in April 2013. We also contacted investigators, when possible, for information on unpublished studies. Selection criteria We considered randomised controlled trials comparing opioid antagonists to placebo or an alternative therapeutic control for smoking cessation. We included in the meta-analysis only those trials which reported data on abstinence for a minimum of six months. We also reviewed, for descriptive purposes, results from short-term laboratory-based studies of opioid antagonists designed to evaluate psycho-biological mediating variables associated with nicotine dependence. Data collection and analysis We extracted data in duplicate on the study population, the nature of the drug therapy, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. Abstinence at end of treatment was a secondary outcome. We extracted cotinine- or carbon monoxide-verified abstinence where available. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis, pooling risk ratios using a Mantel

  4. Interactive mobile system for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use remains the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. We developed an interactive mobile system to facilitate smoking cessation by identifying which stage of change the patient was currently in and creating a custom intervention and cessation action plan based upon their feedback and experience. It is designed to follow the patient through their smoking cessation experience and adapt to their changing attitudes over time. We piloted this program with 49 current smokers hospitalized at Johns Hopkins Hospital. The mobile smoking cessation system was generally well received by hospitalized patients. Improvement in attitudes and stage of change were noticed between pretest and posttest, suggesting an ability to help change patient's attitudes towards smoking and motivate them to quit. Providing real time decision support and tailoring the content shown to the patients to their personal profile can be a viable means in smoking cessation.

  5. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  6. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  7. Nicotine dependence and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Linxiang; Tang, Quansheng; Hao, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death, disability and disease in the world and is projected to be the leading cause of death and disability across all developed and developing countries by 2020. Nicotine, the primary active ingredient of cigarettes that contributes to physical dependence, acts on nicotine receptors in the central nervous system and leads to the release of neurotransmitters (such as dopamine). Like other drugs of abuse, nicotine is thought to produce reinforcing effect by activating the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. A wide variety of cessation treatments of nicotine dependence is commercially available, yet only 2 general approaches have received empirical validation: behavioral intervention (including 5 As brief intervention) and pharmacotherapy. The evidences show that 5 As brief intervention is one of the most cost-effective treatments in clinical work for busy physicians. Three types of medications have been available in market for smoking cessation treatment: nicotine replacement treatment (NRT, i.e., transdermal patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, and lozenge), sustained release bupropion and varenicline. Varenicline, a novel alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is effective for tobacco dependence. Phase III trials suggest that it is more effective than NRT and bupropion SR. The safety profile of varenicline is excellent, with the most commonly occurring adverse events, nausea, typically mild and well tolerated. However, new safety warnings are added to the varenicline label because of post-marketing report including agitation, depression and suicidality. A causal connection between varenicline use and these symptoms has not been established.

  8. iPhone Apps for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Abroms, Lorien C.; Padmanabhan, Nalini; Thaweethai, Lalida; Phillips, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Background With the proliferation of smartphones such as the iPhone, mobile phones are being used in novel ways to promote smoking cessation. Purpose This study set out to examine the content of the 47 iPhone applications (apps) for smoking cessation that were distributed through the online iTunes store, as of June 24, 2009. Methods Each app was independently coded by two reviewers for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and their (2) adherence to the U.S. Public Health Service’s 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Apps were also coded for their (3) frequency of downloads. Results Apps identified for smoking cessation were found to have low levels of adherence to key guidelines in the index. Few, if any, apps recommended or linked the user to proven treatments such as pharmacotherapy, counseling, and/or a quitline. Conclusions iPhone apps for smoking cessation rarely adhere to established guidelines for smoking cessation. It is recommended that current apps be revised and future apps be developed around evidence-based practices for smoking cessation. PMID:21335258

  9. Understanding smoking cessation in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Tresza D; Greiner, K Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Jeffries, Shawn K; Mussulman, Laura M; Casey, Genevieve N

    2008-01-01

    Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process. Focus groups were conducted with smokers (N = 63) in 7 Midwestern rural communities. Qualitative analysis and thematic coding of transcripts was conducted. Three levels of pertinent themes--intrinsic, health-system resource, and community/social factors--were identified. Intrinsic factors facilitating cessation included willingness to try various cessation methods, beliefs about consequences of continuing smoking (eg, smoking-related illnesses), and benefits of quitting (eg, saving money). Intrinsic barriers included skepticism about resources, low self-efficacy and motivation for smoking cessation, concern about negative consequences of quitting (eg, weight gain), and perceived benefits of continued smoking (eg, enjoyment). Key health-system resource facilitators were pharmacotherapy use and physician visits. Resource barriers included infrequent physician visits, lack of medical/financial resources, limited local smoking-cessation programs, and lack of knowledge of existing resources. In terms of community/social factors, participants acknowledged the negative social impact/image of smoking, but also cited a lack of alternative activities, few public restrictions, stressors, and exposure to other smokers as barriers to cessation. Smokers in rural communities face significant challenges that must be addressed. A multilevel model centered on improving access to health care system resources while addressing intrinsic and community/social factors might enhance smoking-cessation interventions and programs in rural communities.

  10. Smoking cessation programs in occupational settings

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G.

    1980-01-01

    For reasons of health and economics, the business community is displaying a growing interest in providing smoking cessation programs for employees. An examination of the current research on smoking cessation methods has revealed a number of promising directions that smoking cessation programs can take, for example, aversive smoking approaches combined with self-control strategies. A review of current smoking cessation programs in occupational settings revealed some emphasis on physician counseling, but a relatively greater emphasis on use of consultants (especially in proprietary programs) or of contingency programs to encourage nonsmoking. The smoking cessation programs in businesses can move in a number of innovative directions, including (a) increased use of inhouse programs with a variety of smoking cessation strategies; (b) greater emphasis on the training of program participants in nonsmoking behavioral skills, combined with contingency or incentive programs for smoking control; (c) vastly improved research methods, including complete followup assessments of program participants and chemical tests to validate their self-reported abstinence; (d) greater concern about the need for empirically tested procedures for recruitment of participants for the programs; and (e) expanded interchange among behavioral scientists (especially behavioral psychologists), health professionals in occupational health and medicine, union and employee groups, and management. PMID:7360872

  11. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  12. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  13. Serious mental illness and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2006-07-01

    Persons with serious mental illness (SMI) are faced with substantial challenges to their health. This population is two to three times more likely to smoke cigarettes than persons who do not suffer from mental illness. In particular, young adults are at high risk for vulnerability to both SMI and cigarette smoking. Although there are proven methods for smoking cessation, both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions show limited usefulness for SMI who smoke. Alternative health care options as well as support groups and physical exercise are discussed as methods that may be useful in smoking cessation. Finally, integration of smoking cessation programming into existing mental health treatment services may offer the greatest opportunity for client success.

  14. Negative affect, emotional acceptance, and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Timothy P; Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A

    2007-12-01

    This article describes recent theoretical developments and empirical findings regarding the role of negative affect (NA) and emotion regulation in nicotine dependence and smoking cessation. It begins with a review of affect-based models of addiction that address conditioning, affect motivational, and neurobiological mechanisms and then describes the role of NA and emotion regulation in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. Next, the role of emotion regulation, coping skill deficits, depression, and anxiety sensitivity in explaining the relationship between NA and smoking relapse are discussed. We then review recent models of affect regulation, including emotional intelligence, reappraisal and suppression, and emotional acceptance, and describe implications for substance abuse and smoking cessation interventions. Finally, we point out the need for further investigations of the moderating role of individual differences in response to NA in the maintenance of nicotine dependence, and controlled randomized trials testing the efficacy of acceptance-based interventions in facilitating smoking cessation and relapse prevention.

  15. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  16. Tobacco Industry Research on Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. OBJECTIVE Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers’ needs. METHODS Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, “ultra low tar” cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers’ motivations. PMID:15109339

  17. [Counseling interventions for smoking cessation: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Castillo, Juan Sebastián

    2013-04-01

    A systematic review on efficacy and safety of smoking cessation counseling was developed. The ADAPTE methodology was used with a search of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane. DELBI was used to select CPG with score over 60 in methodological rigor and applicability to the Colombian health system. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were assessed according to counseling provider, model, and format. In total 5 CPG out of 925 references were selected comprising 44 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Physician brief counseling and trained health professionals' intensive counseling (individual, group, proactive telephone) are effective with abstinence rates between 2.1% and 17.4%. Only practical counseling and motivational interview were found effective intensive interventions. The clinical effect of smoking cessation counseling is low and long term cessation rates uncertain. Cost-effectiveness analyses are recommended for the implementation of counseling in public health programs.

  18. Web-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Strecher, Victor J.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Alexander, Gwen L.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Nair, Vijay N.; Konkel, Janine M.; Greene, Sarah M.; Collins, Linda M.; Carlier, Carola C.; Wiese, Cheryl J.; Little, Roderick J.; Pomerleau, Cynthia S.; Pomerleau, Ovide F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Initial trials of web-based smoking-cessation programs have generally been promising. The active components of these programs, however, are not well understood. This study aimed to (1) identify active psychosocial and communication components of a web-based smoking-cessation intervention and (2) examine the impact of increasing the tailoring depth on smoking cessation. Design Randomized fractional factorial design. Setting Two HMOs: Group Health in Washington State and Henry Ford Health System in Michigan. Participants 1866 smokers. Intervention A web-based smoking-cessation program plus nicotine patch. Five components of the intervention were randomized using a fractional factorial design: high- versus low-depth tailored success story, outcome expectation, and efficacy expectation messages; high- versus low-personalized source; and multiple versus single exposure to the intervention components. Measurements Primary outcome was 7 day point-prevalence abstinence at the 6-month follow-up. Findings Abstinence was most influenced by high-depth tailored success stories and a high-personalized message source. The cumulative assignment of the three tailoring depth factors also resulted in increasing the rates of 6-month cessation, demonstrating an effect of tailoring depth. Conclusions The study identified relevant components of smoking-cessation interventions that should be generalizable to other cessation interventions. The study also demonstrated the importance of higher-depth tailoring in smoking-cessation programs. Finally, the use of a novel fractional factorial design allowed efficient examination of the study aims. The rapidly changing interfaces, software, and capabilities of eHealth are likely to require such dynamic experimental approaches to intervention discovery. PMID:18407003

  19. Smoking Cessation in Chronically Ill Medical Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Alan D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Followed eight male smokers with chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease through a smoking cessation program of gradual nicotine withdrawal, self-management, and relapse prevention. At one year, half remained abstinent, while relapsers smoked substantially less than before treatment. Reductions in carbon monoxide and thiocyanate levels were…

  20. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  1. Smoking Cessation in Chronically Ill Medical Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Alan D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Followed eight male smokers with chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease through a smoking cessation program of gradual nicotine withdrawal, self-management, and relapse prevention. At one year, half remained abstinent, while relapsers smoked substantially less than before treatment. Reductions in carbon monoxide and thiocyanate levels were…

  2. Smoking Cessation in African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    1996-01-01

    Because the smoking behavior of African Americans differs considerably from that of other groups, researchers examined differences between African Americans who did and did not use the nicotine patch as an adjunct to counseling and education for smoking cessation. Results indicated the nicotine patch significantly improved six-month cessation…

  3. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  4. Smoking Cessation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective strategy for slowing down the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reducing mortality in the approximately 50% of patients with diagnosed COPD who continue to smoke. While behavioral interventions (including simple advice) have modest efficacy in improving smoking quit rates, the combination of counseling and pharmacotherapy is more effective than either alone. When combined with even brief counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion SR, and varenicline have all been shown to be effective in promoting smoking cessation and sustained abstinence in smokers with COPD to a degree comparable to that observed in the general smoking population. However, the recidivism rate is high after initial quitting so that at the end of 1 year, approximately 80% or more of patients are still smoking. Thus, new approaches to smoking cessation are needed. One approach is to combine different pharmacotherapies, for example, nicotine patch plus rapidly acting NRT (e.g., gum or nasal spray) and/or bupropion or even varenicline plus either NRT or bupropion, in a stepwise approach over a varying duration depending on the severity of nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the quit attempt, as proposed in the American College of Chest Physicians Tobacco Dependence Took Kit. Electronic (e)-cigarettes, which deliver vaporized nicotine without most of the noxious components in the smoke from burning tobacco cigarettes, also has potential efficacy as a smoking cessation aid, but their efficacy and safety as either substitutes for regular cigarettes or smoking cessation aids require additional study. This task is complicated because e-cigarettes are currently unregulated and hundreds of different brands are currently available.

  5. [Recommendations for smoking cessation in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Becerra, Nelci; Páez, Nelson; Cañas, Alejandra; Mosquera, Catalina; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Camacho, Natalia; Gómez, Javier; García-Herreros, Plutarco; Bernal, Luis Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases represent the greatest burden of disease in Colombia for which smoking is the major risk factor. To provide clinical practice recommendations based upon efficacy and safety of smoking cessation therapies for Colombian adults. An adaptation of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) based on the ADAPT methodology was performed. We searched CPG on Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane databases. Six months' cessation rates were appraised for brief and intensive counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, varenicline, clonidine, nortriptyline, acupuncture, hypnosis, homeopathy, and combined treatments. CPG were evaluated with DELBI and selected when having a score above 60% for methodological rigor of development and applicability to the Colombian health system. Formal consensus was performed for questions without strong evidence. 925 references were found, 17 CPG were pre-selected and 5 selected for adaptation. Brief and intensive counseling, NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline, and varenicline are effective for smoking cessation (cessation rates augment 5.1%-22.7%). Alternative therapies have not demonstrated cessation efficacy. Concomitant use of different NRT is the only combination with demonstrated efficacy (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.7). Several alternatives for giving up tobacco smoking have confirmed efficacy. The absolute difference in cessation rates is variable among therapies and duration of effect requires further research. Brief and intensive counseling necessitate standardized formats for their implementation in Colombia. Economic evaluations are required to assess costs and benefits and to select the most suitable interventions for Colombia.

  6. Smoker Characteristics and Smoking-Cessation Milestones

    PubMed Central

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Piper, Megan E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Roberts, Linda J.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual variables often predict long-term abstinence, but little is known about how these variables exert their effects. These variables could influence abstinence by affecting the ability to quit at all, or by altering risk of lapsing, or progressing from a lapse to relapse. Purpose To examine the effect of common predictors of smoking-cessation failure on smoking-cessation processes. Methods The current study (N = 1504, 58% female, 84% Caucasian; recruited from January 2005 to June 2007; data analyzed in 2009) uses the approach advocated by Shiffman et al., (2006), which measures cessation outcomes on three different cessation milestones (achieving initial abstinence, lapse risk, and the lapse-relapse transition) to examine relationships of smoker characteristics (dependence, contextual and demographic factors) with smoking-cessation process. Results High nicotine dependence strongly predicted all milestones: not achieving initial abstinence, and a higher risk of both lapse and transitioning from lapse to complete relapse. Numerous contextual and demographic variables were associated with higher initial cessation rates and/or decreased lapse risk at 6 months post-quit (e.g., ethnicity, gender, marital status, education, smoking in the workplace, number of smokers in the social network, and number of supportive others). However, aside from nicotine dependence, only gender significantly predicted the risk of transition from lapse to relapse. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that: (1) higher nicotine dependence predicted worse outcomes across every cessation milestone; (2) demographic and contextual variables are generally associated with initial abstinence rates and lapse risk and not the lapse-relapse transition. These results identify groups who are at risk for failure at specific stages of the smoking-cessation process, and this may have implications for treatment. PMID:21335259

  7. [A community program to stimulate smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, J R; Ballestín, M; Surós, C; de Miguel-Blondel, E; Cabello, R

    1992-01-01

    A community program to stimulate smoking cessation developed on the 1988 World No-smoking Day in the city of Barcelona (Spain) is presented. Participants in this program could make a written commitment to quit, and received support materials by mail. The results are evaluated in a sample of participants: 69% declare having quit on the specified date, and 29% do not smoke after one year.

  8. Pharmacotherapies to enhance smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oncken, C A; Kranzler, H R

    2003-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a significant public health concern. Maternal smoking increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, premature delivery, sudden infant death syndrome and learning and behavioral problems in the offspring. Unfortunately, the majority of pregnant women do not quit smoking during pregnancy. Although pharmacotherapy may improve smoking cessation rates in pregnancy, very few studies exist that have studied the safety and efficacy of medications to treat pregnant smokers. This article reviews the available safety and efficacy data for the use in pregnancy of the five first-line therapies and two second-line therapies that are recommended for smoking cessation in non-pregnant smokers. Other promising nicotine replacement therapies are also reviewed. Ultimately, the choice whether to use pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation should be made jointly by the pregnant smoker and her health care provider. This article reviews factors that may be considered when prescribing pharmacotherapy to pregnant smokers (i.e. the role of behavioral counseling, identification of appropriate patients, potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the pharmacotherapies, proposed monitoring strategies, dose and duration and goals of treatment). More research regarding the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy during pregnancy is needed to define the risk/benefit profile of each medication for use in smoking cessation in pregnant women.

  9. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Begh, Rachna; Stead, Lindsay F; Hajek, Peter

    2016-09-14

    -Haenszel model to calculate the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study, and where appropriate we pooled data from these studies in meta-analyses. Our searches identified over 1700 records, from which we include 24 completed studies (three RCTs, two of which were eligible for our cessation meta-analysis, and 21 cohort studies). Eleven of these studies are new for this version of the review. We identified 27 ongoing studies. Two RCTs compared EC with placebo (non-nicotine) EC, with a combined sample size of 662 participants. One trial included minimal telephone support and one recruited smokers not intending to quit, and both used early EC models with low nicotine content and poor battery life. We judged the RCTs to be at low risk of bias, but under the GRADE system we rated the overall quality of the evidence for our outcomes as 'low' or 'very low', because of imprecision due to the small number of trials. A 'low' grade means that further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. A 'very low' grade means we are very uncertain about the estimate. Participants using an EC were more likely to have abstained from smoking for at least six months compared with participants using placebo EC (RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 4.96; placebo 4% versus EC 9%; 2 studies; 662 participants. GRADE: low). The one study that compared EC to nicotine patch found no significant difference in six-month abstinence rates, but the confidence intervals do not rule out a clinically important difference (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.68 to 2.34; 584 participants. GRADE: very low).Of the included studies, none reported serious adverse events considered related to EC use. The most frequently reported AEs were mouth and throat irritation, most commonly dissipating over time. One RCT provided data on the proportion of participants experiencing any adverse events. The proportion of participants in the study arms

  10. Population-Based Smoking Cessation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this report was to provide the Ministry of Health Promotion (MHP) with a summary of existing evidence-based reviews of the clinical and economic outcomes of population-based smoking cessation strategies. Background Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in Ontario, linked to approximately 13,000 avoidable premature deaths annually – the vast majority of these are attributable to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. (1) In Ontario, tobacco related health care costs amount to $6.1 billion annually, or about $502 per person (including non-smokers) and account for 1.4% of the provincial domestic product. (2) In 2007, there were approximately 1.7 to 1.9 million smokers in Ontario with two-thirds of these intending to quit in the next six months and one-third wanting to quit within 30 days. (3) In 2007/2008, Ontario invested $15 million in cessation programs, services and training. (4) In June 2009, the Ministry of Health Promotion (MHP) requested that MAS provide a summary of the evidence base surrounding population-based smoking cessation strategies. Project Scope The MAS and the MHP agreed that the project would consist of a clinical and economic summary of the evidence surrounding nine population-based strategies for smoking cessation including: Mass media interventions Telephone counselling Post-secondary smoking cessation programs (colleges/universities) Community-wide stop-smoking contests (i.e. Quit and Win) Community interventions Physician advice to quit Nursing interventions for smoking cessation Hospital-based interventions for smoking cessation Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation, specifically: Nicotine replacement therapies Antidepressants Anxiolytic drugs Opioid antagonists Clonidine Nicotine receptor partial agonists Reviews examining interventions for Cut Down to Quit (CDTQ) or harm reduction were not included in this review. In addition

  11. Pediatricians' Confidence and Behaviors in Smoking Cessation Promotion and Knowledge of the Smoking Cessation Trust

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katharine; Kisely, Steve; Gastanaduy, Mariella; Urrego, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure increases morbidity and mortality in children. Thirty-one percent of caregivers who accompany their children to the Ochsner Health Center for Children smoke, and none uses the services of the Smoking Cessation Trust (SCT), a free smoking cessation program for eligible Louisiana residents who began smoking before 1988. The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to assess and compare pediatricians' confidence and behaviors in regard to smoking cessation promotion with caregivers, and second, to determine pediatricians' knowledge and comfort level with the SCT. Methods: Pediatricians were given a questionnaire to assess 12 parameters regarding their confidence and practice when screening, counseling, and referring caregivers to smoking cessation programs. Results: Thirty-six questionnaires were administered, of which 27 were completed (75%). Only 7.41% of respondents had formal training in smoking cessation, 18.52% had never heard of the SCT, and 92.59% do not refer to the SCT. All the pediatrician respondents stated that they were confident in their ability to screen for secondhand smoke exposure, 62.96% were confident in providing counseling, and 44.44% were confident in offering referrals. Most pediatricians very often or always screened for secondhand smoke exposure (77.78%); however, only 25.93% counseled smoking caregivers to quit, and only 11.11% provided a smoking cessation referral. Pediatricians stated that they were confident to screen, counsel, and refer caregivers; however, they were significantly less likely to report actually screening for secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05), counseling (P<0.05), and referring caregivers (P<0.05). Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase the rate by which pediatricians provide smoking cessation, counseling, and referrals to the SCT through education and training. PMID:27303221

  12. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Ewerling, Fernanda; Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides dos; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Menezes, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  13. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation.

  14. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada’s health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574

  15. Smoking cessation advice: Swiss physicians lack training.

    PubMed

    von Garnier, Christophe; Kochuparackal, Sascha; Miedinger, David; Leuppi, Jörg D; Tamm, Michael; Battegay, Edouard; Zeller, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    To assess the use and appropriateness of medical advice for smoking cessation provided by registrars in a General Medicine Outpatient Department to an unselected patient population in Switzerland. A prospective observational study in which 314 consecutive outpatients were contacted by phone within 24h after their consultation. Questions and information concerning smoking asked and/or provided by the registrar to patients were collected. Eleven registrars (mean age 34 years (range 29-40), 54% females, mean of 5 years (range 3.5-6 years) postgraduate medical training) worked in the Basel University Hospital Medical Outpatient Department during the study period from 01.01.2006 to 31.03.2006. In total 314 participants (mean 48 years, age range 16-71 years, 50% females) completed the study. Registrars queried 81% of the patients about smoking, but inquired about smoking duration only in 44% of the patients. Twenty-eight percent of the patients received information about the risks related to smoking, whereas cessation was discussed only with 10% and offered to 9% of the patients. Though most junior physicians in the survey asked about smoking, they failed to appropriately address tobacco-related health issues and offer cessation advice in the majority of cases. Extended regular training for physicians on smoking-related issues will be necessary in order to improve counselling of smokers and meet the global tobacco challenge.

  16. Smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P; Murray, Robert P

    2009-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in prevalence, and is predicted to become the third leading cause of deaths worldwide by 2020. The precise prevalence of COPD is not known, as many individuals with the disease are left undiagnosed, despite the requirement of only simple spirometry testing for disease detection. The major risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, with 90% of deaths from COPD directly attributable to smoking. Therefore smoking cessation is the most effective means of halting or slowing the progress of this disease. This review summarizes and compares the differential characteristics of smokers with COPD vs. those without COPD in relation to their smoking behavior and quitting attempts, and discusses the various strategies that can be used to help patients quit and improve their likelihood of long-term smoking cessation. Of the various behavioral interventions available that can increase the likelihood of smoking cessation, one of the simplest and most effective strategies that physicians can use is simply to advise their patients to quit, particularly if this advice is combined with informing the patients of their "lung age". We also discuss the pharmacologic therapies used to enhance the likelihood of quitting, including nicotine replacement, bupropion SR and varenicline, along with novel nicotine vaccines, which are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  17. Is Weight Gain after Smoking Cessation Inevitable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talcott, Gerald W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied weight gain after smoking cessation in a naturalistic setting where all smokers quit and risk factors for postcessation weight gain were modified. Results showed no significant weight changes for smokers who quit. Suggests that an intensive program featuring dietary guidelines and increased physical activity can attenuate weight gain. (RJM)

  18. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    MedlinePlus

    ... from alcohol abuse may be more addicted to nicotine. As a result, they often smoke more cigarettes. ... alcoholism treatment.You may be more addicted to nicotine than other smokers, but very few people succeed ...

  19. A transtheoretical review on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Atak, Nazli

    The objective of this review is to draw attention to smoking cessation in view of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). A large body of literature published in the last 15 years was screened by searching the keywords of "Smoking" and "Transtheoretical Model." The Transtheoretical model consists of stages of change and is used to explain addictive behaviors such as smoking. It addresses behavioral change by taking into consideration factors such as planning and decision-making. This article examines this theory and sets forth the processes of change, according to the positive and negative evaluations and strength of the smoking habit. Although the stages of change and the transitions between these stages have not been clearly defined, it still helps in understanding the nature of some addictive behaviors, particularly smoking.

  20. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Judith; Chamberlain, Catherine; Dowswell, Therese; Oliver, Sandy; Oakley, Laura; Watson, Lyndsey

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking in pregnancy remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, low birthweight, preterm birth and has serious long-term health implications for women and babies. Smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries and increasing in low- to middle-income countries and is strongly associated with poverty, low educational attainment, poor social support and psychological illness. Objectives To assess the effects of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy on smoking behaviour and perinatal health outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (June 2008), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group’s Trials Register (June 2008), EMBASE, PsycLIT, and CINAHL (all from January 2003 to June 2008). We contacted trial authors to locate additional unpublished data. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials where smoking cessation during pregnancy was a primary aim of the intervention. Data collection and analysis Trials were identified and data extracted by one person and checked by a second. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess the effect of risk of trial bias, intensity of the intervention and main intervention strategy used. Main results Seventy-two trials are included. Fifty-six randomised controlled trials (over 20,000 pregnant women) and nine cluster-randomised trials (over 5000 pregnant women) provided data on smoking cessation outcomes. There was a significant reduction in smoking in late pregnancy following interventions (risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 0.96), an absolute difference of six in 100 women who stopped smoking during pregnancy. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the combined data (I2 > 60%). In the trials with the lowest risk of bias, the interventions had less effect (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99), and lower heterogeneity (I2 = 36%). Eight trials of smoking relapse prevention

  1. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-01-01

    Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation among children of smoking parents. Data of a two-arm randomized controlled trial were used in which 512 smoking parents were recruited into cessation support through their children's primary schools. After the baseline assessment, smoking parents were randomly assigned to tailored telephone counselling or a standard self-help brochure. Parental cessation was measured as 6-month prolonged abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Children's smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation were examined at 3-month, 12-month, and 30-month follow-up. No statistical evidence was found that children of parents who received telephone counselling tailored to smoking parents or children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence differ in smoking-related cognitions (i.e., smoking outcome expectancies, perceived safety of smoking, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, susceptibility to smoking) or smoking initiation rate on any follow-up assessment. This study is the first to examine the effects of an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment for parents and treatment-induced parental smoking cessation on cognitive and behavioural outcomes among children. Although descriptive statistics showed lower smoking initiation rates among children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence, there was no statistical evidence that telephone counselling tailored to parents or treatment-induced parental smoking cessation affects precursors of smoking or smoking initiation among youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Smoking cessation among HIV smokers: Experience of a French hospital-based smoking cessation service].

    PubMed

    Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L

    2017-04-01

    There is a particular need among HIV-infected patients to stop smoking because of the risk of smoking-related complications and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among them. Only a few studies have focused on this population in real-world settings. Investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation support for HIV-infected patients at the Georges Pompidou University hospital (HEGP) smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period. A retrospective study of smoking cessation medical records was performed for 39 smokers who had visited for the first time the HEGP smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period and declared to be infected by the HIV on their smoking cessation self-questionnaire. The study has described smokers' characteristics and follow-up to measure the abstinence rate, validated by the patient declaration, the registration of the number of days without cigarettes between each visit and a measure of expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5ppm at each visit. We examined smokers lost to follow-up and they have been considered as smokers. Maintained abstinence rates at 3 month-follow-up and at 9 months/one year were registered. The 39 HIV-infected smokers registered in the study were mainly male (30/39), were heavy smokers with a consumption mean of nearly 23 cigarettes per day. One third presented high nicotine dependence with a Fagerström test ≥ 7. A depression history was reported among one third of them. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were declared by 20% and 33% respectively among them. Thirteen percent of them received opioid replacement therapies, 41% were cannabis users (one out of four were daily users) and 10 % declared alcohol abuse. 85% of patients received nicotine replacement therapy (patch and/or oral forms) and 15% varenicline(®), along with behavioral support techniques. At 3 month-follow-up, smoking cessation was validated for 20.5% of patients and at 9 months/1 year, smoking cessation rate decreased at 13%. When

  3. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Guido; Milioni, Michela; Enea, Domenico; Ceccanti, Mauro; Nencini, Paolo; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS), defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i) relapse after quitting smoking and (ii) the desire to smoke again. All participants (481) had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP) for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010). They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3 ± 10.08, 52% female) and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0 ± 9.63; 63.5% female). The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy), gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking. PMID:24967403

  4. Smoking Cessation and the Cardiovascular Patient

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Our review highlights research from 2013-2015 on the treatment of cigarette smoking, with a focus on heart patients and cardiovascular outcomes. Recent findings Seeking to maximize the reach and effectiveness of existing cessation medications, current tobacco control research has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of combination treatment; extended use; reduce-to-quit strategies; and personalized approaches to treatment matching. Further, cytisine has gained interest as a lower-cost strategy for addressing the global tobacco epidemic. On the harm reduction front, snus and electronic nicotine delivery systems are being widely distributed and promoted with major gaps in knowledge of the safety of long-term and dual use. Quitlines, comparable in outcome to in-person treatment, avail cessation counseling on a national scale though use rates remain relatively low. Lastly, employee reward programs are gaining attention given the high costs of tobacco use to employers; sustaining quit rates post-payment, however, has proven challenging. Summary Evidence-based cessation treatments exist. Broader dissemination, adoption, and implementation are key to addressing the tobacco epidemic. The cardiology team has a professional obligation to advance tobacco control efforts and can play an important role in achieving a smoke-free future. PMID:26196657

  5. Indiana family physician attitudes and practices concerning smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Saywell, R M; Jay, S J; Lukas, P J; Casebeer, L L; Mybeck, K C; Parchman, M L; Haley, A J

    1996-01-01

    Most physicians are aware of the health benefits of smoking cessation and agree they have a responsibility to help smokers quit. Many physicians, however, do not regularly address smoking cessation with their patients. Questionnaires were sent to 2,095 family practice physicians in Indiana. Information obtained included: demographic data; office-based smoking cessation practices; counseling; and physicians' perceptions of intervention outcomes. Most physicians (86%) asked new patients if they smoked, and 23% questioned patients about their exposure to passive smoke. Younger physicians, female physicians and urban physicians were more likely to ask new patients if they smoked. A formal smoking cessation program was used by 28% of the responding physicians. Among those not using a program, 7% reported plans to implement one in the coming year, 40% were not planning to implement one, and 53% were unsure. Physician and practice characteristics were not correlated with the use of smoking cessation programs. Only 11% of physicians considered their smoking cessation counseling skills to be excellent; 27% indicated the need for improvement in skills. One-half (52%) believed their counseling efforts were effective; almost half (45%) believed that current reimbursement policies limited their involvement in smoking cessation interventions. Most respondents have not instituted smoking cessation programs in their practices. It is likely that a combination of strategies, including both undergraduate, graduate and continuing medical education programs and reform in reimbursement practices for cessation programs, will be required to achieve significant increases in long-term smoking abstinence rates.

  6. Smoking cessation readiness: are your patients ready to quit?

    PubMed

    Woody, Delinda; DeCristofaro, Claire; Carlton, Betty G

    2008-08-01

    To explore the assessment of patient readiness to receive smoking cessation interventions using the transtheoretical model (TTM) and the five stages of change; and to give the primary care provider an evidence-based toolkit to assist in evaluating for readiness and supporting the smoking cessation process. Evidence-based literature, theoretical framework, and peer-reviewed articles. Utilizing the TTM along with proper training and education of the provider and patient increases the probability that smoking cessation will occur. Combinations of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical interventions are the most effective in smoking cessation. Providers can be prepared at every patient visit to address the smoking cessation needs of all patients. The toolkit provided in this article will help facilitate evaluation of readiness and support of effective, long-term smoking cessation and reduce eventual smoking-related morbidities.

  7. Interventions for smoking cessation in Indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Carson, Kristin V; Brinn, Malcolm P; Peters, Matthew; Veale, Antony; Esterman, Adrian J; Smith, Brian J

    2012-01-18

    Tobacco use in Indigenous populations (people who have inhabited a country for thousands of years) is often double that of the non-Indigenous population. A disproportionate burden of substance-related morbidity and mortality exists as a result. To evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in Indigenous populations and to summarise these approaches for future cessation programmes and research. The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register of Trials was searched (April 2011), with additional searches of MEDLINE (May 2011). Online clinical trial databases and publication references were also searched for potential studies. We included randomized and non-randomized controlled trials for smoking cessation interventions in Indigenous populations. Interventions could include pharmacotherapies, cognitive and behavioural therapies, alternative therapies, public policy and combination therapies. No attempts were made to re-define Indigenous status for the purpose of including a study in this review. Data pertaining to methodology, participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second, whilst methodological quality was extracted independently by two reviewers. Studies were assessed by qualitative narrative synthesis and where possible meta-analysis. The review process was examined by an Indigenous (Aboriginal) Australian for applicability, acceptability and content. Four studies met all of the eligibility criteria for inclusion within the review. Two used combination therapies consisting of a pharmacotherapy combined with cognitive and behavioural therapies, whilst the remaining two used cognitive and behavioural therapy through counselling, one via text message support and the other delivered via clinic doctors trained in smoking cessation techniques. Smoking cessation data were pooled across all studies producing a statistically and clinically significant effect in favour of the intervention (risk

  8. Inpatient smoking cessation therapy: truth or dare?

    PubMed

    Boehm, Gabriela; Schroeder, Yvonne; Schoberberger, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to answer the question to which extent even very heavy nicotine-dependent smokers can benefit from a 3-week inpatient smoking cessation program. A particular focus lies on analyzing the positive effects, which go above and beyond normally anticipated health benefits. This is a descriptive study observing 270 patients over a 1-year period consisting of recruitment, therapy, and two post-therapy follow-up visits at 6-month interval. Gender differences, changes in body weight, and factors relating to addiction and the nicotine withdrawal process are analyzed. In comparing successful participants-post-therapy nonsmokers-with less successful ones, our analysis identifies benefits and advantages an inpatient smoking cessation therapy can bring to even the heaviest smokers. At the 12-month post-therapy follow-up visit, 42.6% of participants were identified as nonsmokers. A total of 34.0% of participants took up smoking again. No data is available on the remaining participants. Nonsmokers experienced significant reduction in nicotine craving and withdrawal symptoms. In terms of body weight, increases were found in both, men and women, nonsmokers and smokers. Successful quitters fail to report of an unbearable strong desire to smoke. Such unfounded fear should be communicated. Weight gain remains an undesired side effect. Hence, it is crucial to diagnose individuals more prone to weight gain and offer coping strategies thus reducing the risk of developing obesity. Nevertheless, the outcome of the study should be an encouragement to also heavy smokers and empower them to undertake smoking cessation.

  9. Improving smoking cessation outcomes in secondary care: Predictors of hospital staff willingness to provide smoking cessation referral.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Yu; Yu, Shu-Man; Lai, Yun-Ju; Wu, Ping-Lun; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Hsien-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Since implementation of the New Smoking Cessation Policy in Taiwan, more patients are attending smoking cessation clinics. Many of these patients were referred by hospital staff. Thus, factors which influence the hospital staff's willingness to refer are important. In this study, we aim to understand the relation between smoking cessation knowledge and willingness for referral. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was conducted with staff of a community hospital during the year 2012-2013. Willingness to provide smoking cessation referral and relevant correlated variables including demographic data, knowledge of basic cigarette harm, and knowledge of resources and methods regarding smoking cessation were measured. A total of 848 of 1500 hospital staff returned the questionnaire: 249 physicians (29.4%), 402 nursing staff (47.4%), and 197 administration staff (23.2%). 790 (93.2%) staff members have never smoked, 19 (2.2%) had quit smoking, and 39 (4.6%) still smoke. 792 (93.4%) members had interest in receiving smoking cessation education. The mean total score (highest potential score of 6) of basic cigarette harm knowledge was 4.56 (± 1.25). The mean total score (highest potential score of 7) of resources and methods about smoking cessation was 4.79 (± 1.35). The significant variable correlated with willingness to refer was total score of resources and methods about smoking cessation. Hospital staff who knew more about resources and methods about smoking cessation were more willing to refer smoking patients to the smoking cessation service. Thus, continuing medical education for hospital staff should include resources and methods about smoking cessation to promote smoking cessation.

  10. Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Perera, Rafael

    2011-04-13

    Background Material or financial incentives may be used in an attempt to reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They have been widely used in workplace smoking cessation programmes, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. Public health initiatives in the UK are currently planning to deploy incentive schemes to change unhealthy behaviours. Quit and Win contests are the subject of a companion review. To determine whether competitions and incentives lead to higher long-term quit rates. We also set out to examine the relationship between incentives and participation rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Search terms included incentive*, competition*, contest*, reward*, prize*, contingent payment*, deposit contract*. The most recent searches were in November 2010. We considered randomized controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. Data were extracted by one author (KC) and checked by the second (RP). We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking at least six months from the start of the intervention. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Where possible we performed meta-analysis using a generic inverse variance model, grouped by timed endpoints, but not pooled across the subgroups. Nineteen studies met our inclusion criteria, covering >4500 participants. Only one study, the largest in our review and covering 878 smokers, demonstrated significantly higher quit rates for the incentives group than for the control group beyond the six-month assessment. This trial referred its participants to local smoking cessation

  11. SMOKING CESSATION CLINICAL DEMONSTRATION IN RETURNING VETERANS

    PubMed Central

    Zaborowski, Daphne E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Lee, Sherman; Wilson, Sarah M.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Moore, Scott D.; Acheson, Shawn; Hamlett-Berry, Kim W.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this clinical demonstration project was to increase the reach of effective treatments, such as pharmacotherapy and telephone or web based support, by offering these treatments in a low-cost and convenient manner to a population of veterans. Methods Six hundred nine veteran smokers who had served in the military since September 11, 2001 were contacted by invitational letters. Veterans indicating interest in further contacts received telephone calls using standardized scripts that offered referral to the National Cancer Institute’s Smoking QuitLine, web-based counseling, and local Veteran Affairs pharmacologic treatment for smoking cessation. Results Seven percent of survey recipients participated in the clinical program. At two months follow-up, 23% of participants providing follow-up information reported maintaining smoking abstinence. This clinical demonstration project was associated with a reach of 8.6% (number of smokers who accessed the intervention/the number of targeted smokers), an efficacy of 26% i.e., number of abstinent smokers at 8 weeks/number who accessed the intervention), and an impact of 2.2% (number of abstinent smokers at 8 weeks/number of targeted smokers). Conclusions Results suggested that this project enhanced access to care and promoted short-term smoking cessation in veterans who have served since September 11. 2001. PMID:21769051

  12. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Campbell, J L

    2006-01-25

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation, in smoking cessation in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group specialized register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, PsycINFO, Science and Social Sciences Citation Index, AMED and CISCOM. Date of last search January 2005. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks), and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We identified 24 reports of studies. The only comparison for which there were sufficient studies to combine meaningfully was acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. The fixed-effect odds ratio (OR) for the short-term effect was 1.36 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.72), but the studies are heterogeneous and the result is strongly influenced by one individual positive study. The significant short-term effect was lost with the random-effects model for pooling, or by removing the outlying study that led to heterogeneity

  13. Pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: radiologic resolution following smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Mogulkoc, N; Veral, A; Bishop, P W; Bayindir, U; Pickering, C A; Egan, J J

    1999-05-01

    We describe two patients with histologically proven pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in whom radiologic improvement occurred following smoking cessation. The patients had 23- and 25-pack-year smoking histories, respectively. High-resolution CT revealed multiple small nodules, located predominantly in the upper and middle lung fields. There was a close temporal relationship between smoking cessation and radiologic improvement.

