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Sample records for indoor air concentrations

  1. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION UNIT CONVERSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is called vapor intrusion (VI). Volatile organic chemicals in contaminated soils or groundwater can emit vapors, which can migrate through subsurface soils and may enter the indoor air of overlying buil...

  2. Indoor air VOC concentrations in suburban and rural New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Clifford P; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Sanders, Paul F

    2008-11-15

    Indoor VOC air concentrations of many compounds are higher than outdoor concentrations due to indoor sources. However, most studies have measured residential indoor air in urban centers so the typical indoor air levels in suburban and rural regions have not been well characterized. Indoor VOC air concentrations were measured in 100 homes in suburban and rural areas in NJ to provide background levels for investigations of the impact from subsurface contamination sources. Of the 57 target compounds, 23 were not detected in any of the homes, and 14 compounds were detected in at least 50% of the homes with detection limits of approximately 1 microg/m3. The common compounds identified included aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons from mobile sources, halogenated hydrocarbons commonly used in consumer products or from chlorinated drinking water, acetone and 2-butanone emitted from cosmetic products, and Freons. Typical concentrations were in the low microg/m3 range, though values of tens, hundreds or even thousands of microg/m3 were measured in individual homes in which activities related to specific sources of VOCs were reported. Compounds with known similar sources were highly correlated. The levels observed are consistent with concentrations found in the air of urban homes.

  3. Development of a model for radon concentration in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Jelle, Bjørn Petter

    2012-02-01

    A model is developed for calculation of the radon concentration in indoor air. The model takes into account various important parameters, e.g. radon concentration in ground, radon diffusion resistance of radon barrier, air permeance of ground, air pressure difference between outdoor ground and indoor at ground level, ventilation of the building ground and number of air changes per hour due to ventilation. Characteristic case studies are depicted in selected 2D and 3D graphical plots for easy visualization and interpretation. The radon transport into buildings might be dominated by diffusion, pressure driven flow or a mixture of both depending on the actual values of the various parameters. The results of our work indicate that with realistic or typical values of the parameters, most of the transport of radon from the building ground to the indoor air is due to air leakage driven by pressure differences through the construction. By incorporation of various and realistic values in the radon model, valuable information about the miscellaneous parameters influencing the indoor radon level is gained. Hence, the presented radon model may be utilized as a simple yet versatile and powerful tool for examining which preventive or remedial measures should be carried out to achieve an indoor radon level below the reference level as set by the authorities.

  4. Influence of relative humidity on VOC concentrations in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, Pawel; Larsson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be emitted from surfaces indoors leading to compromised air quality. This study scrutinized the influence of relative humidity (RH) on VOC concentrations in a building that had been subjected to water damage. While air samplings in a damp room at low RH (21-22%) only revealed minor amounts of 2-ethylhexanol (3 μg/m(3)) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB, 8 μg/m(3)), measurements performed after a rapid increase of RH (to 58-75%) revealed an increase in VOC concentrations which was 3-fold for 2-ethylhexanol and 2-fold for TXIB. Similar VOC emission patterns were found in laboratory analyses of moisture-affected and laboratory-contaminated building materials. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring RH when sampling indoor air for VOCs in order to avoid misleading conclusions from the analytical results.

  5. Estimating the radon concentration in water and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F

    2009-05-01

    The paper presents the results of radon concentration measurements in the vicinity of water, indoor air and in contact to building walls. The investigations were carried out using CR-39 track detectors. Samples of ground water flowing out of many springs mostly in Arabian Gulf area except one from Germany have been studied. The results are compared with international recommendations and the values are found to be lower than the recommended value. Measuring the mean indoor radon concentrations in air and in contact to building walls in the dwellings of Kuwait University Campus were found 24.2 +/- 7.7, and 462 +/- 422 Bq m(-3) respectively. These values lead to average effective dose equivalent rates of 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 23 +/- 21 mSv year(-1), respectively.

  6. Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

  7. AN INDOOR PESTICIDE AIR AND SURFACE CONCENTRATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thorough assessment of human exposure to environmental chemicals requires consideration of all processes in the sequence from source to dose. For assessment of exposure to pesticides following their use indoors, data and models are needed to estimate pesticide concentrations...

  8. Influence of indoor air conditions on radon concentration in a detached house.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Keramatollah; Mahmoudi, Jafar; Ghanbari, Mahdi

    2013-02-01

    Radon is released from soil and building materials and can accumulate in residential buildings. Breathing radon and radon progeny for extended periods hazardous to health and can lead to lung cancer. Indoor air conditions and ventilation systems strongly influence indoor radon concentrations. This paper focuses on effects of air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity on indoor radon concentrations in a one family detached house in Stockholm, Sweden. In this study a heat recovery ventilation system unit was used to control the ventilation rate and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) was used to measure radon levels. FLUENT, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate radon entry into the building and air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity effects using a numerical approach. The results from analytical solution, measurements and numerical simulations showed that air change rate, indoor temperature and moisture had significant effects on indoor radon concentration. Increasing air change rate reduces radon level and for a specific air change rate (in this work Ach = 0.5) there was a range of temperature and relative humidity that minimized radon levels. In this case study minimum radon levels were obtained at temperatures between 20 and 22 °C and a relative humidity of 50-60%.