  14. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F; Car, Josip

    2010-09-08

    The Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was in June 2010. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet-based intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control or a different Internet site or programme. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardised form. We selected smoking cessation outcomes at short term (one to three months) and long term (6 months or more) follow up, and reported study effects as a risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Only limited meta-analysis was performed, as the heterogeneity of the data for populations, interventions and outcomes allowed for very little pooling. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. There were more female than male participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Ten trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet based smoking cessation intervention or to a no intervention control. Six of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and three recruited adolescents. Two trials of the same intensive automated intervention in populations of adult who smoked showed significantly increased cessation compared to printed self-help materials at 12 months. In one

  15. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, Adrian R; Rampes, Hagen; Liu, Jian Ping; Stead, Lindsay F; Campbell, John

    2011-01-19

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group specialized register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, AMED, Acubriefs in November 2010; and four Chinese databases: Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP in November 2010. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks), and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We included 33 reports of studies. Compared with sham acupuncture, the fixed-effect risk ratio (RR) for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.34), and for the long-term effect was 1.05 (CI 0.82 to 1.35). The studies were not judged to be free from bias. Acupuncture was less effective than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There was no evidence that acupuncture is superior to

  16. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty and…

  17. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty and…

  18. Panic attacks and smoking cessation among cancer patients receiving smoking cessation treatment.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Robinson, Jason D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Hogan, Julianna; Rabius, Vance; Cinciripini, Paul M; Karam-Hage, Maher; Blalock, Janice A

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer patients. This study examined the impact of panic attacks on smoking abstinence likelihood among cancer patients receiving tobacco cessation treatment. The relationship of panic attacks to 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at mid-treatment, end of treatment, and 6-month post-end of treatment were examined among cancer patients (N=2255 patients; 50.1% female; Mage=54.9, SD=11.0) who received counseling and pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Panic attack history indexed by two questions from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Point-prevalence abstinence was assessed via the Timeline Follow-Back. Cancer patients with a history of panic attacks, (n=493, 21.9%) relative to those without, were less likely to be abstinent at mid-treatment (OR=0.79, CI95%=0.64-0.98) and end of treatment (OR=0.72, CI95%=0.58-0.89). After adjusting for significant covariates, panic attack history remained predictive of decreased abstinence likelihood at end of treatment (OR =0.78, CI95%=0.62-0.99). Panic attacks may be related to poorer cessation outcome during smoking treatment among cancer patients, and may be usefully assessed and targeted for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Has Smoking Cessation Increased? An Examination of the US Adult Smoking Cessation Rate 1990 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Méndez, David; Tam, Jamie; Giovino, Gary A; Tsodikov, Alexander; Warner, Kenneth E

    2016-09-15

    We examine the trajectory of adult smoking prevalence in the US over the period 1990 - 2014 to investigate whether the smoking cessation rate has changed during this period. We employ a dynamic model of smoking prevalence, and data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), to estimate the adult cessation rate in six-year intervals. We use weighted non-linear least squares to perform the estimation. We then employ a meta-regression model to test whether the cessation rate has increased. The annual cessation rate has increased from 2.4% in 1990 to 4.5% in 2014 according to the NHIS data, and from 3.2% in 2002 to 4.2% in 2014 according to the NSDUH data. The increasing trend is statistically significant (P-value = 1.57 × 10(-6)) and the two independent surveys produced nearly identical results, which makes it unlikely that our findings are a product of chance. Our analysis finds that the smoking cessation rate in the U.S. has almost doubled since 1990. This increase is responsible for at least two million fewer smokers in 2014. If current conditions persist, by the year 2020 the increase in cessation rates will be responsible for 3.5 million fewer smokers. Our findings can assist in predicting the future path of the smoking epidemic and determining the correct allocation of resources to eradicate it. We show that the adult smoking cessation rate has greatly increased since 1990. We demonstrate this by studying prevalence trajectories from two independent population surveys, which yielded nearly identical results. Different from other studies, we focus on permanent quit rates (net of relapses) which we estimate from a dynamic model of prevalence. Our results do not stem from self-reported quitting behavior, but from the analysis of observed prevalence and its inherent variability. Our findings can contribute to predicting the future path of the smoking epidemic and to determining the optimal allocation of

  20. Update on medicines for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Summary Persistent cigarette smokers usually have a nicotine addiction. This addiction has a chronic relapsing and sometimes remitting course and may persist lifelong. Remission can be facilitated by the use of medication as part of a comprehensive management strategy tailored to the individual patient. Nicotine replacement therapy is a first-line drug treatment. It is available in many formulations. Varenicline is also a first-line drug treatment. It should be started before the patient stops smoking. Bupropion is a second-line therapy. It may be associated with an increased risk of seizures and drug interactions. While there is some evidence that electronic cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation, quit rates are not yet comparable with those of the drugs approved on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. PMID:26648633

  1. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Stead, Lindsay F; Carroll, Allison J; Lancaster, Tim

    2017-03-31

    Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016. Randomized trials that compared group therapy with self-help, individual counselling, another intervention or no intervention (including usual care or a waiting-list control). We also considered trials that compared more than one group programme. We included those trials with a minimum of two group meetings, and follow-up of smoking status at least six months after the start of the programme. We excluded trials in which group therapy was provided to both active therapy and placebo arms of trials of pharmacotherapies, unless they had a factorial design. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the interventions provided to the groups and the controls, including programme length, intensity and main components, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in participants smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. We analysed participants lost to follow-up as continuing smokers. We expressed effects as a risk ratio for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study and comparison, using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE criteria. Sixty-six trials met our inclusion criteria for one or more of the comparisons in the review. Thirteen trials compared a group programme with a self

  2. Is it safe to use smoking cessation therapeutics during pregnancy?

    PubMed

    De Long, Nicole E; Barra, Nicole G; Hardy, Daniel B; Holloway, Alison C

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, 10 to 35% of pregnant women smoke. It is clear that smoking cessation has positive impacts for both the mother and child, yet many women are still unable to quit due to the addictive properties of nicotine. There are limited data surrounding their safety and efficacy in pregnancy. This review highlights evidence from clinical studies and animal experiments regarding the effects of smoking cessation therapeutics on pregnancy, neonatal and long-term postnatal outcomes. There are insufficient data at this time to recommend the use of varenicline and/or bupropion for smoking cessation during pregnancy. In addition, the efficacy and safety of nicotine replacement therapy use for smoking cessation in pregnant women has not been clearly demonstrated. Until further studies are completed, there will continue to be considerable uncertainty regarding the use of these drugs in pregnancy despite the well-documented benefits of smoking cessation.

  3. Depression, smoking and smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Nicole; Zwar, Nicholas; Richmond, Robyn

    2013-10-01

    A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.

  4. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  5. Determinants of Smoking Cessation among Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S. Priscilla; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Data is required on the motivational determinants of smoking cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents in South Africa. The I-Change Model was used to explore the determinants of smoking cessation among a sample of 1267 Black African, Colored and White Grade 9-11 monthly smokers and former smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo region.…

  6. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  7. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  8. Integrating smoking cessation into lung cancer screening programs.

    PubMed

    Pua, Bradley B; Dou, Eda; O'Connor, Katherine; Crawford, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    Early detection through low-dose computed tomographic screening for lung cancer and implementation of smoking cessation can reduce mortality related to lung cancer. While studies delineating the relationship between smoking cessation strategies and lung cancer screening programs remain sparse, we aim to review available data on their importance both individually and synergistically. Strategies and obstacles for implementation are also discussed.

  9. The Struggle to Quit: Barriers and Incentives to Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffatt, Jenny; Whip, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Decades of research into smoking cessation have created a plethora of knowledge yet quit rates continue to be low and relapse rates high. In order to better understand this complex behaviour, this paper examines incentives and barriers to smoking cessation for a high risk group. Methods: The successful and unsuccessful quitting…

  10. Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Masatoshi; Kishida, Ikuko; Suda, Akira; Shiraishi, Yohko; Fujibayashi, Mami; Taguri, Masataka; Ishii, Chie; Ishii, Norio; Moritani, Toshio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-03-07

    The prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population and is an important medical issue. Short-term smoking cessation tends to worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia but decreases sympathetic nervous system activity and improves plasma cholesterol levels in healthy people. Few studies have assessed the long-term effects of smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were 70 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (38 smokers, 32 non-smokers). We compared the following clinical parameters between the two groups at baseline (before smoking cessation) and in each group separately between baseline and at three years after smoking cessation: autonomic nervous system activity, plasma cholesterol levels, body weight, drug therapy, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. We also compared the mean changes in clinical parameters throughout this study between the groups at both time points. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and the doses of antiparkinsonian drugs in smokers were significantly higher than those in non-smokers at baseline. Smoking cessation was associated with significantly decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased doses of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs at three years after smoking cessation. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in clinical factors scores, except for Global Assessment of Functioning scores, between smokers and non-smokers at three years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that smoking reduces both autonomic nervous system activity and the effectiveness of drug therapy with antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs in patients with schizophrenia, but that both factors could be ameliorated over the long term by smoking cessation. Taken together with the findings of previous studies, smoking

  11. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, Adrian R; Rampes, Hagen; Liu, Jian Ping; Stead, Lindsay F; Campbell, John

    2014-01-23

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (which includes trials of smoking cessation interventions identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and AMED in October 2013. We also searched four Chinese databases in September 2013: Sino-Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks) and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis pooling risk ratios using a fixed-effect model. We included 38 studies. Based on three studies, acupuncture was not shown to be more effective than a waiting list control for long-term abstinence, with wide confidence intervals and evidence of heterogeneity (n = 393, risk ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98 to 3.28, I² = 57%). Compared with sham acupuncture, the RR for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1

  12. iPhone apps for smoking cessation: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Padmanabhan, Nalini; Thaweethai, Lalida; Phillips, Todd

    2011-03-01

    With the proliferation of smartphones such as the iPhone, mobile phones are being used in novel ways to promote smoking cessation. This study set out to examine the content of the 47 iPhone applications (apps) for smoking cessation that were distributed through the online iTunes store, as of June 24, 2009. Each app was independently coded by two reviewers for its (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to the U.S. Public Health Service's 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Each app was also coded for its (3) frequency of downloads. Apps identified for smoking cessation were found to have low levels of adherence to key guidelines in the index. Few, if any, apps recommended or linked the user to proven treatments such as pharmacotherapy, counseling, and/or a quitline. iPhone apps for smoking cessation rarely adhere to established guidelines for smoking cessation. It is recommended that current apps be revised and future apps be developed around evidence-based practices for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Civljak, Marta; Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2013-07-10

    The Internet is now an indispensable part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in April 2013. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardized form. We extracted smoking cessation outcomes of six months follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Clinical and statistical heterogeneity limited our ability to pool studies. This updated review includes a total of 28 studies with over 45,000 participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Fifteen trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet-based smoking cessation intervention or to a no-intervention control. Ten of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and two recruited adolescents. Seven of the trials in adults had follow-up at six months or longer and compared an Internet intervention to usual care or printed self help. In a post hoc subgroup analysis, pooled results from three trials that compared

  14. Smoking cessation programmes using traditional medicine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soobin; Park, Yu Lee; Lee, Ju Ah; Kim, Kyeong Han; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Sun, Seung-Ho; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Park, Sunju

    2016-12-01

    There are growing interests in using various methods including traditional and complementary medicines (T&CM) for tobacco control. The study aimed to introduce how traditional Korean medicine (TKM) applied to smoking cessation programmes in Korea and to show the detail information of each programme for designing other smoke cessation programmes. Reports of the smoke cessation programmes in Korea were searched on March 10th, 2016, from the webpages of the related agencies and the databases: the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Korea Health Foundation, the Association of Korean Medicine, PubMed, Google scholar, the RISS, the KISS, the NDSL, and the OASIS. Smoking cessation programmes, projects, or services using traditional Korean medicine (TKM) were included with no language, implementation site, and year restrictions. The three smoking cessation programmes using TKM in South Korea were the public health centre smoking cessation programme (PHC-SCP), the Ministry of Gender Equality & Family smoking cessation programme (MOGEF-SCP), and the National Health Insurance Service smoking cessation treatment project (NHIS-SCP). All programmes included ear acupuncture and counselling. Manual acupuncture was only used in the NHIS-SCP. The MOGEF-SCP and the NHIS-SCP used herbal medicines selectively. The PHC-SCP and MOGEF-SCP provided education programme and other tools such as non-smoking doll, self-writing handbook. They were run at no cost for participants. Treatment period were different for each programmes, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 to 12 weeks, respectively. Treatment frequency was twice a week for PHC-SCP and MOGEF-SCP, and dependent on each clinic for NHIS-SCP. This study showed the summaries of the smoking cessation programme that used TKM. The three programmes and the detail information will be a reference for other countries that are going to apply T&CM to their smoking cessation programme. Though TKM integrated smoking cessation programmes had been contributed to

  15. The Use of Financial Incentives in Promoting Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Sigmon, Stacey C.; Patrick, Mollie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and world. Despite the availability of numerous therapies for smoking cessation, additional efficacious interventions are greatly needed. We provide a narrative review of published studies evaluating financial incentives for smoking cessation and discuss the parameters important for ensuring the efficacy of incentive interventions for smoking cessation. Methods Published studies that evaluated the impact of incentives to promote smoking cessation and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were identified and reviewed. Results Incentives are efficacious for promoting smoking abstinence across the general population of smokers as well as substance abusers, adolescents, patients with pulmonary disease, patients with serious mental illness and other challenging subgroups. To develop and implement an effective incentive treatment for smoking, special attention should be paid to biochemical verification of smoking status, incentive magnitude and the schedule of incentive delivery. Conclusion Consistent with the extensive literature showing that incentives are effective in reducing illicit drug use, a large body of evidence supports their effectiveness in reducing smoking. Continued efforts are warranted to further develop and disseminate incentive-based treatments for smoking cessation across clinical settings and populations. PMID:22525802

  16. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US) in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation. PMID:18488428

  17. The effects of physical activity as maintenance for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Russell, P O; Epstein, L H; Johnston, J J; Block, D R; Blair, E

    1988-01-01

    The effects of physical activity as a maintenance strategy for smoking cessation were evaluated. After a standard smoking cessation program, forty-two women were randomly assigned to one of three groups that received equal number of maintenance meetings: a physical activity program, smoking habit change information and contact control. Abstinence decreased from 83% at the end of treatment to 73% at 3 months, 49% at six months and 34% at 18 months. No differences were shown in cessation across groups. Group differences were shown for subjective levels of tension-anxiety, those who exercised showed increased tension anxiety levels compared to subjects in the no activity groups.

  18. Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use. PMID:21724341

  19. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gemma M J; Dalili, Michael N; Semwal, Monika; Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2017-09-04

    Tobacco use is estimated to kill 7 million people a year. Nicotine is highly addictive, but surveys indicate that almost 70% of US and UK smokers would like to stop smoking. Although many smokers attempt to give up on their own, advice from a health professional increases the chances of quitting. As of 2016 there were 3.5 billion Internet users worldwide, making the Internet a potential platform to help people quit smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, whether intervention effectiveness is altered by tailoring or interactive features, and if there is a difference in effectiveness between adolescents, young adults, and adults. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, which included searches of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (through OVID). There were no restrictions placed on language, publication status or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. To be included, studies must have measured smoking cessation at four weeks or longer. Two review authors independently assessed and extracted data. We extracted and, where appropriate, pooled smoking cessation outcomes of six-month follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes narratively where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).We grouped studies according to whether they (1) compared an Internet intervention with a non-active control arm (e.g. printed self-help guides), (2) compared an Internet intervention with an active control arm (e.g. face-to-face counselling), (3) evaluated the

  20. Smoking policy and cessation in an inner-city hospital.

    PubMed

    Montner, P; Bennett, G; Brown, C; Green, S

    1996-01-01

    Hospital policies regarding cigarette smoking can affect the smoking habits of employees, patients, and visitors. Successful smoking policy development and impact have been reported in a number of hospitals. These reports have been from financially secure or university hospitals. This article reports on the policy experience at Interfaith Medical Center, a public hospital serving an economically disadvantaged black inner-city community. Policy implementation and smoking cessation efforts were directed by a broad-based hospital committee. An employee survey demonstrated support for a policy restricting but not banning smoking (89% of nonsmokers, and 80.2% of smokers). Among smoking employees, 87.6% wanted to quit. A policy restricting smoking to designated areas in the cafeteria and coffee shop was enacted. Health fairs and smokeout contests were enthusiastically received and resulted in short-term cessation verified by exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Assemblies where ex-smokers were given "Hall of Fame" certificates, "stop smoking" art contests, and a "stop smoking hotline" generated further cessation activity. The department of medicine, in cooperation with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Smoking Education Program, set up a training program for residents on how to help patients quit. Overall, the smoking prevalence, attitudes, and enthusiasm to quit were similar to previous reports in financially secure hospitals. Unfortunately, lack of resources and staff turnover led to dissolution of the program. Institutional stability and a funding source are critical for the long-term success of hospital smoking cessation programs.

  1. Smoking policy and cessation in an inner-city hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Montner, P.; Bennett, G.; Brown, C.; Green, S.

    1996-01-01

    Hospital policies regarding cigarette smoking can affect the smoking habits of employees, patients, and visitors. Successful smoking policy development and impact have been reported in a number of hospitals. These reports have been from financially secure or university hospitals. This article reports on the policy experience at Interfaith Medical Center, a public hospital serving an economically disadvantaged black inner-city community. Policy implementation and smoking cessation efforts were directed by a broad-based hospital committee. An employee survey demonstrated support for a policy restricting but not banning smoking (89% of nonsmokers, and 80.2% of smokers). Among smoking employees, 87.6% wanted to quit. A policy restricting smoking to designated areas in the cafeteria and coffee shop was enacted. Health fairs and smokeout contests were enthusiastically received and resulted in short-term cessation verified by exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Assemblies where ex-smokers were given "Hall of Fame" certificates, "stop smoking" art contests, and a "stop smoking hotline" generated further cessation activity. The department of medicine, in cooperation with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Smoking Education Program, set up a training program for residents on how to help patients quit. Overall, the smoking prevalence, attitudes, and enthusiasm to quit were similar to previous reports in financially secure hospitals. Unfortunately, lack of resources and staff turnover led to dissolution of the program. Institutional stability and a funding source are critical for the long-term success of hospital smoking cessation programs. PMID:8583492

  2. Changes in Energy Balance Following Smoking Cessation and Resumption of Smoking in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Prospectively examined caloric intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), leisure time physical activity, and sensitivity and preference for sweet taste in seven female smokers during normal smoking, complete cessation, and resumption of smoking. Findings suggest that smoking cessation may cause rapid change in energy balance which is quickly reversed…

  3. Changes in Energy Balance Following Smoking Cessation and Resumption of Smoking in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Prospectively examined caloric intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), leisure time physical activity, and sensitivity and preference for sweet taste in seven female smokers during normal smoking, complete cessation, and resumption of smoking. Findings suggest that smoking cessation may cause rapid change in energy balance which is quickly reversed…

  4. Use of Smoking Cessation Interventions by Physicians in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Schoj, Veronica; Mejia, Raul; Alderete, Mariela; Kaplan, Celia P.; Peña, Lorena; Gregorich, Steven E.; Alderete, Ethel; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-implemented interventions for smoking cessation are effective but infrequently used. We evaluated smoking cessation practices among physicians in Argentina. Methods A self-administered survey of physicians from six clinical systems asked about smoking cessation counselling practices, barriers to tobacco use counselling and perceived quality of training received in smoking cessation practices. Results Of 254 physicians, 52.3% were women, 11.8% were current smokers and 52% never smoked. Perceived quality of training in tobacco cessation counselling was rated as very good or good by 41.8% and as poor/very poor by 58.2%. Most physicians (90%) reported asking and recording smoking status, 89% advised patients to quit smoking but only 37% asked them to set a quit date and 44% prescribed medications. Multivariate analyses showed that Physicians’ perceived quality of their training in smoking cessation methods was associated with greater use of evidence-based cessation interventions. (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.2–19.1); motivating patients to quit (OR: 7.9 CI 3.44–18.5), assisting patients to quit (OR = 9.9; 95% CI = 4.0–24.2) prescribing medications (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.5–26.7), and setting up follow-up (OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 4.4–38.5). Conclusions Perceived quality of training in smoking cessation was associated with using evidence-based interventions and among physicians from Argentina. Medical training programs should enhance the quality of this curriculum. PMID:27594922

  5. Initial uptake of the Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lindsay; Burden, Andrea M.; Liu, Yan Yun; Tadrous, Mina; Pojskic, Nedzad; Dolovich, Lisa; Calzavara, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a significant public health concern. The Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program was launched in September 2011 to leverage community pharmacists and expand access to smoking cessation services for public drug plan beneficiaries. Methods: We examined health care utilization data in Ontario to describe public drug plan beneficiaries receiving, and pharmacies providing, smoking cessation services between September 2011 and September 2013. Patient characteristics were summarized, stratified by drug plan group: seniors (age ≥65 years) or social assistance. Trends over time were examined by plotting the number of services, unique patients and unique pharmacies by month. We then examined use of follow-up services and prescription smoking cessation medications. Results: We identified 7767 residents receiving pharmacy smoking cessation services: 28% seniors (mean age = 69.9, SD = 4.8; 53% male) and 72% social assistance (mean age = 44.4 years, SD = 11.8; 48% male). Cumulative patient enrollment increased over time with an average of 311 (SD = 61) new patients per month, and one-third (n = 1253) of pharmacies participated by the end of September 2013. Regions with the highest number of patients were Erie St. Clair (n = 1328) and Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant (n = 1312). Sixteen percent of all patients received another pharmacy service (e.g., MedsCheck) on the same day as smoking cessation program enrollment. Among patients with follow-up data, 56% received follow-up smoking cessation services (60% seniors, 55% social assistance) and 74% received a prescription smoking cessation medication. One-year quit status was reported for 12%, with a 29% success rate. Conclusions: Program enrollment has increased steadily since its launch, yet only a third of pharmacies participated and 56% of patients received follow-up services. PMID:26759563

  6. The internet and the industrial revolution in smoking cessation counselling.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.

  7. A Rural Appalachian Faith-Placed Smoking Cessation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Bundy, Henry E.; Baeker Bispo, Jordan A.; Studts, Christina R.; Shelton, Brent J.; Fields, Nell

    2014-01-01

    Although health promotion programming in faith institutions is promising, most faith-based or placed health projects focus on diet, exercise, or cancer screening and many have been located in urban environments. This article addresses the notable absence of faith programming for smoking cessation among underserved rural US residents who experience tobacco-related health inequities. In this article, we describe our faith-oriented smoking cessation program in rural Appalachia, involving 590 smokers in 26 rural churches randomized to early and delayed intervention groups. We present three main themes that account for participants’ positive evaluation of the program; the program’s ability to leverage social connections; the program’s convenience orientation; and the program’s financial support for smoking cessation. We also present themes on the roles of faith and church in smoking cessation programming, including some mixed perceptions on smoking stigma and comfort in church settings; challenges in faith-placed smoking cessation recruitment; and the positive perception of such programming by church leaders. We conclude that faith-placed smoking cessation program offer great potential, although they must be administered with great sensitivity to individual and community norms. PMID:24691565

  8. An integrated approach to prenatal smoking cessation interventions.

    PubMed

    Todd, S J; LaSala, K B; Neil-Urban, S

    2001-01-01

    This article encourages the incorporation of smoking cessation activities into routine nursing care in the prenatal period. A brief background is given regarding the problem of smoking in women--especially pregnant women and adolescents. A model is suggested that integrates the Stages of Change framework with a program for planning, implementing, and evaluating smoking cessation activities in the clinical setting. The use of biochemical testing for cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine, is also explored as an evaluation tool and a method of self-report confirmation. The nurse is uniquely poised to reduce both the healthcare and economic burden of smoking during pregnancy. Because cigarette smoking is a major public health problem in the United States today, it is important for nurses to have a background in smoking assessment, cessation, and evaluation methods. It is critical for all nurses in obstetric, pediatric, hospital, and clinic settings to use this knowledge to assist vulnerable clients in achieving lifetime abstinence from cigarettes.

  9. Feasibility of School-Based Smoking Cessation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Amaya; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed Australian adolescents about smoking cessation behavior, analyzing previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. Previous quitters and those who intended to quit were significantly more likely to consider cessation assistance options acceptable than nonquitters and nonintenders. Saving money was an important variable in…

  10. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  11. Feasibility of School-Based Smoking Cessation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Amaya; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed Australian adolescents about smoking cessation behavior, analyzing previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. Previous quitters and those who intended to quit were significantly more likely to consider cessation assistance options acceptable than nonquitters and nonintenders. Saving money was an important variable in…

  12. Smoking and drinking cessation and the risk of oesophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bosetti, C; Franceschi, S; Levi, F; Negri, E; Talamini, R; Vecchia, C La

    2000-01-01

    In a case–control study from Italy and Switzerland with 404 oesophageal cancer cases and 1070 hospital controls, the risk of oesophageal cancer declined with time since cessation of smoking or drinking, and was significantly reduced (odds ratio = 0.11) 10 or more years after cessation of both habits. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10944613

  13. Smoking cessation: How compelling is the evidence? A review.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, Philip

    2009-07-01

    To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. Effective smoking cessation consists of pharmacotherapy and behavioral support. Counseling increases abstinence rates parallel to the intensity of support. First-line pharmacological drugs for smoking cessation are nicotine replacement products (patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, lozenge/tablets), varenicline and bupropion SR with scientific well-documented efficacy when used for 2-3 months and mostly mild side effects. Alternative therapies such as hypnosis and acupuncture have no scientifically proven effects. With the most optimal drugs and counseling today a 1-year abstinence rate of approximately 25% can be expected in smoking cessation. On-going research is examining the potential effects of nicotine vaccination as relapse prevention.

  14. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says Share: January 2014 Mindfulness Meditation Mindfulness meditation ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  15. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching.

  16. Smoking, cessation, and cessation counseling in patients with cancer: A population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Apoorva T; Toll, Benjamin A; Chagpar, Anees B; Judson, Benjamin L

    2016-04-15

    Smoking is known to be carcinogenic and an important factor in the outcome of cancer treatment. However, to the authors' knowledge, smoking habits and smoking cessation counseling in patients with cancer have been poorly studied. The authors sought to analyze smoking habits among Americans diagnosed with cancer in a nationally representative dataset. The cancer supplement of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2010 was used to obtain information regarding self-reported smoking behavior in a representative sample of the US population. Cancer history, smoking history, quitting behavior, cessation counseling, cessation approaches, and sociodemographic variables were analyzed. A total of 27,157 individuals were interviewed for the NHIS in 2010, representing 216,052,891 individuals, 7,058,135 of whom had ever smoked and 13,188,875 of whom had been told that they had cancer. Approximately 51.7% of individuals diagnosed with cancer and who were active smokers reported being counseled to quit smoking by a health professional within the previous 12 months. Cancer survivors were no more likely to quit smoking than individuals in the general population. Those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer were found to be no more likely to report quitting smoking than those with other types of cancers. Rates of quitting did not appear to vary based on the type of smoking cessation method used (P = .50). Patients with cancer, including those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer, do not appear to be more likely to quit smoking than the general population. Only approximately one-half of patients with cancer who smoke are counseled to quit. Smoking cessation in patients with cancer is an important area for intervention and investigation. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Role of cigarette smoking in urological malignancies and clinical interventions for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Verze, Paolo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Brausi, Maurizio; Donin, Nicholas M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is the single greatest preventable cause of disease and death. Our literature review highlights the increased risk of cigarette smoking and kidney cancer, bladder cancer and prostate cancer. Material and methods Smoking cessation improves outcomes at all stages of these disease processes, where patients who quit for 10–20 years appear to obtain a similar risk as those who have never smoked, even after diagnosis of disease. Results Urologists, however, very seldom provide smoking cessation assistance. By applying brief smoking cessation intervention techniques, physicians’ posses an effective means of providing quitting advice. Conclusions Patients who receive smoking cessation advice from their urologist are 2.3 times more likely to attempt to quit. Urologists are well-positioned to screen, counsel, and promote cessation at regular intervals, which may improve quit rates, and ultimately improve our patients’ outcomes. PMID:28127452

  18. Effects of smoking cessation on hormonal levels in men.

    PubMed

    Hruškovičová, H; Dušková, M; Simůnková, K; Hill, M; Pospíšilová, H; Rácz, B; Králíková, E; Vondra, K; Stárka, L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic smoking can cause imbalance in endocrine homeostasis and impairment of fertility in both sexes. The male reproductive system is more resilient, still the literature provides conflicting results about the influence of smoking on the steroid hormone levels. The data about smoking cessation are limited; there has not yet been a study primarily focused on changes in steroids levels. In our study, we analyzed levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in male smokers and during smoking cessation. Monitored analytes were determined by RIA. The free testosterone index was calculated. Basal samples of men successful and unsuccessful in smoking cessation did not differ and monitored hormones could hardly predict success of smoking cessation. After one year without smoking, a significant BMI increase and SHBG decrease in former smokers was observed. The decrease in total testosterone was non-significant. Changes in SHBG and testosterone did not correlate with BMI, presumably due to the direct effect of smoking cessation.

  19. Physician smoking status, attitudes toward smoking, and cessation advice to patients: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Pipe, Andrew; Sorensen, Michelle; Reid, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The smoking status of physicians can impact interactions with patients about smoking. The 'Smoking: The Opinions of Physicians' (STOP) survey examined whether an association existed between physician smoking status and beliefs about smoking and cessation and a physician's clinical interactions with patients relevant to smoking cessation, and perceptions of barriers to assisting with quitting. General and family practitioners across 16 countries were surveyed via telephone or face-to-face interviews using a convenience-sample methodology. Physician smoking status was self-reported. Of 4473 physicians invited, 2836 (63%) participated in the survey, 1200 (42%) of whom were smokers. Significantly fewer smoking than non-smoking physicians volunteered that smoking was a harmful activity (64% vs 77%; P<0.001). More non-smokers agreed that smoking cessation was the single biggest step to improving health (88% vs 82%; P<0.001) and discussed smoking at every visit (45% vs 34%; P<0.001). Although more non-smoking physicians identified willpower (37% vs 32%; P<0.001) and lack of interest (28% vs 22%; P<0.001) as barriers to quitting, more smoking physicians saw stress as a barrier (16% vs 10%; P<0.001). Smoking physicians are less likely to initiate cessation interventions. There is a need for specific strategies to encourage smoking physicians to quit, and to motivate all practitioners to adopt systematic approaches to assisting with smoking cessation.

  20. Smoking Cessation: Services and Applications for Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Kefaliakos, Antonios; Pliakos, Ioannis; Chardalias, Kostis; Charalampidou, Martha; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present mobile health applications which help individuals to change their smoking habit. An online search on scientific databases and mobile application stores was conducted to collect information about m-Health and the smoking cessation. 12 papers found discussing about mobile applications and solutions for quit smoking referred to 4 different technological approaches. Based on the research results, mobile devices and their applications constitute an excellent mean that can help smokers by providing counseling and give them the necessary motivation to smoking cessation.

  1. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Penberthy, J. Morgan; Harris, Marcus R.; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Ponce Martinez, Caridad; Osika, Apule O.; Slepian, Zoe A.; Forsyth, Justin C.; Starr, J. Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E.; Hook, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  2. [Predictors of outcome of a smoking cessation treatment by gender].

    PubMed

    Marqueta, Adriana; Nerín, Isabel; Jiménez-Muro, Adriana; Gargallo, Pilar; Beamonte, Asunción

    2013-01-01

    To identify factors predictive of the outcome of a smoking cessation program by gender. A cross-sectional study of smokers starting treatment in a smoking cessation clinic from 2002 to 2007 was conducted. The variables consisted of data on sociodemographic factors, smoking habits, the social context of smoking and psychiatric comorbidity prior to or during the smoking cessation process. All patients received multicomponent treatment consisting of psychological and pharmacological interventions. Success was defined as self-reported continuous abstinence confirmed by cooximetry (CO ≤10 ppm). Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors predictive of success. A total of 1302 persons (52.1% men and 47.9% women), with a mean age of 43.4 (10.2) years, were included. The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 25.3 (10.4) and the mean Fagerström test score was 6.2 (2.2) points. The success rate was 41.3% (538) with no differences by gender. Positive predictors were lower nicotine dependence and having a non-smoking partner in men and older age, smoking fewer cigarettes per day, having fewer smoking friends and not experiencing depression or anxiety during the treatment in women. Men and women have similar tobacco abstinence outcomes although gender factors play a role in determining abstinence. The gender perspective should be incorporated in smoking prevention and cessation programs. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Althabe, Fernando; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn C; Dietz, Patricia M; Berrueta, Mabel; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Buekens, Pierre; Sosnoff, Connie S; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Belizán, José M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%).

  4. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TONG, VAN T.; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ALEMÁN, ALICIA; JOHNSON, CAROLYN C.; DIETZ, PATRICIA M.; BERRUETA, MABEL; MORELLO, PAOLA; COLOMAR, MERCEDES; BUEKENS, PIERRE; SOSNOFF, CONNIE S.; FARR, SHERRY L.; MAZZONI, AGUSTINA; CIGANDA, ALVARO; BECÚ, ANA; GONZALEZ, MARIA G. BITTAR; LLAMBI, LAURA; GIBBONS, LUZ; SMITH, RUBEN A.; BELIZÁN, JOSÉ M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%). PMID:25350478

  5. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    PubMed

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  6. Genetic variation in the dopamine pathway and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    David, Sean P; Munafò, Marcus R

    2008-09-01

    Twin and family studies have established that genetic factors account for much of the variation in tobacco dependence. Therefore, identification of genetic variants predictive of successful smoking cessation has implications for the future prospect of personalized smoking cessation therapies. Converging data implicate the dopamine pathway as an important neural substrate for tobacco dependence. Several candidate genes within the dopamine pathway (e.g., DRD2 and COMT) have been reported to be associated with the efficacy of bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy, and others (e.g., SLC6A3 and DRD4) have been reported to be associated with smoking cessation independent of pharmacotherapy. However, few of these candidate genes are present within regions of suggestive or significant linkage or overlap with genome-wide linkage or association studies of tobacco dependence or smoking cessation. Future studies should seek to replicate genome-wide association analyses with individual-level genotyping, and use better-defined smoking cessation phenotypes. Once robust evidence for association is established, which may take several more years, further research into the likely cost-effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of personalized medicine for smoking cessation will be necessary before it can be translated into practice.

  7. Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne M.; Cioe, Patricia A.; Parks, Acacia; Leventhal, Adam M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Greater depressive symptoms and low positive affect (PA) are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes. Smoking cessation approaches that incorporate a focus on PA may benefit smokers trying to quit. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized clinical trial to compare standard smoking cessation treatment (ST) with smoking cessation treatment that targets positive affect, termed positive psychotherapy for smoking cessation (PPT-S). Method: Smokers who were seeking smoking cessation treatment were assigned by urn randomization to receive, along with 8 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy, either ST (n = 31) or PPT-S (n = 35). Seven-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was biochemically confirmed at 8, 16, and 26 weeks. Results: Compared to ST, a greater percentage of participants in PPT-S were abstinent at 8 weeks, 16 weeks, and 26 weeks, but these differences were nonsignificant. In a more statistically powerful longitudinal model, participants in PPT-S had a significantly higher odds of abstinence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.02, 7.42; p = .046) across follow-ups compared to those in ST. The positive effect of PPT-S was stronger for those higher in PA (OR = 6.69, 95% CI = 1.16, 38.47, p = .03). Greater use of PPT-S strategies during the initial 8 weeks of quitting was associated with a less steep decline in smoking abstinence rates over time (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.06, 6.56, p =.04). Conclusion: This trial suggests substantial promise for incorporating PPT into smoking cessation treatment. PMID:25646352

  8. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Emily Y.; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Mull, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Materials and Methods: Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Results: Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Conclusions: Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms. PMID:26171733

  9. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Emily Y; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms.

  10. Continuous-Time System Identification of a Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    PubMed

    Timms, Kevin P; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Piper, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behavior change. System identification problems that draw from two modeling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modeling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  11. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  12. Are secondhand smoke-related diseases of children associated with parental smoking cessation? Determinants of parental smoking cessation in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about whether secondhand smoke (SHS)-related diseases of young children, such as asthma, induce parental smoking cessation during the early child-rearing period. Our objective was therefore to show the association in addition to other potential determinants of parental cessation. We analyzed data from the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century in Japan, from 0.5years (N=47,015) to 4.5years (N=39,817), having selected participants whose parents smoked at baseline (maternal smoking N=8,037; paternal smoking N=28,486). Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to calculate the prevalence ratios for parental smoking cessation according to the onset of SHS-related diseases of their children, using inverse probability weight to account for non-response at follow-up. A total of 16.7% of smoking mothers and 14.5% of smoking fathers had stopped smoking at follow-up. The onset of SHS-related children's diseases was not statistically significantly associated with either maternal or paternal smoking cessation after multivariable adjustments. Strong determinants were, for example, number of cigarettes smoked per day and partner's smoking status during follow-up. SHS-related children's diseases were not associated with parental smoking cessation. It may therefore be necessary to provide additional support for parental smoking cessation within their child's medical care setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling the health benefits of smoking cessation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Avila-Tang, E; Apelberg, B J; Yamaguchi, N; Katanoda, K; Sobue, T; Samet, J M

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, tobacco smoking is one of the main avoidable causes of disease and death. Although the benefits of smoking cessation for reducing disease risk and increasing longevity have been extensively documented, a relatively low proportion of Japanese smokers currently express a willingness to quit. This study attempted to quantify future reduction in the burden of smoking-attributable disease that could result from increases in smoking cessation. A simulation model was developed to project changes in mortality in Japan associated with increased quit attempts and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) among smokers, incorporating data on smoking prevalence, cause-specific mortality rates, quitting behaviour and NRT use and effectiveness. Approximately 46 000 lung cancer deaths and 56 000 cardiovascular disease deaths could be avoided over 20 years if the proportion of smokers making a quit attempt per year gradually increased to current US levels over 20 years. If each of these quit attempts were aided by NRT, the estimates of avoidable deaths would increase to 64 000 for lung cancer and 78 000 for cardiovascular disease. In this model, negligible deaths were avoided due to decreased smoking initiation over the 20-year simulation. Smoking cessation can have measurable short-term impacts on the smoking-related mortality burden in Japan. However, to achieve these gains, tobacco control policies should focus both on increasing smokers' willingness to quit and providing the support and therapies to increase the likelihood that smoking cessation attempts will succeed.

  14. The Influence of Discrimination on Smoking Cessation among Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Lam, Cho Y.; Adams, Claire E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although studies have shown a cross-sectional link between discrimination and smoking, the prospective influence of discrimination on smoking cessation has yet to be evaluated. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of everyday and major discrimination on smoking cessation among Latinos making a quit attempt. Methods: Participants were 190 Spanish speaking smokers of Mexican Heritage recruited from the Houston, TX metropolitan area who participated in the study between 2009 and 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of everyday and major discrimination with smoking abstinence at 26 weeks post-quit. Results: Most participants reported at least some everyday discrimination (64.4%), and at least one major discrimination event (56%) in their lifetimes. Race/ethnicity/nationality was the most commonly perceived reason for both everyday and major discrimination. Everyday discrimination was not associated with post-quit smoking status. However, experiencing a greater number of major discrimination events was associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence, OR = .51, p = .004, and continuous smoking abstinence, OR = .29, p = .018, at 26 weeks post-quit. Conclusions: Findings highlight the high frequency of exposure to discrimination among Latinos, and demonstrate the negative impact of major discrimination events on a smoking cessation attempt. Efforts are needed to attenuate the detrimental effects of major discrimination events on smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:24485880

  15. Self-initiated smoking cessation among high school students.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W B; Collins, L M; Johnson, C A; Graham, J W

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial predictors of self-initiated smoking cessation among high school students. Students from nine high schools were pretested using a questionnaire which assessed smoking behavior, beliefs about positive and negative consequences of smoking, moral attitudes toward smoking, normative expectations about smoking, rebelliousness, peer smoking and parent smoking. Smokers identified at pretest were reexamined three months and fifteen months later. Three variables, moral attitudes, peer smoking and positive beliefs about smoking significantly discriminated continuing smokers from quitters at the three-month posttest. Three different variables, negative beliefs about smoking, parental smoking and rebelliousness significantly discriminated between those who quit and later relapsed and those who quit and maintained their non-smoking status at the 15 month posttest. Smoking characteristics at pretest failed to discriminate either those who would quit or those who would maintain their non-smoking status. Results support the development of public information programs which encourage early cessation of smoking which feature the development of appropriate attitudes and beliefs and which foster social support.

  16. [Social deprivation and time perception, the impact on smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Merson, Frédéric; Perriot, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Smoking addiction and smoking behaviour are closely related to social deprivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social deprivation and time perspective on smoking cessation in order to improve the support provided to socially deprived persons seeking to quit smoking. The study examined the impact of social disadvantages and time perspective on smoking cessation. 192 patients (including 45% of socially disadvantaged people) participated in the study. Social deprivation was measured using the EPICES scale, while time perspective was measured using the short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Data relating to individuals' characteristics, smoking addiction, behaviour and smoking cessation were collected as part of this research. Compared to the rest of the population, socially disadvantaged people were found to be more likely to stop smoking for financial reasons (p < 0.0001). The study also found that their attempts to quit smoking are more likely to fail (p = 0,006). In addition, socially disadvantaged people suffer more frequently from anxio-depressive disorders (p < 0.0001) and are also prone to a higher level of nicotine dependence (p < 0.0001). The 'Past-Negative' and ?Present-Fatalistic' dimensions of time perspective, toward which socially disadvantaged people are more likely to lean (p < 0.0001), are associated with failed smoking cessation. The ?Future' dimension, in which socially disadvantaged people are less likely to project themselves (p < 0.0002), is a predictive factor of smoking cessation. The results highlight the importance of taking into account social deprivation and time perspective in helping socially disadvantaged patients to quit smoking.

  17. Management of emergent psychiatric symptoms during smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2009-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and cancer and, for current smokers, smoking cessation is one of the most effective therapeutic interventions for reducing the risk of all-cause morbidity and mortality. However, smoking cessation causes nicotine withdrawal syndrome, a condition with symptoms that overlap those of major depression and anxiety disorders. The objective of this review was to examine the evidence that smoking cessation may be associated with new onset of psychiatric illness, particularly in individuals with no history of psychiatric disease, and to provide recommendations for the management of emergent psychiatric symptoms in smokers attempting cessation. Relevant articles were obtained from a MEDLINE search (articles indexed up to, and including, October 2008, with no historical date limit), and citation review of selected primary and review articles. There is evidence that smoking cessation can result in new onset of major depressive disorder, even in individuals with no history of depression. It has also been suggested that nicotine may be used as a form of self-medication for depression, and that smoking cessation can reveal a previously undiagnosed condition. There is little evidence of an association between smoking cessation and increased risk for other types of psychiatric illness. The management of emergent psychiatric symptoms in smokers attempting abstinence is discussed. The overall health benefits of quitting smoking undoubtedly outweigh any potential side-effects associated with nicotine withdrawal. However, a well-managed quit attempt must plan for the emergence of nicotine withdrawal, monitor for symptoms of depression and psychiatric disease, and manage these conditions appropriately should they present.

  18. Racial and ethnic differences in predictors of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Daza, Patricia; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Mazas, Carlos; Fouladi, Rachel T; Cinciripini, Paul M; Gritz, Ellen R; Wetter, David W

    2006-01-01

    Racial/ethnic differences in the determinants of smoking cessation could have important treatment implications. The current study examined racial/ethnic differences in smoking cessation, prospective predictors of cessation, and whether the predictive ability of these factors differed by race/ethnicity. Participants were 709 employed adults recruited through the National Rural Electric Co-op Association or through natural gas pipeline corporations. Data were collected in 1990 and 1994. Although race/ethnicity was not predictive of abstinence, Hispanic, African American, and White smokers displayed differential on tobacco-, alcohol-, and work-related variables. These racial/ethnic differences highlight the specific factors that should be considered when providing smoking cessation treatment to specific populations. Limitations are noted.

  19. The epidemiology of smoking: health consequences and benefits of cessation.

    PubMed

    Fagerström, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Tobacco use is the single most important preventable health risk in the developed world, and an important cause of premature death worldwide. Smoking causes a wide range of diseases, including many types of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, smoking during pregnancy adversely affects fetal and neonatal growth and development. Recent decades have seen a massive expansion in tobacco use in the developing world and accelerating growth in smoking among women in the developed world. Globally, smoking-related mortality is set to rise from 3 million annually (1995 estimate) to 10 million annually by 2030, with 70% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. Many of the adverse health effects of smoking are reversible, and smoking cessation treatments represent some of the most cost effective of all healthcare interventions. Although the greatest benefit accrues from ceasing smoking when young, even quitting in middle age avoids much of the excess healthcare risk associated with smoking. In order to improve smoking cessation rates, effective behavioural and pharmacological treatments, coupled with professional counselling and advice, are required. Since smoking duration is the principal risk factor for smoking-related morbidity, the treatment goal should be early cessation and prevention of relapse.