  9. Predictors of Indoor Air Concentrations in Smoking and Non-Smoking Residences

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Marie-Eve; Clark, Nina; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Harrison, Ian; Rispler, Kathleen; Wang, Daniel; Anastassopoulos, Angelos; Guay, Mireille; MacNeill, Morgan; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Indoor concentrations of air pollutants (benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, elemental carbon and ozone) were measured in residences in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data were collected in 106 homes in winter and 111 homes in summer of 2007, with 71 homes participating in both seasons. In addition, data for relative humidity, temperature, air exchange rates, housing characteristics and occupants’ activities during sampling were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to construct season-specific models for the air pollutants. Where smoking was a major contributor to indoor concentrations, separate models were constructed for all homes and for those homes with no cigarette smoke exposure. The housing characteristics and occupants’ activities investigated in this study explained between 11% and 53% of the variability in indoor air pollutant concentrations, with ventilation, age of home and attached garage being important predictors for many pollutants. PMID:20948949

  10. Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in three communities along the Upper Hudson River, New York.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lloyd R; Palmer, Patrick M; Belanger, Erin E; Cayo, Michael R; Durocher, Lorie A; Hwang, Syni-An A; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2011-10-01

    Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in upstate New York as part of a nonoccupational exposure investigation. The adjacent study communities contain numerous sites of current and former PCB contamination, including two capacitor-manufacturing facilities. Indoor air PCB concentrations in the study area homes were not significantly different than in the comparison area homes. Total PCB concentrations in the study area homes ranged from 0.3 to 114.3 ng/m(3) (median 7.9). For the comparison area homes, concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 233.3 ng/m(3) (median 6.8). No correlations were found between PCB concentrations in indoor and outdoor air, with indoor concentrations generally 20 times higher than outdoor concentrations. Of the home characteristics cataloged, the presence of fluorescent lights was significantly associated with total PCB concentration in the study area only. The indoor PCB concentrations measured in this study are similar to those in other communities with known PCB-contaminated sites and similar to levels reported in other locations from the northeastern United States.

  11. MODELING INDOOR CONCENTRATIONS AND EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of an indoor air quality model, EXPOSURE, to predict pollutant concentrations and exposures. The effects of indoor air pollutants depend on the concentrations of the pollutants and the exposure of individuals to the pollutants. The air pollutant concen...

  12. COMPARISON OF MOLD CONCENTRATIONS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR SAMPLED SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN QUANTIFIED BY MSQPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of the 36 mold species in indoor and outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously for 48 hours in and around 17 homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. The total spore concentrations of 353 per m3...

  13. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  14. Comparison of mold concentrations quantified by MSQPCR in indoor and outdoor air sampled simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Meklin, Teija; Reponen, Tina; McKinstry, Craig A.; Cho, Seung H.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Nevalainen, Aino; Vepsalainen, Asko; Haugland, Richard A.; Lemasters, Grace; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-08-15

    Mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) was used to measure the concentrations of 36 mold species in dust and in indoor and in outdoor air samples that were taken simultaneously in 17 homes in Cincinnati with no-known water damage. The total spore concentrations in the indoor (I) and outdoor (O) air samples were statistically significantly different and the concentrations in the three sample types of many of the individual species were significantly different (p < 0.05 based on the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). The I/O ratios of the averages or geometric means of the individual species were generally less than 1; but these I/O ratios were quite variable ranging from 0.03 for A. sydowii to 1.2 for Acremonium strictum. There were no significant correlations for the 36 specific mold concentrations between the dust samples and the indoor or outdoor air samples (based on the Spearman’s Rho test). The indoor and outdoor air concentrations of 32 of the species were not correlated. Only Aspergillus penicillioides, C. cladosporioides types 1 and 2 and C. herbarum had sufficient data to estimate a correlation at rho > 0.5 with signicance (p < 0.05) In six of these homes, a previous dust sample had been collected and analyzed 2 years earlier. The ERMI© values for the dust samples taken in the same home two years apart were not significantly different (p=0.22) based on Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.

  15. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Lyng, Nadja Lynge; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-02-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = -ΔH/RT + a(0), where changes in steady-state air concentrations in relation to temperature, was tested. The model was valid for PCB-28, PCB-52 and PCB-101; the four other congeners were sporadic or non-detected. For each congener, the model described a large proportion (R(2)>94%) of the variation in indoor air PCB levels. The results showed that one measured concentration of PCB at a known steady-state temperature can be used to predict the steady-state concentrations at other temperatures under circumstances where e.g. direct sunlight does not influence temperatures and the air exchange rate is constant. The model was also tested on field data from a PCB remediation case in an apartment in another contaminated building complex where PCB concentrations and temperature were measured simultaneously and regularly throughout one year. The model fitted relatively well with the regression of measured PCB air concentrations, ln(P) vs. 1/T, at varying temperature between 16.3 and 28.2 °C, even though the measurements were carried out under uncontrolled environmental condition.