  20. Implications of t'ai chi for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Gryffin, Peter A; Chen, William C

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify underlying mechanisms affecting smoking cessation among smokers taking t'ai chi classes. Smokers from t'ai chi classes had attributed t'ai chi practice as the primary reason for quitting smoking. Two (2) students from the community college population who had taken a t'ai chi class completed an open-ended questionnaire, to identify possible variables involved in motivations for smoking cessation. An Internet search identified a third student from a university program who had posted observations of how t'ai chi affected her efforts at smoking cessation. The three written responses were evaluated for correlating comments, to identify possible theoretical aspects of why t'ai chi would impact smoking cessation. All three identified increased awareness of smoking habits due to t'ai chi as the primary reason for quitting smoking. A review of literature was conducted to clarify the role of enhanced awareness as a mediator in modifying destructive behavior and addiction. Results from an unpublished study of a t'ai chi smoking cessation program were utilized as supporting data. Two (2) primary areas of behavior modification focusing on the role of enhanced self-awareness are identified from the review of literature: Mindfulness Meditation (MM), and traditional Zen practice. Zen and MM are identified as readily adaptable to using t'ai chi as a form of moving meditation for dealing with addiction. T'ai chi, as a more dynamic form of meditation, can be an effective method for enhancing mindfulness and awareness for breaking cycles of addiction and habit. Possible effects on physical cravings were also identified. As a novel and unusual form of mind/body exercise, t'ai chi may be a particularly appealing adjunct to smoking cessation programs, particularly in light of the many ancillary health benefits of t'ai chi.

  1. Providing smoking cessation counseling: a national survey among nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Yankie, Vicki M; Price, Holly M; Nanfito, Emily R; Jasinski, Donna M; Crowell, Nancy A; Heath, Janie

    2006-03-01

    Current research has demonstrated that smokers have an increased incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications. Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) have knowledge of a patient's smoking status and are in a unique position to provide smoking cessation counseling (SCC). The results from a national survey about SCC practice among CRNAs is revealed in this article.

  2. Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents during Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…

  3. Trends in Smoking Status and Utilization of Smoking Cessation Agents Among Females with Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Varun; Gangal, Neha S; Shah, Surbhi; Gangan, Nilesh; Bechtol, Robert

    2016-03-01

    In the United States, cigarette smoking accounts for almost 20% of all deaths attributed to heart disease. More women than men die each year of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Women who smoke have shown to be at a higher risk of cardiac deaths. The current study aims to determine the trend in smoking prevalence among women with CVD and their utilization of smoking cessation agents from 2004 to 2011. This was a retrospective exploratory study using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2004 to 2011. All female respondents with any one cardiovascular condition were identified. Descriptive statistics were carried out to obtain the number of female patients with CVD, their smoking status, and their use of smoking cessation agents. Furthermore, disparities in smoking status and smoking cessation agent utilization with respect to race and ethnicity were studied. Among total CVD patients, 53% were females, which corresponded to 25.3 million females in the United States. Around 12.3% among them were current smokers. Only 6.9% among these females used smoking cessation agents. Smoking trends in females were inconsistent throughout the 8 years. Overall, the trend showed a decrease in the percentage of female smokers, while use of smoking cessation agents remained low from 2004 to 2011. Whites and non-Hispanics had more current smokers and women using smoking cessation agents. The eight-year trend shows that the use of smoking cessation agents among females is very low, particularly among non-whites and Hispanics. This is of great concern and future efforts could focus on increasing the utilization of smoking cessation agents and collectively decreasing the risk of smoking in CVD by healthcare professionals.

  4. [Alternative therapies for smoking cessation: clinical practice guidelines review].

    PubMed

    Astrid Becerra, Nelci; Alba, Luz Helena; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Murillo, Raúl; Cañas, Alejandra; García-Herreros, Plutarco

    2012-01-01

    smoking is a chronic disease in the group of addictions and its treatment includes two components:psychosocial and pharmacological intervention. Other types of therapeutic approaches have been used as treatment options for tobacco addiction. Acupuncture, hypnosis and homeopathy are the most used nonconventional interventions. review the available evidence in regards to the use of alternative therapies for smoking cessation in the adult population from the published clinical practice guidelines (CPG). we performed an adaptation process of clinical recommendations from a systematic review of the literature specifically related to the use of alternative therapies for smoking cessation. we found 925 references, 9 were pre-screened and selected 5 CPG for adaptation.Acupuncture and related techniques do not improve abstinence rates compared to the placebo effect. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of hypnosis as a therapy for smoking cessation. There is no evidence that justifies the use of homeopathic medicines for the treatment of smoking. alternative therapies have not demonstrated efficacy in cessation. It is recommended to use other treatment options with proven efficacy for smoking cessation.

  5. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghorai, Koel; Akter, Shahriar; Khatun, Fatema; Ray, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape. PMID:25563359

  6. Cessation of Smoking and Alcohol Addiction Following Thalamic Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Fatima; Silver, Brian; Khan, Muhib

    2016-11-01

    We describe a case of thalamic intracerebral hemorrhage leading to cessation of smoking. A 53-year-old female presented to the emergency department with right-sided weakness and dysarthria. Initial systolic blood pressure was 220 mm Hg. Computed tomography scan showed a left thalamic hemorrhage with associated edema and hemorrhage extending into the left lateral and third ventricle. She recovered uneventfully and was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation and eventually transitioned home. Three months later in the clinic, she reported that following the stroke, she abruptly stopped smoking without any smoking cessation aid. She reported that she had no craving for cigarettes. She also developed an aversion to drinking alcohol. Cessation of smoking following a thalamic intracerebral hemorrhage is not reported earlier. This observation suggests that the thalamus may play a role in nicotine and alcohol addiction. Further studies are needed to elucidate the possible involvement of the thalamic circuits in addiction pathways and as a potential target for modulation.

  7. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    PubMed

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  8. National Survey of Smoking and Smoking Cessation Education Within UK Midwifery School Curricula.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jane; Harris, James M; Lorencatto, Fabiana; McEwen, Andy; Duaso, Maria J

    2017-05-01

    Smoking in pregnancy in the United Kingdom remains prevalent (11%). To encourage and support pregnant smokers to quit, midwives must be adequately trained to do so. Substantial curricular gaps have been identified in the smoking cessation training of medical, nursing, and optometry schools. This study aimed to identify the extent of smoking cessation training and assessment in UK midwifery schools. All UK undergraduate midwifery schools (n = 53) were invited to complete a web-based survey of their curricular coverage and assessment related to smoking cessation, and perceived barriers to delivering smoking cessation training. Twenty-nine (55%) midwifery schools responded. Most teaching was completed in the initial year of study. All reported teaching the harmful effects of tobacco use. The majority of respondents (83%) reported training students in brief intervention delivery and ways to assist quit attempts. Only 24% of schools in this study included relapse prevention in their curriculum. The most frequently reported barriers to teaching smoking cessation were "lack of knowledge amongst staff" (17%), "no space in a crowded curriculum" (17%), and "administrative problems" (13%). Midwifery schools are teaching the harmful effects of smoking and providing training on brief interventions. However, in some schools student midwives are not being sufficiently trained on relapse prevention or assessed in the practical skills necessary for delivering evidence-based interventions. Midwifery schools should revise the content and delivery of smoking cessation training to ensure midwives are equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to contribute to the challenge of smoking cessation in pregnancy.

  9. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  10. Nonjudging Facet of Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation in Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C.; Stewart, Diana W.; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, non-judgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age=39, 77.9% ≤ high school education) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 post-quit (biochemically-confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficients regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting with Awareness, Nonjudging, Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks post-quit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness. PMID:25961148

  11. Nonjudging facet of mindfulness predicts enhanced smoking cessation in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Stewart, Diana W; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Wetter, David W

    2015-12-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations, including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, nonjudgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age of 39 years, 77.9% with a high school education or less) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 postquit (biochemically confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficient regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting With Awareness, Nonjudging, and Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks postquit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness.

  12. [Effectiveness of a motivational interviewing smoking cessation program on cessation change in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ha, Young Sun; Choi, Yeon Hee

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an Adolescent Motivational Interviewing Cessation program on smoking cessation change. The study was done with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The participants were 39 high school students from G city, who were in school from September 1 to October 30, 2009. The students were assigned to the experimental group (20) and participated in the motivational interviewing cessation program or to the control group (19) who did not participate. Data analyses involved χ²-test, independent t-test, Repeated Measures ANOVA, and utilized the SPSS program. The experimental group had significantly less daily smoking, nicotine dependence and smoking temptation in comparison to the control group. The experimental group had significantly higher stage of change in comparison to the control group. The results of the study indicate that a motivational interviewing cessation program delivered to adolescents who smoke is an effective method of encouraging cessation, and can be utilized as an effective nursing intervention for adolescents who smoke.

  13. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  14. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  15. Do Smoking Cessation Websites Meet the Needs of Smokers with Severe Mental Illnesses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunette, Mary F.; Ferron, Joelle C.; Devitt, Timothy; Geiger, Pamela; Martin, Wendy M.; Pratt, Sarah; Santos, Meghan; McHugo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Many people learn about smoking cessation through information on the Internet. Whether people with severe mental illnesses, who have very high rates of smoking, are able to use currently available websites about smoking cessation is unknown. The study reported here assessed whether four smoking cessation websites met usability guidelines and…

  16. Do Smoking Cessation Websites Meet the Needs of Smokers with Severe Mental Illnesses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunette, Mary F.; Ferron, Joelle C.; Devitt, Timothy; Geiger, Pamela; Martin, Wendy M.; Pratt, Sarah; Santos, Meghan; McHugo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Many people learn about smoking cessation through information on the Internet. Whether people with severe mental illnesses, who have very high rates of smoking, are able to use currently available websites about smoking cessation is unknown. The study reported here assessed whether four smoking cessation websites met usability guidelines and…

  17. The Impact of Quitting Smoking on Weight Among Women Prisoners Participating in a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Leslie A.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Villalobos, Gabrielle C.; Weaver, Michael F.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of smoking cessation on weight change in a population of women prisoners. Methods. Women prisoners (n = 360) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention; 250 received a 10-week group intervention plus transdermal nicotine replacement. Results. Women who quit smoking had significant weight gain at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with a net difference of 10 pounds between smokers and abstainers at 6 months. By the 12-month follow-up, weight gain decreased among abstainers. Conclusions. We are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate weight gain associated with smoking cessation among women prisoners. Smoking cessation interventions that address postcessation weight gain as a preventative measure may be beneficial in improving health and reducing the high prevalence of smoking in prisoner populations. PMID:20558806

  18. Smoking among pregnant women in Cantabria (Spain): trend and determinants of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Silvia; Pérez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pardo-Crespo, Rosa; Llorca, Javier; Mariscal, Marcial; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Background Cantabria (Spain) has one of the highest prevalence of smoking among women of the European Union. The objectives are to assess the trend of smoking during pregnancy in a five-year period and the determinants of smoking cessation during pregnancy in Cantabria. Methods A 1/6 random sample of all women delivering at the reference hospital of the region for the period 1998–2002 was drawn, 1559 women. Information was obtained from personal interview, clinical chart, and prenatal care records. In the analysis relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Multivariable analysis was carried out using stepwise logistic regression. Results Smoking prior to pregnancy decreased from 53.6% in 1998 to 39.4% in 2002. A decrease in smoking cessation among women smoking at the beginning of pregnancy was observed, from 37.3% in 1998 to 20.6% in 2002. The mean number of cigarettes/day (cig/d) before pregnancy remained constant, around 16 cig/d, whereas a slight trend to increase over time was seen, from 7.7 to 8.9 cig/d. In univariate analysis two variables favoured significantly smoking cessation, although they were not included in the stepwise logistic regression analysis, a higher education level and to be married. The logistic regression model included five significant predictors (also significant in univariate analysis): intensity of smoking, number of previous pregnancies, partner's smoking status, calendar year of study period (these four variables favoured smoking continuation), and adequate prenatal care (which increased smoking cessation). Conclusion The frequency of smoking among pregnant women is very high in Cantabria. As smoking cessation rate has decreased over time, a change in prenatal care programme on smoking counseling is needed. Several determinants of smoking cessation, such as smoking before pregnancy and partner's smoking, should be also addressed by community programmes. PMID:17466062

  19. Implementation of Workplace-Based Smoking Cessation Support Activities and Smoking Cessation Among Employees: The Finnish Public Sector Study

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Heponiemi, Tarja; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the relationship between implementation of workplace smoking cessation support activities and employee smoking cessation. Methods. In 2 cohort studies, participants were 6179 Finnish public-sector employees who self-reported as smokers at baseline in 2004 (study 1) or 2008 (study 2) and responded to follow-up surveys in 2008 (study 1; n = 3298; response rate = 71%) or 2010 (study 2; n = 2881; response rate = 83%). Supervisors’ reports were used to assess workplace smoking cessation support activities. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses to examine changes in smoking status. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, number of cigarettes smoked per day, work unit size, shift work, type of job contract, health status, and health behaviors, baseline smokers whose supervisors reported that the employing agency had offered pharmacological treatments or financial incentives were more likely than those in workplaces that did not offer such support to have quit smoking. In general, associations were stronger among moderate or heavy smokers (≥ 10 cigarettes/day) than among light smokers (< 10 cigarettes/day). Conclusions. Cessation activities offered by employers may encourage smokers, particularly moderate or heavy smokers, to quit smoking. PMID:22594722

  20. Lebanese medical students' intention to deliver smoking cessation advice.

    PubMed

    Jradi, Hoda; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Pirie, Phyllis P; Binkley, Philip F; Ferketich, Amy K

    2015-06-01

    Objectives of this study were to examine the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and determine how they predict Lebanese medical students' behavioral intention to advise patients to quit smoking. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 191 medical students from six medical schools in Lebanon. The instrument contained scales that measured attitudes toward the behavior, behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Psychometric properties of the scale were examined. Item to total scale score correlations were determined and linear regression was conducted to predict the intention to advise smokers to quit. Respondents had a positive, but not very high, intention to deliver smoking cessation advice. Students reported a positive attitude toward advising patients to quit cigarette smoking and a strong belief in the physician's obligations in smoking cessation advising. The majority reported lack of time to provide smoking cessation advice, insufficient knowledge of pharmacological aids, and the lack of openness of the patient to receive the advice. The attitude scale was the only variable that yielded a significant prediction of the intended behavior. The construct of attitude toward the behavior appeared to be the most predictive of the intention to deliver advice to quit smoking among Lebanese medical students. Focusing training efforts on this construct could improve the rate of delivery of brief cessation counseling. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  2. Ear Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Anthony L.; Di, Yuan Ming; Worsnop, Christopher; May, Brian H.; Da Costa, Cliff; Xue, Charlie C. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of ear acupressure (EAP) as a stand-alone intervention for smoking cessation and the feasibility of this study design. Adult smokers were randomised to receive EAP specific for smoking cessation (SSEAP) or a nonspecific EAP (NSEAP) intervention which is not typically used for smoking cessation. Participants received 8 weekly treatments and were requested to press the five pellets taped to one ear at least three times daily. Participants were followed up for three months. Primary outcome measures were a 7-day point-prevalence cessation rate confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide and relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms (NWS). Intention-to-treat analysis was applied. Forty-three adult smokers were randomly assigned to SSEAP (n = 20) or NSEAP (n = 23) groups. The dropout rate was high with 19 participants completing the treatments and 12 remaining at followup. One participant from the SSEAP group had confirmed cessation at week 8 and end of followup (5%), but there was no difference between groups for confirmed cessation or NWS. Adverse events were few and minor. PMID:24191168

  3. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  4. Associations Between Health Literacy and Established Predictors of Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Claire E.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Waters, Andrew J.; Wetter, David W.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between health literacy and predictors of smoking cessation among 402 low-socioeconomic status (SES), racially/ethnically diverse smokers. Methods. Data were collected as part of a larger study evaluating smoking health risk messages. We conducted multiple linear regression analyses to examine relations between health literacy and predictors of smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine dependence, smoking outcome expectancies, smoking risk perceptions and knowledge, self-efficacy, intentions to quit or reduce smoking). Results. Lower health literacy was associated with higher nicotine dependence, more positive and less negative smoking outcome expectancies, less knowledge about smoking health risks, and lower risk perceptions. Associations remained significant (P < .05) after controlling for demographics and SES-related factors. Conclusions. These results provide the first evidence that low health literacy may serve as a critical and independent risk factor for poor cessation outcomes among low-socioeconomic status, racially/ethnically diverse smokers. Research is needed to investigate potential mechanisms underlying this relationship. PMID:23678912

  5. Woman focused smoking cessation programming: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Minian, Nadia; Penner, Jessica; Voci, Sabrina; Selby, Peter

    2016-03-12

    Several studies of smoking cessation programs in clinical settings have revealed poorer outcomes for women compared to men, including counselling alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy. The objective of the current study was to explore treatment and program structure needs and preferences among female clients in a specialized smoking cessation clinic in an academic mental health and addiction health science centre in order to inform program design so that it meets the needs of female clients. Four focus groups were conducted with current and former female clients (n = 23, mode age range = 50-59 years old, 56.5% were still smoking and 43.5% had quit) who had registered for outpatient smoking cessation treatment. Questions were designed to examine what aspects of the services were helpful and what changes they would like to see to better assist them and other women with quitting smoking. A thematic analysis of the raw data (audio recordings and notes taken during the focus groups) was conducted using a phenomenological theoretical framework. Themes that emerged indicated that females trying to quit smoking are best supported if they have choice from a variety of services so that treatment can be individualized to meet their specific needs; psychosocial support is provided both one-one-one with health care professionals and by peers in support groups; free pharmacotherapy is available to eliminate financial barriers to use; women-specific educational topics and support groups are offered; the clinic is accessible with evening/weekend hours, options to attend a local clinic, and childcare availability; and communication about clinic services and operation are clear, readily available, and regularly updated. An ideal smoking cessation program for women includes a women's centred approach with sufficient variety and choice, free pharmacotherapy, non-judgmental support, accessible services and clear communication of program options and changes. Findings may suggest

  6. Smoking cessation referrals in optometric practice: a canadian pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Spafford, Marlee M; Schultz, Annette S H; Iley, Matthew D; Zawada, Violet

    2011-06-01

    The current pilot study sought to understand optometrists' attitudes toward addressing tobacco use within the scope of their practice, and to identify opportunities within Canada to integrate optometrists as health care partners into the national tobacco cessation network. A descriptive qualitative design was used to conduct this pilot study. Five focus groups were conducted with 29 informants, including 11 practicing community optometrists and 18 senior Doctor of Optometry students from the University of Waterloo. Rationales, barriers, and opportunities to practice patterns were identified. Optometrists and optometry students knew the association of smoking with eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and cataract; however, some informants selectively asked patients about smoking behavior based on patient age or visit type. Most informants indicated that they did inform their patients who smoke of their increased risk of developing certain eye diseases; however, very few informants assessed whether their patients wanted to stop smoking and no informants reported that they had ever provided a patient with explicit support for tobacco cessation. This limited role in smoking cessation support for patients due, in part, to insufficient: financial incentives, training and educational tools and materials, knowledge of community resources for cessation treatments, and time during appointments. Several opportunities were identified to better integrate optometry into tobacco control efforts such as optometrists' access to patients, patients' fear of blindness as a tool to motivate behavior changes, and practitioners' openness to change. Optometrists can be a helpful addition to a smoking cessation healthcare network that already involves more than a dozen health care professions including medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, and dental hygiene. The findings of this study will be used to develop a national survey of Canadian optometrists' practice patterns

  7. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (P < 0.0001). Streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus saprofiticus, streptococos α hemolytic, and staphylococcus aureus in 2nd culture were not seen. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was related to ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%) and cloxacillin (72%); the most resistance was to amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance was to chloramphenicol. Conclusion: In our study, some potential pathogens decreased or even disapeared after opium cessation. Our patients have not been advised to change their number of cigarettes. We have used methadone pill for substitution of opium. It seems that opium smoking affects nasopharyngeal flora. PMID:24494075

  8. Effects of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (P < 0.0001). Streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus saprofiticus, streptococos α hemolytic, and staphylococcus aureus in 2(nd) culture were not seen. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was related to ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%) and cloxacillin (72%); the most resistance was to amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance was to chloramphenicol. In our study, some potential pathogens decreased or even disapeared after opium cessation. Our patients have not been advised to change their number of cigarettes. We have used methadone pill for substitution of opium. It seems that opium smoking affects nasopharyngeal flora.

  9. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  10. A smoking cessation counsellor: should every hospital have one?

    PubMed

    Prathiba, B V; Tjeder, S; Phillips, C; Campbell, I A

    1998-12-01

    The study was performed in order to ascertain the sustained smoking cessation rate in hospital patients who received a structured programme of advice and support from a counsellor and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of such an intervention. Hospital in-patients out-patients were referred by their physician/surgeon to the smoking cessation counsellor who provided advice to reinforce that of the doctor and gave support by repeated follow-up sessions, weekly in the first month and thereafter at three, six and twelve months. Of 1,155 patients referred to the counsellor, 114 (13%) failed to keep the first appointment and 348 (30%) attended for advice on one occasion only. Among the latter, the self-reported sustained cessation rate at one year was 5%. In the 663 patients who participated in the programme the validated (expired air CO) 12-month, sustained cessation rate was 21%. Allowing 7.5% success rate among patients receiving a physician's advice only, the cost of each additional success achieved as a result of the programme is 851 Pounds and the cost per life year saved is between 340 Pounds and 426 Pounds. Assuming that after one year's abstinence relapse rates are relatively small, this represents a sound investment in the light of the cost of treating patients with smoking-related illnesses and compares favourably with other smoking cessation strategies and health care interventions.

  11. A Pilot Test of Self-Affirmations to Promote Smoking Cessation in a National Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Program.

    PubMed

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Augustson, Erik; Patrick, Heather

    2016-06-08

    Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention. Data were collected from smokers (n=1261) who subscribed to a free smoking cessation program and met eligibility criteria. The intervention lasted 42 days. The original design was a 2 (Baseline affirmation: 5-item questionnaire present vs absent) × 2 (Integrated affirmation: texts present vs absent) factorial design. Only 17 eligible users completed all baseline affirmation questions and these conditions did not influence any outcomes, so we collapsed across baseline affirmation conditions in analysis. In the integrated affirmation conditions, affirmations replaced approximately 20% of texts delivering motivational content. In all, 687 users remained enrolled throughout the 42-day intervention and 81 reported smoking status at day 42. Among initiators (n=1261), self-affirmation did not significantly improve (1) intervention completion, (2) days enrolled, (3) 1-week smoking status, or (4) 6-week smoking status (all Ps>.10); and among the 687 completers, there were no significant effects of affirmation on cessation (Ps>.25). However, among the 81 responders, those who received affirmations were more likely to report cessation at 6 weeks (97.5%; 39 of 40) than those not given affirmations (78.1%; 32 of 41; χ(2)(1)=7.08, P=.008). This proof-of-concept study provides preliminary evidence that self-affirmation can be integrated into existing

  12. Nicotine dependence and secondary effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Clavel, F; Benhamou, S; Flamant, R

    1987-12-01

    The secondary effects of smoking cessation among subjects included in a randomized trial, performed to test the efficacy of acupuncture and nicotine chewing gum vs. the control group, are reported according to nicotine dependence. After 1 month of cessation, ex-smokers had modified their nutritional intake, had gained weight, and felt more irritable compared to subjects still smoking. After 1 year, secondary effects concerned greater weight gain and irritability. The percentage of subjects who presented these secondary effects was more frequent among high-dependent than among low-dependent ex-smokers.

  13. Healthcare provider smoking cessation advice among US worker groups

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David J; Fleming, Lora E; McCollister, Kathryn E; Caban, Alberto J; Arheart, Kristopher L; LeBlanc, William G; Chung‐Bridges, Katherine; Christ, Sharon L; Dietz, Noella; Clark, John D

    2007-01-01

    Objective Among workers in dusty occupations, tobacco use is particularly detrimental to health because of the potential synergistic effects of occupational exposures (for example, asbestos) in causing disease. This study explored the prevalence of smoking and the reported smoking cessation discussion with a primary healthcare provider (HCP) among a representative sample of currently employed US worker groups. Methods Pooled data from the 1997–2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate occupation specific smoking rates (n = 135 412). The 2000 NHIS Cancer Control Module was used to determine (among employed smokers with HCP visits) the prevalence of being advised to quit smoking by occupation (n = 3454). Results The average annual prevalence of current smoking was 25% in all workers. In 2000, 84% of smokers reported visiting an HCP during the past 12 months; 53% reported being advised by their physician to quit smoking (range 42%–66% among 30 occupations). However, an estimated 10.5 million smokers were not advised to quit smoking by their HCP. Workers with potentially increased occupational exposure to dusty work environments (including asbestos, silica, particulates, etc), at high risk for occupational lung disease and with high smoking prevalence, had relatively low reported discussions with an HCP about smoking cessation, including farm workers (30% overall smoking prevalence; 42% told to quit), construction and extractive trades (39%; 46%), and machine operators/tenderers (34%; 44%). Conclusion The relatively low reported prevalence of HCP initiated smoking cessation discussion, particularly among currently employed workers with potentially synergistic occupational exposures and high current smoking prevalence, needs to be addressed through educational campaigns targeting physicians and other HCPs. PMID:17897991

  14. Dental patients' perceptions and motivation in smoking cessation activities.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Pia; Johannsen, Annsofi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate smokers' perceptions of and motivation for smoking cessation activities in dentistry. MATERIALS AND METHODS PATIENTS: who smoked were consecutively recruited from general as well as specialist dental care clinics in Sweden. After a dental visit the patients completed a questionnaire about self-perceived oral health, smoking habits, motivation, reasons to quit and not to quit smoking, support to quit, smoking cessation activities and questions about smoking asked by dentists and dental hygienists. The sample consisted of 167 adult patients (≥ 20 years) who smoked daily. During the last 6 months, 81% of the patients had experienced oral health problems. The most common complaints were discolourations of the teeth, periodontal problems and dry mouth (38%, 36% and 33%, respectively). Improved general health was a major reason to quit smoking (89%). It was also stated that it was important to avoid oral health problems. 71% of the patients preferred to quit by themselves and 16% wanted support from dentistry. High motivation to quit smoking was reported by 20%. Occurrence of periodontitis during the last 6 months was significantly associated with being highly motivated to stop smoking (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.03-8.55). This study revealed that, although it was important to quit smoking to avoid oral health problems, the patients were not aware that tobacco cessation activities can be performed in dentistry. Periodontal problems seem to be the most motivating factor among the patients who were highly motivated to stop smoking.

  15. Weight gain prevention and smoking cessation: cautionary findings.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S M; Tunstall, C D; Vila, K L; Duffy, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Weight gain is a consistent sequela of smoking cessation. A successful intervention might attract smokers who fear weight gain. If the gain causes smoking relapse, such an intervention might reduce smoking relapse risk. METHODS. Using a sample of 158 smokers who completed a 2-week smoking treatment program, we compared an innovative weight gain prevention intervention with both a nonspecific treatment and standard treatment. Subjects were assessed on weight and smoking behavior and followed for 1 year. RESULTS. A disturbing, unexpected finding was that subjects in both the innovative and nonspecific conditions had a higher risk of smoking relapse than did standard treatment subjects. Some differences were observed between abstinent and smoking subjects in weight gain by treatment condition. CONCLUSIONS. Both active interventions may have been so complicated that they detracted from nonsmoking. Also, caloric restriction may increase the reinforcing value of nicotine, a psychoactive drug, thereby increasing smoking relapse risk. The magnitude of weight gain after smoking cessation may not merit interventions that increase smoking risk. Perhaps attitudinal modifications are the most appropriate. PMID:1585959

  16. Systematic review of social media interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Kim, Sunny Jung; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McCulloch, Laura J; Brunette, Mary F; Dallery, Jesse; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Popular social media could extend the reach of smoking cessation efforts. In this systematic review, our objectives were: 1) to determine whether social media interventions for smoking cessation are feasible, acceptable, and potentially effective; 2) to identify approaches for recruiting subjects; and 3) to examine the specific intervention design components and strategies employed to promote user engagement and retention. We searched Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science through July 2016 and reference lists of relevant articles. Included studies described social media interventions for smoking cessation and must have reported outcomes related to feasibility, acceptability, usability, or smoking-related outcomes. We identified 7 studies (all were published since 2014) that enrolled 9755 participants (median=136 [range 40 to 9042]). Studies mainly used Facebook (n=4) or Twitter (n=2), and emerged as feasible and acceptable. Five studies reported smoking-related outcomes such as greater abstinence, reduction in relapse, and an increase in quit attempts. Most studies (n=6) recruited participants using online or Facebook advertisements. Tailored content, targeted reminders, and moderated discussions were used to promote participant engagement. Three studies found that active participation through posting comments or liking content may be associated with improved outcomes. Retention ranged from 35% to 84% (median=70%) across the included studies. Our review highlights the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of social media interventions for smoking cessation. Future research should continue to explore approaches for promoting user engagement and retention, and whether sustained engagement translates to clinically meaningful smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Smoking cessation in severe mental illness: what works?

    PubMed

    Banham, Lindsay; Gilbody, Simon

    2010-07-01

    The physical health of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is poor. Smoking-related illnesses are a major contributor to excess mortality and morbidity. An up-to-date review of the evidence for smoking cessation interventions in SMI is needed to inform clinical guidelines. We searched bibliographic databases for relevant studies and independently extracted data. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of smoking cessation or reduction conducted in adult smokers with SMI. Interventions were compared to usual care or placebo. The primary outcome was smoking cessation and secondary outcomes were smoking reduction, change in weight, change in psychiatric symptoms and adverse events. We included eight RCTs of pharmacological and/or psychological interventions. Most cessation interventions showed moderate positive results, some reaching statistical significance. One study compared behavioural support and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to usual care and showed a risk ratio (RR) of 2.74 (95% CI 1.10-6.81) for short-term smoking cessation, which was not significant at longer follow-up. We pooled five trials that effectively compared bupropion to placebo giving an RR of 2.77 (95% CI 1.48-5.16), which was comparable to Hughes et al.'s 2009 figures for general population data; RR = 1.69 (95% CI 1.53-1.85). Smoking reduction data were too heterogeneous for meta-analysis, but results were generally positive. Trials suggest few adverse events. All trials recorded psychiatric symptoms and the most significant changes favoured the intervention groups over the control groups. Treating tobacco dependence is effective in patients with SMI. Treatments that work in the general population work for those with severe mental illness and appear approximately equally effective. Treating tobacco dependence in patients with stable psychiatric conditions does not worsen mental state.

  18. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    PubMed

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-03-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest.

  19. The Effectiveness of Covering Smoking Cessation Services for Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Geoffrey F; Niaura, Raymond; Maglione, Margaret; Mongoven, Jennifer; Larson-Rotter, Carrie; Coan, James; Lapin, Pauline; Morton, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine whether reimbursement for Provider Counseling, Pharmacotherapies, and a telephone Quitline increase smoking cessation relative to Usual Care. Study Design Randomized comparison trial testing the effectiveness of four smoking cessation benefits. Setting Seven states that best represented the national population in terms of the proportion of those ≥65 years of age and smoking rate. Participants There were 7,354 seniors voluntarily enrolled in the Medicare Stop Smoking Program and they were followed-up for 12 months. Intervention(s) (1) Usual Care, (2) reimbursement for Provider Counseling, (3) reimbursement for Provider Counseling with Pharmacotherapy, and (4) telephone counseling Quitline with nicotine patch. Main Outcome Measure Seven-day self-reported cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Principal Findings Unadjusted quit rates assuming missing data=smoking were 10.2 percent (9.0–11.5), 14.1 percent (11.7–16.5), 15.8 percent (14.4–17.2), and 19.3 percent (17.4–21.2) at 12 months for the Usual Care, Provider Counseling, Provider Counseling + Pharmacotherapy, and Quitline arms, respectively. Results were robust to sociodemographics, smoking history, motivation, health status, and survey nonresponse. The additional cost per quitter (relative to Usual Care) ranged from several hundred dollars to $6,450. Conclusions A telephone Quitline in conjunction with low-cost Pharmacotherapy was the most effective means of reducing smoking in the elderly. PMID:18783459

  20. Principles of Community Organization and Partnership for Smoking Cessation in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT).

    PubMed

    Thompson, B; Wallack, L; Lichtenstein, E; Pechacek, T

    1990-01-01

    The Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) has adopted a community approach to smoking cessation. State-of-the-art interventions that have proven efficacious for smoking cessation are delivered to smokers through community-based organizations. An innovative adaptation of community organization methods accommodated the need for a standardized protocol with the flexibility required for diverse and unique communities. The unique characteristics of the eleven intervention communities are examined with a focus on differences in size, location, availability and importance of the intervention channels, and other factors that were important for community mobilization. Initial results of the mobilization process are summarized. Although there were some differences in the structures formed and the time required to complete the initial project activities, all eleven intervention sites were mobilized around the COMMIT goals and activities.

  1. Smoking and drinking habits and attitudes to smoking cessation counselling among Tanzanian dental students.

    PubMed

    Amemori, M; Mumghamba, E G; Ruotoistenmäki, J; Murtomaa, H

    2011-03-01

    The present research was carried out at the School of Dentistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania. To assess smoking and drinking habits as well as attitudes towards smoking cessation counselling among dental students in Tanzania. A 28-item pretested and self-administered questionnaire was delivered to all dental students enrolled at the end of the 2006 academic year. The questionnaire covered socio-demographics, smoking and drinking habits, knowledge concerning health effects and attitudes towards smoking cessation counselling. Dental students enrolled at the end of the 2005/2006 academic year in the School of Dentistry, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Self-reported smoking, alcohol use and attitudes to smoking cessation counselling. The response rate was 73.2% (109/149) and 76.1% of respondents were male. Smoking was reported by 12.8%, all being male. Alcohol use during the last 30 days was reported by 23.8% and binge drinking during the last two weeks by 11.8%. Both smoking and alcohol use were more common among clinical than basic science students. The majority (67.0%) reported that they had not received education on smoking cessation counselling although 86.2% considered that dentists and physicians should provide such counselling. Reported smoking and alcohol consumption are on a low level compared to dental students internationally. Willingness and need for cessation counselling training was expressed by the majority of Tanzanian dental students. This should be taken into consideration in dental curriculum development.

  2. Identification of Campaign Recruitment Strategies for a Stepped Smoking Cessation Intervention for a College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R.; Babrow, Austin S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined outcome expectancies, outcome evaluations, and interest in participating in smoking cessation programs presented in graduated steps of intervention intensity. Concluded that attitudes and control beliefs should be the focus of initial program promotion for college smoking cessation programs. (JOW)

  3. Adherence to varenicline in the COMPASS smoking cessation intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Catz, Sheryl L; Jack, Lisa M; McClure, Jennifer B; Javitz, Harold S; Deprey, Mona; Zbikowski, Susan M; McAfee, Tim; Richards, Julie; Swan, Gary E

    2011-05-01

    Patient adherence to smoking cessation medications can impact their effectiveness. It is important to understand the extent to which prescribed medications are actually taken by smokers, how this influences smoking cessation outcomes, and what factors may influence adherence. Smokers recruited from a large health plan were randomized to receive different modes of cessation counseling in combination with varenicline (Swan, G. E., McClure, J. B., Jack, L. M., Zbikowski, S. M., Javitz, H. S., Catz, S. L., et al. 2010.Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 482-490). One thousand one hundred and sixty-one participants were mailed a 28-day varenicline supply when they set a quit date and were able to request up to two refills from the health plan pharmacy at no cost. Pharmacy fill records were obtained and telephone surveys completed at baseline, 21 days, 12 weeks, and 6 months post target quit date. Good adherence to varenicline (≥80% of days taken) was associated with a twofold increase in 6-month quit rates compared with poor adherence (52% vs. 25%). Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to stop varenicline early. Purposeful nonadherence was associated with smoking at 12 weeks and was predicted in multivariate analyses by age, gender, adherence self-efficacy, and initial medication side effect severity. Innovative methods for increasing adherence to smoking cessation medications are needed, particularly early in the quit process. Simple metrics of adherence such as number of days cessation medication is taken can and should be routinely incorporated in effectiveness trials and reported to advance future attempts to understand and reduce nonadherence.

  4. Adherence to Varenicline in the COMPASS Smoking Cessation Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Lisa M.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Javitz, Harold S.; Deprey, Mona; Zbikowski, Susan M.; McAfee, Tim; Richards, Julie; Swan, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Patient adherence to smoking cessation medications can impact their effectiveness. It is important to understand the extent to which prescribed medications are actually taken by smokers, how this influences smoking cessation outcomes, and what factors may influence adherence. Methods: Smokers recruited from a large health plan were randomized to receive different modes of cessation counseling in combination with varenicline (Swan, G. E., McClure, J. B., Jack, L. M., Zbikowski, S. M., Javitz, H. S., Catz, S. L., et al. 2010.Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 482–490). One thousand one hundred and sixty-one participants were mailed a 28-day varenicline supply when they set a quit date and were able to request up to two refills from the health plan pharmacy at no cost. Pharmacy fill records were obtained and telephone surveys completed at baseline, 21 days, 12 weeks, and 6 months post target quit date. Results: Good adherence to varenicline (≥80% of days taken) was associated with a twofold increase in 6-month quit rates compared with poor adherence (52% vs. 25%). Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to stop varenicline early. Purposeful nonadherence was associated with smoking at 12 weeks and was predicted in multivariate analyses by age, gender, adherence self-efficacy, and initial medication side effect severity. Conclusions: Innovative methods for increasing adherence to smoking cessation medications are needed, particularly early in the quit process. Simple metrics of adherence such as number of days cessation medication is taken can and should be routinely incorporated in effectiveness trials and reported to advance future attempts to understand and reduce nonadherence. PMID:21350041

  5. Smoking cessation: significance and implications for children.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea T; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2008-04-01

    A number of people in the USA who are still current smokers remain a staggering figure. Although this number continues to decrease, there is still a considerable amount of second-hand smoke. More importantly and for the purpose of this review, the detrimental effects of passive smoke in children is significant. We will not review the specific health effects of passive smoke, but for pediatricians, in particular, it is important to place in perspective programs that are available to influence the parents of children to stop smoking. Indeed, approximately 25% of all children aged 3-11 live in a household with at least one smoker. Despite the increasing number of communities in the states that have instituted restrictions or complete bans on smoking in the workplace and in many public areas, the principal site of smoking remains the home.

  6. Clinical psychologists and smoking cessation: treatment practices and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Akpanudo, Sutoidem M; Price, James H; Jordan, Timothy; Khuder, Sadik; Price, Joy A

    2009-12-01

    A random sample of clinical psychologists was surveyed regarding their smoking cessation practices and perceptions. A total of 352 psychologists responded (57%) to the valid and reliable questionnaire. The majority (59.1%) of psychologists did not always identify and document the smoking status of patients. The majority reported high efficacy expectations (66.4%) and low outcome expectations (55.1%) for using the 5A's smoking cessation counseling technique. Counselors that had never smoked were almost two times more likely to have higher efficacy expectations than those that were current smokers or ex-smokers (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.18-3.12). The factors that predicted regular use of the 5A's included the number of identified barriers, psychologists' level of self efficacy, and the urbanicity of one's practice location.

  7. College smoking-cessation using cell phone text messaging.

    PubMed

    Obermayer, Jami L; Riley, William T; Asif, Ofer; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2004-01-01

    Although rates of smoking among college-aged students continue to rise, few interventions that focus on college smokers' unique motivations and episodic smoking patterns exist. The authors developed and evaluated a prototype program targeting college students that integrates Web and cell phone technologies to deliver a smoking-cessation intervention. To guide the user through the creation and initialization of an individualized quitting program delivered by means of cell phone text messaging, the program uses assessment tools delivered with the program Web site. Forty-six regular smokers were recruited from local colleges and provided access to the program. At 6-week follow-up, 43% had made at least one 24-hour attempt to quit, and 22% were quit--based on a 7-day prevalence criterion. The findings provide support for using wireless text messages to deliver potentially effective smoking-cessation behavioral interventions to college students.

  8. Interplay of Genetic Risk Factors (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) and Cessation Treatments in Smoking Cessation Success

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Shiun; Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Johnson, Eric O.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Wang, Jen C.; Weiss, Robert B.; Goate, Alison M.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objective Smoking is highly intractable and the genetic influences on cessation are unclear. Identifying the genetic factors affecting smoking cessation could elucidate the nature of tobacco dependence, enhance risk assessment, and support treatment algorithm development. This study tests whether variants in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) predict age of smoking cessation and relapse to smoking after a quit attempt. Method In a community-based, cross-sectional study (N=5,216) and a randomized comparative effectiveness smoking cessation trial (N=1,073), we used survival analyses and logistic regression to model relations between smoking cessation (self-reported quit age in a community study and point-prevalence abstinence at end-of-treatment in a clinical trial) and three common haplotypes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region defined by rs16969968 and rs680244. Results The genetic variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region that predict nicotine dependence also predict a later age of smoking cessation in a community-based sample (X2=8.46, df=2, p=0.015). In the smoking cessation trial, these variants predict abstinence at end-of-treatment in individuals receiving placebo medication, but not amongst individuals receiving active medication. Genetic variants interact with treatment in affecting cessation success (X2=8.97, df=2, p=0.011). Conclusions Smokers with the high risk genetic variants have a three-fold increased likelihood of responding to pharmacologic cessation treatments, compared to smokers with the low risk genetic variants. The high-risk variants increase the risk of cessation failure, and this increased risk can be ameliorated by cessation pharmacotherapy. By identifying a high-risk genetic group with heightened response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, this work may support the development of personalized cessation treatments. PMID:22648373

  9. Interplay of genetic risk factors (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) and cessation treatments in smoking cessation success.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Shiun; Baker, Timothy B; Piper, Megan E; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S; Doheny, Kimberly F; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Johnson, Eric O; Saccone, Nancy L; Wang, Jen C; Weiss, Robert B; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-07-01

    Smoking is highly intractable, and the genetic influences on cessation are unclear. Identifying the genetic factors affecting smoking cessation could elucidate the nature of tobacco dependence, enhance risk assessment, and support development of treatment algorithms. This study tested whether variants in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 predict age at smoking cessation and relapse after an attempt to quit smoking. In a community-based, crosssectional study (N=5,216) and a randomized comparative effectiveness smoking cessation trial (N=1,073), the authors used Cox proportional hazard models and logistic regression to model the relationships of smoking cessation (self-reported quit age in the community study and point-prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment in the clinical trial) to three common haplotypes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region defined by rs16969968 and rs680244. The genetic variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region that predict nicotine dependence also predicted a later age at smoking cessation in the community sample. In the smoking cessation trial, haplotype predicted abstinence at end of treatment in individuals receiving placebo but not among individuals receiving active medication. Haplotype interacted with treatment in affecting cessation success. Smokers with the high-risk haplotype were three times as likely to respond to pharmacologic cessation treatments as were smokers with the low-risk haplotype. The high-risk haplotype increased the risk of cessation failure, and this increased risk was ameliorated by cessation pharmacotherapy. By identifying a high-risk genetic group with heightened response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, this work may support the development of personalized cessation treatments.

  10. Employee self-help smoking cessation programs: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Windsor, R A; Bartlett, E E

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature on employee self-help smoking cessation programs. Included in this discussion are: (1) a rationale for self-help smoking cessation interventions; (2) a synopsis of their applicability to occupational settings; (3) a rational and description of the self-help smoking cessation interventions selected for a large group of employees; and (4) several methodological issues faced in conducting evaluations of smoking cessation programs.