  16. Concentrations and decay rates of ozone in indoor air in dependence on building and surface materials.

    PubMed

    Moriske, H J; Ebert, G; Konieczny, L; Menk, G; Schöndube, M

    1998-08-01

    The decay of ozone in indoor air was measured in a closed chamber after contact with different building materials and residential surfaces. The tested materials were: vinyl wall paper, woodchip paper, plywood, latex paint, fitted carpet, and plaster. In the summer of 1996, the entry of ozone from ambient air into indoor air during ventilation and the ozone decay in indoor air, after windows had been closed again, were studied. Measurements were done in a residential house on the outskirts of Berlin. The following results were gained: the chamber measurements showed a decay of ozone after contact with most of the materials put inside the chamber. Higher decay rates have been obtained for wall papers, plywood, fitted carpet and plaster. As described in the literature, ozone is able to react with olefines inside the materials and is able to form formaldehyde and other components. This formation of formaldehyde could also be confirmed in our investigations. Thus, in most cases, the formaldehyde concentrations were lower than the German guideline value of 0.1 ppm. The formation of formaldehyde could be prevented when a special wall paper that was coated with activated carbon was used. In the house, a complete ozone diffusion into indoor air took place during ventilation within 30 min. After closing the windows, the ozone concentrations decreased to the basic level before ventilation within 60-90 min.

  17. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel better ... and getting rid of pollutants can improve the quality of your indoor air. Environmental Protection Agency

  18. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  19. Analysis of indoor concentrations of benzene using an air-quality model.

    PubMed

    Bouhamra, W S; Elkilani, A S; Raheem, M Y

    2000-01-01

    We performed measurements to determine indoor benzene levels in 26 residential houses in Kuwait, located in zones of different activity levels. Pumped (or active) sampling was conducted via use of 12 sampling tubes over a period of 24 hr for both indoor and outdoor concentrations simultaneously. Time-average indoor concentration varied linearly with time-average outdoor concentration in accordance with a mass-balance-based indoor air-quality model in which source and sink terms were incorporated. We used regression analysis to determine benzene adsorption rates, which appear in the removal and source terms of the model. The removal rate parameter varied between 0.12/hr and 2.16/hr, whereas source term parameter varied between 0.60 mg/hr and 76.07 mg/hr. Houses were then divided into three groups according to their benzene source strengths (i.e., < 1.0 mg/hr, 1-10 mg/hr, and 10-50 mg/hr). Qualitatively, these levels depended on the characteristics of occupants (e.g., smoking and gas cooker use, number of cars, and parking area) and location of the building.

  20. Background Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in North American Residences (1990 – 2005): A Compilation of Statistics for Assessing Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical report presents a summary of indoor air studies that measured background concentrations of VOCs in the indoor air of thousands of North American residences and an evaluation and compilation of their reported statistical information.

  1. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE US: FOUR STUDIES, SIX STATES AND TWENTY YEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides used to control indoor pests have transitioned across the chemicals classes of organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds from the 1980's to the present. This work summarizes the pesticide concentrations measured from the indoor air of homes from four st...

  2. Preliminary assessment of BTEX concentrations in indoor air of residential buildings and atmospheric ambient air in Ardabil, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazrati, Sadegh; Rostami, Roohollah; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    BTEX concentrations in indoor and outdoor air of 50 homes were studied in Ardabil city and their influencing parameters including; heating system, using gas stove and samovar, tobacco smoking, the floors in which the monitored homes were located, and kitchen plan were considered in the study. Risk assessment analysis was carried out with the obtained concentrations based on EPA IRIS reference doses. BTEX compounds were sampled by charcoal tubes and the samples were analyzed by a GC-FID. Concentrations of benzene (15.18 μg/m3 vs. 8.65 μg/m3), toluene (69.70 μg/m3 vs. 40.56 μg/m3), ethylbenzene (12.07 μg/m3 vs. 4.92 μg/m3) and xylene (48.08 μg/m3 vs. 7.44 μg/m3) in indoor air were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the levels quantified for outdoor air. The obtained concentrations of benzene were considerably higher than the recommended value of 5 μg/m3 established by Iran environmental protection organization. Among the BTEX compounds, benzene (HQ = 0.51) and xylene (HQ = 0.47) had notable hazard quotient and were the main pollutants responsible for high hazard index in the monitored homes (HI = 1.003). The results showed considerably high cancer risk for lifetime exposure to the indoor (125 × 10-6) and outdoor (71 × 10-6) benzene. Indoor benzene concentrations in homes were significantly influenced by type of heating system, story, and natural gas appliances.