  11. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19) in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA)]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA)]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh)]) via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA) (χ2(3) = 8.068, p < 0.045), d(PfpA) (χ2(3) = 8.477, p < 0.037), and d(Gh) (χ2(3) = 37.599, p < 0.001) lesions were seen, indicating levels of each decreased significantly after CO-confirmed smoking cessation. The d(TgpA) and d(PfpA) lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh) lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA), 64% of baseline for d(PfpA), vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh)). Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis. PMID:21569419

  12. Promoting smoking cessation during hospitalization for coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Robert D; Pipe, Andrew L; Quinlan, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Quitting smoking is the most effective intervention to reduce mortality in patients with coronary artery disease who smoke. Guidelines for the treatment of tobacco dependency recommend that health care institutions develop plans to support the consistent and effective identification and treatment of tobacco users. The University of Ottawa Heart Institute (Ottawa, Ontario) has implemented an institutional program to identify and treat all smokers admitted to the Institute. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the present paper are to describe core elements of this program and present data concerning its reach and effectiveness. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The goal of the program is to increase the number of smokers who are abstinent from smoking six months after a coronary artery disease-related hospitalization. Core elements of the program include: documentation of smoking status at hospital admission; inclusion of cessation intervention on patient care maps; individualized, bedside counselling by a nurse counsellor; the appropriate and timely use of nicotine replacement therapy; automated telephone follow-up; referral to outpatient cessation resources; and training of medical residents and nursing staff. Program reach and effectiveness were measured over a one-year period. RESULTS Between April 2003 and March 2004, almost 1300 smokers were identified at admission, and 91% received intervention to help them quit smoking. At six-month follow-up, 44% were smoke-free. CONCLUSIONS Hospitalization for coronary artery disease provides an important opportunity to intervene with smokers when their motivation to quit is high. An institutional approach reinforces the importance of smoking cessation in this patient population and increases the rate of smoking cessation. Posthospitalization quit rates should be a benchmark of cardiac program performance. PMID:16835672

  13. Text Messaging-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Ells, Daniel; Camenga, Deepa R.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Smoking cessation interventions delivered via text messaging on mobile phones may enhance motivations to quit smoking. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the text messaging interventions’ theoretical contents, frequency and duration, treatment outcome, and sample characteristics such as age and motivation to quit, to better inform the future development of this mode of intervention. Methods Studies were included if text messaging was primarily used to deliver smoking cessation intervention and published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. All articles were coded by two independent raters to determine eligibility and to extract data. Results Twenty-two studies described 15 text messaging interventions. About half of the interventions recruited adults (ages 30-40s) and the other half targeted young adults (ages 18-29). Fourteen interventions sent text messages during the quit phase, 10 had a preparation phase and eight had a maintenance phase. The number of text messages and the duration of the intervention varied. All used motivational messages grounded in social cognitive behavioral theories, 11 used behavioral change techniques, and 14 used individually tailored messages. Eleven interventions also offered other smoking cessation tools. Three interventions yielded smoking cessation outcomes greater than the control condition. Conclusions The proliferation of text messaging in recent years suggests that text messaging interventions may have the potential to improve smoking cessation rates. Detailed summary of the interventions suggest areas for future research and clinical application. More rigorous studies are needed to identify components of the interventions that can enhance their acceptability, feasibility and efficacy. PMID:24462528

  14. The carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Tennison, Imogen; Roberts, Ian; Cairns, John; Free, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation: text message support, telephone counselling, group counselling and individual counselling. Carbon footprint analysis. Publicly available data on National Health Service Stop Smoking Services and per unit carbon emissions; published effectiveness data from the txt2stop trial and systematic reviews of smoking cessation services. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per 1000 smokers, per lifetime quitter, and per quality-adjusted life year gained, and cost-effectiveness, including social cost of carbon, of smoking cessation services. Emissions per 1000 participants were 8143 kg CO2e for text message support, 8619 kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 16 114 kg CO2e for group counselling and 16 372 kg CO2e for individual counselling. Emissions per intervention lifetime quitter were 636 (95% CI 455 to 958) kg CO2e for text message support, 1051 (95% CI 560 to 2873) kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 1143 (95% CI 695 to 2270) kg CO2e for group counselling and 2823 (95% CI 1688 to 6549) kg CO2e for individual counselling. Text message, telephone and group counselling remained cost-effective when cost-effectiveness analysis was revised to include the environmental and economic cost of damage from carbon emissions. All smoking cessation services had low emissions compared to the health gains produced. Text message support had the lowest emissions of the services evaluated. Smoking cessation services have small carbon footprints and were cost-effective after accounting for the societal costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Pippa; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Hajek, Peter; Lewis, Keir; Andreas, Stefan; Tønnesen, Philip; van Schayck, Onno; Gratziou, Christina; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Tonstad, Serena; Hering, Thomas; Nardini, Stephano; Fletcher, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on “Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit”. A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review. Topics covered were: cohort characteristics; perspectives on smoking cessation; interactions with healthcare professionals; and recommendations to improve cessation outcomes. The questionnaire was disseminated via existing patient and professional networks and social media channels. The survey was available online for a period of 4 months in 16 languages. The data were analysed as a whole, not by country, with thematic analysis of the open responses. Common characteristics were: male (54%); age 40–55 years (39%); 11–20 cigarettes a day (39%); smokes within 30 min of waking (61%); and has made 1–5 cessation attempts in the previous 12 months (54%). 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision-making; and treatment options. Areas for new and further research have been highlighted through exploring the smoking cessation perspectives and recommendations of people with lung conditions in Europe who smoke. PMID:27730185

  16. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke.

    PubMed

    Masefield, Sarah; Powell, Pippa; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Hajek, Peter; Lewis, Keir; Andreas, Stefan; Tønnesen, Philip; van Schayck, Onno; Gratziou, Christina; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Tonstad, Serena; Hering, Thomas; Nardini, Stephano; Fletcher, Monica

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on "Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit". A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review. Topics covered were: cohort characteristics; perspectives on smoking cessation; interactions with healthcare professionals; and recommendations to improve cessation outcomes. The questionnaire was disseminated via existing patient and professional networks and social media channels. The survey was available online for a period of 4 months in 16 languages. The data were analysed as a whole, not by country, with thematic analysis of the open responses. Common characteristics were: male (54%); age 40-55 years (39%); 11-20 cigarettes a day (39%); smokes within 30 min of waking (61%); and has made 1-5 cessation attempts in the previous 12 months (54%). 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision-making; and treatment options. Areas for new and further research have been highlighted through exploring the smoking cessation perspectives and recommendations of people with lung conditions in Europe who smoke.

  17. Smoking cessation during substance abuse treatment: what you need to know.

    PubMed

    Baca, Catherine Theresa; Yahne, Carolina E

    2009-03-01

    Patients in substance abuse treatment frequently smoke cigarettes and often die of tobacco-related causes. Substance abuse treatment programs too often ignore tobacco use. Many patients have expressed interest in stopping smoking, although they may be ambivalent about smoking cessation during substance abuse treatment. This article provides a review of tobacco cessation literature and successful methods of intervention. Research supports two key findings: (a) smoking cessation during substance abuse treatment does not impair outcome of the presenting substance abuse problem and (b) smoking cessation may actually enhance outcome success. We will discuss how to incorporate smoking cessation.

  18. Smoking-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Therapy Among Prisoners and Prison Staff.

    PubMed

    Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Jennifer L; Bonevski, Billie; McDonald, Christine F; Abramson, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as “lung age” should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large. PMID:27445499

  20. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is…

  1. Nicotine Gum and Behavioral Treatment in Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 120 smoking cessation subjects to either intensive behavioral treatment, nicotine gum in low-contact treatment, or to combined treatment. Combined treatment produced higher abstinence rates than other conditions at all assessments. Differences were significant at 3, 12, and 26 weeks, but not at 52 weeks. (NRB)

  2. Theories used in nursing research on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Kathleen A

    2009-01-01

    Theories tell how and why things work; how and why one variable is related to another. Research findings that are theory based can be placed in a framework that advances science further than findings that are unconnected to formal theory. However, much of the research in smoking cessation is atheoretical. This review of nursing research on smoking cessation published from 1989 through 2008 revealed that nearly half of the studies were based on explicit formal theories. The transtheoretical model and self-efficacy theory were the most frequently used explicit theories with most theories emanating from psychology. Five nursing theories were identified in this review. Studies that used implicit rather than explicit theories dealt with five major concepts: nicotine dependence, social support, high-risk situations, mood-affect, and the influence of clinical diagnosis. Largely missing from this set of studies were investigations based on biobehavioral models, including genetics and neuroscience. The relevance of the theories and concepts identified in this review to current clinical guidelines on smoking cessation is discussed. With their grounding in theory and their expert knowledge of clinical issues, nurses are in an excellent position to develop theories that will help researchers in every discipline make sense of smoking cessation.

  3. [Factors associated with success of a smoking cessation program].

    PubMed

    Peña, Pedro; Zagolin, Mónica; Acuña, Mónica; Navarrete, Sandra; Bustamante, Pilar; Canals, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Smoking cessation therapies include counseling, psychological management and pharmacological therapy. Varenicline is the most effective and safe medication available. To study risk factors for the failure of pharmacological smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. Retrospective analysis of 281 patients aged 45 ± 11 years (65% males) with a mean consumption of 31 ± 22 packs/year. They completed a smoking cessation program comprising psychological support and use of varenicline in a private clinic. Patients were followed with telephonic interviews during one year. A complete abstinence during one year was considered as a success of the program. The success rate of the program was 53.4%. The factors associated with failure were a high tobacco dependence rate determined with the Fageström test (Odds ratio (OR) 2.47, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.16-5.26, p = 0.02). An instruction level of more than 12 years was associated with a lower failure rate (OR 0.38 95% CI 0.18-0.82). A high tobacco dependence rate and a lower education were associated with a higher failure rate of this smoking cessation program.

  4. Smoking Intervention: A Combination Therapy Approach to Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Penny Neathery

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Start SMART smoking cessation program which combines nicotine withdrawal therapy with behavior modification. The Start SMART program provides seven, intensive one-hour group sessions that are shown to be a most effective intervention with a specific population--motivated, yet highly dependent smokers. (GLR)

  5. Predicting Default from Smoking Cessation Treatment Following Enrolment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenger, Alison; Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine which factors predict default from subsequent treatment sessions after initial enrolment and attendance at a large, English smoking cessation service. Design: Cross-sectional survey using data obtained at smokers' initial enrolment attendance to compare the characteristics of those who subsequently default with those who do…

  6. Predicting Default from Smoking Cessation Treatment Following Enrolment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenger, Alison; Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine which factors predict default from subsequent treatment sessions after initial enrolment and attendance at a large, English smoking cessation service. Design: Cross-sectional survey using data obtained at smokers' initial enrolment attendance to compare the characteristics of those who subsequently default with those who do…

  7. Psychosocial Mediators of Long-Term Abstinence Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Michael B.; And Others

    It is well known that many smokers who quit during cessation programs relapse soon after leaving treatment. To investigate the relationship of health locus of control, social support, nonsmoking areas, and objecting to another person's smoking to relapse and long-term maintenance of nonsmoking, male (N=70) and female (N=149) subjects participated…

  8. Psychosocial Factors and Enrollment in a Televised Smoking Cessation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kviz, Frederick J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Interviews with random samples of 641 registrants for a smoking cessation program on Chicago television news and 2,398 smokers who regularly viewed the news determined that registration was associated with (1) recognition of the need to change behavior; (2) high expectation for quitting; (3) concern about the burden of lung cancer on significant…

  9. Styles of Physician Advice about Smoking Cessation in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmell, Leigh; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether young adult cigarette smokers who were in the precontemplation and contemplation stages of change for smoking cessation would differ in their evaluations of vignettes depicting 2 types of physician advice. Participants: Fifty-seven young adult cigarette smokers who were undergraduate students (49.1% female, mean age =…

  10. Match the best smoking cessation intervention to your patient.

    PubMed

    Urso, Patti

    2003-01-01

    Various treatment modalities and programs provide smoking cessation aid, but how effective are each of these treatment options? Select the optimum treatment for your patient by learning the efficacy and applicability of interventions such as counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, non-nicotine drugs, harm reduction, and acupuncture.

  11. Psychosocial Factors and Enrollment in a Televised Smoking Cessation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kviz, Frederick J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Interviews with random samples of 641 registrants for a smoking cessation program on Chicago television news and 2,398 smokers who regularly viewed the news determined that registration was associated with (1) recognition of the need to change behavior; (2) high expectation for quitting; (3) concern about the burden of lung cancer on significant…

  12. A Content Analysis of Popular Smartphone Apps for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Abroms, Lorien C.; Westmaas, J. Lee; Bontemps-Jones, Jeuneviette; Ramani, Rathna; Mellerson, Jenelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly available for smoking cessation. Purpose This study examined the content of popular apps for smoking cessation for both iPhone and Android operating systems in February 2012. Methods A total of 252 smoking-cessation apps were identified for the iPhone and 148 for the Android. Across both operating systems, the most popular apps were identified (n=47 for the iPhone and n=51 for the Android) and analyzed for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to an index based on the U.S. Public Health Service’s Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Where available, apps were coded for frequency of downloads. The analysis took place in 2012. Results Overall, popular apps have low levels of adherence, with an average score of 12.9 of a possible 42 on the Adherence Index. No apps recommended calling a quitline, and only a handful of apps recommended using approved medications (4.1%). Android apps in the sample were downloaded worldwide between 310,800 and 1,248,000 times per month. For both the iPhone and Android, user ratings were positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. For the iPhone, display order was also positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. Conclusions Apps could be improved by better integration with the Clinical Practice Guidelines and other evidence-based practices. PMID:24237915

  13. A content analysis of popular smartphone apps for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Lee Westmaas, J; Bontemps-Jones, Jeuneviette; Ramani, Rathna; Mellerson, Jenelle

    2013-12-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly available for smoking cessation. This study examined the content of popular apps for smoking cessation for both iPhone and Android operating systems in February 2012. A total of 252 smoking-cessation apps were identified for the iPhone and 148 for the Android. Across both operating systems, the most popular apps were identified (n=47 for the iPhone and n=51 for the Android) and analyzed for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to an index based on the U.S. Public Health Service's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Where available, apps were coded for frequency of downloads. The analysis took place in 2012. Overall, popular apps have low levels of adherence, with an average score of 12.9 of a possible 42 on the Adherence Index. No apps recommended calling a quitline, and only a handful of apps recommended using approved medications (4.1%). Android apps in the sample were downloaded worldwide between 310,800 and 1,248,000 times per month. For both the iPhone and Android, user ratings were positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. For the iPhone, display order was also positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. Apps could be improved by better integration with the Clinical Practice Guidelines and other evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  15. Measuring Processes of Change: Applications to the Cessation of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, James O.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Subjects (N=970) in five stages of smoking cessation completed test measuring 10 change processes: consciousness raising, dramatic relief, self-liberation, social liberation, counterconditioning, stimulus control, self-reevaluation, environmental reevaluation, reinforcement management, and helping relationship. Assessed 770 subjects six months…

  16. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is…

  17. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  18. Genetic variants in the serotonin transporter influence the efficacy of bupropion and nortriptyline in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Quaak, Marieke; van Schayck, Constant P; Postma, Dirkje S; Wagena, Edwin J; van Schooten, Frederik J

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether variants in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) influence smoking cessation rates using antidepressant therapy (i.e. bupropion and nortriptyline). Pharmacogenetic (secondary) analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial of bupropion and nortriptyline for smoking cessation. Single-centre study, Maastricht University, the Netherlands. A total of 214 of 255 (84%) current daily smokers participating in a randomized controlled efficacy trial. Subjects were genotyped for three functional variants in SLC6A4 (5-HTTLPR, STin2, rs25531). Primary outcome measures were prolonged abstinence from weeks 4-12, 4-26 and 4-52. Secondary outcome measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at weeks 4, 12, 26 and 52. Carriers of the 5-HTTLPR high-activity L-variant had higher prolonged cessation rates with bupropion than placebo [odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-2.05, P = 0.04]. Combining the three variants resulted in increased prolonged cessation rates for both bupropion and nortriptyline among carriers of four to five high-activity variants (bupropion: OR = 2.00, 95% CI =1.21-3.29, P = 0.01; nortriptyline: OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.02-3.56, P = 0.04). Similar results were found for point prevalence abstinence. Bupropion and nortriptyline seem to be more effective in smoking cessation among SLC6A4 high-activity variant carriers, probably by blocking the increased serotonin transporter activity, thereby increasing serotonin levels. Prospective studies have to assess if this can improve cessation rates when treatment is targeted at individuals based on their genotypes. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. A meta-analysis of acupuncture techniques for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    White, A.; Resch, K.; Ernst, E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the effectiveness of acupuncture for smoking cessation and to examine whether any individual aspect of trials is associated with an effect.
DATA SOURCES—All randomised controlled trials of acupuncture for smoking cessation that were listed in computerised databases or reference lists of relevant articles.
STUDY SELECTION—All randomised single-blind studies that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture.
DATA EXTRACTION—Methodological data were extracted for quality assessment. Outcome data were extracted for rates of total smoking cessation at three intervals: early after treatment and after six and 12 months follow up.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Results were expressed as odds ratios of success over failure in intervention over control groups. The combined odds ratio for all studies was calculated. Repeated meta-analyses were subsequently performed on subsets of studies combined according to defined characteristics: acupuncture technique, number of attendances, country of origin, status of journal, and control procedure. The overall quality of studies was poor. The combined odds ratio for smoking cessation calculated for the earliest results after the end of treatment was 1.20 (95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) = 0.98 to 1.48). The combined odds ratio for smoking cessation after six months was 1.29 (95% CI = 0.82 to 2.01), and after 12 months was 1.03 (95% CI = 0.73 to 1.46). There were no significant effects of relevance among subsets of studies grouped according to defined characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS—Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture for smoking cessation; no particular aspect of acupuncture technique was associated with a positive effect. The conclusions are limited by methodological inadequacies of studies and by the absence of testable hypotheses; design of future trials should avoid these deficiencies.


Keywords: acupuncture; smoking cessation PMID:10629245

  20. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. METHODS The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. RESULTS The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. CONCLUSIONS The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. PMID:27849293

  1. [Methods and results of smoking cessation in cancer smoker's].

    PubMed

    Dautzenberg, Bertrand

    2012-11-01

    Tobacco prevention is the most effective prevention of cancer. Daily smoking promotes tumor progression, increases the risk of second cancer and decreases survival. The diagnosis of smoking and support for cessation and preventing recurrence is an integral part of cancer treatment. Smoking increases side effects of chemotherapy and surgery and reduces the effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Smokers with cancer do not smoke by life-style choice but because they are highly addicted and are suffering from a chronic relapsing disease: tobacco dependence, which justifies intensive medical management. The oncologist himself may perform this support or coordinate with other physicians in charge of the patient or with a tobacco cessation clinic, but patients are often unable to stop alone, as evidenced by the continued to use tobacco despite a cancer diagnosis. Treatment will always include a therapeutic education, compartmental behavioral therapy and medication. The patches and oral nicotine replacement or varenicline are the two most effective treatments that can be prescribed to smokers suffering of cancer, without including those with any motivation to quit. Smoking reducing occurred in a few days or weeks on treatment will allow them to reconsider the judgment. The full stop is always the goal for the doctor, even if it is not the patient initial goal. After stopping, the patient is not cured but still a patient with tobacco dependence who does not smoke. The risk of relapse in the year being 50%. The cancer patient management will use every visit to the point tobacco dependence and prevent relapse, alone or with assistance of a specialist. There is a lack of data on smoking cessation in cancer patients, but no item calls for a three-month quit rate of 50% as observed in the general population after an optimal management of tobacco cessation.

  2. A computerized smoking cessation intervention for high school smokers.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah J; Hardin, Sally B; Gore, Paul A; Bram, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a computerized intervention designed to assist high school-aged smokers to consider not smoking and move forward in the "Stages of Change." A pretest-posttest pilot was conducted with 121 high school students who completed self-reported questionnaires that provided information about smoking history and exposure, smoking dependence, stage of change, and social support. Following baseline assessment, the experimental group (n = 61) completed four, 30-minute computerized sessions known as the Computerized Adolescent Smoking Cessation Program (CASCP). Immediately following completion of the program and 1 month later, the experimental subjects were reassessed. Control subjects completed baseline assessment and were reassessed 4 to 5 weeks later. CASCP increased the number of quit attempts. At 1 month after the intervention, 20% of the experimental group quit smoking. Of those subjects who did not quit smoking, nicotine dependence and the number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased, which decreased their nicotine dependence. Overall, there was a forward movement in the experimental group's stage of change. CASCP was found to be an effective and inexpensive intervention that motivates adolescent smokers to consider smoking cessation, move forward in the stage of change, and decrease nicotine dependence.

  3. Smoking Cessation Strategies: The Family Physician's Role.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D

    1982-03-01

    Family physicians are in an ideal position to help patients who smoke. Our most effective strategy is ourselves, offering clear information and advice to stop smoking, combined with a follow up plan. Although controlled research is lacking for most intervention strategies, a number of them do work at least for the short-term. Combined with the physician's ongoing support and reinforcement, patients may choose from 'cold turkey', hypnotherapy, nicotine-containing gum, acupuncture, group programs or behavioral methods such as rapid smoking. The author's experience with some of these interventions is included.

  4. Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Treatment including Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation in Homeless Veteran Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Vickie L.; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S.; Kirby, Angela C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Moore, Scott D.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Dennis, Paul A.; Dedert, Eric A.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking rates are 80% among persons who are homeless, and these smokers have decreased odds of quitting smoking. Little is known about relapse rates among homeless smokers, but the dearth of research indicates that more information regarding quit rates in this population is needed. Furthermore, innovative methods are needed to treat smoking cessation among homeless smokers. Web-based contingency management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but have been generally limited by the need for computers or frequent clinic based carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. This pilot study builds on a web-based CM approach by evaluating a smart phone based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). Methods Following a one-week training period, 20 homeless veteran smokers participated in a multi-component smoking cessation intervention including 4 weeks of mCM. All smokers received 4 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement and bupropion (if medically eligible). Participants could earn up to $815 ($480 for mCM, $100 for CO readings showing abstinence at posttreatment and follow up, and $35 for equipment return). Mean compensation for the mCM component was $286 of a possible $480. Results Video transmission compliance was high during the one-week training (97%) and the four-week treatment period (87%). Bioverified 7-day point prevalence abstinence was 50% at four weeks. Follow up bioverified single assessment point prevalence abstinence was 65% at three months and 60% at six months. Conclusions mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among homeless smokers. PMID:25699616

  5. Left-digit price effects on smoking cessation motivation.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Blackburn, Ashley; Murphy, James G; Carrigan, Maureen; Carpenter, Matthew J; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Cigarette price increases have been associated with increases in smoking cessation, but relatively little is known about this relationship at the level of individual smokers. To address this and to inform tax policy, the goal of this study was to apply a behavioural economic approach to the relationship between the price of cigarettes and the probability of attempting smoking cessation. Adult daily smokers (n=1074; ie, 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education) completed in-person descriptive survey assessments. Assessments included estimated probability of making a smoking cessation attempt across a range of cigarette prices, demographics and nicotine dependence. As price increases, probability of making a smoking cessation attempt exhibited an orderly increase, with the form of the relationship being similar to an inverted demand curve. The largest effect size increases in motivation to make a quit attempt were in the form of 'left-digit effects,' (ie, maximal sensitivity across pack price whole-number changes; eg, US$5.80-6/pack). Significant differences were also observed among the left-digit effects, suggesting the most substantial effects were for price changes that were most market relevant. Severity of nicotine dependence was significantly associated with price sensitivity, but not for all indices. These data reveal the clear and robust relationship between the price of cigarettes and an individual's motivation to attempt smoking cessation. Furthermore, the current study indicates the importance of left-digit price transitions in this relationship, suggesting policymakers should consider relative price positions in the context of tax changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Adolescent Attributes and Young Adult Smoking Cessation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Zhang, Chenshu; Stimmel, Matthew A.; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected data five times between 1983–2002 from 400 participants who originally came from upstate New York. These participants completed structured interviews as did their mothers three times. LISREL analysis generally supported the hypothesized model. The results indicated that having parents who smoked and having low educational aspirations and expectations were associated with being unconventional, which, in turn, was related to having low emotional control and reporting more internalizing behaviors. Internalizing behaviors were directly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation, as was parental smoking. Research and clinical implications are discussed and the limitations noted. PMID:20482339

  7. Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind.

  8. Smoking cessation and reduction in people with chronic mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Miller, Mollie E

    2015-09-21

    The high prevalence of cigarette smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in people with chronic mental illness is well documented. This review summarizes results from studies of smoking cessation treatments in people with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It also summarizes experimental studies aimed at identifying biopsychosocial mechanisms that underlie the high smoking rates seen in people with these disorders. Research indicates that smokers with chronic mental illness can quit with standard cessation approaches with minimal effects on psychiatric symptoms. Although some studies have noted high relapse rates, longer maintenance on pharmacotherapy reduces rates of relapse without untoward effects on psychiatric symptoms. Similar biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be involved in the initiation and persistence of smoking in patients with different disorders. An appreciation of these common factors may aid the development of novel tobacco treatments for people with chronic mental illness. Novel nicotine and tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and very low nicotine content cigarettes may also be used to improve smoking cessation rates in people with chronic mental illness.

  9. [Psychoeducational Smoking Cessation Groups in an Acute Psychiatry Ward].

    PubMed

    Fugger, Gernot; Jung, Rebekka; Aigner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In view of the high prevalence of dependent smokers in psychiatric inpatient facilities advice for smoking cessation seems crucial. Due to the relatively short duration of stay in acute psychiatric wards (in our facility < 2 weeks) there is a need for therapeutic concepts that link to outpatient settings. The transtheoretical model by "Prochaska and DiClemente" (TTM) seems suitable to create an appropriate therapeutic concept. At the department of adult psychiatry located at Tulln university hospital, Austria, psychoeducational groups for smoking cessation were conducted. Apart from the degree of dependence using Fagerström test for nicotine-dependence (FTND), 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS) were utilized to evaluate the patients' motivation for quitting smoking (100 VAS: maximimum motivation), the presenting physician (100 VAS: best performance), the content (100 VAS: best content) and the comprehensibility (100 VAS: optimum understanding). Out of 37 participants, the majority (89.2 %), showed a moderate to very strong nicotine dependence. The median motivation for smoking cessation was 56 VAS, the median change in motivation 67 VAS, the content 96 VAS, comprehensibility 94 VAS and presenter was rated with 95 VAS. In general, patients showed high levels of nicotine dependence. The psychoeducational group was predominantly evaluated in a positive way. Individual change in motivation to quit smoking might correspond to a stage in the TTM making a collaboration with outpatient facilities inevitable.

  10. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  11. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease part 1: smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Donna

    2015-04-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common in the UK and causes a significant burden to patients and the NHS. Healthcare provision for COPD is largely focused on biomedical treatment, yet research suggests the complexity of factors contributing to this disease requires a deeper understanding of the patient experience and a more holistic approach to the provision of care. Smoking cessation is the single most cost-effective and significant way to slow the disease progress and improve outcomes for patients. However, barriers to smoking cessation are higher in patients with COPD than in other groups, requiring different approaches. This is part one of a two-part article, which focuses on patients with COPD caused by smoking. The second part will focus on non-pharmacological therapy.

  13. Simplicity sells: Making smoking cessation easier.

    PubMed

    Bonniot Saucedo, Catherine; Schroeder, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Toll-free telephone quitlines are successful alternatives to direct clinician contact. In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services created a national quitline number, 1-800-QUIT-NOW. This enabled states without quitlines to establish them, giving free access to cessation services to every smoker in the U.S. It also created a new mechanism for national quitline marketing, employing simplified and streamlined approaches. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in food reward following smoking cessation: a pharmacogenetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Caryn; Berrettini, Wade; Pinto, Angela; Patterson, Freda; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Wileyto, E Paul; Restine, Stephanie L; Leonard, Debra G B; Shields, Peter G; Epstein, Leonard H

    2004-08-01

    Despite the high prevalence and public health significance of weight gain following smoking cessation, little is known about the underlying bio-behavioral mechanisms or effective therapies. We evaluated the effects of bupropion on food reward following smoking abstinence and the moderating influence of genotype. Seventy-one smokers of European ancestry were genotyped for the dopamine D2 receptor ( DRD2) Taq1 polymorphism and randomized to treatment with bupropion (300 mg) or placebo for smoking cessation. Subjects participated in two behavioral laboratory sessions during which the rewarding value of food was assessed using a behavioral economics measure: session 1 occurred prior to medication and before cessation of smoking; session 2 occurred following 3 weeks of medication and 1 week of sustained abstinence. Carriers of the DRD2 A1 minor allele exhibited significant increases in the rewarding value of food following abstinence from smoking, and these effects were attenuated by bupropion treatment ( P=0.03 for medication by genotype interaction). Further, higher levels of food reward at session 2 (post-quit) predicted a significant increase in weight by 6-month follow-up in the placebo group, but not in the bupropion-treated group ( P=0.006 for medication by food reward interaction). These results provide new evidence that the increase in body weight that occurs following smoking cessation is related to increases in food reward, and that food reward is partly determined by genetic factors. Bupropion's efficacy in attenuating abstinence-induced weight gain may be attributable, in part, to decreasing food reward.

  15. Impact of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular risk and disease.

    PubMed

    Bullen, Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Despite declines in smoking prevalence in many Western countries, tobacco use continues to grow in global importance as a leading preventable cause of cardiovascular disease. Tobacco smoke is both prothrombotic and atherogenic, increasing the risks of acute myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, stroke, aortic aneurysm and peripheral vascular disease. Even very low doses of exposure increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction. However, smoking cessation and second-hand smoke avoidance swiftly reduce this risk. While promising new agents are emerging, proven cost-effective and safe cessation interventions already exist, such as brief physician advice, counseling and nicotine replacement therapy. These should be routinely offered, where available, to all smokers. This is especially important for those at risk of, or with established and even acute, cardiovascular disease. Clinicians must play a more active role than ever before in supporting complete cessation in patients who smoke and in advocating for stronger tobacco control measures.

  16. [Smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

    2014-12-01

    One out of two smokers who smoke throughout their lifetime will die from a disease related to smoking. Tobacco smoking therefore represents a major global public health issue. Smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Projections for 2020 indicate that by then, COPD will have become the third cause of death and the fifth cause of disability worldwide. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing COPD and is an essential treatment for this inflammatory disease. Smoking cessation decreases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, number of hospitalizations, and decline in FEV1, as well as exacerbation frequency and overall mortality. Among the patients, 38-77% with COPD are smokers. Their daily cigarette consumption and level of nicotine dependence are often high. The combination of high intensity behavioral interventions and medication treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) is the most effective strategy for smokers with COPD. In contrast, behavioral interventions without medication are not more effective than simple advice to stop. Two factors seem to predict the success of the attempt to quit in smokers with COPD: a strong motivation to quit and the use of smoking cessation medications.

  17. Smoking cessation interventions for adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Michelle M; Christakis, Dimitri A; Ebel, Beth E; Wiehe, Sarah E; Rivara, Frederick P

    2003-11-01

    To conduct a systematic review of controlled trials for adolescent smoking cessation. Online bibliographic databases were searched as of June 2002, and reference lists from review articles and the selected articles were also reviewed for potential studies. The methodology and findings of all retrieved articles were critically evaluated. Data were extracted from each article regarding study methods, intervention studied, outcomes measured, and results. The abstracts or full-text articles of 281 relevant studies were examined, of which six met the selection criteria. Included were three school-based studies, a study in pregnant adolescent girls, a hospital-based study, and a trial of laser acupuncture. All three of the school-based studies reported significant impacts on cessation rates, although only one of these was a randomized trial. None of the studies had follow-up times of >5.2 months. There is very limited evidence demonstrating efficacy of smoking-cessation interventions in adolescents, and no evidence on the long-term effectiveness of such interventions. Smoking-cessation interventions that have proven most effective in adults, such as nicotine replacement and antidepressant use, have not been studied in adolescents in a controlled manner.

  18. The Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Keith L.; Devine, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective The aim of this literature review was to detail the effects of smoking in spine surgery and examine whether perioperative smoking cessation could mitigate these risks. Methods A review of the relevant literature examining the effects of smoking and cessation on surgery was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Results Current smokers are significantly more likely to experience pseudarthrosis and postoperative infection and to report lower clinical outcomes after surgery in both the cervical and lumbar spines. Smoking cessation can reduce the risks of these complications depending on both the duration and timing of tobacco abstinence. Conclusion Smoking negatively affects both the objective and subjective outcomes of surgery in the lumbar and cervical spine. Current literature supports smoking cessation as an effective tool in potentially mitigating these unwanted outcomes. Future investigations in this field should be directed toward developing a better understanding of the complex relationship between smoking and poorer outcomes in spine surgery as well as developing more efficacious cessation strategies. PMID:27781190

  19. National Survey of the Smoking Cessation Services in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Pizzi, Enrica; Carosi, Giordano; Mazzola, Monica; Mattioli, Donatella; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is aimed at providing information about structural and organizational characteristics of smoking cessation services (SCS) set up within the Italian National Health Service. Local health units and hospitals are the main institutions connected with SCS which are mainly located within the Department of Drug Addiction and the Department of Lung and Breath Care. SCS provide different tobacco-use cessation programs. Although pharmacotherapy is always used, a combination of therapeutic treatments is highly preferred. This study shows the importance of maintaining a national coordination among different SCS supporting their activity and encouraging the start up of additional services throughout the country. PMID:19440422

  20. Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Tim; Chamberlain, Catherine; Davey, Mary-Ann; Cooper, Sue E; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2012-09-12

    Smoking in pregnancy is a substantial public health problem. When used by non-pregnant smokers, pharmacotherapies [nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion and varenicline] are effective treatments for smoking cessation, however, their efficacy and safety in pregnancy remains unknown. To determine the efficacy and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, including NRT, varenicline and bupropion (or any other medications) when used to support smoking cessation in pregnancy. We searched the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (5 March 2012), checked references of retrieved studies and contacted authors in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with designs that permit the independent effects of any type of NRT (e.g. patch, gum etc.) or any other pharmacotherapy on smoking cessation to be ascertained were eligible for inclusion. Trials must provide very similar (ideally identical) levels of behavioural support or cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) to participants in active drug and comparator trial arms.The following RCT designs are considered acceptable.Placebo RCTs: any form of NRT or other pharmacotherapy, with or without behavioural support/CBT, or brief advice compared with placebo NRT and additional support of similar intensity.RCTs providing a comparison between i) behavioural support/CBT or brief advice and ii) any form of NRT or other pharmacotherapy added to behavioural support of similar (ideally identical) intensity.Parallel- or cluster-randomised design trials are eligible for inclusion. However, quasi-randomised, cross-over and within-participant designs are not eligible for inclusion due to the potential biases associated with these designs. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias and extracted data. Two assessors independently extracted data and cross checked individual outcomes of this process to ensure accuracy. The primary efficacy outcome was smoking cessation in later pregnancy

  1. Smoking, smoking cessation and tobacco control in rural China: a qualitative study in Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Chenghui; Jia, Chongqi; Liu, Yanxun; Liu, Junjie; Yan, Xiaona; Fang, Yufeng

    2014-09-04

    Smoking prevalence is high in China and even higher among rural residents. The aims of this study were: 1) to gain insights into the motivations of tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among rural village residents; 2) to understand the current tobacco control measures in the rural villages and barriers encountered or perceived for implementation. Qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions were conducted of 59 rural villagers including 37 village residents, 10 village leaders and 12 village doctors in three counties in Shandong Province, China. Smoking initiation was most often out of curiosity when seeing others smoke, but pressure from cigarette sharing and gifting custom was the major barrier to smoking cessation. The most important reason for quitting successfully was a detrimental health problem. Although many attempted to quit at the advice of other family members, relapses were common and few were able to quit completely and for long-term unless accompanied by significant health issues. Although doctor's advice to quit is effective, many doctors do not offer advice to all patients. There is a lack of true understanding of the harm of smoking and second-hand smoking among the villagers and a lack of access to and knowledge of effective smoking cessation tools among both smokers and village doctors. Tobacco control activities at villages were rare and infrequent. This study highlighted the need to develop tobacco control measures that reflect the unique culture in rural China. Smoking cessation measures are not likely to achieve large scale effect unless the prevailing cigarette sharing and gifting custom is drastically changed. More educations of the hazards of smoking and second-hand smoking to village residents and educations of effective smoking cessation treatment to both village residents and healthcare providers are needed.

  2. A Nationwide Analysis of US Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Smoking Behaviors, Smoking Cessation, and Cessation-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; White, Martha M.; Emery, Sherry L.; Messer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative data to examine racial/ethnic disparities in smoking behaviors, smoking cessation, and factors associated with cessation among US adults. Methods. We analyzed data on adults aged 20 to 64 years from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, and we examined associations by fitting adjusted logistic regression models to the data. Results. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, smaller proportions of African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics/Latinos had ever smoked. Significantly fewer African Americans reported long-term quitting. Racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to be light and intermittent smokers and less likely to smoke within 30 minutes of waking. Adjusted models revealed that racial/ethnic minorities were not less likely to receive advice from health professionals to quit smoking, but they were less likely to use nicotine replacement therapy. Conclusions. Specific needs and ideal program focuses for cessation may vary across racial/ethnic groups, such that approaches tailored by race/ethnicity might be optimal. Traditional conceptualizations of cigarette addiction and the quitting process may need to be revised for racial/ethnic minority smokers. PMID:21330593

  3. Effectiveness of electronic aids for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Ellen; Tackett, Alayna P.; Wagener, Theodore L.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the world, and though current evidence-based approaches have substantially reduced rates of smoking, these rates remain disturbingly high. Two recent technological advancements, the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and mobile health (mHealth) interventions, may offer smokers an alternative way to quit smoking. E-cigarettes continue to be fiercely debated. Preliminary evidence suggests that e-cigarettes are likely much safer than regular cigarettes and are helpful to some smokers as a means of reducing or quitting smoking. Questions, however, still remain as to how they will affect overall public health—if they will be used as a “gateway” product or reduce motivation to quit smoking, to name but a few. Similarly, mHealth interventions appear to be effective and accepted by users. However, mobile ‘apps’ have yet to be tested in randomized trials and there are concerns about violations of users privacy and state jurisdictions. PMID:24319519

  4. Determinants of Relapse Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul M.

    Although research has been conducted on who will relapse after having quit smoking in clinics, little has been done to determine the immediate precipitants of recidivism. A telephone hotline, manned by four experienced interviewers, was set up to receive calls from ex-smokers who had relapsed or who felt at high risk for relapse. A structured…

  5. Step Care Treatment for Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Little, Melissa A.; Klesges, Robert C.; Bursac, Zoran; Johnson, Karen C.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Vander Weg, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of a "stepped care" approach with increasing treatment intensity ("Step Care") to one with repeated treatments ("Recycle") among cigarette smokers interested in quitting smoking. Step 1 of the Step Care intervention consisted of a single counseling session, nicotine patch for six weeks…

  6. Physical activity for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ussher, Michael; Lewis, Sarah; Aveyard, Paul; Manyonda, Isaac; West, Robert; Lewis, Beth; Marcus, Bess; Riaz, Muhammad; Taylor, Adrian; Daley, Amanda; Coleman, Tim

    2015-05-14

    To determine the effectiveness of a physical activity intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Parallel group, randomised controlled, multicentre trial. 13 hospitals in England, April 2009 to January 2014. 789 pregnant smokers, aged 16-50 years and at 10-24 weeks' gestation, who smoked at least one cigarette daily and were prepared to quit smoking one week after enrollment were randomised (1:1); 785 were included in the intention to treat analyses, with 392 assigned to the physical activity group. Interventions began one week before a target quit date. Participants were randomised to six weekly sessions of behavioural support for smoking cessation (control) or to this support plus 14 sessions combining supervised treadmill exercise and physical activity consultations. The primary outcome was continuous smoking abstinence from the target quit date until end of pregnancy, validated by exhaled carbon monoxide or salivary cotinine levels. To assess adherence, levels of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity were self reported and in a 11.5% (n=90) random subsample of participants, physical activity was objectively measured by an accelerometer. No significant difference was found in rates of smoking abstinence at end of pregnancy between the physical activity and control groups (8% v 6%; odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 2.10). For the physical activity group compared with the control group, there was a 40% (95% confidence interval 13% to 73%), 34% (6% to 69%), and 46% (12% to 91%) greater increase in self reported minutes carrying out physical activity per week from baseline to one week, four weeks, and six weeks post-quit day, respectively. According to the accelerometer data there was no significant difference in physical activity levels between the groups. Participants attended a median of four treatment sessions in the intervention group and three in the control group. Adverse events and birth outcomes were similar between the two

  7. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  8. Pretreatment task persistence predicts smoking cessation outcome.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Juliano, Laura M; Irvin, Jennifer E; Lazev, Amy B; Simmons, Vani Nath

    2003-08-01

    R. Eisenberger's (1992) learned industriousness theory states that individuals display differing degrees of persistence depending on their history of reinforcement for effortful behavior. These differences may influence the development, maintenance, and cessation of addictive behaviors. In cross-sectional studies, E. P. Quinn, T. H. Brandon, and A. L. Copeland (1996) found that cigarette smokers were less persistent than nonsmokers, and R. A. Brown, C. W. Lejuez, C. W. Kahler, and D. R. Strong (2002) found that smokers who had previously abstained for 3 months were more persistent than those who had never quit. The present study extended these findings by using a prospective design. A pretreatment measure of task persistence (mirror tracing) completed by 144 smokers predicted sustained abstinence throughout 12 months of follow-up. Moreover, persistence predicted outcome independent of other significant predictors: gender, nicotine dependence, negative affect, and self-efficacy.

  9. Physician- and nurse-assisted smoking cessation in Harlem.

    PubMed Central

    Royce, J. M.; Ashford, A.; Resnicow, K.; Freeman, H. P.; Caesar, A. A.; Orlandi, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to increase smoking cessation rates, quit attempts, and cutting down among low-income African Americans using brief clinician advice in conjunction with socioculturally appropriate self-help smoking cessation/relapse prevention materials. Physicians and nurses were instructed in the National Cancer Institute's smoking intervention at inservice sessions. Smokers interviewed in a Harlem, New York clinic waiting room were recontacted 7 months later by telephone or mail (77% response). Residents receiving the intervention reported a 21% cessation rate at follow-up. An additional 27% decreased cigarette intake by at least 50%. Those reporting follow-up abstinence were significantly more likely to designate a quit date at baseline. They were also more likely to be men, employed, and have a nonsmoking partner. Smokers who decreased their cigarette intake significantly were older, employed, less nicotine-dependent (eg, delayed their wake-up cigarette), and more likely to use project materials. Physician advice had a significant impact both on patients' cutting down at least 50% and patients' watching the project video. Designation of a quit date and using project materials had a significant impact on making serious quit attempts. Results corroborate large sample, randomized, controlled trials with noninner-city physicians. We conclude that clinician smoking advice for every patient is warranted. PMID:7752283

  10. Smoking cessation: an economic analysis and review of varenicline.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Michele A

    2009-01-01

    Despite efforts to decrease tobacco use, smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. The associated economic burden is substantial, both in the form of direct costs (healthcare expenditures) and indirect costs (lost productivity), regardless of whether the burden is assessed from the standpoint of an employer, a health plan, or society as a whole. Cessation programs are considered among the most cost-effective in healthcare, and are often used as a benchmark for other medical interventions. This analysis specifically considers the cost-effectiveness of varenicline, a novel α(4)β(2) partial agonist used for smoking cessation, in comparison to other approved therapies. Clinical trial data have demonstrated that varenicline has the ability to decrease cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and lessen positive reinforcement associated with smoking. Varenicline's novel mechanism has translated into superior efficacy in comparison to other available therapies. For this reason, despite an initial cost that typically exceeds that of other medications, varenicline is a cost-effective option for smoking cessation.