  3. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  4. Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g-7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca(2+) (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-) were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 (-) (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g-32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO4 (2-). The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Pb(2+), were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations.

  5. REVIEW OF CONCENTRATION STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR FUNGI IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews and compares existing guidelines for indoor airborne fungi, discusses limitations of existing guidelines, and identifies research needs that should contribute to the development of realistic and useful guidelines for these important air pollutants. (NOTE: Exposu...

  6. VOCs Emissions from Multiple Wood Pellet Types and Concentrations in Indoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia; Ashley, William J.; Bregg, Sandar; Walier, Drew; LeBouf, Ryan; Hopke, Philip K.; Rossner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Wood pellet storage safety is an important aspect for implementing woody biomass as a renewable energy source. When wood pellets are stored indoors in large quantities (tons) in poorly ventilated spaces in buildings, such as in basements, off-gassing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can significantly affect indoor air quality. To determine the emission rates and potential impact of VOC emissions, a series of laboratory and field measurements were conducted using softwood, hardwood, and blended wood pellets manufactured in New York. Evacuated canisters were used to collect air samples from the headspace of drums containing pellets and then in basements and pellet storage areas of homes and small businesses. Multiple peaks were identified during GC/MS and GC/FID analysis, and four primary VOCs were characterized and quantified: methanol, pentane, pentanal, and hexanal. Laboratory results show that total VOCs (TVOCs) concentrations for softwood (SW) were statistically (p < 0.02) higher than blended or hardwood (HW) (SW: 412 ± 25; blended: 203 ± 4; HW: 99 ± 8, ppb). The emission rate from HW was the fastest, followed by blended and SW, respectively. Emissions rates were found to range from 10−1 to 10−5 units, depending upon environmental factors. Field measurements resulted in airborne concentrations ranging from 67 ± 8 to 5000 ± 3000 ppb of TVOCs and 12 to 1500 ppb of aldehydes, with higher concentrations found in a basement with a large fabric bag storage unit after fresh pellet delivery and lower concentrations for aged pellets. These results suggest that large fabric bag storage units resulted in a substantial release of VOCs into the building air. Occupants of the buildings tested discussed concerns about odor and sensory irritation when new pellets were delivered. The sensory response was likely due to the aldehydes. PMID:27022205

  7. Elevated concentrations of endotoxin in indoor air due to cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Aleksandra; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart

    2006-05-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important worldwide public health issue. The present study demonstrates that cigarette smoke can be a major source of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in indoor environments. Gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry was used to determine 3-hydroxy fatty acids as markers of endotoxin in air-borne house dust in homes of smokers and non-smokers. Air concentrations of endotoxin were 4-63 times higher in rooms of smoking students than in identical rooms of non-smoking students. The fact that cigarette smoke contains large amounts of endotoxin may partly explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and may also draw attention to a hitherto neglected risk factor of ETS.

  8. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M.L.; Bentley, A.J.; Dunkin, K.A.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Sextro, R.G.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    We report a field study of soil gas transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a slab-on-grade building found at a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high VOC concentrations (30-60 g m{sup -3}) measured in the soil gas at depths of 0.7 m below the building suggest a potential for high levels of indoor VOC, the measured indoor air concentrations were lower than those in the soil gas by approximately six orders of magnitude ({approx} 0.03 mg m{sup -3}). This large ratio is explained by (1) the expected dilution of soil gas entering the building via ambient building ventilation (a factor of {approx}1000), and (2) an unexpectedly sharp gradient in soil gas VOC concentration between the depths of 0.1 and 0.7 m (a factor of {approx}1000). Measurements of the soil physical and biological characteristics indicate that a partial physical barrier to vertical transport in combination with microbial degradation provides a likely explanation for this gradient. These factors are likely to be important to varying degrees at other sites.

  9. Inter-comparison of air pollutant concentrations in different indoor environments in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shun-Cheng; Guo, Hai; Li, Wai-Ming; Chan, Lo-Yin

    Indoor air quality in selected indoor environments in Hong Kong such as homes, offices, schools, shopping malls and restaurants were investigated. Average CO 2 levels and total bacteria counts in air-conditioned classrooms, shopping malls and restaurants were comparatively higher than those measured in occupied offices and homes. Elevated CO 2 levels exceeding 1000 ppm and total bacteria counts resulted from high occupancy combined with inadequate ventilation. Average PM 10 levels were usually higher indoors than outdoors in homes, shopping malls and restaurants. The highest indoor PM 10 levels were observed at investigated restaurants due to the presence of cigarette smoking and extensive use of gas stoves for cooking. The restaurants and shopping malls investigated had higher formaldehyde levels than other indoor environments when building material, smoking and internal renovation work were present. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both indoor and outdoor environments mainly resulted from vehicle exhaust emissions. It was observed that interior decoration work and the use of industrial solvents in an indoor environment could significantly increase the indoor levels of VOCs.