  11. Methods for smoking cessation and treatment of nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira; Montovani, Jair Cortez

    2005-01-01

    Smoking is related to 30% of cancer deaths. It is a risk factor for respiratory tract, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, uterine cervix, kidney and bladder carcinomas. Nicotine induces tolerance and addiction by acting on the central dopaminergic pathways, thus leading to pleasure and reward sensations within the limbic system. It stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), enhances alertness and reduces the appetite. A 50% reduction of nicotine consumption may trigger withdrawal symptoms in addicted individuals: anxiety, anger, sleep disorders, hunger, cognitive dysfunction and cigarette craving. Medical advice is the cornerstone of smoking cessation. Pharmacotherapy of nicotine addiction comprises first-line (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy) and second-line (clonidine and nortriptyline) drugs. Bupropion is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that inhibits dopamine uptake, whose contraindications are: epilepsy, eating disorders, uncontrolled hypertension, recent alcohol abstinence and current therapy with MAO inhibitors. Nicotine replacement therapy can be done with patches or gums. Counseling groups and behavioral interventions are efficacious. The effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation are not fully elucidated. Prompt smoking cessation or gradual reduction strategies have similar success rates.

  12. Discrete choice experiment of smoking cessation behaviour in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Rei; Nishimura, Shuzo; Ida, Takanori

    2007-10-01

    In spite of gradual increases in tobacco price and the introduction of laws supporting various anti-tobacco measures, the proportion of smokers in Japan's population is still higher than in other developed nations. To understand what information and individual characteristics drive smokers to attempt to quit smoking. These determinants will help to realise effective tobacco control policy as a base for understanding of cessation behaviour. Discrete choice experiments on a total of 616 respondents registered at a consumer monitoring investigative company. The effect of price is greater on smokers with lower nicotine dependence. For smokers of moderate and low dependency, short term health risks and health risks caused by passive smoking have a strong impact, though the existence of penalties and long term health risks have little influence on smokers' decisions to quit. For highly dependent smokers, non-price attributes have little impact. Furthermore, the effects of age, sex and knowledge are also not uniform in accounting for smoking cessation. Determinants of smoking cessation vary among levels of nicotine dependency. Therefore, how and what information is provided needs to be carefully considered when counselling smokers to help them to quit.

  13. [Intensified smoking cessation for diabetic patients--preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Brath, H; Lasar, D; Buchhäusl, I; Kästenbauer, T; Binter, E

    1999-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most prominent yet avoidable cause of illness in the general population as well as in patients with diabetes. The danger of developing late complications is much higher for smoking than for non-smoking diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether an intensified smoking cessation program for patients with diabetes, including an initial 3 week-period of inpatient cessation, is effective and more successful than a mere outpatient program. The outpatient program consisted of at least 7 consultations within 2 years, and included nicotine replacement therapy, steps for modifying the smokers' behavioural patterns, advice in dietary and exercise as well as measurements of amounts of exhaled carbonmonoxide and lung function. In the inpatient program the patients passed the first 3 cessation weeks in a specialised clinic providing a similar, but intensified program, aside from daily life and professional routine. The following consultations corresponded to those of the outpatient program. Altogether we analysed 89 patients (64 in the outpatient and 25 in the inpatient program).

  14. A systematic review of smoking cessation intervention studies in China.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun S; Chen, Wei; Kolodziej, Monika; Wang, Xue; Wang, Victoria J; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2012-08-01

    China has the highest number of tobacco smokers among the world's nations; however, no systematic review has been conducted of clinical trials on the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in China. This paper summarizes findings of studies in order to compare the effect of pharmacotherapy, counseling, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) approaches on the abstinence rate. Clinical trials of smoking cessation interventions published in English or Chinese were extracted from an electronic search of PubMed and WanFang databases. The search yielded 234 studies from the PubMed and 78 studies from the WanFang. Twenty-nine studies were included in this review. Of these, 11 (37.9%) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the following approaches: counseling (5 studies), TCM (3 studies), pharmacotherapy (1 study), a combination of pharmacotherapy and counseling (1 study), and physician advice (1 study). Pharmacotherapy alone or in combination with counseling generally resulted in a higher abstinence rate than counseling alone. TCM techniques such as acupuncture and ear point seed pressure yielded a much higher abstinence rate than pharmacotherapy and counseling. Findings are inconclusive, however, because most of the TCM studies were noncontrolled trials and did not provide a definition of "abstinence." Findings on the effectiveness of physician advice to quit smoking were also inconclusive. A review of smoking cessation studies revealed that pharmacotherapy was effective in China. More RCTs of TCM approaches and physician advice are needed with long-term follow-up assessments and biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence before these approaches are adopted as evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in China.

  15. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Heminger, Christina L; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. PMID:27110146

  16. Using the Web To Promote Smoking Cessation and Health for College-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily

    Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…

  17. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Rodgers, Anthony; Gu, Yulong

    2016-04-10

    Access to mobile phones continues to increase exponentially globally, outstripping access to fixed telephone lines, fixed computers and the Internet. Mobile phones are an appropriate and effective option for the delivery of smoking cessation support in some contexts. This review updates the evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions. To determine whether mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase smoking cessation in people who smoke and want to quit. For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in April 2015. We also searched the UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio for current projects in the UK, and the ClinicalTrials.gov register for ongoing or recently completed studies. We searched through the reference lists of identified studies and attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies. We applied no restrictions on language or publication date. We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention for smoking cessation. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Review authors extracted information on risk of bias and methodological details using a standardised form. We considered participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow-up to be smoking. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each included study. Meta-analysis of the included studies used the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, we presented a narrative summary and descriptive statistics. This updated search identified 12 studies with six-month smoking cessation outcomes, including seven studies completed since the previous review. The

  18. Knowing Quitters Predicts Smoking Cessation in a Homeless Population

    PubMed Central

    Goldade, Kathryn; Jarlais, Don Des; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Guo, Hongfei; Thomas, Janet; Gelberg, Lillian; Joseph, Anne M.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of knowing quitters on cessation among homeless smokers. Methods Secondary analysis of data derived from a community-based randomized controlled trial of 430 homeless smokers. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine whether knowing quitters impacted the likelihood of cessation (salivary cotinine ≤ 20 ng/ml) at 26-week follow-up. Results Multivariable logistic regression showed cessation was more likely for smokers who knew ≥ 5 quitters compared with those who knew no quitters (Odds Ratio = 3.79, CI = 1.17, 12.27, p = .008), adjusting for age, education, income, and time to first cigarette in morning. Conclusions Knowing former smokers was associated with increased likelihood of achieving smoking abstinence among homeless smokers. PMID:23985232

  19. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy.

  20. Effect of Medicaid coverage of tobacco-dependence treatments on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Smoking cessation aids (nicotine replacement products and anti-depressant medication) have been proven to double quitting rates compared to placebo in several randomized controlled trials. But the high initial cost of cessation aids might create a financial barrier to cessation for low-income smokers. In the U.S., Medicaid provides health insurance coverage to low-income people, and in some states covers smoking cessation products. This paper uses nationally representative data of the U.S. to examine how the Medicaid coverage of cessation aids affect smoking behavior. The results indicate the Medicaid coverage of cessation products is positively associated with successful quitting among women aged 18-44.

  1. Use of electronic health records to support smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Raymond; Solberg, Leif; Fiore, Michael

    2014-12-30

    Health information systems such as electronic health records (EHR), computerized decision support systems, and electronic prescribing are potentially valuable components to improve the quality and efficiency of clinical interventions for tobacco use. To assess the effectiveness of electronic health record-facilitated interventions on smoking cessation support actions by clinicians, clinics, and healthcare delivery systems and on patient smoking cessation outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We searched for studies published between January 1990 and July 2014. We included both randomized studies and non-randomized studies that reported interventions targeting tobacco use through an EHR in healthcare settings. The intervention could include any use of an EHR to improve smoking status documentation or cessation assistance for patients who use tobacco, either by direct action or by feedback of clinical performance measures. Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of wide variation in measurement of outcomes, we were not able to conduct a meta-analysis. We included six group randomized trials, one patient randomized study, and nine non-randomized observational studies of fair to good quality that tested the use of an existing EHR to improve documentation and/or treatment of tobacco use. None of the studies included a direct assessment of patient quit rates. Overall, these studies found only modest improvements in some of the recommended clinician actions on tobacco use. Documentation of tobacco status and referral to cessation counselling appears to increase following EHR modifications designed to prompt the recording and treating of tobacco use at healthcare visits. There is a need for

  2. Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Kizilova, Kseniya; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  3. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on the plasma levels of the oxidative stress biomarker glutathione – Post-hoc analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial

    PubMed Central

    Mons, Ute; Muscat, Joshua E; Modesto, Jennifer; Richie, John P; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains high concentrations of free radical components that induce oxidative stress. Smoking-induced oxidative stress is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer through degenerative processes in the lung and other tissues. It is uncertain however whether smoking cessation lowers the burden of oxidative stress. We used data from a randomized controlled cessation trial of 434 current smokers for a post-hoc examination of the effects of smoking cessation on blood plasma levels of total glutathione (tGSH), the most abundant endogenous antioxidant in cells, and total cysteine (tCys), an amino acid and constituent of glutathione. Smoking status was validated based on serum cotinine levels. Multivariate linear mixed models were fitted to examine the association of smoking cessation and change in cigarette consumption with tGSH and tCys. After 12 months follow-up, quitters (n=55) had significantly increased levels of tGSH compared to subjects who continued to smoke (P<0.01). No significant change in tGSH was found for subjects who continued to smoke but reduced their intensity of smoking. No significant effect of smoking cessation or reduction was observed on levels of tCys. These results suggest that smoking cessation but not smoking reduction reduces levels of oxidative stress. PMID:26708755

  4. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on the plasma levels of the oxidative stress biomarker glutathione--Post-hoc analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial.

    PubMed

    Mons, Ute; Muscat, Joshua E; Modesto, Jennifer; Richie, John P; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-02-01

    Cigarette smoke contains high concentrations of free radical components that induce oxidative stress. Smoking-induced oxidative stress is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer through degenerative processes in the lung and other tissues. It is uncertain however whether smoking cessation lowers the burden of oxidative stress. We used data from a randomized controlled cessation trial of 434 current smokers for a post-hoc examination of the effects of smoking cessation on blood plasma levels of total glutathione (tGSH), the most abundant endogenous antioxidant in cells, and total cysteine (tCys), an amino acid and constituent of glutathione. Smoking status was validated based on serum cotinine levels. Multivariate linear mixed models were fitted to examine the association of smoking cessation and change in cigarette consumption with tGSH and tCys. After 12 months follow-up, quitters (n=55) had significantly increased levels of tGSH compared to subjects who continued to smoke (P<0.01). No significant change in tGSH was found for subjects who continued to smoke but reduced their intensity of smoking. No significant effect of smoking cessation or reduction was observed on levels of tCys. These results suggest that smoking cessation but not smoking reduction reduces levels of oxidative stress.

  5. How does coping help people resist lapses during smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Kathleen A; Hosein, Vanessa L; Schwartz, Joseph E; Leibowitz, Ruth Q

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether types of coping strategies have differential effects on preventing lapses and lowering urge levels and to investigate mechanisms by which coping strategies prevent lapses during smoking cessation. Sixty-one respondents performed ecological momentary assessment using palm-top computers and tape recorders to report their coping strategies and urge levels before and after temptations to smoke. Multilevel linear regression models were used to compare the effects of individual strategy types with the average strategy. Lapses versus resisted temptations and changes in urge levels. Number of strategies significantly predicted resisting smoking and change in urge levels. Compared with the effect of the average strategy, movement/exercise was marginally worse at preventing lapses, and food/drink was marginally related to higher postcoping urge levels. Although using multiple coping strategies helps people resist the urge to smoke, no particular coping strategy works better than any other. Coping strategies prevent lapses by reducing high urge levels during temptations.

  6. Encouraging smoking cessation among disadvantaged groups: a qualitative study of the financial aspects of cessation.

    PubMed

    Bonevski, Billie; Bryant, Jamie; Paul, Christine

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to explore perceptions about financial aspects of smoking cessation among a group of disadvantaged welfare agency clients and their carers. Qualitative focus groups and in-depth interviews were supplemented with participant exit surveys about preferred smoking cessation strategies. Each discussion was audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using a thematic analysis. The setting was six non-government community welfare service organisations operating in New South Wales, Australia. Eleven social services offered by these organisations participated. Thirty two clients participated in six client focus groups, 35 staff participated in six staff focus groups and eight manager telephone interviews were conducted. Clients indicated that the cost of nicotine replacement therapy was a barrier to its use and that financial incentives were acceptable. Of the 16 possible strategies listed in the exit survey, the three selected as the most preferred by clients incorporated financial or non-financial assistance. By contrast, staff and managers selected financial and non-financial incentives as the least preferred and least feasible strategies. The study found high acceptance of incentives as a smoking cessation strategy among a disadvantaged group of non-government welfare service clients. The comparatively low level of desirability and feasibility from the perspective of service staff and managers suggests implementation of such an approach within the community service setting requires careful further testing. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Acceptance of cravings: how smoking cessation experiences affect craving beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Woody, Sheila R

    2014-08-01

    Metacognitive models theorize that more negative appraisals of craving-related thoughts and feelings, and greater efforts to avoid or control these experiences, exacerbate suffering and increase chances the person will use substances to obtain relief. Thus far, little research has examined how attempts to quit smoking influence the way people perceive and respond to cravings. As part of a larger study, 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions, four days apart. Half the sample began a quit attempt the day after the first session; craving-related beliefs, metacognitive strategies, and negative affect were assessed at the second session. Participants who failed to abstain from smoking more strongly endorsed appraisals of craving-related thoughts as negative and personally relevant. Negative appraisals correlated strongly with distress and withdrawal symptoms. Attempting to quit smoking increased use of distraction, thought suppression and re-appraisal techniques, with no difference between successful and unsuccessful quitters. Negative beliefs about cravings and rumination predicted less change in smoking one month later. Results suggest that smoking cessation outcomes and metacognitive beliefs likely have a bidirectional relationship that is strongly related to negative affect. Greater consideration of the impact of cessation experiences on mood and craving beliefs is warranted.

  8. Smoking cessation and outcome after ischemic stroke or TIA.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Katherine A; Viscoli, Catherine M; Spence, J David; Young, Lawrence H; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Gorman, Mark; Gerstenhaber, Brett; Guarino, Peter D; Dixit, Anand; Furie, Karen L; Kernan, Walter N

    2017-09-08

    To assess whether smoking cessation after an ischemic stroke or TIA improves outcomes compared to continued smoking. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 3,876 nondiabetic men and women enrolled in the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke (IRIS) trial who were randomized to pioglitazone or placebo within 180 days of a qualifying stroke or TIA and followed up for a median of 4.8 years. A tobacco use history was obtained at baseline and updated during annual interviews. The primary outcome, which was not prespecified in the IRIS protocol, was recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. Cox regression models were used to assess the differences in stroke, MI, and death after 4.8 years, with correction for adjustment variables prespecified in the IRIS trial: age, sex, stroke (vs TIA) as index event, history of stroke, history of hypertension, history of coronary artery disease, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. At the time of their index event, 1,072 (28%) patients were current smokers. By the time of randomization, 450 (42%) patients had quit smoking. Among quitters, the 5-year risk of stroke, MI, or death was 15.7% compared to 22.6% for patients who continued to smoke (adjusted hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.90). Cessation of cigarette smoking after an ischemic stroke or TIA was associated with significant health benefits over 4.8 years in the IRIS trial cohort. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Design strategy for a smoking cessation trial of survival.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Jonathan J

    2015-04-01

    Despite unequivocal evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial in terms of survival, there is at present no firm evidence that smoking cessation programs save lives. While they do increase quit rates, the collective evidence from randomized trials is inconclusive with respect to long-term survival. Withdrawal symptoms and the potential for harm when a subjects relapses after a prolonged period of cessation (e.g., 5+ years) might mitigate some or all of the benefits of the sustained quitters. This paper will review the key survival epidemiology and argue for a large randomized field trial of about 30,000 subjects, followed personally for 5 years and collectively for 15 years through the National Death Index. The intervention should be personalized, but reproducible through a treatment assignment algorithm. Personal coaching should be a major part of the intervention. Important short-term data on healthcare utilization should also be collected. Strong financial motivation for quitting (or prevention of smoking in the first place) is also presented. This paper is intended to motivate a large collective effort amongst the US Clinical and Translational Science Awardees to design the intervention and bring together the interested players to conduct the study. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Design Strategy for a Smoking Cessation Trial of Survival

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Despite unequivocal evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial in terms of survival, there is at present no firm evidence that smoking cessation programs save lives. While they do increase quit rates, the collective evidence from randomized trials is inconclusive with respect to long‐term survival. Withdrawal symptoms and the potential for harm when a subjects relapses after a prolonged period of cessation (e.g., 5+ years) might mitigate some or all of the benefits of the sustained quitters. This paper will review the key survival epidemiology and argue for a large randomized field trial of about 30,000 subjects, followed personally for 5 years and collectively for 15 years through the National Death Index. The intervention should be personalized, but reproducible through a treatment assignment algorithm. Personal coaching should be a major part of the intervention. Important short‐term data on healthcare utilization should also be collected. Strong financial motivation for quitting (or prevention of smoking in the first place) is also presented. This paper is intended to motivate a large collective effort amongst the US Clinical and Translational Science Awardees to design the intervention and bring together the interested players to conduct the study. PMID:25896318

  11. A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Brianna L; Lesperance, Donna; Gibbons, Patric; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2017-06-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the USA. However, limited data exists regarding smoking cessation mobile app quality and intervention effectiveness. Innovative and scalable interventions are needed to further alleviate the public health implications of tobacco addiction. The proliferation of the smartphone and the advent of mobile phone health interventions have made treatment more accessible than ever. The purpose of this review was to examine the relation between published scientific literature and available commercial smartphone health apps for smoking cessation to identify the percentage of scientifically supported apps that were commercially available to consumers and to determine how many of the top commercially available apps for smoking cessation were supported by the published scientific literature. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, apps were reviewed in four phases: (1) identified apps from the scientific literature, (2) searched app stores for apps identified in the literature, (3) identified top apps available in leading app stores, and (4) determined which top apps available in stores had scientific support. Seven articles identified six apps with some level of scientific support, three (50%) were available in at least one app store. Conversely, among the top 50 apps suggested by each of the leading app stores, only two (4%) had any scientific support. While half of the scientifically vetted apps remain available to consumers, they are difficult to find among the many apps that are identified through app store searches.

  12. Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

  13. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation: a national study.

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited.

  14. Employee and employer support for workplace-based smoking cessation: results from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Michael T; Taylor, Humphrey

    2010-01-01

    Workplace smoking cessation programs can increase smoking cessation rates, improve employee health, reduce exposure to second-hand smoke, and decrease costs. To assist with the development of such programs, we conducted a Global Workplace Smoking Survey to collect information on workplace attitudes towards smoking cessation programs. Data were collected from 1,403 employers (smoking and non-smoking) and 3,525 smoking employees participating in surveys in 14 countries in Asia, Europe, and South America in 2007. Results were weighted to ensure that they were representative of smokers and employers at companies with the specified number of employees. More than two-thirds of employers (69%) but less than half of employees (48%) indicated that their company should help employees with smoking cessation. Approximately two-thirds of employees and 81% of employers overall felt that smoke-free policies encourage cessation, but fewer individuals from Europe (vs. from Asia or South America) agreed with this. In companies with a smoke-free policy, 76% of employees and 80% of employers felt that their policy had been somewhat, very, or extremely effective in motivating employees to quit or reduce smoking. Employers and employees differed substantially regarding appropriate methods for encouraging cessation, with more employees favouring financial incentives and more employers favouring education. Both employees and employers value smoke-free workplace programs and workplace cessation support activities, although many would like their companies to offer more support. These results will be useful for organizations exploring means of facilitating smoking cessation amongst employees.

  15. Clara cell secretory protein. Levels in BAL fluid after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Andersson, O; Cassel, T N; Sköld, C M; Eklund, A; Lund, J; Nord, M

    2000-07-01

    The bronchiolar Clara cell is a major target for tobacco smoke exposure. To improve our understanding of the putative regenerative/repair mechanism(s) in the bronchiolar epithelium, we measured the levels of the Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) in BAL fluid in healthy volunteers following smoking cessation. BAL was performed before smoking cessation, and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 15 months following smoking cessation, in eight healthy volunteers with a previous mean cigarette consumption of 19 pack-years. The levels of CCSP in BAL fluid were assessed in immunoblotting experiments using an antibody against human CCSP. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of CCSP in BAL fluid were observed at 3, 6, and 9 months after smoking cessation, while the levels of CCSP in BAL fluid at 15 months after smoking cessation were the same as those before smoking cessation. Despite the long history of smoking among patients in the present study group, signs of early regeneration in the bronchiolar epithelium were noted, in that the levels of CCSP in BAL fluid were elevated at the indicated time points following smoking cessation. Furthermore, we propose that the insult to the bronchiolar epithelium made by cigarette smoking caused the levels of CCSP in the BAL fluid at 15 months after smoking cessation to return to the levels noted before smoking cessation. The present study suggests a role for CCSP as a marker for nonciliated bronchiolar cell function.

  16. [Assessing motivation to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Martín-García, Mónica; Lorente Márquez, Celia; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    2017-01-07

    To assess motivation to quit smoking in patients admitted to an acute care hospital, determine predictors of readiness to change, and identify a risk group that requires targeted motivational interviewing. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of 248 patients aged >18 years with smoking habits admitted to the medical and surgery units of a district hospital between May 2014 and April 2015. The data collected included sociodemographic data, data on respiratory function, number of cigarettes smoked per day, motivation to quit smoking, patient-reported readiness to quit, history of respiratory diseases and previous admissions. The Richmond test revealed that 54% of patients (n=134) were poorly motivated to quit smoking vs. 11.74% (n=29) who reported to be highly motivated. The group of patients who reported to be willing to receive support (n=77) was prevailingly composed of men (p=.009) admitted to a medical care unit (p=.026) -mainly the Unit of Cardiology (51%)- who smoked 11/29 cigarettes/day (p=.015). Dyspnoea at admission, a history of respiratory disease and previous admissions for respiratory problems were not predictors of readiness to quit. This study identifies a risk group of patients with respiratory disease, low motivation to quit smoking and poor readiness to receive smoke cessation support, that should be the target of motivational approaches to behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

  18. Posttraumatic Stress and Emotion Dysregulation: Relationships with Smoking to Reduce Negative Affect and Barriers to Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Short, Nicole A.; Oglesby, Mary E.; Raines, Amanda M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. Methods We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results Results demonstrated elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. Conclusion These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. PMID:26070492

  19. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

  20. Smoking cessation in cardiac patients: the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-06-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac patients completed a baseline questionnaire (N = 245) assessing demographic characteristics, smoking behavior, intention, self-efficacy, relapse self-efficacy and action and coping plans. Six months later (N = 184) continued abstinence from smoking was assessed. Self-efficacy predicted intention to quit smoking and was an indirect predictor of continued abstinence, through intention. Intention to quit smoking and making action plans both directly influenced continued abstinence. Future interventions to facilitate smoking cessation in cardiac patients should put strong emphasis on enhancing self-efficacy and on making specific action plans to increase the likelihood of smoking cessation.

  1. The SUCCESS Project: The Effect of Program Format and Incentives on Participation and Cessation in Worksite Smoking Cessation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Hennrikus, Deborah J.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Lando, Harry A.; Murray, David M.; Brelje, Kerrin; Davidann, Beth; Baxter, Judith S.; Thai, Dzung; Vessey, John; Liu, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of program format and incentives on participation and cessation in worksite smoking cessation programs. Methods. Twenty-four worksites were randomized to 6 conditions that differed in cessation program format and the use of incentives. Programs were offered for 18 months in each worksite. A total of 2402 cigarette smokers identified at baseline were surveyed 12 and 24 months later to assess participation in programs and cessation. Results. A total of 407 (16.9%) of the smoker cohort registered for programs; on the 12- and 24-month surveys, 15.4% and 19.4% of the cohort, respectively, reported that they had not smoked in the previous 7 days. Registration for programs in incentive sites was almost double that of no-incentive sites (22.4% vs 11.9%), but increased registration did not translate into significantly greater cessation rates. Program type did not affect registration or cessation rates. Conclusions. Although incentives increase rates of registration in worksite smoking cessation programs, they do not appear to increase cessation rates. Phone counseling seems to be at least as effective as group programs for promoting smoking cessation in worksites. PMID:11818305

  2. A health sciences student-run smoking cessation clinic experience within a homeless population.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Kelsey; Tsu, Laura; Hormann, Sabrina; Giang, Kevin; Bills, April; Early, Nicole; Jackowski, Rebekah

    The primary objective is to describe a professional and graduate student-run approach to smoking cessation education combined with motivational interviewing and pharmacotherapy in regard to the frequency of follow-up with a smoking cessation quitline program in the homeless population. The secondary objective is to assess participants' self-reported level of confidence, knowledge, and willingness to quit before and after participation in the student-run smoking cessation clinic. Homeless shelter in Phoenix, Arizona. A previously established professional and graduate student-led clinic focused on providing a wide variety of free health services to homeless populations at a homeless shelter. One service not offered was smoking cessation support; thus, a student-run smoking cessation clinic was established. Patients were provided smoking cessation education, motivational interviewing, and pharmacotherapy by health sciences professional and graduate students. Patients were then given a 2-week supply of nicotine replacement therapy and referred to the state's smoking cessation quitline. The impact of multiple concomitant smoking cessation strategies provided by students within a homeless population has not been studied previously. A 10-day post-referral status update on the success of contact with patients was provided to study investigators from the smoking cessation quitline. Surveys were also used to assess the patient's self-reported level of perceived benefit with the student-run smoking cessation clinic. Of the 139 unique patients, 19 (13.7%) successfully contacted the smoking cessation quitline. Patients reported high baseline confidence, knowledge, and willingness related to quit attempts; they reported a small improvement in reported values after participation in the student-run clinics. In the homeless population, smoking cessation education, motivational interviewing, and pharmacotherapy had a low follow-up frequency with a smoking cessation quitline, but

  3. Temperament and impulsivity predictors of smoking cessation outcomes.

    PubMed

    López-Torrecillas, Francisca; Perales, José C; Nieto-Ruiz, Ana; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140) were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory), trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale), and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task). The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months respectively. Temperament measures, and

  4. Smoking cessation counseling in Qatar: community pharmacists' attitudes, role perceptions and practices.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al Nakeeb, Reem Raad; Al-Qudah, Raja'a Ali

    2012-08-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem in Qatar. The potential for community pharmacists to offer smoking cessation counseling in this country can be high. To determine the current smoking cessation practices of community pharmacists in Qatar, to examine their attitudes about tobacco use and smoking cessation, to evaluate their perceptions about performing professional roles with respect to smoking cessation and to assess their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling in the pharmacy setting in Qatar. Community pharmacies in Qatar. The objectives were addressed in a cross sectional survey of community pharmacists in Qatar from June 2010 to October 2010. A phone call was made to all community pharmacists in Qatar (318 pharmacists) inviting them to participate. Consenting pharmacists anonymously completed the survey either online or as paper using fax. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) Version 18. Qatar community pharmacists' smoking cessation practices, their attitudes toward tobacco use, smoking cessation and smoking cessation counseling and their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling. Over 5 months, we collected 127 surveys (40 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents reported that they always or most of the time asked their patients if they smoke. When the patients' smoking status was identified, advising quitting and assessing readiness to quit were always or most of the time performed by 66 and 52 % of respondents respectively. Only 15 % always or most of the time arranged follow-up with smokers and 22 % always or most of the time made smoking cessation referrals. Most respondents (>80 %) agreed that smoking could cause adverse health effects and that smoking cessation could decrease the risk of these effects. In addition, the majority (>80 %) believed that smoking cessation counseling was an important activity and was an efficient use of their time. The top two perceived barriers for smoking

  5. E-cigarettes: online survey of UK smoking cessation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz; McEwen, Andy; Murray, Susan; Arnott, Deborah; Dockrell, Martin; Bauld, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Use of e-cigarettes (inhalable vapour producing battery powered devices that aim to simulate tobacco cigarettes), is rising in a number of countries, but as yet none of these products are regulated as medicinal devices or available as smoking cessation treatments. Smokers seeking support from health professionals to stop smoking are interested in e-cigarettes and may be buying them to aid a quit attempt. Determining what smokers are asking, and what health professionals think about these products may have implications for smoking treatment services in a number of countries. Stop smoking service advisors, managers and commissioners in the United Kingdom were asked to take part in two surveys on e-cigarettes. Data was analysed from 587 practitioners who completed a survey in 2011 and 705 practitioners who completed a repeat survey in 2013. Responses to multiple choice questions and free text comments were analysed. Responding practitioners reported that interest in, and use of, e-cigarettes is growing among adults seeking help to stop smoking in the UK. In 2013 91% of respondents reported that interest in e-cigarettes had grown in the past year and whilst in 2011, 2% of respondents reported a 'quarter to a half' of their clients saying that they were regularly using e-cigarettes, by 2013 this had increased to 23.5% (p < .001). Responding practitioners' views towards e-cigarettes became more positive between the first and second surveys (15% strongly agreed/agreed in 2011 that 'e-cigarettes are a good thing' rising to 26% in 2013). However, they continued to have concerns about the products. In particular, analysis of free text responses suggested practitioners were unsure about safety or efficacy for smoking cessation, and were worried that smokers may become dependent on the products. Practitioners were also aware of the potential of e-cigarettes to undermine smokers' willingness to use evidence-based methods to stop, and to challenge policies aiming to

  6. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight

  7. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: case of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sharon; Pieters, Karen; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Reece, Robin; Reid, Robert D

    2011-09-14

    The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight into issues affecting program

  8. Predictors of smoking lapse during a 48-hour laboratory analogue smoking cessation attempt.

    PubMed

    Muench, Christine; Juliano, Laura M

    2017-06-01

    Many individuals who attempt to quit smoking experience a smoking lapse early on in the quitting process, with most lapses resulting in a return to regular smoking. Using a novel laboratory model, this study sought to investigate baseline predictors of smoking lapse during a brief, simulated smoking quit attempt. Self-report baseline measures were completed by 81 smokers, who also smoked a cigarette in the laboratory to equate recent smoke exposure. Participants were then given brief face-to-face smoking-cessation counseling along with monetary incentives to abstain from smoking for 48 hr (i.e., $40). Participants returned to the laboratory after 24 hr and 48 hr for assessment of smoking behavior. By 48 hr, 25 participants lapsed, with rates equivalent among men and women (31% vs. 31%). Higher rates of delay discounting and a preference for menthol cigarettes significantly predicted greater odds of lapsing. Shorter time to first cigarette after waking (TTFC) was associated with greater lapse risk at trend levels. No effects were observed for demographic variables, cigarettes per day, prequit abstinence self-efficacy, or depressive symptoms. Future research examining predictors of early lapse and underlying mechanisms is needed, and laboratory analogue models offer a controlled time- and cost-effective framework in which to investigate smoking cessation processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A systematic review of the impact of work environment on smoking cessation, relapse and amount smoked.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm; Oldenburg, Brian

    2006-10-01

    Smoking is an important issue for the majority of the world's working population. It is important to explore in which ways the workplace might contribute to changes in smoking status and smoking behavior. The present article provides a systematic review and quality assessment of studies that have addressed the impact of factors in the work environment on smoking behavior. An evaluation of the methodological quality of 22 prospective studies was based on 14 explicit criteria, which included features of study design, statistical analysis, sampling issues and measurement. The level of scientific evidence was evaluated for each study. There was strong evidence for an effect of the work environment on the amount smoked, but insufficient or mixed evidence regarding cessation and relapse. Summarizing the results, high job demands were associated with higher amount smoked and with increased likelihood of cessation. Resources at work and social support were positively associated with cessation and negatively associated with relapse and the amount smoked. The results supported the overall hypothesis that the work environment influences aspects of smoking behavior. Recommendations are made for more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions.

  10. Smoking cessation in people with alcohol and other drug problems.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Colin P; Wodak Am, Alex

    2016-08-01

    People who consume alcohol and other drugs are at particularly high risk of harm from smoking, yet tobacco use is commonly neglected in this patient group. The objectives of this article are to increase awareness of the high risk of tobacco-related harm in people who consume alcohol and other drugs, identify the barriers to quitting and provide practical guidelines to assist quitting. People who are dependent on alcohol and other drugs are far more likely to die from a smoking-related illness than from their other drugs. Most are motivated to quit smoking; however, their quit rates are lower than in the general population. Substance users who also smoke can usually be treated with similar behavioural and pharmacological treatments as others who smoke, but generally require more intensive and longer treatment. Quitting smoking at the same time as undergoing other drug treatment does not undermine drug treatment outcomes and may improve them. Smoking cessation should be integrated into the routine care of patients who consume alcohol and other drugs.

  11. Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. Methods We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. Results We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Conclusions Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward. PMID:22182518

  12. Online social networks and smoking cessation: a scientific research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-12-19

    Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward.

  13. Willingness of pulmonologists to guide COPD patients in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Bolman, Catherine; Sino, Carolien; Hekking, Paul; van Keimpema, Anton; van Meerbeeck, Jan

    2005-04-01

    Effective smoking cessation interventions include steps often protocolised as the 4A method. This study assessed how pulmonologists address the smoking behaviour of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and analysed psychosocial differences between pulmonologists who intend to use the 4A method and those who do not intend to use it. A nationwide survey was conducted among Dutch pulmonologists (N = 320), of whom 63% responded. Pulmonologists routinely assessed patients' smoking behaviour and their willingness to quit, but were least experienced in actually assisting patients to quit. Pulmonologists intending to use the method perceived a more supportive social environment in working with it and were more convinced of their ability to use it. Overall, pulmonologists were not convinced that the method would result in more patients quitting, and were pessimistic about their ability to use it. Pulmonologists need to be convinced of the effectiveness of the 4A method and their ability to use it. Skills training and the creation of a social environment supportive toward smoking cessation assistance are recommended.

  14. Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding smoking and smoking cessation among African-American physicians and dentists.

    PubMed

    Hill, H A; Braithwaite, R L

    1997-11-01

    African-American physicians and dentists in metropolitan Atlanta were surveyed to assess smoking cessation practices and perceptions. Questionnaires were mailed to 373 physicians and 90 dentists. A total of 154 questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 33.3%. More physicians than dentists considered smoking a "very serious" threat to patients' health, and physicians were more likely to document smoking status in charts and to counsel smokers to quit. Physicians also were approached more frequently by patients seeking cessation advice. Both types of practitioners considered the nicotine patch, formal cessation programs, and behavior modification/psychotherapy to be among the most effective cessation methods, and nicotine gum and acupuncture to be among the least effective. These results indicate African-American physicians are much more involved than dentists in promoting smoking cessation among patients. Advice of health professionals generally is viewed as a powerful influence for African-American patients. Further work is needed to utilize fully the power of health care providers, especially dentists, in the fight against tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

  15. Factors associated with successful smoking cessation among participants in a smoking cessation program involving use of the internet, e-mails, and mailing-list.

    PubMed

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Takahashi, Yuko

    2005-11-01

    The objective was to clarify factors, including Internet-accessed advice for smoking cessation, associated with smoking cessation among participants of the Quit Smoking Marathon (QSM), a one-month smoking cessation program involving use of e-mails and a mailinglist. The subjects were 88 volunteers who aimed to quit smoking and completed the QSM program. Those who remained abstinent from smoking at 1 year thereafter were defined as successful quitters. Factors associated with successful smoking cessation were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounders and separately for use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Successful smoking cessation was reported by 49 subjects (55.7%). For the NRT-free group, sending 10 or more e-mails to the mailing-list was significantly associated with successful smoking cessation [odds ratio: 10.7, P=0.015]. Frequent e-mailing to the mailing-list followed by obtaining personal advice is an effective way to quit smoking among QSM participants not using NRT.

  16. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  19. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  20. The association of environmental, individual factors, and dopamine pathway gene variation with smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Li, Suyun; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Lulu; Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Huijie; Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Nan; Han, Mingkui; Jia, Chongqi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine whether dopamine (DA) pathway gene variation were associated with smoking cessation, and compare the relative importance of infulence factors on smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from 17 villages of Shandong Province, China. Twenty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms in 8 DA pathway genes were genotyped. Weighted gene score of each gene was used to analyze the whole gene effect. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of the total gene score for smoking cessation. Dominance analysis was employed to compare the relative importance of individual, heaviness of smoking, psychological and genetic factors on smoking cessation. 415 successful spontaneous smoking quitters served as the cases, and 404 unsuccessful quitters served as the controls. A significant negative association of total DA pathway gene score and smoking cessation was observed (p < 0.001, OR: 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.38). Dominance analysis showed that the most important predictor for smoking cessation was heaviness of smoking score (42%), following by individual (40%), genetic (10%) and psychological score (8%). In conclusion, although the DA pathway gene variation was significantly associated with successful smoking cessation, heaviness of smoking and individual factors had bigger effect than genetic factors on smoking cessation.

  1. Maintenance of Smoking Cessation: Effect of Follow-Up Letters, Smoking Motivation, Muscle Tension, and Health Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Following smoking-cessation treatment, half of 44 subjects were sent supportive maintenance letters. Letters produced no main effect but reduced smoking in subjects who smoked from habit or received little pleasure from smoking. Letters increased smoking among opposite subject groups and those believing powerful others could not influence their…

  2. mCrave: Continuous Estimation of Craving During Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Soujanya; Hovsepian, Karen; Sarker, Hillol; Saleheen, Nazir; al’Absi, Mustafa; Atluri, Gowtham; Ertin, Emre; Lam, Cho; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; Spring, Bonnie; Wetter, David W.; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Craving usually precedes a lapse for impulsive behaviors such as overeating, drinking, smoking, and drug use. Passive estimation of craving from sensor data in the natural environment can be used to assist users in coping with craving. In this paper, we take the first steps towards developing a computational model to estimate cigarette craving (during smoking abstinence) at the minute-level using mobile sensor data. We use 2,012 hours of sensor data and 1,812 craving self-reports from 61 participants in a smoking cessation study. To estimate craving, we first obtain a continuous measure of stress from sensor data. We find that during hours of day when craving is high, stress associated with self-reported high craving is greater than stress associated with low craving. We use this and other insights to develop feature functions, and encode them as pattern detectors in a Conditional Random Field (CRF) based model to infer craving probabilities. PMID:27990501

  3. Behavioral Counseling and Varenicline Treatment for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Gary E.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Jack, Lisa M.; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Javitz, Harold S.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Deprey, Mona; Richards, Julie; McAfee, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Smoking remains the primary preventable cause of death and illness in the U.S. Effective, convenient treatment programs are needed to reduce smoking prevalence. Purpose This study compared the effectiveness of three modalities of a behavioral smoking-cessation program in smokers using varenicline. Methods Current treatment seeking smokers (n=1202) were recruited from a large healthcare organization between October 2006 and October 2007. Eligible participants were randomized to one of three smoking-cessation interventions: web-based counseling (n=401), proactive telephone-based counseling (PTC; n=402), or combined PTC and web counseling (n=399). All participants received a standard 12-week FDA-approved course of varenicline. Self-report determined the primary outcomes (7-day point prevalent abstinence at 3- and 6-month follow-up), the number of days varenicline was taken, and treatment-related symptoms. Behavioral measures determined utilization of both the web- and phone-based counseling. Results Intent-to-treat analyses revealed relatively high percentages of abstinence at 3 months (38.9%, 48.5%, 43.4%) and at 6 months (30.7%, 34.3%, 33.8%) for the web, PTC, and PTC web groups, respectively. The PTC group had a significantly higher percentage of abstinence than the web group at 3 months, OR=1.48, 95% CI 1.12–1.96, but no between-group differences in abstinence outcomes were seen at 6 months. Conclusions Phone counseling had greater treatment advantage for early cessation and appeared to increase medication adherence, but the absence of differences at 6 months suggests that any of the interventions hold promise when used in conjunction with varenicline. PMID:20409497

  4. Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Swan, Gary E; McClure, Jennifer B; Jack, Lisa M; Zbikowski, Susan M; Javitz, Harold S; Catz, Sheryl L; Deprey, Mona; Richards, Julie; McAfee, Timothy A

    2010-05-01

    Smoking remains the primary preventable cause of death and illness in the U.S. Effective, convenient treatment programs are needed to reduce smoking prevalence. This study compared the effectiveness of three modalities of a behavioral smoking-cessation program in smokers using varenicline. Current treatment-seeking smokers (n=1202) were recruited from a large healthcare organization between October 2006 and October 2007. Eligible participants were randomized to one of three smoking-cessation interventions: web-based counseling (n=401); proactive telephone-based counseling (PTC; n=402); or combined PTC and web counseling (n=399). All participants received a standard 12-week FDA-approved course of varenicline. Self-report determined the primary outcomes (7-day point prevalent abstinence at 3- and 6-month follow-ups); the number of days varenicline was taken; and treatment-related symptoms. Behavioral measures determined utilization of both the web- and Phone-based counseling. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed relatively high percentages of abstinence at 3 months (38.9%, 48.5%, 43.4%) and at 6 months (30.7%, 34.3%, 33.8%) for the web, PTC, and PTC-web groups, respectively. The PTC group had a significantly higher percentage of abstinence than the web group at 3 months (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.12, 1.96), but no between-group differences in abstinence outcomes were seen at 6 months. Phone counseling had greater treatment advantage for early cessation and appeared to increase medication adherence, but the absence of differences at 6 months suggests that any of the interventions hold promise when used in conjunction with varenicline. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of smoking cessation on patient quality of life.

    PubMed

    Sales, Maria Penha Uchoa; Oliveira, Maria Irenilza; Mattos, Isabela Melo; Viana, Cyntia Maria Sampaio; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after twelve months of smoking cessation. This was a prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program on the quality of life of 60 self-referred subjects, at a public hospital, during the period of August 2006 to December 2007. The program consisted of 2-h group sessions once a week during the first month and then every 15 days over six months, followed by monthly phone contacts for another six months. The treatment was based on behavior modification and the use of bupropion in combination with nicotinic replacement therapy. Abstinence was verified by exhaled CO measurements. Patient HRQoL was quantified using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Differences in quality of life scores between quitters and non-quitters at twelve months after the initial intervention were evaluated using analysis of covariance with baseline characteristics as covariates. Self-reported quality of life scores were significantly higher among the 40 quitters than among the 20 non-quitters. The following SF-36 domains were most affected: role-emotional (p = 0.008); general health (p = 0.006); vitality (p < 0.001); and mental health (p = 0.002). At twelve months after the smoking cessation intervention, the SF-36 mental component and physical component summary scores were higher among quitters than among non-quitters (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our findings illustrate that smoking abstinence is related to better HRQoL, especially in aspects of mental health.