  10. Comparison of background levels of culturable fungal spore concentrations in indoor and outdoor air in southeastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Luxner, J.; Galler, H.; Zarfel, G.; Schlacher, R.; Friedl, H.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    2014-12-01

    Background concentrations of airborne fungi are indispensable criteria for an assessment of fungal concentrations indoors and in the ambient air. The goal of this study was to define the natural background values of culturable fungal spore concentrations as reference values for the assessment of moldy buildings. The concentrations of culturable fungi were determined outdoors as well as indoors in 185 dwellings without visible mold, obvious moisture problems or musty odor. Samples were collected using the MAS-100® microbiological air sampler. The study shows a characteristic seasonal influence on the background levels of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Cladosporium sp. had a strong outdoor presence, whereas Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were typical indoor fungi. For the region of Styria, the median outdoor concentrations are between 100 and 940 cfu/m³ for culturable xerophilic fungi in the course of the year. Indoors, median background levels are between 180 and 420 cfu/m³ for xerophilic fungi. The I/O ratios of the airborne fungal spore concentrations were between 0.2 and 2.0. For the assessment of indoor and outdoor air samples the dominant genera Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus should receive special consideration.

  11. Control of aerosol contaminants in indoor air: combining the particle concentration reduction with microbial inactivation.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adhikari, Atin; Honda, Takeshi; Kim, Ki Youn; Toivola, Mika; Rao, K S Ramchander; Reponen, Tiina

    2007-01-15

    An indoor air purification technique, which combines unipolar ion emission and photocatalytic oxidation (promoted by a specially designed RCI cell), was investigated in two test chambers, 2.75 m3 and 24.3 m3, using nonbiological and biological challenge aerosols. The reduction in particle concentration was measured size selectively in real-time, and the Air Cleaning Factor and the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) were determined. While testing with virions and bacteria, bioaerosol samples were collected and analyzed, and the microorganism survival rate was determined as a function of exposure time. We observed that the aerosol concentration decreased approximately 10 to approximately 100 times more rapidly when the purifier operated as compared to the natural decay. The data suggest that the tested portable unit operating in approximately 25 m3 non-ventilated room is capable to provide CADR-values more than twice as great than the conventional closed-loop HVAC system with a rating 8 filter. The particle removal occurred due to unipolar ion emission, while the inactivation of viable airborne microorganisms was associated with photocatalytic oxidation. Approximately 90% of initially viable MS2 viruses were inactivated resulting from 10 to 60 min exposure to the photocatalytic oxidation. Approximately 75% of viable B. subtilis spores were inactivated in 10 min, and about 90% or greater after 30 min. The biological and chemical mechanisms that led to the inactivation of stress-resistant airborne viruses and bacterial spores were reviewed.

  12. Radon ((222)Rn) concentration in indoor air near the coal mining area of Nui Beo, North of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nhan, Dang Duc; Fernando, Carvalho P; Thu Ha, Nguyen Thi; Long, Nguyen Quang; Thuan, Dao Dinh; Fonseca, Heloisa

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of radioactive radon gas ((222)Rn) were measured using passive monitors based on LR115 solid state track detectors during June-July 2010 in indoor air of dwellings in the Nui Beo coal mining area, mostly in Cam Pha and Ha Long coastal towns, Quang Ninh province, in the North of Vietnam. Global results of (222)Rn concentrations indoors varied from ≤6 to 145 Bq m(-3) averaging 46 ± 26 Bq m(-3) (n = 37), with a median value of 47 Bq m(-3). This was similar to outdoor (222)Rn concentrations in the region, averaging 43 ± 19 Bq m(-3) (n = 10), with a median value of 44 Bq m(-3). Indoor (222)Rn concentrations in the coastal town dwellings only were in average lower although not significantly different from indoor (222)Rn concentrations measured at the coal storage field near the harbor, 67 ± 4 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the average (222)Rn concentration in indoor air measured in the coastal towns region and those at the touristic Tuan Chau Island located about 45 km south of the coal mine, in the Ha Long Bay. The indoor (222)Rn concentration in a floating house at the Bai Tu Long Bay, and assumed as the best estimate of the baseline (222)Rn in surface air, was 27 ± 3 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Indoor average concentration of (222)Rn in dwellings at the Ha Noi city, inland and outside the coal mining area, was determined at 30 Bq m(-3). These results suggest that (222)Rn exhalation from the ground at the Nui Beo coal mining area may have contributed to generally increase (222)Rn concentration in the surface air of that region up to 1.7 times above the baseline value measured at the Bai Tu Long Bay and Ha Noi. The average indoor concentration of (222)Rn in Cam Pha-Ha Long area is about one-third of the value of the so-called Action Level set up by the US EPA of 148 Bq m(-3). Results suggest that there is no significant public health risk from (222)Rn exposure in the study region.