  6. Biomarkers of Response to Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies: Progress to Date

    PubMed Central

    Mamoun, Michael; Bergen, Andrew W.; Shieh, Jennifer; Wiggins, Anna; Brody, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    For the past thirty years, research examining predictors of successful smoking cessation treatment response has focused primarily on clinical variables, such as levels of tobacco dependence, craving, and self-efficacy. Recent research, however, has begun to determine biomarkers (such as genotype, nicotine and metabolite levels, and brain imaging findings) that may have utility in predicting smoking cessation. For genotype, genes associated with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and related proteins have been found to predict response to first line medications (e.g., nicotine replacement therapy [NRT], bupropion, or varenicline) or quitting over time without a controlled treatment trial. For nicotine and metabolite levels, function of the CYP 2A6 liver enzyme, which can be assessed with the nicotine metabolite ratio or via genotype, has been found to predict response, with slow nicotine metabolizers having less severe nicotine dependence and a greater likelihood of quitting with NRT than normal metabolizers. And for brain imaging, decreased activation of brain regions associated with emotion regulation and increased connectivity in emotion regulation networks, increased responsiveness to pleasant cues, and altered activation with the Stroop effect have been found in smokers who quit with the first-line medications listed above or counseling. In addition, our group recently demonstrated that lower pre-treatment brain nAChR density is associated with a greater chance of quitting smoking with NRT or placebo. Several of these studies found that specific biomarkers may provide additional information for predicting response beyond subjective symptom or rating scale measures, thereby giving an initial indication that biomarkers may, in the future, be useful for guiding smoking cessation treatment intensity, duration, and type. PMID:25895022

  7. Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapeutic Options for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Kristin V.; Brinn, Malcolm P.; Robertson, Thomas A.; To-A-Nan, Rachada; Esterman, Adrian J.; Peters, Matthew; Smith, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and poses a significant threat across developing countries where tobacco use prevalence is increasing. Nicotine dependence is a chronic disease often requiring multiple attempts to quit; repeated interventions with pharmacotherapeutic aids have become more popular as part of cessation therapies. First-line medications of known efficacy in the general population include varenicline tartrate, bupropion hydrochloride, nicotine replacement therapy products, or a combination thereof. However, less is known about the use of these products in marginalized groups such as the indigenous, those with mental illnesses, youth, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Despite the efficacy and safety of these first line pharmacotherapies, many smokers continue to relapse and alternative pharmacotherapies and cessation options are required. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize the existing and developing pharmacotherapeutic and other options for smoking cessation, to identify gaps in current clinical practice, and to provide recommendations for future evaluations and research. PMID:23772176

  8. Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation in relation to risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Orsini, Nicola; Alfredsson, Lars; Askling, Johan; Wolk, Alicja

    2013-04-22

    Whereas the overall association between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) must be regarded as established, considerably less is known about how much smoking is needed to increase the risk of RA, that is, the effect of smoking intensity, duration and cessation. The Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 34,101 women aged 54 to 89 years, was followed up from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2010 (219 RA cases identified). Relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated as rate ratios using Cox proportional hazards model. There was a statistically significant association between smoking intensity (RR comparing 1 to 7 cigarettes/day vs never smoking 2.31 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.36)) as well as duration of smoking (comparing 1 to 25 years vs never smoking RR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.38)) and risk of RA. Compared to never smokers, the risk was still significantly elevated 15 years after smoking cessation (RR = 1.99 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.20)). However, among former smokers, the risk of RA seemed to be decreasing over time since stopping smoking: women who stopped smoking 15 years before the start of the follow-up had 30% lower risk of RA compared to those who stopped only a year before start of the follow-up (RR = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.24,2.02)). This prospective study highlights that even light cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of RA in women and that smoking cessation may reduce, though not remove, this risk.

  9. Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation in relation to risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whereas the overall association between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) must be regarded as established, considerably less is known about how much smoking is needed to increase the risk of RA, that is, the effect of smoking intensity, duration and cessation. Methods The Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 34,101 women aged 54 to 89 years, was followed up from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2010 (219 RA cases identified). Relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated as rate ratios using Cox proportional hazards model. Results There was a statistically significant association between smoking intensity (RR comparing 1 to 7 cigarettes/day vs never smoking 2.31 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.36)) as well as duration of smoking (comparing 1 to 25 years vs never smoking RR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.38)) and risk of RA. Compared to never smokers, the risk was still significantly elevated 15 years after smoking cessation (RR = 1.99 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.20)). However, among former smokers, the risk of RA seemed to be decreasing over time since stopping smoking: women who stopped smoking 15 years before the start of the follow-up had 30% lower risk of RA compared to those who stopped only a year before start of the follow-up (RR = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.24,2.02)). Conclusions This prospective study highlights that even light cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of RA in women and that smoking cessation may reduce, though not remove, this risk. PMID:23607815

  10. Smoking cessation through a novel behavior modification technique.

    PubMed

    May, Robin; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Bartrop, Roger; Heinrich, Paul; Baird, John; Jozefiak, Edward; de Burgh, Simon

    2010-07-01

    Smoking remains a major public health problem. Experiencing a myocardial infarction (MI) can be a teachable moment that results in smoking cessation when previous efforts have failed. We tested the feasibility of providing a simulated and personalized experience of an MI to facilitate quitting smoking. Smokers, who were recruited from the community, had photographs taken of themselves, their partner, and family. These photographs were inserted into a video depicting the subject as a smoker experiencing an MI with potential consequences to themselves (death or disability) and their family. The subject watched the video and a psychologist used motivational interviewing to reinforce quitting efficacy. Thirteen subjects (11 men, 2 women) 45 +/- 12 years of age with no smoking-related illness and a nonsmoking partner were studied. At week 1, 7 of 13 subjects (54%) reported stopping smoking, and the other 6 had decreased consumption. Daily cigarette consumption at week 1 decreased from 17.3 +/- 9.3 at baseline to 2.7 +/- 4.9 (p <0.005) and expired carbon monoxide levels from 15.7 +/- 9 to 3.1 +/- 3.2 parts per million (p <0.005). Seven subjects had observable responses to the video including "looking uncomfortable" and "red eyes, difficulty speaking." Self-reports included "made me aware of the important things" and "it felt very real." At 6 months, 7 of 13 subjects (54%) were still abstinent. Five of the 7 nonsmoking subjects used an additional antismoking aid. In conclusion, it is feasible to create a simulated and personalized teachable moment and these findings provide encouragement for evaluating this novel method for smoking cessation and other behavior modifications.

  11. The impact of workplace smoking ordinances in California on smoking cessation.

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, J M; Lin, Z; Hudes, E S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The effect of local workplace smoking laws in California was assessed to determine whether such laws increase smoking cessation. METHODS: Workplace smoking ordinance data from 1990 were appended to 1990 California Tobacco Survey data from 4680 adult indoor workers who were current cigarette smokers or reported smoking in the 6 months before the survey. Ordinance effects on cigarette smoking and worksite policy were estimated by using multiple logistic regression controlling for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Smokers who worked in localities with a strong workplace ordinance (compared with no workplace ordinance) were more likely to report the existence of a worksite smoking policy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.2) and to report quitting smoking in the prior 6 months (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.7). In communities with strong ordinances, an estimated 26.4% of smokers quit smoking within 6 months of the survey and were abstinent at the time of the survey, compared with an estimated 19.1% in communities with no ordinance. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace smoking ordinances increased smoking cessation among employed smokers, indicating that these laws may benefit smokers as well as nonsmokers. PMID:10800425

  12. Smoking Cessation in Smokers Who Smoke Menthol and Non-Menthol Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stevens S.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the relations of menthol cigarette use with measures of cessation success in a large comparative effectiveness trial (CET). Design Participants were randomized to one of six medication treatment conditions in a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. All participants received six individual counseling sessions. Setting Community-based smokers in two communities in Wisconsin, USA. Participants 1504 adult smokers who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day during the past 6 months and reported being motivated to quit smoking. The analysis sample comprised 1439 participants: 814 White non-menthol smokers, 439 White menthol smokers, and 186 African American (AA) menthol smokers. There were too few AA non-menthol smokers (n=16) to be included in the analyses. Interventions Nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch, bupropion sustained release, nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge, bupropion + nicotine lozenge, and placebo. Measurements Biochemically-confirmed 7-day point-prevalence abstinence assessed at 4, 8, and 26 weeks post-quit. Findings In longitudinal abstinence analyses (generalized estimating equations) controlling for cessation treatment, menthol-smoking was associated with reduced likelihood of smoking cessation success relative to non-menthol smoking (model-based estimates of abstinence = 31% vs. 38%, respectively; odds ratio [OR] =0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.59, 0.86). In addition, amongst menthol smokers, AA women were at especially high risk of cessation failure relative to White women (estimated abstinence =17% vs. 35%, respectively; OR=2.63, 95% CI=1.75, 3.96); estimated abstinence rates for AA males and White males were both 30%, OR=1.06, 95% CI=0.60, 1.66). Conclusion In the USA, smoking menthol cigarettes appears to be associated with reduced cessation success compared with non-menthol smoking, especially in African-American females. PMID:24938369

  13. The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Utiyama, Daniela Mitiyo Odagiri; Yoshida, Carolina Tieko; Goto, Danielle Miyuki; de Santana Carvalho, Tômas; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation.

  14. The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Utiyama, Daniela Mitiyo Odagiri; Yoshida, Carolina Tieko; Goto, Danielle Miyuki; de Santana Carvalho, Tômas; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation. PMID:27438569

  15. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Borland, Ron; Rodgers, Anthony; Gu, Yulong

    2012-11-14

    Innovative and effective smoking cessation interventions are required to appeal to those who are not accessing traditional cessation services. Mobile phones are widely used and are now well-integrated into the daily lives of many, particularly young adults. Mobile phones are a potential medium for the delivery of health programmes such as smoking cessation. To determine whether mobile phone-based interventions are effective at helping people who smoke, to quit. For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in May 2012. We also searched UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio for current projects in the UK and the ClinicalTrials register for on-going or recently completed studies. We searched through the reference lists of identified studies and attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies, with no restrictions placed on language or publication date. We included randomized or quasi-randomized trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Information on risk of bias and methodological details was extracted using a standardised form. Participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow-up were considered to be smoking. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for each included study. Meta-analysis of the included studies was undertaken using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, summary and descriptive statistics are presented. Five studies with at least six month cessation outcomes were included in this review. Three studies involve a purely text messaging intervention that has been adapted over the course of these three studies for different populations and contexts. One study is a multi

  16. A systematic review of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and smoking behaviors: Smoking status, susceptibility, initiation, dependence, and cessation.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Kodet, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    To examine the association between secondhand tobacco smoke exposure (SHSe) and smoking behaviors (smoking status, susceptibility, initiation, dependence, and cessation). Terms and keywords relevant to smoking behaviors and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure were used in a search of the PubMed database. Searches were limited to English language peer-reviewed studies up till December 2013. Included papers: a) had clearly defined measures of SHSe and b) had clearly defined measures of outcome variables of interest. A total of 119 studies were initially retrieved and reviewed. After further review of references from the retrieved studies, 35 studies were finally selected that met all eligibility criteria. The reviewed studies consisted of thirty-five (89.7%) studies with differing measures of SHSe (including questionnaire and biological measures) and varying definitions of main outcome variables of interest between studies. The majority of the studies (77%) were cross-sectional in nature. The majority of studies found that SHSe was associated with greater likelihood of being a smoker, increased susceptibility and initiation of smoking, greater nicotine dependence among nonsmokers, and poorer smoking cessation. The review found positive associations between SHSe and smoking status, susceptibility, initiation and nicotine dependence and a negative association with smoking cessation. In light of design limitations, future prospective and clinical studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms whereby SHSe influences smoking behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new nicotine dependence score and a new scale assessing patient comfort during smoking cessation treatment.

    PubMed

    Issa, Jaqueline Scholz

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is considered the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of nicotine withdrawal syndrome enables better cessation rates. In our smoking cessation program, we have developed a data collection system, which includes two new instruments: a score that assesses nicotine dependence in smokers of < 10 cigarettes/day; and a patient comfort scale to be used during smoking cessation treatment. Here, we describe the two instruments, both of which are still undergoing validation.

  18. Comparison of Four Recruiting Strategies in a Smoking Cessation Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Meenan, Richard; Severson, Herb; Halperin, Abigail; Edwards, Erika; Magnusson, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare 4 on-line and off-line recruiting methods. Methods Young adult smokers (n=3353) were recruited to a trial comparing smoking cessation services with an on-line health risk assessment (HRA), on-line ads, off-line materials, and quit line screening. Results On-line ads (n=1426; $41.35) and off-line materials recruited the most smokers (n=1341; $56.23) for the lowest cost. Quit line screening was more expensive (n=189; $133.61), but enrollees used cessation services the most (34%-82%). On-line HRA was least successful and most costly (n=397; $630.85) but had the highest follow-up (45%-55%). Conclusions On-line ads and off-line materials were most effective and cost-effective methods. PMID:22584086

  19. Comparison of 4 recruiting strategies in a smoking cessation trial.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Meenan, Richard; Severson, Herb; Halperin, Abigail; Edwards, Erika; Magnusson, Brooke

    2012-09-01

    To compare 4 online and off-line recruiting methods. Young adult smokers (n=3353) were recruited to a trial comparing smoking cessation services with an online health risk assessment (HRA), online ads, offline materials, and quit-line screening. Online ads (n=1426; $41.35) and off-line materials recruited the most smokers (n=1341; $56.23) for the lowest cost. Quitline screening was more expensive (n=189; $132.22), but enrollees used cessation services the most (34%-82%). Online HRA was least successful and most costly (n=397; $630.85) but had the highest follow-up (45%-55%). Online ads and off-line materials were most effective and cost-effective methods.

  20. Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Tim; Chamberlain, Catherine; Davey, Mary-Ann; Cooper, Sue E; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2015-12-22

    Smoking in pregnancy is a public health problem. When used by non-pregnant smokers, pharmacotherapies (nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion and varenicline) are effective for smoking cessation, however, their efficacy and safety in pregnancy remains unknown. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are becoming widely used but their efficacy and safety when used for smoking cessation in pregnancy are also unknown. To determine the efficacy and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies (including NRT, varenicline and bupropion), other medications, or ENDS when used for smoking cessation in pregnancy. We searched the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 July 2015), checked references of retrieved studies, and contacted authors. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in pregnant women with designs that permit the independent effects of any type of pharmacotherapy or ENDS on smoking cessation to be ascertained were eligible for inclusion.The following RCT designs are included.Placebo-RCTs: any form of NRT, other pharmacotherapy, or ENDS, with or without behavioural support/cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), or brief advice, compared with an identical placebo and behavioural support of similar intensity.RCTs providing a comparison between i) any form of NRT, other pharmacotherapy, or ENDS added to behavioural support/CBT, or brief advice and ii) behavioural support of similar (ideally identical) intensity.Parallel- or cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion. Quasi-randomised, cross-over and within-participant designs were not, due to the potential biases associated with these designs. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias and also independently extracted data and cross checked individual outcomes of this process to ensure accuracy. The primary efficacy outcome was smoking cessation in later pregnancy (in all but one trial, at or around delivery); safety was

  1. Smoking Cessation without Educational Instruction Could Promote the Development of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Shin; Takase, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Sugiura, Tomonori; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2017-06-08

    Smoking cessation is particularly important for maintaining health; however, the subsequent risk of an increased body weight is of major concern. The present study investigated the influence of smoking cessation on the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the Japanese general population. This study enrolled individuals without metabolic syndrome or a history of smoking via our annual health checkup program (n=5,702, 55.2±11.5 years). Participants were divided into three groups mentioned below and followed up with the endpoint being the development of metabolic syndrome: (1) subjects who had never smoked and did not smoke during the observation period (non-smoker); (2) those who continued smoking during the observation period (continuous smoker); and (3) those who ceased smoking during the observation period (smoking cessation). During the observation period (median 1,089 days), 520 subjects developed metabolic syndrome, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome in the smoking cessation group than in the other groups. Smoking cessation was confirmed as an independent predictor of the new onset of metabolic syndrome by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis after adjustment. Subjects only from the smoking cessation group showed a significant deterioration in metabolic factors during the study in correlation with an increased waist circumference after smoking cessation. Smoking cessation without instruction could be followed by the development of metabolic syndrome, and the incidence of metabolic syndrome might reduce the benefit obtained from smoking cessation. Therefore, further educational outreach is needed to prevent the progression of metabolic syndrome during the course of smoking cessation.

  2. Smoking and potentially preventable hospitalisation: the benefit of smoking cessation in older ages.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich; Falster, Michael O; Douglas, Kirsty; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa R

    2015-05-01

    Reducing preventable hospitalisation is a priority for health systems worldwide. This study sought to quantify the contribution of smoking to preventable hospitalisation in older adults and the potential benefits of smoking cessation. Self-reported smoking data for 267,010 Australian men and women aged 45+ years linked with administrative hospital data were analysed using Cox's models to estimate the effects on risk of hospitalisation for congestive heart failure (CHF), diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and angina. The impacts of smoking and quitting smoking were also quantified using risk advancement periods (RAP). The cohort included 7% current smokers, 36% former smokers and 57% never smokers. During an average follow-up of 2.7 years, 4% of participants had at least one hospitalisation for any of the study conditions (0.8% for CHF, 1.7% for diabetes complications, 0.8% for COPD and 1.4% for angina). Compared to never smokers, the adjusted hazard ratio for hospitalisation for any of the conditions for current smokers was 1.89 (95% CI 1.75-2.03), and the RAP was 3.8 years. There were strong dose-response relationships between smoking duration, smoking intensity and cumulative smoking dose on hospitalisation risk. The excess risk of hospitalisation and RAP for COPD was reduced within 5 years of smoking cessation across all age groups, but risk reduction for other conditions was only observed after 15 years. Smoking is associated with increased risk of preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions in older adults and smoking cessation, even at older ages, reduces this risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of smoking in social networks on smoking cessation and relapse among adults: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Blok, David J; de Vlas, Sake J; van Empelen, Pepijn; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study, longitudinal data of 4623 adults participating in the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social sciences (LISS) panel were collected in March 2013 with a follow-up in 2014. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of smokers in social networks, and (1) smoking cessation (n=762) and (2) smoking relapse (n=1905). Analyses were adjusted for the size of the network, age, sex, and education. Respondents with the largest proportion of smokers in their social network were less likely to quit smoking (OR=0.25; 95% CI=0.11-0.66) and more likely to experience a relapse (6.08; 3.01-12.00). Smoking cessation and relapse were most strongly associated with the proportion of smokers among household members and friends. The proportion of smokers in family outside the household was not related to smoking cessation and smoking relapse. In conclusion, smoking behavior in social networks, especially among household members and friends, is strongly associated with smoking cessation and relapse. These findings further support the spread of smoking within social networks, and provide evidence for network-based interventions, particularly including household members and friends. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clickotine, A Personalized Smartphone App for Smoking Cessation: Initial Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Steinerman, Joshua R; Klein, David B; Silver, Theodore L; Berger, Adam G; Luo, Sean X; Schork, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and the annual economic burden attributable to smoking exceeds US $300 billion. Obstacles to smoking cessation include limited access and adherence to effective cessation interventions. Technology can help overcome these obstacles; many smartphone apps have been developed to aid smoking cessation, but few that conform to the US clinical practice guideline (USCPG) have been rigorously tested and reported in the literature. Clickotine is a novel smartphone app for smoking cessation, designed to deliver the essential features of the USCPG and engineered to engage smokers by personalizing intervention components. Objective Our objective was to assess the engagement, efficacy, and safety of Clickotine in an initial, single-arm study. Outcomes measured were indicators of engagement with the smartphone app (number of app opens, number of interactions with the Clickotine program, and weeks active with Clickotine), cessation outcomes of 7- and 30-day self-reported abstinence from smoking, and negative health events. Methods We recruited US residents between 18 and 65 years of age who owned an iPhone and smoked 5 or more cigarettes daily for the study via online advertising. Respondents were prescreened for eligibility by telephone and, if appropriate, directed to a Web portal to provide informed consent, confirm eligibility, and download the Clickotine app. Participants completed study assessments via the online portal at baseline and after 8 weeks. Data were collected in Amazon S3 with no manual data entry, and access to all data was maximally restrictive, logged, and auditable. Results A total of 416 participants downloaded the app and constituted the intention-to-treat (ITT) sample. On average, participants opened the Clickotine app 100.6 times during the 8-week study (median 69), logged 214.4 interactions with the Clickotine program (median 178), and remained engaged with

  5. Clickotine, A Personalized Smartphone App for Smoking Cessation: Initial Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, Brian M; Steinerman, Joshua R; Klein, David B; Silver, Theodore L; Berger, Adam G; Luo, Sean X; Schork, Nicholas J

    2017-04-25

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and the annual economic burden attributable to smoking exceeds US $300 billion. Obstacles to smoking cessation include limited access and adherence to effective cessation interventions. Technology can help overcome these obstacles; many smartphone apps have been developed to aid smoking cessation, but few that conform to the US clinical practice guideline (USCPG) have been rigorously tested and reported in the literature. Clickotine is a novel smartphone app for smoking cessation, designed to deliver the essential features of the USCPG and engineered to engage smokers by personalizing intervention components. Our objective was to assess the engagement, efficacy, and safety of Clickotine in an initial, single-arm study. Outcomes measured were indicators of engagement with the smartphone app (number of app opens, number of interactions with the Clickotine program, and weeks active with Clickotine), cessation outcomes of 7- and 30-day self-reported abstinence from smoking, and negative health events. We recruited US residents between 18 and 65 years of age who owned an iPhone and smoked 5 or more cigarettes daily for the study via online advertising. Respondents were prescreened for eligibility by telephone and, if appropriate, directed to a Web portal to provide informed consent, confirm eligibility, and download the Clickotine app. Participants completed study assessments via the online portal at baseline and after 8 weeks. Data were collected in Amazon S3 with no manual data entry, and access to all data was maximally restrictive, logged, and auditable. A total of 416 participants downloaded the app and constituted the intention-to-treat (ITT) sample. On average, participants opened the Clickotine app 100.6 times during the 8-week study (median 69), logged 214.4 interactions with the Clickotine program (median 178), and remained engaged with Clickotine for 5.3 weeks (median 5). Among

  6. Free smoking cessation mobile apps available in Australia: a quality review and content analysis.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Birrell, Louise; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Shaw, Brad; Forbes, Erin; Deady, Mark; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-07-27

    This review aimed to identify free, high-quality, smoking cessation mobile applications (apps) that adhere to Australian smoking cessation treatment guidelines. A systematic search of smoking cessation apps was conducted using Google. The technical quality of relevant apps was rated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale. The content of apps identified as high quality was assessed for adherence to smoking cessation treatment guidelines. 112 relevant apps were identified. The majority were of poor technical quality and only six 'high-quality' apps were identified. These apps adhered to Australian treatment guidelines in part. The efficacy of two apps had been previously evaluated. In lieu of more substantial research in this area, it is suggested that the high-quality apps identified in this review may be more likely than other available apps to encourage smoking cessation. Implications for public health: Smoking cessation apps have the potential to address many barriers that prevent smoking cessation support being provided; however few high-quality smoking cessation apps are currently available in Australia, very few have been evaluated and the app market is extremely volatile. More research to evaluate smoking cessation apps, and sustained funding for evidence-based apps, is needed. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan M.; Mirbaba, Michael M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the United States. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability adjusted life years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than non-smokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared to non-drinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies including: varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily. PMID:26507831

  8. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Methods The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. Results The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. Conclusions We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation. PMID:23565918

  9. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Fernández Del Río, Elena; Martínez, Ursula; Becoña, Elisardo

    2013-04-08

    The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation.

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Urges to Smoke among Women during a Smoking Cessation Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Businelle, Michael S.; Lam, Cho Y.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; McClure, Jennifer B.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and ad libitum smoking studies have indicated that alcohol consumption increases the frequency and intensity of smoking urges. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking urges and alcohol use in natural settings during a quit attempt. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smoking urge and alcohol use in women who reported drinking on at least one occasion during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt (N = 134). Participants were asked to use a palmtop computer to complete assessments that recorded smoking urges and recent alcohol use. Multilevel analyses examined the relation between smoking urge parameters and alcohol use. Smoking urges were higher during assessments where alcohol had been recently consumed compared to assessments where no alcohol had been consumed. Interestingly, the first urge rating of the day was higher and urges were more volatile on days where alcohol would eventually be consumed as compared to days where no alcohol was consumed. A closer examination of urge parameters on drinking days indicated that smoking urge trajectory was significantly flatter and urge volatility was significantly higher following alcohol consumption. However, smoking urge trajectory also flattened later in the day on nondrinking days. The findings suggest that there may be reciprocal relations between smoking urge and alcohol use (e.g., higher initial urges and more volatile urges may increase the likelihood of alcohol use; and, alcohol use may impact within day smoking urge parameters), and these relations could potentially impact smoking cessation and relapse. PMID:23379613

  11. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  12. [Effectiveness of bupropion and counseling for smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, B; He, Y; Zuo, F; Wu, L; Liu, Q H; Zhang, L; Zhou, C X; Cheng, J J; Chan Sc, Z S; Lam, D Q

    2016-07-06

    To evaluate the effectiveness of bupropion for smoking cessation among Chinese smokers at a smoking cessation clinic. A prospective observational study was conducted in a hospital located in Beijing during 2008 and from 28 to 31 October 2014. A total of 287 smokers (265 men and 22 women) were assessed using data from structured questionnaires at baseline and were followed up at 1 and 6 months. Trained physician counselors provided free brief education and individual counseling sessions for all participants at the first visit. A total 131 participants were prescribed bupropion in addition to counseling. The counseling plus bupropion group was compared with the group who underwent counseling without bupropion. Outcomes were self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 1- and 6-month follow-up and continuous abstinence rates at 6-month follow-up. Smoking reduction rates at 1 and 6 months were also measured. By intention-to-treat analysis, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate of the bupropion group at 1 and 6 months was higher than for the counseling-only group: at 1-month follow-up, 26.0% (34/131) vs. 15.4% (24/156), with OR (95% CI) 1.93(1.07-3.46); these rates at 6-month follow-up were 27.8% (35/131) vs. 15.4% (24/156), with OR (95% CI) 2.01(1.12-3.59). The 1-month continuous abstinence rate at 6 months was higher in the bupropion group: 26.0% (34/131) vs. 14.7% (23/156), with OR (95%CI) 2.03(1.12-3.66). Participants in the bupropion group also had a higher smoking reduction rate at 1 month than those in the counseling-only group: 55.0% (72/131) vs. 38.5% (60/156), with OR (95%CI) 1.95 (1.22-3.13). Prescription of bupropion at this smoking cessation clinic was effective in doubling the quitting rates and smoking reduction rates among Chinese smokers.

  13. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  14. [A smoking cessation program for prison inmates and personnel].

    PubMed

    Yagüe-Olmos, C; Cabello-Vázquez, M I

    2008-10-01

    The main aim of this initiative is to promote a culture change in the prison/tobacco conjunction by means of an intervention program that leads to reduction in the high levels of smoking amongst the prison population (70-80%) and prison personnel. We hope to demonstrate that it is possible in practice to successfully implant and extend tobacco cessations programs in prisons. This would mean an important step forward for the general health of prison inmates, who suffer from higher levels of tobacco addiction than the general population and prison staff, who for their part are forced to share a reduced and enclosed space with prisoners.

  15. A Mobile App to Aid Smoking Cessation: Preliminary Evaluation of SmokeFree28

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of mobile apps in aiding smoking cessation or their validity for automated collection of data on smoking cessation outcomes. Objective We conducted a preliminary evaluation of SF28 (SF28 is the name of the app, short for SmokeFree28)—an app aimed at helping smokers to be smoke-free for 28 days. Methods Data on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking history, number of logins, and abstinence at each login were uploaded to a server from SF28 between August 2012 and August 2013. Users were included if they were aged 16 years or over, smoked cigarettes at the time of registration, had set a quit date, and used the app at least once on or after their quit date. Their characteristics were compared with data from a representative sample of smokers trying to stop smoking in England. The percentage of users recording 28 days of abstinence was compared with a value of 15% estimated for unaided quitting. Correlations were assessed between recorded abstinence for 28 days and well-established abstinence predictors. Results A total of 1170 users met the inclusion criteria. Compared with smokers trying to quit in England, they had higher consumption, and were younger, more likely to be female, and had a non-manual rather than manual occupation. In total, 18.9% (95% CI 16.7-21.1) were recorded as being abstinent from smoking for 28 days or longer. The mean number of logins was 8.5 (SD 9.0). The proportion recording abstinence for 28 days or longer was higher in users who were older, in a non-manual occupation, and in those using a smoking cessation medication. Conclusions The recorded 28-day abstinence rates from the mobile app, SF28, suggest that it may help some smokers to stop smoking. Further evaluation by means of a randomized trial appears to be warranted. PMID:25596170

  16. Does Short Message Service Increase Adherence to Smoking Cessation Clinic Appointments and Quitting Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Önür, Seda Tural; Uysal, Mehmet Atilla; İliaz, Sinem; Yurt, Sibel; Bahadır, Ayşe; Hattatoğlu, Didem Görgün; Ortaköylü, Mediha Gönenç; Bağcı, Belma Akbaba; Chousein, Efsun Gonca Uğur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using innovative and scientific methods increases the rate of quitting in smokers. Short message service (SMS) is a communication tool widely used and well integrated in many people’s daily lives. To increase adherence to appointments in smoking cessation clinics (SCC), it is thought that increased compliance could be achieved by falling outside the traditional methods. SMS has been shown to increase the compliance of patients with SCC appointments. Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of SMS in the compliance of patients with SCC follow-up visits and smoking cessation success. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Our study was a controlled, open, prospective study. We enrolled 436 cases applied to SCC of Yedikule Training and Research Hospital between 01.10.2013–30.06.2014 and agreed to follow-up with SMS. SMS was sent to the patients to remind them of appointments at the SCC and to query their smoking state. Results: Two hundred-and-eighty seven (65.8%) of the patients were male and 149 (34.2%) were female. The mean age was 45±12 years. In this study, 296 (67.9%) patients had graduated from primary school. Our patients’ smoking state was queried by telephone at the 6-month follow-up and we contacted 348 patients. According to this, 88 (25.3%) patients were not smoking, and 260 (74.7%) patients were smokers. Therefore, the smoking cessation rate was 24% (n=60) in patients who did not respond to SMS reminders at all, and 28.6% (n=28) in patients answering any SMS at least once (p=0.377). Smoking cessation rate of the patients invited by SMS but who did not attend any control visits was 19.1%, and it was 34.5% in patients coming to a control visit at least once. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: In our study, there was increased success of smoking cessation in patients coming to control visits. We think that this may result from the possibly increased compliance to SCC appointments following

  17. [Profile and motivation for smoking cessation in surgical inpatients].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Paula Almeida; Echer, Isabel Cristina

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the profile of smokers hospitalized for surgery, and investigate their motivation to quit. The sample consisted of 100 patients recruited from a university hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected between February and May 2013, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The sample was predominantly male (n=58; 58%) and had a mean age of 54.5±13.8 years. Seventy-nine (79%) of the participants were white, 38(38%) were married and 67(67%) had primary education only. Patients started smoking at a mean age of 17±6.6 years, smoked approximately 20(10 to 28.7) cigarettes/day and had been smoking for a mean of 37.4±14.4 years. Ninety-one (91%) patients wanted to stop smoking, 57(57%) were in the preparation phase, 36(36%) had low nicotine dependence and 35(35%) had been encouraged to quit. We concluded that, although hospitalization is a good moment to address smoking cessation, health care professionals do not enact effective and systematic interventions in this regard.

  18. Smoking, second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation in relation to leukocyte telomere length and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Serrano, Fidel Emmanuel C.; Utarini, Adi; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; Watkins, Johnathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the link between smoking exposure, telomere length and mortality, with emphasis on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the duration of smoking cessation. Results A total of 1,018 participants died during follow-up (mean: 10.3 years). A 50 base-pair decrease in LTL was shown among cotinine-confirmed current versus never smokers. The 90th quantile of LTL decreased with increasing cotinine among never smokers, indicating a role of SHS. Longer telomeres with smoking cessation were indicated but limited to a 3-16 year period of abstaining smoking. When assessing mortality, we observed a lower risk of all-cause death for the second quintile compared to the first among never smokers (HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), and a higher risk was found among current smokers (HR: 1.89, 1.19-2.92). MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 6,456 nationally representative U.S. respondents with mortality follow-up through to 31 December 2011. Smoking status was assessed by interviews and cotinine levels. Relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Multivariable linear regression was performed to examine LTL by smoking exposure, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. We further estimated the association of LTL with cotinine levels using quantile regression, and with smoking cessation dynamics. Cox regression was used to estimate mortality by smoking status and LTL. Conclusion Our findings indicated a complex association between smoking, telomere length, and mortality. LTL alterations with SHS and smoking cessation warrant further investigation for translation to public health measures. PMID:27509177

  19. Quitting smoking and utilization of smoking cessation services in Jordan: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Jaghbir, M; Shareif, S; Ahram, M

    2014-10-12

    Increasing rates of smoking in Jordan have been documented. It is therefore important to understand the trends and factors associated with attempts to quit smoking, such as the utilization of smoking cessation clinics and hotlines. A population sample of 3196 adults aged 18+ years were interviewed about their smoking habits; 1032 (32.3%) were current smokers and 93 (2.9%) had successfully quit smoking (8.7% of ever-smokers). A high percentage of current smokers (62.8%) had tried, unsuccessfully, to quit smoking. Almost half of them had heard of smoking cessation clinics and hotlines, but only 2.4% had ever utilized them. After being informed about these services, 53.0% of current smokers agreed that they were likely to utilize them. Only 19.9% of current smokers had ever received advice from a health-care practitioner about contacting these services. The study should guide decision-makers on strategies to reduce the high smoking rates in Jordan.

  20. Feasibility of school-based smoking cessation programs.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, A; Stanton, W; Lowe, J B; Hunter, B

    1995-12-01

    This study obtained input from Australian student smokers approximately 15 years old, which may be useful in designing school-based smoking cessation programs. The sample was analyzed by previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. The order of preference for assistance options and incentives for quitting was similar across all groups; however, those who previously attempted to quit (previous quitters) and those who intended to quit (intenders) in the future were significantly more likely than non-quitters and non-intenders to find assistance options for quitting acceptable. The potential for saving money emerged as an important variable in convincing all groups of smokers not to smoke, and using personal willpower and cutting down slowly were identified as important in actual attempts to quit. The need for programs to be free and for friends to be supportive also was evident across all groups.

  1. Mass media and smoking cessation: a critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Flay, B R

    1987-01-01

    Evaluations of 40 mass media programs/campaigns designed to influence cigarette smoking were reviewed. Information/motivation programs/campaigns generally produced changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes. Extensive national campaigns also produced meaningful behavioral change. Programs/campaigns designed to promote some specific smoking-related action produced mixed results, depending in large part on the type of promotion involved. Mass media cessation clinics were found to be effective, with media plus social support being more effective than viewing plus printed material, and either combination being more effective than viewing alone. It was concluded that mass media health promotion programs can be more effective than many academics may have thought, but that the knowledge necessary to ensure such success is seriously lacking. Research studies, rather than simple evaluations, are needed to improve our knowledge base and build a science of mass media health promotion. PMID:3541650

  2. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Robyn; Borland, Ron; Bullen, Chris; Lin, Ruey B; McRobbie, Hayden; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-10-07

    Innovative effective smoking cessation interventions are required to appeal to those who are not accessing traditional cessation services. Mobile phones are widely used and are now well integrated into the daily lives of many, particularly young adults. Mobile phones are a potential medium for the delivery of health programmes such as smoking cessation. To determine whether mobile phone-based interventions are effective at helping people who smoke, to quit. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, the National Research Register and the ClinicalTrials register, with no restrictions placed on language or publication date. We included randomized or quasi-randomized trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Information on the specified quality criteria and methodological details was extracted using a standardised form. Participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. Meta-analysis of the included studies was undertaken using the Mantel-Haenszel Risk Ratio fixed-effect method provided that there was no evidence of substantial statistical heterogeneity as assessed by the I(2) statistic. Where meta-analysis was not possible, summary and descriptive statistics are presented. Four studies were excluded as they were small non-randomized feasibility studies, and two studies were excluded because follow up was less than six months. Four trials (reported in five papers) are included: a text message programme in New Zealand; a text message programme in the UK; and an Internet and mobile phone programme involving two different groups in Norway. The different types of interventions are analysed separately. When combined by

  3. A Multifaceted Hypnosis Smoking-Cessation Program: Enhancing Motivation and Goal Attainment.

    PubMed

    Green, Joseph P; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2017-01-01

    Smoking cessation remains a major health priority. Despite public campaigns against smoking and widespread availability of smoking-cessation treatments, many people continue to smoke. The authors argue that the "problem of motivation," that is, suboptimal or fluctuating motivation to resist smoking urges and to comply with the demands of treatment, commonly undermines treatment seeking and adherence, appreciably reducing the success rates of smoking-cessation programs. The authors describe the history of the Winning Edge smoking-cessation program and discuss ways to enhance motivation before, during, and after formal treatment. They illustrate how hypnotic suggestions, administered in the context of their program, can promote cognitive, behavioral, and emotional commitment to treatment and enhance motivation to live a smoke-free life.

  4. Structured Smoking Cessation Training for Medical Students: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Ronja; Schiekirka, Sarah; Brown, Jamie; Bobak, Alex; McEwen, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physician adherence to guideline recommendations regarding the provision of counseling and support for smokers willing to quit is low. A lack of training during undergraduate medical education has been identified as a potential cause. This prospective intervention study evaluated a novel teaching module for medical students. Methods: As part of a 6-week cardiovascular course, 125 fourth-year undergraduate medical students received a multimodal and interactive teaching module on smoking cessation, including online learning material, lectures, seminars, and practical skills training. Short- and medium-term effects on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and self-reported practice were measured using written examinations and an objective structured clinical examination at the end of the module and 6 months later. Results were compared to data obtained from a historical control cohort (n = 70) unexposed to the intervention. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, scores in the knowledge test were significantly higher in the intervention than the control group (61.1% vs. 51.7%; p < .001). A similar pattern was observed in the objective structured clinical examination (71.5% vs. 60.5%; p < .001). More students in the intervention than control group agreed that smoking was a chronic disease (83.1% vs. 68.1%; p = .045). The control group was more likely to report recording smoking status (p = .018), but no group difference was detected regarding the report of advising to quit (p = .154). Conclusions: A novel teaching module for undergraduate medical students produced a sustained learning outcome in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes but not self-reported practice. Implications: Studies across the world have identified considerable knowledge gaps and deficits in practical training with regard to smoking cessation counseling in undergraduate medical students. This paper describes a teaching intervention informed by current recommendations for the design of

  5. Online consumer search strategies for smoking-cessation information.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Nathan K

    2010-03-01

    For many Americans, the Internet has become a primary mechanism for locating information on healthcare and treatment options, including tobacco addiction. Detailed information on this behavior could inform design decisions for next-generation cessation interventions, but very little is known about how consumers search or what resources they locate. A subset of a publicly available, anonymized record of the search behavior of 650,000 individuals over 3 months in 2006 was analyzed. Smoking cessation-related queries were extracted and coded via manual identification of terms and by back-identifying terms by matching them to the websites ultimately visited. Destination sites were coded as to whether or not they originated from a professional source based on the literature and known healthcare organizations. A total of 628 individuals (0.10%) made 1106 cessation-related searches during the observation period. Of these, 76% resulted in the individual reaching a website; professional sites were reached by only 34% of searchers. Complementary or alternative therapies were popular, with 10% of individuals searching for "laser" therapy. A concerning disconnect exists between consumer demand (as demonstrated by search behavior) and the sites produced by researchers and health professionals. This "demand gap" may contribute to low overall participation rates and hamper the potential impact of such systems. Further research is needed to link online consumer preferences to intervention design decisions. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Greater reductions in nicotine exposure while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes predict smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Donny, Eric C; Hertsgaard, Louise A; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2015-11-01

    Reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes is a potential regulatory strategy that may enable cessation. The present study investigated the effect of nicotine exposure while smoking very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes on cessation outcomes. The roles of possible sources of nicotine were also explored, including the VLNC cigarette and co-use of cigarettes with normal nicotine content. A secondary data analysis of two analogous randomised trials of treatment seeking, adult daily smokers (n=112) who were instructed to smoke VLNC cigarettes for 6 weeks and then make a quit attempt. Controlling for baseline demographic and smoking features, the association between reductions in nicotine exposure during the 6-week trial, assessed by urinary total cotinine and biomarker-confirmed smoking abstinence 1 month later, was tested. Subsequent analyses controlled for the effects of the frequency of VLNC and normal nicotine content cigarette use and the nicotine yield of the VLNC cigarette (0.05 vs 0.09 mg). Greater reductions in nicotine exposure while smoking VLNC cigarettes predicted abstinence independent of individual differences in baseline smoking, cotinine, dependence, gender and study. Nicotine reduction was largest among individuals who were assigned to smoke a VLNC cigarette with lower nicotine yield and who smoked fewer normal nicotine content and VLNC cigarettes. In the context of nicotine regulations and corresponding research, factors that undermine nicotine reduction must be addressed, including the availability and use of cigarettes with normal nicotine content and not sufficiently reducing the nicotine yield of cigarettes. Maximising nicotine reduction may facilitate smoking cessation. NCT 01050569 and NCT 00777569. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation in the management of COPD.

    PubMed

    Temitayo Orisasami, Isimat; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation in managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the fifth leading cause of death in the world and smoking leads to COPD in more than 80% of cases. Smoking cessation aids are considered the most effective intervention to improve quality of life and prevent further deterioration in COPD. Evidence based on the use of pharmacotherapies, patient support and motivation as part of smoking cessation strategies were evaluated and discussed. The findings demonstrate that pharmacotherapies, support and counselling in smoking cessation help reduce hospital stay and hospitalisation and improve symptoms and quality of life. In addition, nurses need more education on how to use open-ended questions and motivation when giving advice on smoking cessation to patients with COPD.