  13. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  14. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  15. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  16. Investigation of the concentration of bacteria and their cell envelope components in indoor air in two elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Krahmer, M; Fox, A; Feigley, C E; Featherstone, A; Saraf, A; Larsson, L

    2000-11-01

    Bacterial cell envelope components are widely distributed in airborne dust, where they act as inflammatory agents causing respiratory symptoms. Measurements of these agents and other environmental factors are assessed in two elementary schools in a southeastern city in the United States. Muramic acid (MA) was used as a marker for bacterial peptidoglycan (PG), and 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) were used as markers for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Culturable bacteria were collected using an Andersen sampler with three different culture media. In addition, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and CO2 were continuously monitored. Concentrations of airborne MA and 3-OH FAs were correlated with total suspended particulate (TSP) levels. Outdoor MA (mean = 0.78-1.15 ng/m3) and 3-OH FA levels (mean = 2.19-2.18 ng/m3) were similar at the two schools. Indoor concentrations of airborne MA and 3-OH FAs differed significantly between schools (MA: 1.44 vs. 2.84 ng/m3; 3-OH FAs: 2.96 vs. 4.57 ng/m3). Although indoor MA levels were low, they were significantly related to teachers' perception of the severity of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in their classrooms. Concentrations of CO2 correlated significantly with all bacteria measurements. Because CO2 levels were related to the number of occupants and the ventilation rates, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the children and teachers are sources of bacterial contamination. Many culturable bacteria present in indoor air are opportunistic organisms that can be infectious for compromised individuals, while both culturable and nonculturable bacterial remnants act as environmental toxins for both healthy and compromised individuals. Measuring the "total bacteria load" would be most accurate in assessing the biotoxicity of indoor air. Chemical analysis of MA and 3-OH FAs, when coupled with the conventional culture method, provides complementary information for assessing biocontamination

  17. Investigation of indoor air volatile organic compounds concentration levels in dental settings and some related methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, Anna; Fuselli, Sergio; Piermattei, Alessandro; Morlino, Roberta; De Blasio, Giorgia; De Felice, Marco; Ortolani, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration levels in dental settings has a big health relevance for the potentially massive occupational exposure to a lot of diverse contaminants. The comparison of the VOCs profile relative to indoor conditions and to the corresponding outdoor concentrations, as well as the discovery of possible correlations between specific dental activities and VOCs concentration variations are of utmost importance for offering a reliable characterization of risk for dentists and dental staff health. In this study we review the most relevant environmental studies addressing the VOCs contamination level in dental settings. We analyze the methodological problems this kind of study must face and we report preliminary results of an indoor air investigation, carried out at dental hospital in Italy, the "Ospedale odontoiatrico George Eastman" of Rome, in which general lines for the analysis of dental settings in environmental terms are sketched. The aim of this work is to identify the kind of problems a typical enclosed (non-industrial) environment indoor air investigation has to cope with by means of the analysis of a case study.

  18. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  19. [Indoor air quality in schools].

    PubMed

    Cartieaux, E; Rzepka, M-A; Cuny, D

    2011-07-01

    Indoor air quality in schools has received particular attention over the past several years. Children are considered as one of the most sensitive groups to atmospheric pollution because their bodies are actively growing and they breathe higher volumes of air relative to their body weights than adults do. They also spend more time in school or group structures (preschools, day nurseries) than in any indoor environments other than the home. The analysis of children's exposure to air pollution at school requires the identification of the main pollutant sources present in these educational institutions. Both a strong contribution of outdoor pollution and a very specific pollution bound to school activities such as the use of paints, markers, glues, and manufactured ink eraser pens, exist. The ventilation in school buildings also plays an important role in air quality. A higher air exchange may improve thermal comfort and air quality. The cause of indoor air pollution is a combinatory effect of physical, chemical, and biological factors, and the adequacy of ventilation in the environment. Several pollutants have been reported to exist in classrooms such as bacteria, molds, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants and microparticles. There is a correlation between the concentrations of the pollutants and onset of health problems in schoolchildren. We observe predominantly respiratory symptoms as well as a prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. This study shows that poor indoor air quality affects children's health.

  20. Indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  1. Sources, Concentrations and Risks of Naphthalene in Indoor and Outdoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Chin, Jo-Yu; Jia, Chunrong; Godwin, Christopher; Parker, Edith; Robins, Thomas; Max, Paul; Lewis, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Naphthalene is a ubiquitous pollutant, and very high concentrations are sometimes encountered indoors when this chemical is used as a pest repellent or deodorant. This study describes the distribution and sources of vapor phase naphthalene concentrations in four communities in southeast Michigan, USA. Outdoors, naphthalene was measured in the communities and at a near-road site. Indoors, naphthalene levels were characterized in 288 suburban and urban homes. The median outdoor concentration was 0.15 µg m−3, and a modest contribution from rush-hour traffic was noted. The median indoor long-term concentration was 0.89 µg m−3, but concentrations were extremely skewed and 14% of homes exceeded 3 µg m−3, the chronic reference concentration for non-cancer effects, 8% exceeded 10 µg m−3, and levels reached 200 µg m−3. The typical individual lifetime cancer risk was about 10−4, and reached 10−2 in some homes. Important sources include naphthalene's use as a pest repellent and deodorant, migration from attached garages, and to lesser extents, cigarette smoke and vehicle emissions. Excessive use as a repellent caused the highest concentrations. Naphthalene presents high risks in a subset of homes, and policies and actions to reduce exposures, e.g., sales bans or restrictions, improved labeling and consumer education, should be considered. PMID:22145682

  2. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in matched samples of human milk, dust and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Hearn, Laurence; Kennedy, Karen; Harden, Fiona; Bartkow, Michael; Temme, Christian; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic, persistent pollutants found worldwide in environmental and human samples. Exposure pathways for PBDEs remain unclear but may include food, air and dust. The aim of this study was to conduct an integrated assessment of PBDE exposure and human body burden using 10 matched samples of human milk, indoor air and dust collected in 2007-2008 in Brisbane, Australia. In addition, temporal analysis was investigated comparing the results of the current study with PBDE concentrations in human milk collected in 2002-2003 from the same region. PBDEs were detected in all matrices and the median concentrations of BDEs -47 and -209 in human milk, air and dust were: 4.2 and 0.3 ng/g lipid; 25 and 7.8 pg/m(3); and 56 and 291 ng/g dust, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of BDE-99 in air and human milk (r=0.661, p=0.038) and BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in human milk (r=0.697, p=0.025). These correlations do not suggest causal relationships - there is no hypothesis that can be offered to explain why BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in milk are correlated. The fact that so few correlations were found in the data could be a function of the small sample size, or because additional factors, such as sources of exposure not considered or measured in the study, might be important in explaining exposure to PBDEs. There was a slight decrease in PBDE concentrations from 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 but this may be due to sampling and analytical differences. Overall, average PBDE concentrations from these individual samples were similar to results from pooled human milk collected in Brisbane in 2002-2003 indicating that pooling may be an efficient, cost-effective strategy of assessing PBDE concentrations on a population basis. The results of this study were used to estimate an infant's daily PBDE intake via inhalation, dust ingestion and human milk consumption. Differences in PBDE intake of individual

  3. Background concentrations of individual and total volatile organic compounds in residential indoor air of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hippelein, Martin

    2004-09-01

    During a monitoring campaign concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in indoor air of 79 dwellings where occupants had not complained about health problems or unpleasant odour. Parameters monitored were the individual concentration of 68 VOCs and the total concentration of all VOCs inside the room. VOCs adsorbed by Tenax TA were then analysed by means of thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The analytical procedure and quantification was done according to the recommendation of the ECA-IAQ Working Group 13 which gave a definition of the total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentration. Using this recommendation TVOC-concentrations ranged between 33 and 1600 microg m(-3) with a median of 289 microg m(-3). Compounds found in every sample and with the highest concentrations were 2-propanol, alpha-pinene and toluene. Save for a few samples, all concentrations measured have been a factor 2 to 10 lower, compared to data from similar studies. Only a few terpenes and aldehydes were found exceeding published reference data or odour threshold concentrations. However, it has been found that sampling and analysing methods do have a considerable impact on the results, making direct comparisons of studies somewhat questionable. 47% of all samples revealed concentrations exceeding the threshold value of 300 microg TVOC m(-3) set by the German Federal Environmental Agency as a target for indoor air quality. Using the TVOC concentration as defined in the ECA-IAQ methodology is instrumental in assessing exposure to VOCs and identifying sources of VOCs. The background concentrations determined in this study can be used to discuss and interpret target values for individual and total volatile organic compounds in indoor air.

  4. Carbon adsorption for indoor air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdell, D.W.; Sparks, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Gas-phase air filtration equipment (GPAFE) has been applied for many years to control industrial gaseous contaminants. Interest in cleaning recirculation air to provide ventilation without the need to condition excessive outdoor air has promoted increased interest in GPAFE as indoor air control devices. The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using granular activated carbon (GAC) is the focus of this article. First, the authors present performance measurements for GAC at low challenge VOC concentrations that might be encountered indoors. Unlike previously reported tests, these were continued long enough to directly determine the GAC`s expected lifetime. The results suggest that test results obtained at high challenge concentrations may be extrapolated to low, indoor concentrations. Further study is needed, but these data are encouraging. Second, they will discuss the implications of these performance measurements for the use of GAC to remove VOCs and improve indoor air quality (IAQ) using an indoor air building simulation model.