  8. The effect of successful and unsuccessful smoking cessation on short-term anxiety, depression, and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Allan, Nicholas P; Norr, Aaron M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-04-01

    Research on the mental health effects of quitting smoking is limited. Smokers with mental illness appear to be at a higher risk of unsuccessful smoking cessation. Recent work suggests they are at elevated risk for post-cessation increases in anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. The current study tested the effects of successful and unsuccessful smoking cessation on short-term psychopathology in 192 community participants. Smoking cessation outcomes were classified using expired carbon monoxide levels that were taken at quit week, 1 and 2 week follow-up and 1 month follow-up. We found no psychopathology increases in participants who successfully quit smoking. For individuals struggling to quit our results partially supported a recently proposed struggling quitters hypothesis. However, the vast majority of individuals posited to be vulnerable by the struggling quitters hypothesis did not experience clinically significant increases in psychopathology. These findings have implications for clinicians whose clients are interested in smoking cessation.

  9. A randomized, open-label pilot comparison of gabapentin and bupropion SR for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    White, William D; Crockford, David; Patten, Scott; El-Guebaly, Nady

    2005-10-01

    This 6-week, randomized, open-label pilot study estimated the treatment effect size of gabapentin (n = 17) compared with bupropion SR (n = 19) for smoking cessation, thereby allowing sample size calculations for a definitive comparison study. The primary outcome measure was smoking cessation. Secondary outcome measures included smoking reduction and withdrawal severity. Gabapentin was less efficacious than bupropion for smoking cessation but was associated with fewer dropouts from adverse effects. Withdrawal severity was less with bupropion. Bupropion remains the first-line non-nicotine pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Further study is required to determine if gabapentin has any useful role in smoking cessation. Based on our primary outcome measure, 79 subjects would be required in each treatment group of a two-armed study to achieve 90% power for detecting a difference in efficacy between gabapentin and bupropion.

  10. Teen smoking cessation help via the Internet: a survey of search engines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.

  11. Health Care Workers in the Dominican Republic: Self-perceived role in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Ossip-Klein, Deborah J.; Diaz, Sergio; Sierra, Essie; Quiñones, Zahira; Armstrong, Latoya; Chin, Nancy P.; McIntosh, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A Dominican Republic (DR) based multi-community trial of smoking cessation viewed health care workers (HCWs) as potential interventionists. Effectively engaging them, requires a clear understanding of their attitudes and practices regarding smoking. A Rapid Assessment Procedure, conducted among HCWs in six economically disadvantaged communities, included physicians, nurses, other health professionals, paraprofessionals and lay workers. Attitudes and practices about smoking were consistent across the 82 HCWs and mostly reflected community views. HCWs lacked proactiveness related to smoking cessation and had a limited view of their role, attributing clients’ quitting successes to personal will. Prior cessation training was limited although interest was generally high. Material resources about smoking cessation were virtually absent. DR HCWs’ views represented features both distinct from and common to HCWs elsewhere. Any intervention with HCWs must first raise awareness before addressing their role in smoking cessation, discussing implementation barriers and include training and materials about risks and effective interventions. PMID:19448160

  12. Trial of intensive acupuncture for smoking cessation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McFadden, David D; Chon, Tony Y; Croghan, Ivana T; Schroeder, Darrell R; Mallory, Molly J; Ebbert, Jon O; Hays, J Taylor

    2015-10-01

    Despite the significant decline in smoking rates in the USA over the last 50 years, 42 million Americans continue to smoke. Although the combination of behavioural counselling with FDA-approved medications offers the best evidence-based treatment approach, 12-month relapse rates remain at >60%. Both healthcare providers and patients are searching for alternative treatment options. Most acupuncture trials have yielded poor results for smoking cessation; however, most trials have not used an intense treatment protocol and maintained treatment for at least 12 weeks. We designed a pilot study to address these methodological problems. Twenty-eight smokers were recruited to attend two 1 h acupuncture sessions weekly for 12 weeks. Primary endpoints included completion rate, acceptability of the protocol and side effects. Secondary endpoints included carbon monoxide (CO)-confirmed, 7-day point prevalence quit rates at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. Sixteen of the 28 patients enrolled (57%) completed 12 weeks of treatment. Of the 17 patients who completed the end-of-study questionnaire, 94% (16/17) rated the programme as helpful, and 82% noted they would recommend it to friends for smoking cessation. Three of the 28 who initially enrolled in the study were confirmed abstinent at 12 weeks (10.7%); one of the 28 (3.6%) was abstinent at 26 weeks. A larger study with a slightly less rigorous and more acceptable treatment protocol is feasible and should be considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions with Tobacco, Cannabinoids and Smoking Cessation Products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gail D; Chan, Lingtak-Neander

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoke contains a large number of compounds in the form of metals, volatile gases and insoluble particles, as well as nicotine, a highly addictive alkaloid. Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug of abuse in the world, with a significant increase in the USA due to the increasing number of states that allow medical and recreational use. Of the over 70 phytocannabinoids in marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannibinol are the three main constituents. Both marijuana and tobacco smoking induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 through activation of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor, and the induction effect between the two products is additive. Smoking cessation is associated with rapid downregulation of CYP1A enzymes. On the basis of the estimated half-life of CYP1A2, dose reduction of CYP1A drugs may be necessary as early as the first few days after smoking cessation to prevent toxicity, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Nicotine is a substrate of CYP2A6, which is induced by oestrogen, resulting in lower concentrations of nicotine in females than in males, especially in females taking oral contraceptives. The significant effects of CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of Δ(9)THC/CBD oromucosal spray suggest that CYP3A4 is the primary enzyme responsible for the metabolism of Δ(9)THC and CBD. Limited data also suggest that CBD may significantly inhibit CYP2C19. With the increasing use of marijuana and cannabis products, clinical studies are needed in order to determine the effects of other drugs on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

  14. Success of a smoking cessation programme in smoking behaviour of chronic periodontitis patients and identification of predictors of motivation for smoking cessation - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kropff, B; Petersilka, G; Flemmig, T; Ehmke, B; Heuft, G; Schneider, G

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the success of a smoking cessation programme on smoking behaviour of patients with chronic periodontitis. Secondary goals were to identify the prevalence of smoking among them, predictors of motivation for smoking cessation and for successful nicotine abstinence. Smokers suffering from chronic periodontitis were offered cognitive behavioural group therapy of 10 once-weekly sessions. Smoking is reduced stepwise and complete cessation is to be achieved by the sixth session. Sociodemographic data, history of smoking and motivation for smoking cessation, subjective health status, and questionnaires on anxiety, depression, control beliefs and coping with stress were completed at study entry. Smoking behaviour was assessed at the end of the group programme and 3 months thereafter. Of 469 patients with periodontitis, 59 (12.6%) were smokers; 30 (50.6%) patients participated in the smoking cessation programme. Participants smoked more cigarettes/day (P = 0.03, 95% CI: -17.9/-0.89) and subjectively assessed their health as being worse than non-participants (P = 0.09, 95% CI: -0.16/2.15). In SPQ, non-participants showed more trivialization (P = 0.014, 95% CI: 0.59/4.94). Complete data were available for 15 group participants: six patients were smoke-free after 10 weeks and five after 18 weeks (33.3%); two patients had reduced their cigarette consumption by half. At the start of the programme, less successful participants showed a tendency to higher depression in HADS (P = 0.085, 95% CI: -5.25/5.76) and were more inclined to seek substitute satisfaction (P = 0.034, 95% CI: 3.24/11.23). The rate of success in this study was comparable with other studies. More research with larger samples is needed for confirming these observations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An investigation of smoking cessation video content on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Chris G; Vettese, Lisa; Sussman, Steve; Small, Sandra P; Selby, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study examines smoking cessation content posted on youtube.com. The search terms "quit smoking" and "stop smoking" yielded 2,250 videos in October 2007. We examined the top 100 as well as 20 randomly selected videos. Of these, 82 were directly relevant to smoking cessation. Fifty-one were commercial productions that included antismoking messages and advertisements for hypnosis and NicoBloc fluid. Thirty-one were personally produced videos that described personal experiences with quitting, negative health effects, and advice on how to quit. Although smoking cessation content is being shared on YouTube, very little is based on strategies that have been shown to be effective.

  16. The Role of Smoking-Cessation-Specific Parenting in Adolescent Smoking-Specific Cognitions and Readiness to Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zundert, Rinka M. P.; Van De Ven, Monique O. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An instrument assessing smoking-cessation-specific parenting was developed and tested in relation to a) the pros of smoking and quitting and self-efficacy to resist smoking, and b) adolescent readiness to quit. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 998 Dutch adolescents who smoked regularly were used to perform structural equation…

  17. The Role of Smoking-Cessation-Specific Parenting in Adolescent Smoking-Specific Cognitions and Readiness to Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zundert, Rinka M. P.; Van De Ven, Monique O. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An instrument assessing smoking-cessation-specific parenting was developed and tested in relation to a) the pros of smoking and quitting and self-efficacy to resist smoking, and b) adolescent readiness to quit. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 998 Dutch adolescents who smoked regularly were used to perform structural equation…

  18. Adolescent Smoking Cessation With Bupropion: The Role of Adherence.

    PubMed

    Leischow, Scott J; Muramoto, Myra L; Matthews, Eva; Floden, Lysbeth L; Grana, Rachel A

    2016-05-01

    While many medications can be effective aids to quitting tobacco, real world adherence to smoking cessation medications may render a potentially effective medication ineffective. The present study investigated the role of adherence on treatment outcomes in a bupropion dose-response study among adolescent smokers trying to quit smoking. Three hundred twelve adolescent boys (n = 143) and girls (n = 169) between the ages of 14-17 were enrolled in the study, and were randomly assigned to use either 300 mg, 150 mg or placebo bupropion to quit smoking. Among the eligibility criterion, participants had to smoke at least six cigarettes per day, be motivated to quit smoking (self report), have an exhaled carbon monoxide level greater than or equal to 10 ppm, and report at least two previous quit attempts. Adherence to medication was determined by both self-report and actual counts of unused medication and empty medication packaging. Smoking status was determined by a combination of self-report and biochemical verification (breath carbon monoxide and urine cotinine). Cotinine-confirmed quit rates were significantly higher as a function of high adherence (20.69%) relative to low adherence (0.00%) in the 300-mg Bupropion Sustained Release group. Overall adherence in all study conditions in this highly controlled study was high (74%), but was significantly lower in non-white participants. Effectiveness of bupropion for adolescent smoking cessation is contingent on achieving high rates of medication adherence, but considerable variations in adherence impacted outcomes. Few studies have assessed the safety and efficacy of medications to help adolescent smokers quit, and we conducted one such study assessing bupropion. In this analysis of that original study, we assess the role of adherence in use of medication and quit rates. We found that adherence was related to outcomes, particularly in the 300-mg dose of bupropion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  19. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Olaf; Arbter, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Mayr, Christoph; Buhk, Thomas; Schalk, Horst; Brath, Helmut; Ernst Dorner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND), and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points), 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points) and 47.1% a high (5–10 points) dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least one session) was

  20. What accounts for the relationship between social class and smoking cessation? Results of a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Kaori; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kawakami, Norito

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall decline in cigarette smoking prevalence in the US, social class inequalities in smoking are likely to persist, or even to widen. One possible reason for the increasing gap in smoking prevalence across social class could be our lack of understanding of causal mechanisms: in other words, what accounts for the social gradient in smoking behavior? In this paper, we examine the mechanisms behind social gradients related to smoking cessation by use of path analysis techniques. The data come from a 3-year follow-up telephone survey of a cohort of US adults. The sample for the present analysis was drawn from the 481 respondents who reported being smokers and employed at baseline and who completed the follow-up interview. We examined two social class indicators, educational attainment and household income, in relation to smoking cessation. We tested the potential mediating effects of the following variables: differential use of resources for smoking cessation (e.g., booklet, pamphlet, quit line, nicotine replacement therapy and smoking cessation program), differential environments in terms of smoking at worksite and home, and differences in peer smoking. Our path analyses suggest that smokers from high social class are likely to use effective resources for smoking cessation and have restrictive home environment in terms of smoking, which leads to a relatively higher smoking cessation rate compared to those from low social class. The results of this study suggest that interventions should target resources for smoking cessation and home environments in terms of smoking to reduce socio-economic disparities in smoking cessation.

  1. Effectiveness of acupuncture for smoking cessation in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Ma, Edmond; Chan, Thomas; Zhang, Ou; Yang, Jin-sheng; Wang, Ying-ying; Li, Ya-chan; Ho, Raymond; Lai, Cindy; Lam, Ping-yan

    2015-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture for smoking cessation, and determine predictors for successful quitters. Smokers received at least 6 sessions of body acupuncture provided by Chinese medicine practitioners and initiated self-administered auricular acupuncture. We determined self-report 26-week and 52-week quit rates by intention-to-treat analysis and examined predictors for successful quitting by univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 1002 smokers were recruited; 26-week and 52-week quit rates were 16.8% and 15.8%, respectively. Male sex, older age, lower nicotine dependence level, and number of body acupuncture and counseling sessions received were associated with successful quitting. A multiple logistic regression model showed that sex, nicotine dependence level, and number of body acupuncture sessions received were predictors for successful quitting. Body and auricular acupuncture is effective in smoking cessation and should be considered as an alternative to help smokers in quitting, especially for those whose past attempts using conventional methods were in vain. © 2013 APJPH.

  2. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life: The role of time since cessation

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; van Baal, Pieter HM; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha L

    2008-01-01

    Background To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Furthermore, many people who quit smoking relapse, most of them within a relatively short period. Methods In this paper, a method is presented for calculating the effects of smoking cessation interventions on disease incidence that allows to deal with relapse and the effect of time since quitting. A simulation model is described that links smoking to the incidence of 14 smoking related diseases. To demonstrate the model, health effects are estimated of two interventions in which part of current smokers in the Netherlands quits smoking. To illustrate the advantages of the model its results are compared with those of two simpler versions of the model. In one version we assumed no relapse after quitting and equal incidence rates for all former smokers. In the second version, incidence rates depend on time since cessation, but we assumed still no relapse after quitting. Results Not taking into account time since smoking cessation on disease incidence rates results in biased estimates of the effects of interventions. The immediate public health effects are overestimated, since the health risk of quitters immediately drops to the mean level of all former smokers. However, the long-term public health effects are underestimated since after longer periods of time the effects of past smoking disappear and so surviving quitters start to resemble never smokers. On balance, total health gains of smoking cessation are underestimated if one does not account for the effect of time since cessation on disease incidence rates. Not taking into account relapse of quitters overestimates health gains substantially. Conclusion The results show that simulation models are sensitive to assumptions

  3. The potential impact of smoke-free facilities on smoking cessation in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David; Lawn, Sharon; Kisely, Stephen; Bates, Ann; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the degree to which smoke-free facilities may facilitate smoking cessation in smokers with mental illness by estimating the proportion of smokers with mental illness who receive inpatient treatment, their smoking rates and average durations of stay. Smoking and hospitalization rates were estimated from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Information on duration of inpatient treatment was calculated from the Western Australian Mental Health Information System. Of Australia's estimated 3,567,000 current adult smokers, 32.4% had a mental illness in the past 12 months, and 66.6% had a lifetime mental illness. However, only 1.4% of smokers were hospitalized for a mental health problem in the past 12 months, and 6.3% had ever been hospitalized for a mental health problem. Of those hospitalized for mental health treatment in the past 12 months, 61.2% were current smokers. In 2007 median duration of inpatient mental health admissions was 1 day, and 57% of admissions had duration of 2 days or less. The majority of smokers with mental illness are not treated in inpatient facilities, and where inpatient admissions occur they are generally of short duration. While smoking cessation is an important goal in treatment of smokers with mental illness, support after discharge from inpatient care is important for longer term cessation. Other strategies will be required to support smoking cessation efforts for the majority of smokers with mental illness not in contact with mental health services.

  4. Exploring Factors that Influence Smoking Initiation and Cessation among Current Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Chezhian, Cheangaivendan; Murthy, Shruti; Prasad, Satish; Kasav, Jyoti Bala; Sharma, Sangeeta; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, cigarette smoking kills 5 million people annually, and leads to illness, disability and death. This study aimed to assess the factors influencing smoking initiation and cessation among current smokers in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2013 in Chennai, India. A convenient sample of 100 current smokers aged >15 years was enrolled. A modified version of Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screen Test (ASSIST) questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographics, smoking initiation and cessation, expenditure on smoking products and perceptions on incentives for smoking cessation. Results Surrounding influence (44%), stress (42%) and fun (40%) were major reasons for smoking initiation. Majority of participants (68%) attempted to quit smoking within past 6 months but failed. Health promotion programs (61%) and financial incentives (20%) were perceived to be helpful in smoking cessation. Conclusion Smoking cessation strategies, especially at workplaces, should target the multi-factorial nature of smoking initiation and cessation. There is a need to review national guidelines to evaluate the accessibility and availability of smoking products in and around the workplace. PMID:26155500

  5. Efficacy of a technology-based, integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention for smoking cessation in adolescents: Results of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Haug, Severin; Paz Castro, Raquel; Kowatsch, Tobias; Filler, Andreas; Schaub, Michael P

    2017-11-01

    To test the efficacy of a technology-based integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention versus a smoking cessation only intervention in adolescents. This was a two-arm, parallel-group, cluster-randomised controlled trial with assessments at baseline and six months follow-up. Subjects in both groups received tailored mobile phone text messages to support smoking cessation for 3months, and the option of registering for a program incorporating strategies for smoking cessation centred around a self-defined quit date. Subjects in the integrated intervention group also received tailored feedback regarding their consumption of alcohol and, for binge drinkers, tailored mobile phone text messages encouraging them to maintain their drinking within low-risk limits over a 3-month period. Primary outcome measures were the 7-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence and change in cigarette consumption. In 360 Swiss vocational and upper secondary school classes, 2127 students who smoked tobacco regularly and owned a mobile phone were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 1471 (69.2%) participated and 6-month follow-up data were obtained for 1116 (75.9%). No significant group differences were observed for any of the primary or secondary outcomes. Moderator analyses revealed beneficial intervention effects concerning 7-day smoking abstinence in participants with higher versus lower alcohol consumption. Overall, the integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention exhibited no advantages over a smoking cessation only intervention, but it might be more effective for the subgroup of adolescent smokers with higher alcohol consumption. Providing a combined smoking cessation and alcohol intervention might be recommended for adolescent smokers with higher-level alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Smoking cessation at work exemplified by "action blanca casa", a project for smoking cessation in the D. Swarovski & Co., Wattens, firm].

    PubMed

    Ott, G; Hammer, E; Seipel, K G; Mark, G

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies about the efficacy of smoking cessation programs in the workplace have brought up to common difficulties. Only long-term-programs show remarkable effects on smoking habits of the workers. Presenting ongoing long-term strategies for open discussion can improve the design of more powerful cessation programs in the future. Our program as an important part of modern "human resources management" is demonstrated and the results after 18 months are discussed.

  7. Predictors of Retention in Smoking Cessation Treatment among Latino Smokers in the Northeast United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christina S.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Only one previous study on minority retention in smoking cessation treatment has been conducted (Nevid JS, Javier RA, Moulton JL III. "Factors predicting participant attrition in a community-based, culturally specific smoking cessation program for Hispanic smokers." "Health Psychol" 1996; 15: 226-29). We investigated predictors of…

  8. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  9. A Randomized Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Pregnant Women at a WIC Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jeffrey P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates a randomized trial of a self-help smoking cessation program for pregnant smokers at the Kent County Health Department in Grand Rapids, (Michigan). Results indicate larger quit rates amongst program participants than those in the usual care group. Suggests that smoking cessation programs for low-income pregnant WIC clients are…

  10. Predictors of Retention in Smoking Cessation Treatment among Latino Smokers in the Northeast United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christina S.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Only one previous study on minority retention in smoking cessation treatment has been conducted (Nevid JS, Javier RA, Moulton JL III. "Factors predicting participant attrition in a community-based, culturally specific smoking cessation program for Hispanic smokers." "Health Psychol" 1996; 15: 226-29). We investigated predictors of…

  11. Smoking Cessation Delivered by Medical Students Is Helpful to Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Andrew; Alpert, Hilary; Karam-Hage, Maher

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors pilot a smoking-cessation outreach for the homeless that extends medical students' tobacco cessation education. Method: In this prospective study, second-year medical students administered cognitive behavior therapy or unstructured support to homeless subjects to help them quit smoking. Self-report and biological measures…

  12. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  13. A Comparison of Successful Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Mary G.; Pope, Mark

    2000-01-01

    This review of counseling literature analyzes the motivating and impeding factors for adults and adolescents regarding smoking cessation. Brief counseling increases adolescents' and adults' chances of success. Counselors can facilitate smoking cessation by increasing clients' motivation and teaching stress management. Counselors must be aware of…

  14. Treating Tobacco Dependence: Development of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for Outpatient Mental Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Wolfsdorf, Barbara A.; Morissette, Sandra Baker

    2004-01-01

    Response to smoking cessation treatment programs sharply decreases when applied to smokers with psychiatric comorbidities. Consequently, the development of smoking cessation treatments that address the needs of psychiatric patients is greatly needed. The primary purpose of this article is to detail the process of development of an empirically…

  15. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  16. Smoking Cessation Delivered by Medical Students Is Helpful to Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Andrew; Alpert, Hilary; Karam-Hage, Maher

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors pilot a smoking-cessation outreach for the homeless that extends medical students' tobacco cessation education. Method: In this prospective study, second-year medical students administered cognitive behavior therapy or unstructured support to homeless subjects to help them quit smoking. Self-report and biological measures…

  17. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  18. Neural correlates of message tailoring and self-relatedness in smoking cessation programming

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Liberzon, Israel; Welsh, Robert C.; Strecher, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking leads to illnesses including addiction, cancer, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Different intervention programs have become available. In the past decade, providing tailored smoking cessation messages has been shown to be more effective in inducing smoking cessation than one-size-fits-all interventions. However, little is known about the brain responses of smokers when they receive tailored smoking cessation messages. METHODS A neuroimaging study using blocked and event-related designs examined neural activity in 24 smokers exposed to high-tailored and low-tailored smoking cessation messages. RESULTS: In both blocked and event-related conditions, rostral medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate were engaged more during the processing of high-tailored smoking cessation messages than low-tailored smoking cessation messages. CONCLUSION The activation patterns of smokers to tailored cessation messages show involvement of brain areas commonly implicated in self-related processing. Results seem to add support to the suggested role of self-relevance in tailored cessation programs, where previous studies have shown a potential mediating role of self-relevance on smoking abstinence. The findings are relevant to understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying tailored message processing and may point to new directions for testing response to health communications programming. PMID:18926523

  19. A Randomized Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Pregnant Women at a WIC Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jeffrey P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates a randomized trial of a self-help smoking cessation program for pregnant smokers at the Kent County Health Department in Grand Rapids, (Michigan). Results indicate larger quit rates amongst program participants than those in the usual care group. Suggests that smoking cessation programs for low-income pregnant WIC clients are…

  20. Smoking cessation intervention using stepwise exercise incentives for male workers in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Gyu-Seok; Jung, Hye-Sun; Yi, Yunjeong; Yoon, Chungsik; Choi, Jae-Wook

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program as one of the workplace health promotion program. The aim of this study is to evaluate the program offered in an electronics company in Korea. A total of 109 electronics company employees were recruited. Participants were surveyed for smoking history, nicotine dependence, and job stress. They received smoking cessation education and were provided with a stepwise fitness center ticket. Of 109 participants, 58 (53.2%) successfully ceased smoking for 3 months. Significant differences between success and fail groups were apparent in cigarettes smoked per day (P = .002) and nicotine dependence score (P = .049). However, there was no significant difference in job stress between success and fail groups. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, there were no identifiable factors associated with smoking cessation. In conclusion, a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program was highly effective when applied in a workplace setting.

  1. Structural and Functional Support in the Prediction of Smoking Cessation in Caregivers of Children with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Erin M; Busch, Andrew; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Borrelli, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers of children with asthma smoke at rates similar to the general population. Research on the relative importance of structural or functional social support in smoking cessation has been mixed. Participants were smokers (N = 154) who were caregivers of children with asthma. Both functional (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List) and structural social support (living with another smoker, partner status, and the proportion of smoking friends) were measured at baseline. Participants received an asthma-education and smoking cessation intervention based on Motivational Interviewing. Biochemically-verified abstinence was assessed at six months post treatment. Results indicated that functional support predicted smoking abstinence even when controlling for relevant covariates and structural support (OR = .896, p = .025). Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven primarily by the self-esteem ISEL subscale. Smoking cessation that focuses on building general functional support, particularly self-esteem support, may be beneficial for smoking cessation in caregivers of children with asthma.

  2. [Cross-sectional survey of smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in adults in Jiangxi province, 2013].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Y; Zhu, L P; Yan, W; Liu, J; Ji, L; Xu, Y

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation in adults of Jiangxi province in 2013. Methods: Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 6 000 individuals aged ≥18 years from 10 chronic and non-communicable disease and risk factor surveillance points of Jiangxi province in 2013. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information about the risk factors for chronic and non-communicable diseases and 5 997 records were used in final analysis of smoking and smoking cessation. Sample was weighted to represent the adult population of Jiangxi province. The prevalence of different groups were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of current smoking of the sample was 21.53% (1 291/5 997). After complex weighting, the prevalence of smoking was 26.07% in adults in Jiangxi (95%CI:23.48%-28.66%), and it was much higher in men (50.62%, 95%CI: 46.31%-54.94%) than in women(1.46%, 95%CI: 0.57%-2.35%), the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The differences in smoking prevalence were significant among different age groups (P=0.029), and the smoking prevalence increased with educational level, but decreased with the worse of self-reported health condition. Most current smokers smoked every day (87.16%, 95%CI: 83.29%-91.03%) and averagely 19.27 (95%CI: 17.69-20.85) cigarettes were smoked daily. The proportion of smokers with average daily consumption ≥20 cigarettes was 64.74% (95%CI: 55.79%-73.70%). The smokers'average age of starting daily smoking was 20.28 (95%CI: 19.74-20.82) years old, which was lower in men [20.11(95%CI: 19.61-20.61) years old] than in women [26.88(95%CI: 24.73-29.03) years old], the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Among the male smokers, 27.04%(95%CI:18.91%-35.16%) of male smokers was less than 18 years old when they started daily smoking, and the proportion was 17.46%(95%CI: 0%-37.71%) in female smokers. The smoking cessation rate was 14.80% (95%CI

  3. Medicaid Coverage of Smoking Cessation Counseling and Medication Is Underutilized for Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Richter, Kimber P; Jacobson, Lisette T; Shireman, Theresa I

    2017-05-01

    Policies to promote smoking cessation among Medicaid-insured pregnant women have the potential to assist a significant proportion of pregnant smokers. In 2010, Kansas Medicaid began covering smoking cessation counseling for pregnant smokers. Our aim was to evaluate the use of smoking cessation benefits provided to pregnant women as a result of the Kansas Medicaid policy change that provided reimbursement for physician-provided smoking cessation counseling. We examined Kansas Medicaid claims data to estimate rates of delivery of smoking cessation treatment to Medicaid-insured pregnant women in Kansas from fiscal year 2010 through 2013. We analyzed the number of pregnant women who received physician-provided smoking cessation counseling indicated by procedure billing codes (ie, G0436 and G0437) and medication (ie, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline) located in outpatient managed care encounter and fee-for-service claims data. We estimated the number of Medicaid-insured pregnant smokers using the national smoking prevalence (14%) in this population and the number of live births reported in Kansas. Annually from 2010 to 2013, approximately 27.2%-31.6% of pregnant smokers had claims for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline. Excluding claims for bupropion, a medication commonly prescribed to treat depression, claims ranged from 9.3% to 11.1%. Following implementation of Medicaid coverage for smoking cessation counseling, less than 1% of estimated smokers had claims for counseling. This low claims rate suggests that simply changing policy is not sufficient to ensure use of newly implemented benefits, and that there probably remain critical gaps in smoking cessation treatment. This study evaluates the use of Medicaid reimbursement for smoking cessation counseling among low-income pregnant women in Kansas. We describe the Medicaid claims rates of physician-provided smoking cessation counseling for pregnant women, an evidence-based and

  4. The commitment to quitting smoking scale: initial validation in a smoking cessation trial for heavy social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Lachance, Heather R; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Monti, Peter M; Brown, Richard A

    2007-10-01

    We tested the psychometric properties and predictive validity of a newly developed 8-item measure of commitment to quitting smoking, conceptualized as the state of being personally bound or obligated to persist in quitting smoking despite potential difficulties, craving and discomfort. Participants were 157 heavy drinking smokers enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. The measure showed strong unidimensionality, good internal consistency, and moderate stability from baseline to quit date. Commitment significantly increased from baseline to quit date. Higher commitment to quitting at baseline predicted greater odds of abstinence at post-treatment and 16 and 26 weeks after quit date. Commitment predicted smoking outcome over and above level of tobacco dependence, self-reported importance of quitting smoking, and self-efficacy for remaining abstinent. Results suggest that commitment is a highly relevant construct for smoking cessation, which can be reliably assessed with the Commitment to Quitting Smoking Scale and which may be an excellent target for smoking cessation treatments.

  5. Has smoking cessation ceased? Expected trends in the prevalence of smoking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mendez, D; Warner, K E; Courant, P N

    1998-08-01

    From 1965 to 1990, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among US adults (aged > or = 18 years) fell steadily and substantially. Data for the 1990s suggest that the smoking initiation rate is increasing and that the decline in the prevalence of smoking may have stalled, raising the fear that the historical 25-year decline will not continue. The authors used a new dynamic forecasting model to show that although the decline may slow down, the demographics of smoking imply that prevalence will inexorably continue to decline over the next several decades, even without any intensified efforts aimed at tobacco control. The authors estimated and validated the model using historical (1965-1993) data collected by the National Health Interview Surveys on the prevalence of smoking among adults. Their results indicate that the current increase in the smoking initiation rate partially explains the fact that the prevalence of smoking has apparently leveled off, but even if the most grim assumptions about future initiation rates are used, the prevalence of smoking among adults will continue to decline for several more decades. The authors predict that if current initiation and cessation behaviors persist, the prevalence of smoking among adults will automatically decline from its current level of 25% to 15-16% by the second quarter of the next century. Even so, smoking will remain the nation's leading cause of premature death.

  6. A review of smartphone apps for smoking cessation available in Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Ervilha, Rafaela Russi; Machado, Nathália Munck; Andrade, Bárbara Any Bianchi Bottaro de; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2017-03-09

    Smartphone apps are being developed as a complement to smoking cessation treatment. The current study aimed to analyze the content of available apps in Portuguese in two operational systems, Android and iOS. Fifty-one apps were found in iTunes and 600 in Google Play. Content evaluation included apps that focused on smoking cessation, with a total of 12 apps in iOS and 3 in Android. Each app was categorized according to its approach to smoking cessation and scored according to level of adherence to the Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence smoking cessation treatment guideline. Nine apps were classified as calendars, 8 as information tools, 6 as calculators, 3 as cigarette trackers, and 1 as hypnosis. The apps showed low level of adherence to the guideline, with a mean score of 12.8. We recommend that the available apps be revised and that future apps be developed using evidence-based practices for smoking cessation.

  7. The role of second-hand smoke exposure on smoking cessation in non-tobacco-related cancers.

    PubMed

    Eng, Lawson; Qiu, Xin; Su, Jie; Pringle, Dan; Niu, Chongya; Mahler, Mary; Charow, Rebecca; Villeneuve, Jodie; Halytskyy, Oleksandr; Lam, Christine; Tiessen, Kyoko; Brown, M Catherine; Howell, Doris; Giuliani, Meredith E; Jones, Jennifer M; Alibhai, Shabbir M H; Goldstein, David P; Xu, Wei; Selby, Peter; Liu, Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) is a significant barrier to smoking cessation after a diagnosis of cancer in patients with lung as well as head and neck cancers. In the current study, the authors evaluated the effect of SHS on smoking cessation among patients with those cancers not traditionally perceived to be strongly associated with smoking. Patients recruited from a single tertiary care center completed a self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association of sociodemographics, clinicopathological variables, and exposure to SHS with either smoking cessation or time to quitting. In all, 926 patients with diverse cancer subtypes completed the questionnaire. Of the 161 who were current smokers at the time of their cancer diagnosis, 48% quit after diagnosis. Lack of exposure to SHS at home was found to be associated with smoking cessation at any time after diagnosis (adjusted odd ratio, 4.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-11.78 [P =.005]), with similar trends noted 1 year after diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-7.22 [P =.08]). There was a significant inverse dose-response relationship between hours of SHS exposure at home and smoking cessation. Spousal and peer smoking were not found to be significantly associated with smoking cessation on multivariate analysis (P>.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis found that of patients who did quit smoking, 61% quit within 6 months of their cancer diagnosis. Exposure to SHS at home is a significant barrier to smoking cessation in patients whose cancers are not traditionally perceived as being related to tobacco. SHS should be a key consideration in the development of survivorship programs geared toward smoking cessation for all patients with cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  8. Smoking cessation counseling by pediatricians in an inner-city setting.

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Iman; Oruwariye, Tosan; Waldman, Genna; Ozuah, Philip O.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess mothers' perceptions of pediatrician-provided smoking cessation counseling. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. SETTING: Waiting rooms of five ambulatory pediatric clinics in the Bronx, NY. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 115 mothers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A structured questionnaire assessed the smoking history of the subject, presence or absence of environmental tobacco smoke(ETS)-related conditions in the subject's youngest child, and extent of smoking cessation counseling by the pediatrician. Subjects were asked whether they had been 1) asked about smoking; 2) advised about the risks of ETS exposure; 3) assisted in smoking cessation; and 4) arranged for a follow-up appointment to discuss smoking cessation. RESULTS: Overall, 73% of mothers reported being asked about smoking by their child's pediatrician, and 50% reported being advised about the effects of ETS exposure. Of the 26 smokers in the sample, only two reported being assisted in smoking cessation. None reported being arranged for a follow-up appointment. Mothers of children with ETS-related conditions reported a higher rate of assessment for smoking status (ask: 85% vs. 63%, p =.01; advise: 57% vs. 43%, p =.19). CONCLUSIONS: Mothers in our setting report a high level of inquiry into their tobacco use, especially when they have children with ETS-related conditions. While they also report receiving advice about the risks of ETS exposure, smokers are very infrequently assisted in smoking cessation. PMID:12392048

  9. Laryngeal mucus hypersecretion is exacerbated after smoking cessation and ameliorated by glucocorticoid administration.

    PubMed

    Ueha, Rumi; Ueha, Satoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Nito, Takaharu; Fujimaki, Yoko; Nishijima, Hironobu; Tsunoda, Koichi; Shand, Francis H W; Matsushima, Kouji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-04

    The mechanisms underlying the effects of cigarette smoke and smoking cessation on respiratory secretion, especially in the larynx, remain unclear. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of cigarette smoke and smoking cessation on laryngeal mucus secretion and inflammation, and to investigate the effects of glucocorticoid administration. We administered cigarette smoke solution (CSS) to eight-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats for four weeks, then examined laryngeal mucus secretion and inflammatory cytokine expression on days 1, 28 and 90 after smoking cessation. We also investigated the effects of the glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide when administered on day 1 after smoking cessation. Exposure to CSS resulted in an increase in laryngeal mucus secretion that was further excacerbated following smoking cessation. This change coincided with an increase in the expression of mRNA for the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6, as well as mRNA for MUC5AC, which is involved in mucin production. Triamcinolone suppressed CSS-induced laryngeal mucus hypersecretion and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Cigarette smoke-associated inflammation may contribute to the exacerbated laryngeal mucus hypersecretion that occurs following smoking cessation. The inflammatory response represents a promising target for the treatment of cigarette smoke-associated mucus hypersecretion. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacists' smoking cessation practices: relationship to their knowledge and skills, attitudes, and perceptions of roles.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Mary Jane; Brewster, Joan M; Victor, J Charles

    2006-01-01

    To assess factors associated with pharmacists' practices regarding patients' smoking and smoking cessation. Cross-sectional analysis. Four Canadian provinces (Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan, Prince Edward Island). Practicing community pharmacists (n = 906; weighted n = 897). Population-based mailed questionnaire survey with 72% response rate. Bivariate and multivariate relationships between 12 clinical interventions regarding smoking and smoking cessation and 7 domains: basic pharmacologic knowledge; applied health science knowledge and skills; positive, negative and economic-related attitudes toward smoking cessation; perceptions of pharmacists' roles with patients who smoke: assessing and motivating patients; assisting, referring and following up. Basic pharmacologic knowledge and applied health science knowledge and skills were independently related to 12 and 10 interventions, respectively. Positive attitudes toward smoking cessation were independently related to 8 interventions. Negative attitudes and economic-related attitudes toward smoking cessation were each independently related to only 1 intervention. Perceptions of pharmacists' roles with respect to "assessing and motivating patients," and "assisting, referring, and following up" were independently related to 8 and 3 interventions, respectively. Initiatives to increase tobacco-related knowledge and skills and enhance positive attitudes and role perceptions with respect to smoking and smoking cessation may promote interventions by community pharmacists with patients who smoke.

  11. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Linda G; Al-Bashaireh, Ahmad M; Ferrell, Anastasiya V; Ghadban, Roula

    2017-04-13

    To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA) men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack-a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1) per day (98.7%). All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5%) and post-intervention phases (47.7%) wanted to quit smoking "very much". For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = -6.915, p < 0.001). Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a) Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b) culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  12. Abstinence Violation Effect: Validation of an Attributional Construct with Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Susan; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The abstinence violation effect (AVE) proposed in Marlatt and Gordon's model of smoking relapse was operationalized as a combination of internal, stable, and global causal attributions for smoking following the attainment of abstinence from smoking. Smoking cessation program participants who relapsed following a slip reported significantly higher…

  13. The Goetz Plan: A Practical Smoking Cessation Program for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Franklin B.; Goetz, Kristin M.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is responsible for approximately 434,000 deaths per year in the United States (Fact Sheet, 1993). College students represent a large portion of the smoking public. Roughly 70% of college students have tried smoking (Everett & Husten, 1999). There are various methods available to assist in smoking cessation, some being, nicotine…

  14. Abstinence Violation Effect: Validation of an Attributional Construct with Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Susan; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The abstinence violation effect (AVE) proposed in Marlatt and Gordon's model of smoking relapse was operationalized as a combination of internal, stable, and global causal attributions for smoking following the attainment of abstinence from smoking. Smoking cessation program participants who relapsed following a slip reported significantly higher…

  15. The Goetz Plan: A Practical Smoking Cessation Program for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Franklin B.; Goetz, Kristin M.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is responsible for approximately 434,000 deaths per year in the United States (Fact Sheet, 1993). College students represent a large portion of the smoking public. Roughly 70% of college students have tried smoking (Everett & Husten, 1999). There are various methods available to assist in smoking cessation, some being, nicotine…

  16. Associations Between Anxiety Sensitivity, Negative Affect, and Smoking During a Self-Guided Smoking Cessation Attempt.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Farris, Samantha G; Øverup, Camilla S; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), defined as the extent to which individuals believe anxiety and internal sensations have harmful consequences, is associated with the maintenance and relapse of smoking. Yet, little is known about how AS interplays with negative affect during the quit process in terms of smoking behavior. To address this gap, the current study examined the dynamic interplay between AS, negative affect, and smoking lapse behavior during the course of a self-guided (unaided) quit attempt. Fifty-four participants (33.3% female; M age = 34.6, SD = 13.8) completed ecological momentary assessment procedures, reporting on negative affect and smoking status via a handheld computer device, three times per day for the initial 14 days of the self-guided cessation attempt. As expected, a significant interaction was observed, such that participants characterized by high levels of AS were at a higher risk of smoking on days when negative affect was high (relative to low). Results also revealed a significant interaction between AS and daily smoking lapse behavior in terms of daily change in negative affect. Participants characterized by high levels of AS reported significant increases in same-day negative affect on days when they endorsed smoking relative to days they endorsed abstinence. This study provides novel information about the nature of AS, negative affect, and smoking behavior during a quit attempt. Results suggest there is a need for specialized intervention strategies to enhance smoking outcome among this high-risk group that will meet their unique "affective needs." The current study underscores the importance of developing specialized smoking cessation interventions for smokers with emotional vulnerabilities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of exercise type on smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Klinsophon, Thaniya; Thaveeratitham, Premtip; Sitthipornvorakul, Ekalak; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2017-09-06

    Exercise is one choice of additional treatment for smoking cessation by relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving. The possible mechanism of the effect of exercise on relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving is including affect, biological, and cognitive hypotheses. Evidence suggests that different types of exercise have different effects on these mechanisms. Therefore, type of exercise might have effect on smoking cessation. The purpose of this study is to systematically review randomized controlled trials to gain insight into which types of exercise are effective for smoking cessation. Publications were systemically searched up to November 2016 in several databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, PEDro, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library), using the following keywords: "physical activity", "exercise", "smoking", "tobacco" and "cigarette". The methodological quality was assessed independently by two authors. Meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the type of exercise on smoking cessation. The quality of the evidence was assessed and rated according to the GRADE approach. 20 articles on 19 studies were judged to meet the selection criteria (seven low-risk of bias RCTs and 12 high-risk of bias RCTs). The findings revealed low quality evidence for the effectiveness of yoga for smoking cessation at the end of the treatment. The evidence found for no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, and a combined aerobic and resisted exercise program on smoking cessation was of low to moderate quality. Furthermore, very low to low quality evidence was found for no effect of physical activity on smoking cessation. There was no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, physical activity and combined aerobic and resisted exercise on smoking cessation. There was a positive effect on smoking cessation at the end of treatment in the program where yoga plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was used. However, which

  18. Repeated measures latent class analysis of daily smoking in three smoking cessation studies.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Danielle E; Ebssa, Lemma; Witkiewitz, Katie; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-08-01

    Person-centered approaches to the study of behavior change, such as repeated measures latent class analysis (RMLCA), can be used to identify patterns of change and link these to later behavior change outcomes. Daily smoking status data from three smoking cessation studies (N=287, N=334, and N=403) were submitted to RMLCA to identify latent classes of smokers based on patterns of abstinence across the first 27days of a quit attempt. Three-month biochemically verified abstinence rates were compared among latent classes with particular patterns of smoking across days. Pharmacotherapy variables and baseline individual differences were added as covariates of latent class membership. Results of separate and pooled analyses supported a five-class solution that replicated across studies. Latent classes included a large class that achieved immediate stable abstinence, a smaller class of cessation failures, and three classes with partial abstinence that increased, decreased, or remained stable over time. Three-month point-prevalence abstinence rates varied among the latent classes, with 38-55% abstinent among early quitters, 3-20% abstinent among those who smoked intermittently throughout the first 27days, and fewer than 5% abstinent in the classes marked by little or delayed change in smoking. High-dose nicotine patch and bupropion promoted membership in abstinent classes. Demographics, nicotine dependence, and craving were related to latent class in multiple studies and pooled analyses. We identified five patterns of smoking behavior in the first weeks of a smoking cessation attempt. These patterns are robust across multiple studies and are related to later point-prevalence abstinence rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The 2005 British Columbia Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign and short-term changes in smoking.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2005 British Columbia Ministry of Health Smoking Cessation Mass Media Campaign on short-term smoking behavior. National cross-sectional data are used with a quasi-experimental approach to test the impact of the campaign. Findings indicate that prevalence and average number of cigarettes smoked per day deviated upward from trend for the rest of Canada (P = .08; P = .01) but not for British Columbia. They also indicate that British Columbia smokers in lower risk groups reduced their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend (-2.23; P = .10), whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did not, and that British Columbia smokers in high-risk groups did not increase their average daily consumption of cigarettes over and above the 1999-2004 trend, whereas smokers in the rest of Canada did (2.97; P = .01). The overall poorer performance of high-risk groups is attributed to high exposure to cigarette smoking, which reduces a smoker's chances of successful cessation. In particular, high-risk groups are by definition more likely to be exposed to smoking by peers, but are also less likely to work in workplaces with smoking bans, which are shown to have a substantial impact on prevalence. Results suggest that for mass media campaigns to be more effective with high-risk groups, they need to be combined with other incentives, and that more prolonged interventions should be considered.

  20. Development of SmokeFree Baby: a smoking cessation smartphone app for pregnant smokers.

    PubMed

    Tombor, Ildiko; Shahab, Lion; Brown, Jamie; Crane, David; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant smokers may benefit from digital smoking cessation interventions, but few have been designed for this population. The aim was to transparently report the development of a smartphone app designed to aid smoking cessation during pregnancy. The development of a smartphone app ('SmokeFree Baby') to help pregnant women stop smoking was guided by frameworks for developing complex interventions, including the Medical Research Council (MRC), Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW). Two integrative behaviour change theories provided the theoretical base. Evidence from the scientific literature and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) from the BCT Taxonomy v1 informed the intervention content. The app was developed around five core modules, each with a distinct intervention target (identity change, stress management, health information, promoting use of face-to-face support and behavioural substitution) and available in a 'control' or 'full' version. SmokeFree Baby has been developed as part of a multiphase intervention optimization to identify the optimum combination of intervention components to include in smartphone apps to help pregnant smokers stop smoking.

  1. Smoking and smoking cessation in Latin America: a review of the current situation and available treatments

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Fernando; Wehbe, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a growing problem throughout Latin American countries, especially in underdeveloped countries where poverty and lack of education about the dangers of smoking may make people more susceptible to becoming smokers. Moreover, the economies of many Latin American countries have become dependent on the production of tobacco. Furthermore, because of the associated promotion of tobacco, smoking has integrated into many Latin American cultures. Nevertheless, the harmful health effects of tobacco use are well documented, including greatly increased risks of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and many forms of cancer. The medical costs associated with treating these diseases far outweigh the economic benefits of producing and selling this deadly crop. To control the tobacco pandemic in Latin American countries, nicotine addiction must be recognized and treated as a disease. Governments, both national and local, need to be more involved in enacting anti-smoking policies such as higher tobacco taxation, control of illegal tobacco smuggling, and reimbursement of medical smoking cessation interventions. The training of health professions in the area of nicotine addiction must also be improved, so that they may better assist smokers in their quit attempts and advise patients on, and prescribe, effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. PMID:18686737

  2. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tappin, David; Bauld, Linda; Purves, David; Boyd, Kathleen; Sinclair, Lesley; MacAskill, Susan; McKell, Jennifer; Friel, Brenda; McConnachie, Alex; de Caestecker, Linda; Tannahill, Carol; Radley, Andrew; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-27

    To assess the efficacy of a financial incentive added to routine specialist pregnancy stop smoking services versus routine care to help pregnant smokers quit. Phase II therapeutic exploratory single centre, individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. One large health board area with a materially deprived, inner city population in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. 612 self reported pregnant smokers in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde who were English speaking, at least 16 years of age, less than 24 weeks pregnant, and had an exhaled carbon monoxide breath test result of 7 ppm or more. 306 women were randomised to incentives and 306 to control. The control group received routine care, which was the offer of a face to face appointment to discuss smoking and cessation and, for those who attended and set a quit date, the offer of free nicotine replacement therapy for 10 weeks provided by pharmacy services, and four, weekly support phone calls. The intervention group received routine care plus the offer of up to £400 of shopping vouchers: £50 for attending a face to face appointment and setting a quit date; then another £50 if at four weeks' post-quit date exhaled carbon monoxide confirmed quitting; a further £100 was provided for continued validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide after 12 weeks; a final £200 voucher was provided for validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide at 34-38 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was cotinine verified cessation at 34-38 weeks' gestation through saliva (<14.2 ng/mL) or urine (<44.7 ng/mL). Secondary outcomes included birth weight, engagement, and self reported quit at four weeks. Recruitment was extended from 12 to 15 months to achieve the target sample size. Follow-up continued until September 2013. Of the 306 women randomised, three controls opted out soon after enrolment; these women did not want their data to be used, leaving 306 intervention and 303 control group participants in the

  3. Factors influencing European GPs' engagement in smoking cessation: a multi-country literature review.

    PubMed

    Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Holme, Ingrid; Cohen, David; Tait, Gayle

    2009-09-01

    Smoking cessation advice by GPs is an effective and cost-effective intervention, but is not implemented as widely as it could be. This wide-ranging Europe-wide literature review, part of the European Union (EU) PESCE (General Practitioners and the Economics of Smoking Cessation in Europe) project, explored the extent of GPs' engagement in smoking cessation and the factors that influence their engagement. Two searches were conducted, one for grey literature, across all European countries, and one for academic studies. Data from eligible studies published from 1990 onwards were synthesised and reported under four categories of influencing factors: GP characteristics, patient characteristics, structural factors, and cessation-specific knowledge and skills. The literature showed that most GPs in Europe question the smoking status of all new patients but fewer routinely ask this of regular patients, or advise smokers to quit. The proportion offering intensive interventions or prescribing treatments is lower still. Factors influencing GPs' engagement in smoking cessation include GPs' own smoking status and their attitudes towards giving smoking cessation advice; whether patients present with smoking-related symptoms, are pregnant, or heavy smokers; time, training, and reimbursement are important structural factors; and some GPs lack knowledge and skills regarding the use of specific cessation methods and treatments, or have limited awareness of specialist cessation services. No single factor or category of factors explains the variations in GPs' engagement in smoking cessation. Strategies to improve the frequency and quality of GPs' engagement in smoking cessation need to address the multifaceted influences on GPs' practice and to reflect the widely differing contexts across Europe.

  4. Social capital, institutional (vertical) trust and smoking: a study of daily smoking and smoking cessation among ever smokers.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Janzon, Ellis

    2007-01-01

    The associations between vertical (institutional) trust in the healthcare system and the mass media (newspapers and television), and daily smoking and smoking cessation were investigated. The 2004 public-health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional study. A total of 27,757 persons aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire, which represents 59% of the random sample. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between institutional trust in the healthcare system and the mass media, and daily smoking and smoking cessation. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the importance of possible confounders (age, country of origin, education, economic stress, generalized trust in other people) on the differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation according to trust in the healthcare system and the mass media. 14.9% of the men and 18.1% of the women were daily smokers. Middle-aged respondents were daily smokers to a significantly higher extent than the young. Respondents with low trust in the healthcare system had significantly higher odds ratios of daily smoking, 1.88 (95% CI 1.38-2.57) among men and 2.05 (95% CI 1.51-2.78) among women, while respondents with low trust in the mass media had no significant odds ratios of daily smoking, 1.01 (0.67-1.52) among men and 1.55 (0.97-2.47) among women, after multiple adjustments. Institutional (vertical) trust in the healthcare system but not the mass media was significantly associated with lower odds of daily smoking and higher odds of having quit smoking if ever smoker. The healthcare system seems to be a potent arena for tobacco prevention.

  5. A randomized controlled clinical trial of auricular acupuncture in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ta-Peng; Chen, Fang-Pey; Liu, Jui-Yao; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2007-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is responsible for human diseases of the lung, heart, circulatory system and various kinds of cancers, and is a serious public health problem worldwide. Acupuncture has been promoted as a treatment modality for smoking cessation. However, its efficacy still remains controversial. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial using auricular acupuncture for smoking cessation in 131 adults who wanted to stop smoking. Thirteen subjects withdrew from the study and 118 subjects were included in the final analyses (mean age, 53.7 +/- 16.8 years; 100 males, 18 females). The treatment group (n = 59) received auricular acupuncture in Shen Men, Sympathetic, Mouth and Lung points for 8 weeks. The control group (n = 59) received sham acupuncture in non-smoking-cessation-related auricular acupoints (Knee, Elbow, Shoulder and Eye points). The enrolled subjects were then followed monthly for 6 months after stopping the acupuncture treatment. Between both groups before acupuncture treatment, there was no significant difference with regard to gender, mean age, education level, and mean values for the age at which smoking started, smoking duration, daily number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine dependent score. At the end of treatment, cigarette consumption had significantly decreased in both groups, but only the treatment group showed a significant decrease in the nicotine withdrawal symptom score. Smoking cessation rate showed no significant difference between the treatment group (27.1%) and the control group (20.3%) at the end of treatment. There was also no significant difference in the smoking cessation rate between the treatment group (16.6%) and the control group (12.1%) at the end of follow-up. There were no major side effects of auricular acupuncture in both groups. Our results showed that auricular acupuncture did not have a better efficacy in smoking cessation compared to sham acupuncture. Combined acupuncture with behavior counseling or with

  6. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. The most frequent inquiries concerned the ingredients, safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. Clients used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, cut down the number of conventional cigarettes smoked, have a safe alternative to smoking, and protect their health while continuing to smoke. More than 60 % of service providers reported favourable beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes, and believed that e-cigarettes are as effective as other smoking cessation aids, including pharmacotherapy. Despite limited empirical evidence, service providers in Italy viewed e-cigarettes, as safe and effective smoking cessation aids. More concerted efforts are needed to improve knowledge about e-cigarettes among service providers, to guide their clinical practice and decision-making with respect to e-cigarettes.

  7. Smoking Cessation Induces Profound Changes in the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Biedermann, Luc; Zeitz, Jonas; Mwinyi, Jessica; Sutter-Minder, Eveline; Rehman, Ateequr; Ott, Stephan J.; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Frei, Anja; Frei, Pascal; Scharl, Michael; Loessner, Martin J.; Vavricka, Stephan R.; Fried, Michael; Schreiber, Stefan; Schuppler, Markus; Rogler, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background The human intestinal microbiota is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as metabolic syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Yet, knowledge about the role of environmental factors such as smoking (which is known to influence theses aforementioned disease states) on the complex microbial composition is sparse. We aimed to investigate the role of smoking cessation on intestinal microbial composition in 10 healthy smoking subjects undergoing controlled smoking cessation. Methods During the observational period of 9 weeks repetitive stool samples were collected. Based on abundance of 16S rRNA genes bacterial composition was analysed and compared to 10 control subjects (5 continuing smokers and 5 non-smokers) by means of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis and high-throughput sequencing. Results Profound shifts in the microbial composition after smoking cessation were observed with an increase of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria on the phylum level. In addition, after smoking cessation there was an increase in microbial diversity. Conclusions These results indicate that smoking is an environmental factor modulating the composition of human gut microbiota. The observed changes after smoking cessation revealed to be similar to the previously reported differences in obese compared to lean humans and mice respectively, suggesting a potential pathogenetic link between weight gain and smoking cessation. In addition they give rise to a potential association of smoking status and the course of IBD. PMID:23516617

  8. Characterizing smoking, cessation services, and quit interest across outpatient substance abuse treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Acquavita, Shauna P; Dunn, Kelly E; Stoller, Kenneth B; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2014-02-01

    The majority of individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders are cigarette smokers, yet smoking cessation is rarely addressed during treatment. Conducting a detailed smoking-related characterization of substance abuse treatment patients across treatment modalities may facilitate the development of tailored treatment strategies. This study administered a battery of self-report instruments to compare tobacco use, quit attempts, smoking knowledge and attitudes, program services, and interest in quitting among smoking patients enrolled in opioid replacement therapy (ORT) versus non-opioid replacement (non-ORT). ORT compared with non-ORT participants smoked more heavily, had greater tobacco dependence, and endorsed greater exposure to smoking cessation services at their treatment programs. Favorable attitudes towards cessation during treatment were found within both groups. These data identify several potential clinical targets, most notably including confidence in abstaining and attitudes toward cessation pharmacotherapies that may be addressed by substance abuse treatment clinics.

  9. Implementing smoking cessation guidelines for hospitalized Veterans: Cessation results from the VA-BEST trial.

    PubMed

    Vander Weg, Mark W; Holman, John E; Rahman, Hafizur; Sarrazin, Mary Vaughan; Hillis, Stephen L; Fu, Steven S; Grant, Kathleen M; Prochazka, Allan V; Adams, Susan L; Battaglia, Catherine T; Buchanan, Lynne M; Tinkelman, David; Katz, David A

    2017-06-01

    To examine the impact of a nurse-initiated tobacco cessation intervention focused on providing guideline-recommended care to hospitalized smokers. Pre-post quasi-experimental trial. General medical units of four US Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals. 898 adult Veteran smokers (503 and 395 were enrolled in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively). The intervention included academic detailing, adaptation of the computerized medical record, patient self-management support, and organizational support and feedback. The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence at six months. Tobacco use was compared for the pre-intervention and intervention periods with multivariable logistic regression using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering at the nurse level. Predictors of abstinence at six months were investigated with best subsets regression. Seven-day point prevalence abstinence during the intervention period did not differ significantly from the pre-intervention period at either three (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI95)=0.78 [0.51-1.18]) or six months (AOR=0.92; CI95=0.62-1.37). Predictors of abstinence included baseline self-efficacy for refraining from smoking when experiencing negative affect (p=0.0004) and perceived likelihood of staying off cigarettes following discharge (p<0.0001). Tobacco use interventions in the VA inpatient setting likely require more substantial changes in clinician behavior and enhanced post-discharge follow-up to improve cessation outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Narratives to enhance smoking cessation interventions among African-American smokers, the ACCE project.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, Andrea; Williams, Jessica H; Foster, Pamela Payne; Coley, Heather L; Kohler, Connie; Allison, Jeroan J; Kiefe, Catarina I; Volkman, Julie E; Houston, Thomas K

    2015-10-14

    Low-income, African-American smokers are less likely to have resources to aid in quitting smoking. Narrative communication may provide an enhancement to traditional smoking cessation interventions like NRT, medications, or behavioral treatments for this audience. After extensive pilot testing of stories and personal experiences with smoking cessation from African-Americans from a low-income community, we conducted a randomized control trial using stories to augment routine inpatient treatment among African-Americans at an urban Southern hospital (N = 300). Differences in smoking cessation outcomes between the intervention (stories DVD + routine clinical treatment) and control (routine clinical treatment) arms were compared using self-report and carbon monoxide measurement at 6-months. Compared to control, individuals who viewed the intervention stories DVD reported greater intentions to quit. Although continuous quitting marginally favored the intervention, our main result did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.16). Narrative communication via storytelling to promote smoking cessation among African-Americans in the South is one method to communicate smoking cessation. Results suggest this may not be sufficient as a stand-alone augmentation of routine clinical treatment for continuous smoking cessation. Smoking cessation efforts need to continually assess different means of communicating to smokers about quitting. The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT00101491. This trial was registered January 10, 2005.

  11. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Predict Smoking Cessation: Moderating Effects of Experienced Failure to Control Smoking and Plans to Quit

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with high levels of experienced failure to control smoking, but only if they had a plan to quit. Because smoking cessation involves both controlled and automatic processes, interventions may need to consider attitude change interventions that focus on both implicit and explicit attitudes. PMID:21198227

  12. ADHD symptoms impact smoking outcomes and withdrawal in response to Varenicline treatment for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Karoly, Hollis C; Hutchison, Kent E; Bryan, Angela D

    2017-10-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with nicotine dependence and difficulty quitting smoking. Few cessation trials specifically consider the impact of ADHD on treatment outcomes, including those testing established pharmacological therapies, such as varenicline. The current study focused on the impact of pretreatment ADHD inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of varenicline [N=205, average age=34.13(10.07), average baseline cigarettes per day=14.71(7.06)]. Given that varenicline's putative therapeutic mechanism is attenuation of withdrawal severity during abstinence, we also tested changes in withdrawal as a mediator of treatment effects in high and low ADHD groups. ADHD symptom severity in this sample was in the subclinical range. Cessation was associated with HI, but not IN, such that high HI individuals on varenicline reported the lowest smoking levels at the end of treatment across all groups (3.06cig/day for high HI vs 4.02cig/day for low HI). Individuals with high HI who received placebo had the highest smoking at the end of treatment (7.69cigs/day for high HI vs 5.56cig/day for low HI). Patterns continued at follow-up. Varenicline significantly reduced withdrawal for those with high HI, but not low HI. However, path models did not support an indirect effect of medication on reducing smoking via withdrawal in either group, suggesting that unmeasured variables are involved in varenicline's effect on reducing smoking. These data add to a gap in the smoking cessation literature regarding the impact of ADHD symptoms on the efficacy and mechanisms of frontline pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The dissemination of smoking cessation methods for pregnant women: achieving the year 2000 objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, R A; Li, C Q; Lowe, J B; Perkins, L L; Ershoff, D; Glynn, T

    1993-01-01

    The smoking prevalence rate among adult women and pregnant women has decreased only 0.3 to 0.5% per year since 1969. Without a nationwide dissemination of efficacious smoking cessation methods based on these trends, by the year 2000 the smoking prevalence among pregnant women will be approximately 18%. This estimate is well above the US Department of Health and Human Services Year 2000 Objective of 10%. The US dissemination of tested smoking cessation methods could help an additional 12,900 to 155,000 pregnant smokers annually and 600,000 to 1,481,000 cumulatively to quit smoking during the 1990s. Dissemination could help achieve 31 to 78% of the Year 2000 Objectives for pregnancy smoking prevalence. (With dissemination, at best a 15% smoking prevalence during pregnancy, rather than the 10% objective, is likely to be observed.) Our results confirm a well-documented need for a national campaign to disseminate smoking cessation methods. PMID:8427318

  14. News media coverage of smoking and health is associated with changes in population rates of smoking cessation but not initiation.

    PubMed

    Pierce, J P; Gilpin, E A

    2001-06-01

    To determine whether changes in news media coverage of smoking and health issues are associated with changes in smoking behaviour in the USA. Issue importance in the US news media is assessed by the number of articles published annually in major magazines indexed in The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature. Annual incidence rates for cessation and initiation in the USA were computed from the large, representative National Health Interview Surveys (1965-1992). Patterns in cessation incidence were considered for ages 20-34 years and 35-50 years. Initiation incidence was examined for adolescents (14-17 years) and young adults (18-21 years) of both sexes. From 1950 to the early 1980s, the annual incidence of cessation in the USA mirrored the pattern of news media coverage of smoking and health, particularly for middle aged smokers. Cessation rates in younger adults increased considerably when second hand smoke concerns started to increase in the US population. Incidence of initiation in young adults did not start to decline until the beginning of the public health campaign against smoking in the 1960s. Among adolescents, incidence rates did not start to decline until the 1970s, after the broadcast ban on cigarette advertising. The level of coverage of smoking and health in the news media may play an important role in determining the rate of population smoking cessation, but not initiation. In countries where cessation has lagged, advocates should work to increase the newsworthiness of smoking and health issues.

  15. Uptake of smoking cessation aids by smokers with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Metse, Alexandra P; Wiggers, John; Wye, Paula; Clancy, Richard; Moore, Lyndell; Adams, Maree; Robinson, Maryanne; Bowman, Jenny A

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric inpatient settings represent an opportunity to initiate the provision of tobacco cessation care to smokers with a mental illness. This study describes the use of evidence-based smoking cessation aids proactively and universally offered to a population of psychiatric inpatients upon discharge, and explores factors associated with their uptake. Data derived from the conduct of a randomised controlled trial were analysed in terms of the proportion of participants (N = 378) that utilised cessation aids including project delivered telephone smoking cessation counselling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and Quitline support. Factors associated with uptake of cessation aids were explored using multivariable logistic regression analyses. A large proportion of smokers utilised project delivered cessation counselling calls (89 %) and NRT (79 %), while 11 % used the Quitline. The majority accepted more than seven project delivered telephone cessation counselling calls (52 %), and reported NRT use during more than half of their accepted calls (70 %). Older age, higher nicotine dependence, irregular smoking and seeing oneself as a non-smoker were associated with uptake of behavioural cessation aids. Higher nicotine dependence was similarly associated with use of pharmacological aids, as was NRT use whilst an inpatient. Most smokers with a mental illness took up a proactive offer of aids to support their stopping smoking. Consideration by service providers of factors associated with uptake may increase further the proportion of such smokers who use evidence-based cessation aids and consequently quit smoking successfully.

  16. The effect of Transtheoretical Model based interventions on smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Aveyard, Paul; Massey, Louise; Parsons, Amanda; Manaseki, Semira; Griffin, Carl

    2009-02-01

    The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) proposes that stage matching improves the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions, such as for smoking cessation. It also proposes that standard smoking cessation interventions are matched to the relatively few smokers in the preparation stage and will not assist the majority of smokers, who are in the precontemplation or contemplation stages. This study tested the hypothesis that stage-matched interventions increase movement through the stages relative to interventions not stage-matched. It also tested the hypothesis that the relative effectiveness of stage-matched interventions is greater for people in precontemplation or contemplation (stage-matched for TTM but not for control) than for people in preparation (where both intervention and control were stage-matched). A total of 2471 UK adult smokers were randomised to either control or TTM-based self-help intervention and followed up 12 months after beginning the programme. Content analysis of the intervention and control self-help interventions examined whether control interventions were action-oriented, meaning they emphasised the processes of change relevant for preparation and action. Participants in the TTM arm were slightly more likely to make a positive move in stage, but this was not significant. There was no evidence that the TTM-based intervention was more effective for participants in precontemplation or contemplation than for participants in preparation. There was no evidence that TTM-based interventions were effective in this trial. The control intervention advocated process use appropriate for all stages and was not action-orientated. Stage matching does not explain the modest effects of TTM-based interventions over control interventions observed in some trials. These effects may instead have occurred because TTM-based interventions were more intensive than control interventions.

  17. Osteopathic Medical Student Administered Smoking Cessation Counseling is an Effective Tool

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Barbara; Chez, Ariel; Carpenter, Taissia; Hubert, Laura; Hewan-Lowe, Lissa; Ozcan, Asli; Sahni, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physician counseling on the risks of tobacco smoking and the benefits of cessation has been shown to be an effective method of increasing the rate of smoking cessation. Using the “Help Your Patients Quit Smoking: A Coaching Guide” also referred to as the “7A's of Smoking Cessation” guideline from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is thought to be effective to convey the importance of smoking cessation. Aim: To study the efficacy of the “7A's of Smoking Cessation” guideline counseling conducted by osteopathic medical students. Materials and Methods: Osteopathic medical students were trained to counsel smokers for 3–10 min based on New York City Department of Health's “7A's of Smoking Cessation” guidelines by a licensed physician. Students then counseled health fair participants who were cigarette smokers for 3–10 min. Postcounseling, participants were administered an 4 question survey to evaluate the effect counseling had on their desire to quit smoking. Survey data were collected and analyzed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. Results: A total of 13 anonymous health fair participants who were also smokers were administered both counseling sessions and surveys. 11/13 (84.6%) participants stated that the session motivated them to quit smoking. 9/13 (69.2%) participants responded that they were now motivated to discuss smoking cessation with their doctor after being counseled. Of these participants 12/13 (92.3%) had previously attempted to quit smoking without success. Conclusion: Participants reported an increased willingness to stop smoking after being counseled by osteopathic medical students. Participants also reported an increased motivation to discuss smoking cessation with their physician. These findings indicate that smoking cessation counseling administered by osteopathic medical students effectively in encouraging smokers to consider reduction or cessation of tobacco use

  18. Parental influence on adolescent smoking cessation: is there a gender difference?

    PubMed

    Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2012-02-01

    We examined the association of parental disapproval of adolescent smoking and parental smoking status, with past smoking quit behaviors among daily-smoking, high school-aged adolescents, and also tested whether these associations differ for boys and girls. Adolescent regular smokers (N=253) completed questions on smoking behaviors, past smoking cessation behaviors, parental disapproval of smoking, and parental smoking. Past smoking cessation behaviors were defined as "the number of quit attempts that lasted longer than 24 hours" and "the longest number of days of abstinence". Logistic regression analyses showed that for all adolescents, even having one smoking parent was associated with decreased odds of being abstinent for longer than 2 days. However, for girls, not having any smoking parents was associated with greater duration of abstinence (>2 weeks). Having both parents, compared with not having any parents disapprove of smoking, was associated with greater number of quit attempts in boys, but this effect was not found in girls. The results indicate that parents have a salient role in adolescent smoking cessation behaviors, and this association appears to be gender-specific. However, further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that explain gender differences in parental influence on adolescent smoking cessation behaviors.

  19. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  20. Helping smokers quit: understanding the barriers to utilization of smoking cessation services.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Schroeder, Steven A; Warner, Kenneth E

    2008-12-01

    Counseling smokers to quit smoking and providing them with pharmaceutical cessation aides are among the most beneficial and cost-effective interventions that clinicians can offer patients. Yet assistance with quitting is not universally covered by health plans or offered by all clinicians. Analysis of stakeholders' perspectives and interests can identify the barriers to more widespread provision of cessation services and suggest strategies for the public policy agenda to advance smoking cessation. Review of literature and discussions with representatives of stakeholders. All stakeholders-health plans, employers, clinicians, smokers, and the government-face barriers to broader smoking cessation activities. These range from health plans' perceiving that covering counseling and pharmacotherapy will increase costs without producing commensurate health care savings, to clinicians' feeling unprepared and uncompensated for counseling. Like other preventive measures aimed at behavior, efforts directed at smoking cessation have marginal status among health care interventions. State governments can help correct this status by increasing Medicaid coverage of treatment and expanding coverage for state employees. The federal government can promote the adoption of six initiatives recommended by a government subcommittee on cessation: set up a national quit line, develop a media campaign to encourage cessation, include cessation benefits in all federally funded insurance plans, create a research infrastructure to improve cessation rates, develop a clinician training agenda, and create a fund to increase cessation activities through a new $2 per pack cigarette excise tax. Both the federal and state governments can increase cessation by adopting policies such as the higher cigarette tax and laws prohibiting smoking in workplaces and public places. Public policy efforts should assume greater social responsibility for smoking cessation, including more aggressive leadership at the

  1. Helping Smokers Quit: Understanding the Barriers to Utilization of Smoking Cessation Services

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E; Schroeder, Steven A; Warner, Kenneth E

    2008-01-01

    Context Counseling smokers to quit smoking and providing them with pharmaceutical cessation aides are among the most beneficial and cost-effective interventions that clinicians can offer patients. Yet assistance with quitting is not universally covered by health plans or offered by all clinicians. Analysis of stakeholders' perspectives and interests can identify the barriers to more widespread provision of cessation services and suggest strategies for the public policy agenda to advance smoking cessation. Methods Review of literature and discussions with representatives of stakeholders. Findings All stakeholders—health plans, employers, clinicians, smokers, and the government—face barriers to broader smoking cessation activities. These range from health plans' perceiving that covering counseling and pharmacotherapy will increase costs without producing commensurate health care savings, to clinicians' feeling unprepared and uncompensated for counseling. Like other preventive measures aimed at behavior, efforts directed at smoking cessation have marginal status among health care interventions. State governments can help correct this status by increasing Medicaid coverage of treatment and expanding coverage for state employees. The federal government can promote the adoption of six initiatives recommended by a government subcommittee on cessation: set up a national quit line, develop a media campaign to encourage cessation, include cessation benefits in all federally funded insurance plans, create a research infrastructure to improve cessation rates, develop a clinician training agenda, and create a fund to increase cessation activities through a new $2 per pack cigarette excise tax. Both the federal and state governments can increase cessation by adopting policies such as the higher cigarette tax and laws prohibiting smoking in workplaces and public places. Conclusions Public policy efforts should assume greater social responsibility for smoking cessation

  2. Longitudinal Impact of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    King, Cecile C; Piper, Megan E; Gepner, Adam D; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B; Stein, James H

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate longitudinal changes in 6 inflammatory markers that predict cardiovascular disease events among smokers making a quit attempt and to characterize their cross-sectional associations between smoking and smoking heaviness. In a longitudinal cohort study of contemporary smokers (n=1652), we evaluated (1) independent associations of smoking heaviness markers (exhaled carbon monoxide, cigarettes/d, pack-years) with inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, fibrinogen, urinary F2 isoprostane:creatinine [F2:Cr] ratio, white blood cell [WBC] count, myeloperoxidase) and (2) the effects of smoking cessation and continued smoking on these inflammatory markers after 1 year, among the 888 smokers who made an aided quit attempt as part of a randomized comparative effectiveness trial or standard care. There were strong, independent associations between smoking heaviness markers and the F2:Cr ratio, WBC, and myeloperoxidase (all Padj<0.001), but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, D-dimer, or fibrinogen. Participants were mean (SD) 49.6 years old (11.6), 54% women, 34% non-white, and smoked 16.8 cigarettes/d (8.5) for 27.3 pack-years (18.6). After 1 year, the 344 successful abstainers gained more weight (4.0 [6.0] versus 0.4 [5.7] pounds; P<0.001) and had larger increases in insulin resistance scores (P=0.02) than continuing smokers. Despite these increases, abstainers had significant decreases in F2:Cr ratio (P<0.001) and WBC counts (P<0.001). Changes in other markers were not related to quitting. Smoking heaviness is associated with increased F2:Cr ratio, myeloperoxidase, and WBC counts. Cessation improves the F2:Cr ratio and WBC counts independent of weight change, suggesting reduced inflammation related to less oxidant stress. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Smoking and reproduction. Short and long term effects and benefits of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Fredricsson, B; Gilljam, H

    1992-12-01

    There have been many attempts during the last years to restrict smoking because of the significant health hazards. In particular the high prevalence of smoking among women in their reproductive years has been a matter of concern. This review was prompted in order to make the medical profession, and gynecologists in particular, confident with the underlying data. This will hopefully result in enabling them to provide balanced information to their patients, not overemphasizing the dangers of smoking, but rather presenting ways to properly recognize and treat tobacco dependence. It is a widely held view that the various risks imposed by smoking are very modest. A doubling of the risk for a rare problem may not prevent many women from continuing to smoke. However, a doubling of the risk for early miscarriage or a significant reduction of success rate in the treatment of infertility may be much more discouraging. The purpose of this review is to list the various effects smoking may have on the different phases of reproduction and to present an overview of the explanation models which have been suggested. Late effects on the child and its development will also be discussed. Hopefully, this will lead to proper concern about the problems and thus increase the motivation to quit smoking even before attempting a pregnancy. In addition, we give some hints on smoking cessation programs.

  4. Best practices guidelines for nurse practitioners regarding smoking cessation in American Indian and Alaskan Native youth.

    PubMed

    Ubina, Esmeralda C; Van Sell, Sharon L; Arnold, Carol; Woods, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The greatest prevalence of tobacco use in the United States occurs with the American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN). A critical need exists for a culturally specific tobacco cessation option for AI/AN youth. The nurse practitioner is positioned to provide a culturally specific commercial tobacco cessation option by incorporating the transcultural nursing theory into the development of a decision tree to expand understanding of culturally appropriate best practices regarding screening and management of tobacco smoking cessation in AI/AN youth. Presented is the Nurse Practitioner Culturally Specific American Indian and Alaskan Native Youth Decision Tree for Smoking Cessation with supporting evidence-based best practices.

  5. Barriers to implementing evidence-based smoking cessation practices in nine community mental health sites.

    PubMed

    Himelhoch, Seth; Riddle, Julia; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines strongly recommend that smokers with mental illness receive evidence-based smoking cessation interventions similar to those provided to smokers in the general population. The goal of this study was to evaluate the resources, barriers, and willingness to use these evidence-based interventions in mental health settings. Clinicians at nine community mental health settings (five psychosocial rehabilitation programs and four community mental health clinics) in four counties in Maryland were surveyed. The questionnaire--the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale-15--evaluated availability, barriers, and utilization of smoking cessation assessment and treatment, including willingness to use evidence-based practices. Ninety-five clinicians participated in the study. Most were full-time employees (84%) with master's degrees (56%). The vast majority were nonsmokers or former smokers (94%). Less than half (42%) of the clinicians reported asking their patients about smoking. Less than a third (33%) advised or assisted in smoking cessation. Very few (10%) reported referring identified smokers to telephone quitlines. About a quarter (26%) reported being confident about their ability to provide smoking cessation counseling. A major barrier to providing cessation counseling was the belief that patients were not interested in quitting (77%). On average, clinicians reported a great willingness to use evidence-based smoking cessation interventions if they received appropriate training. Mental health clinicians working in community mental health settings were not consistently providing evidence-based smoking cessation interventions. Barriers appear to be modifiable through training and education.

  6. Using social marketing to increase recruitment of pregnant smokers to smoking cessation service: a success story.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R J; Hardy, S; Jordan, C; Wayman, G

    2004-06-01

    To explore what it is like to be a pregnant smoker in Sunderland and to inform the development of a Smoking Cessation Programme; to use qualitative techniques to develop a cessation programme tailored to pregnant smokers. The intervention follows years of social marketing research and development in Sunderland, Wearside, UK. Information derived from nine focus groups (mainly with women from deprived areas, social class C2D and E) provided insights into the issues facing smoking pregnant women. This information was then used to overcome barriers to smoking cessation using the principles of social marketing. The number of women recruited into a specially designed smoking cessation support initiative was compared with women recruited into comparable groups in the North East. Recruitment of pregnant (and non-pregnant) smokers to the new NHS smoking cessation programme in Sunderland has increased during the intervention phase compared with neighbouring Primary Care Trust areas (in which different smoking cessation interventions targeted at pregnant women were being undertaken). This innovative intervention has been successful in generating ideas, guiding development of a customer-friendly service and encouraging women to come forward for smoking cessation support during their pregnancy. The target population have welcomed the approach, and health professionals have enjoyed and benefited from the role play with professional actors.

  7. γ-Tocopherol-rich supplementation additively improves vascular endothelial function during smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Ballard, Kevin D; Barker, Tyler; Rogers, Victoria E; Parker, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation persist years after smoking cessation thereby limiting the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). Although short-term smoking cessation improves VEF, no studies have examined co-therapy of antioxidants in combination with smoking cessation to improve VEF. We hypothesized that improvements in γ-tocopherol (γ-T) status during smoking cessation would improve VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone by decreasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in otherwise healthy smokers (22 ± 1 years; mean ± SEM) who quit smoking for 7 days with placebo (n=14) or γ-T-rich supplementation (n=16; 500 mg γ-T/day). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), cotinine, and biomarkers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and inflammation were measured before and after 7 days of smoking cessation. Smoking cessation regardless of supplementation similarly decreased plasma cotinine, whereas γ-T-rich supplementation increased plasma γ-T by seven times and its urinary metabolite γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman by nine times (P<0.05). Smoking cessation with γ-T-rich supplementation increased FMD responses by 1.3% (P<0.05) beyond smoking cessation alone (4.1 ± 0.6% vs 2.8 ± 0.3%; mean ± SEM). Although plasma malondialdehyde decreased similarly in both groups (P<0.05), plasma oxidized LDL and urinary F2-isoprostanes were unaffected by smoking cessation or γ-T-rich supplementation. Plasma TNF-α and myeloperoxidase decreased (P<0.05) only in those receiving γ-T-rich supplements and these were inversely related to FMD (P<0.05; R=-0.46 and -0.37, respectively). These findings demonstrate that short-term γ-T-rich supplementation in combination with smoking cessation improved VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone in young smokers, probably by decreasing the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α and myeloperoxidase. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Attitudes and behaviours in smoking cessation among general practitioners in Finland 2001.

    PubMed

    Barengo, Noël C; Sandström, H Patrick; Jormanainen, Vesa J; Myllykangas, Markku T

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether smoking by general practitioners (GPs) and gender influence smoking cessation advice. A self-administered questionnaire, originally developed by the WHO and modified according to the Finnish health care system was sent by mail to physicians who were members of the Finnish Medical Association (FMA). Participants were restricted to those who were living in Finland and were younger than 65 years. Numbers of participants was 3,057 and the response rate 69%. Smoking male GPs gave less smoking cessation advice only to patients with a stomach ulcer or patients using oral contraceptive pills compared with their non-smoking colleagues. Male GPs gave less smoking cessation advice to pregnant patients or patients using contraceptive pills than female GPs. Female smoking GPs less likely advised patients who were pregnant or who were using oral contraceptive pills to stop smoking than non-smoking female GPs (p <0.001). The percentage of GPs who have never distributed smoking cessation information was lower in men (41%) than in women (45%; p-value: 0.052). Minor differences in anti-smoking advice to patients between smoking and non-smoking general practitioners were found. The little involvement of GPs in health promotion activities regarding tobacco control is of concern.

  9. Advice as a smoking cessation strategy: a systematic review and implications for physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Michael E; Dean, Elizabeth

    2009-07-01

    Although identified as a clinical priority, smoking cessation has been addressed minimally in the literature in the context of physical therapy practice. Smoking cessation advice delivered by a health professional can help smokers quit. The salient components of such advice however warranted elucidation to enable physical therapists to integrate this clinical competence into their practices. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to elucidate the effectiveness of advice by a health professional and its components to optimize smoking cessation instituted in the context of physical therapy practice. Thirty source articles were identified. A random-effects model meta-analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of the advice parameters. Risk ratios (RRs) were used to estimate pooled treatment effects. RRs for brief, intermediate, and intensive advice were 1.74 (95% CI=1.37, 2.22), 1.71 (95% CI=1.39, 2.09), and 1.60 (95% CI=1.13, 2.27), respectively. Self-help materials, follow-up, and interventions based on psychological or motivational frameworks were particularly effective components of intermediate and intensive advice interventions. Advice can be readily integrated into physical therapy practice and used to initiate or support ongoing smoking cessation in clients irrespective of reason for referral. Incorporating smoking cessation as a physical therapy goal is consistent with the contemporary definition of the profession and the mandates of physical therapy professional associations to promote health and wellness, including smoking cessation for both primary health benefit and to minimize secondary effects (e.g., delayed healing and recovery, and medical and surgical complications). Thus, advice is an evidence-based strategy to effect smoking cessation that can be exploited in physical therapy practice. Further research to refine how best to assess smokers and, in turn, individualize brief smoking cessation advice could augment positive smoking cessation

  10. Factors affecting dropout in the smoking cessation outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Ayse; Iliaz, Sinem; Yurt, Sibel; Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Bakan, Nur Dilek; Yazar, Esra

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of discontinuation in the smoking cessation outpatient clinic (SCC) and to examine the features of noncompliance. We retrospectively included 1324 smokers into the study. Patients were divided into two groups, as those who discontinued (dropped out) follow-up (group 1) and those who stayed in follow-up (group 2). Of the total 1324 smokers, 540 (40.8%) patients were in group 1. The mean age, smoking pack-years, and Fagerstrom scores of group 1 were lower than group 2 (p = 0.001, p = 0.008, and p = 0.007, respectively). In addition, the choice of treatment was also different between groups (p < 0.001). Motivational/behavioral therapy and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were more common in group 1 compared with group 2. There was no difference among groups in gender, having household smokers, history of antidepressant treatment, previous quit attempts, and educational status (p > 0.05). Almost 40% of our patients did not come to their follow-up SCC visit. Younger age, lower Fagerstrom score, low amount of daily cigarette consumption, and being treated only with behavioral therapy or NRT were detected as the characteristics of the dropout group. Awareness of the characteristics of smokers who drop out of SCC programs may provide for the implementation of personalized treatment at the first appointment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A comparison of psychological and pharmacological treatment in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Fagerström, K O

    1982-09-01

    A double-blind trial of a smoking-withdrawal chewing gum containing 2 mg nicotine was conducted with 100 consecutive patients in a smoking cessation clinic. All patients received the usual psychological treatment given at the clinic. In addition, the patients were randomly assigned to a nicotine gum (the experimental group) or a placebo chewing gum (control group). The abstinence rates for the experimental group at 1, 3, and 6 months after quitting were 90, 76, and 63%, respectively. The comparable abstinence rates for the control group were 60, 52, and 45%. The differences were significant at the 5% level at all three follow-up periods. When nicotine dependence, as measured by a standard questionnaire, was taken into consideration, it was found that 71% of the high-nicotine-dependent smokers in the experimental group were abstinent after 6 months, as compared to 39% in the placebo group. In contrast, low-nicotine-dependent patients achieved 75 and 65%, respectively, for the same time interval. The gum was well accepted by patients and gave no serious side effects.

  12. Effects of smoking cessation on consumption of alcohol and sweet, high-fat foods.

    PubMed

    Perkins, K A; Epstein, L H; Sexton, J E; Pastor, S

    1990-01-01

    Smoking cessation may have significant effects on consumption of certain foods and other substances which may influence health. This study of seven young female smokers examined consumption of alcohol, coffee, soda, and sweets (sweet, high-fat foods) across 3 weeks, involving baseline ad lib smoking (week 1), complete cessation (week 2), and resumption of smoking (week 3). TV watching (i.e., nondietary activity) and subjective measures of craving and tension-anxiety also were assessed. Results showed increased intake of sweets and, to a lesser extent, alcohol after cessation which was reversed upon resumption of smoking. There were no significant changes across weeks in other substances. The changes in alcohol and sweet intake did not appear to be related directly to the subjective changes. These findings indicate that smoking cessation, a behavior change which promotes health, may lead to alterations in consumption of other substances, which may have adverse effects on health risk.

  13. The Association Between Body Image and Smoking Cessation Among Individuals Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Vidrine, Damon J.; Arduino, Roberto C.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2007-01-01

    Lower smoking cessation rates are associated with body image concerns in the general population. This relationship is particularly important to study in individuals living with HIV/AIDS due to alarmingly high smoking rates and considerable bodily changes experienced with HIV disease progression and treatment. The association between body image and smoking cessation rates was examined among individuals living with HIV/AIDS participating in a smoking cessation intervention. Body image concerns were significantly associated with depression, anxiety, stress, and social support, all variables known to affect cessation rates. However, reduced quit rates were found among individuals reporting elevated and low levels of body image concerns at the end of treatment. These findings suggest a unique relationship between smoking and body image among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Further research is needed to examine these effects and whether moderate levels of body image concerns in this population reflect realistic body perceptions associated with positive mental health. PMID:18089265

  14. Smoking behavior, attitudes, and cessation counseling among healthcare professionals in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Varduhi, Petrosyan; Arusyak, Harutyunyan; Diana, Petrosyan; Armen, Muradyan; Frances, Stillman A

    2012-11-24

    Smoking cessation counseling by health professionals has been effective in increasing cessation rates. However, little is known about smoking cessation training and practices in transition countries with high smoking prevalence such as Armenia. This study identified smoking-related attitudes and behavior of physicians and nurses in a 500-bed hospital in Yerevan, Armenia, the largest cancer hospital in the country, and explored barriers to their effective participation in smoking cessation interventions. This study used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Trained interviewers conducted a survey with physicians and nurses using a 42-item self-administered questionnaire that assessed their smoking-related attitudes and behavior and smoking cessation counseling training. Four focus group discussions with hospital physicians and nurses explored barriers to effective smoking cessation interventions. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed. The survey response rate was 58.5% (93/159) for physicians and 72.2% (122/169) for nur