  5. Estimation of mean annual effective dose through radon concentration in the water and indoor air of Islamabad and Murree.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Khan, E U; Akhter, P; Khan, F; Waheed, A

    2010-09-01

    Different samples of water, indoor air and soil gas have been collected from Islamabad (33 degrees 38'N, 73 degrees 09'E, altitude of 1760 ft.), the capital of Pakistan and Murree (33 degrees 53'N, 73 degrees 23'E, altitude of 7323 ft.), lying on a geological fault line and are analysed for the estimation of mean effective dose through radon concentrations by using RAD-7, a solid state alpha-detector. The variation of radon concentration in water, indoor air and soil gas in Islamabad region ranges from 25.90-158.40 kBq m(-3), 43.26-97.04 Bq m(-3) and 17.34-72.52 kBq m(-3), having mean values 88.63 kBq m(-3), 70.67 Bq m(-3) and 45.08 kBq m(-3)(,) respectively. It ranges from 1.64-10.20 kBq m(-3), 18.48-42.08 Bq m(-3) and 0.61-3.89 kBq m(-3) with mean values 4.38 kBq m(-3), 28.63 Bq m(-3) and 1.70 kBq m(-3)(,) respectively in Murree and its surroundings. The total mean annual effective doses from water and indoor air of Islamabad and Murree regions are 2.023 and 0.733 mSv a(-1), respectively. These doses are within the recommended limits of the world organisations.

  6. Concentrations and Risks of p-Dichlorobenzene in Indoor and Outdoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Godwin, Christopher; Jia, Chunrong; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby; Parker, Edith; Max, Paul; Batterman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    p-Dichlorobenzene (PDCB) is a chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) that can be encountered at high concentrations in buildings due to its use as pest repellent and deodorant. This study characterizes PDCB concentrations in four communities in southeast Michigan. The median concentration outside 145 homes was 0.04 µg m−3, and the median concentration inside 287 homes was 0.36 µg m−3. The distribution of indoor concentrations was extremely skewed. For example, 30% of the homes exceeded 0.91 µg m−3, which corresponds to a cancer risk level of 10−5 based on the California unit risk estimate, and 4% of homes exceeded 91 µg m−3, equivalent to a 10−3 risk level. The single highest measurement was 4,100 µg m−3. Estimates of whole house emission rates were largely consistent with chamber test results in the literature. Indoor concentrations that exceed a few µg m−3 indicate use of PDCB products. PDCB concentrations differed among households and the four cities, suggesting the importance of locational, cultural and behavioral factors in the use patterns of this chemical. The high PDCB levels found suggest the need for policies and actions to lower exposures, e.g., sales or use restrictions, improved labeling, and consumer education. PMID:22725685

  7. Influences of ambient air PM₂.₅ concentration and meteorological condition on the indoor PM₂.₅ concentrations in a residential apartment in Beijing using a new approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Qi, Meng; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Huizhong; Liu, Jing; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2015-10-01

    PM2.5 concentrations in a typical residential apartment in Beijing and immediately outside of the building were measured simultaneously during heating and non-heating periods. The objective was to quantitatively explore the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. A statistical method for predicting indoor PM2.5 concentrations was proposed. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were strongly affected by meteorological conditions, especially wind directions. A bimodal distribution was identified during the heating season due to the frequent and rapid transition between severe pollution events and clean days. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were significantly correlated with outdoor PM2.5 concentrations but with 1-2 h delay, and the differences can be explained by ambient meteorological features, such as temperature, humidity, and wind direction. These results indicate the potential to incorporate indoor exposure features to the regional air quality model framework and to more accurately estimate the epidemiological relationship between human mortality and air pollution exposure.

  8. Patterns of household concentrations of multiple indoor air pollutants in China.

    PubMed

    He, Gongli; Ying, Bo; Liu, Jiang; Gao, Shirong; Shen, Shaolin; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Jin, Yinlong; Liu, Fan; Tang, Ning; Shi, Kai; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid

    2005-02-15

    Most previous studies on indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels have used either indirect proxies for human exposure or measurements of individual pollutants at a single point, as indicators of (exposure to) the mixture of pollutants in solid fuel smoke. A heterogeneous relationship among pollutant-location pairs should be expected because specific fuel-stove technology and combustion and dispersion conditions such as temperature, moisture, and air flow are likely to affect the emissions and dispersion of the various pollutants differently. We report on a study for monitoring multiple pollutants--including respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, fluoride, and arsenic--at four points inside homes that used coal and/or biomass fuels in Guizhou and Shaanxi provinces of China. All pollutants exhibited large variability in emissions and spatial dispersion within and between provinces and were generally poorly correlated. RPM, followed by SO2, was generally higher than common health-based guidelines/standards and provided sufficient resolution for assessing variations within and between households in both provinces. Indoor heating played an important role in the level and spatial patterns of pollution inside homes, possibly to an extent more important than cooking. The findings indicate the need for monitoring of RPM and selected other pollutants in longer-term health studies, with focus on both cooking and living/sleeping areas.

  9. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  10. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, A V; Yarmoshenko, I V; Zhukovsky, M V

    2015-06-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low.

  11. Indoor air quality medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Ross, C S; Lockey, J E

    1994-08-01

    The regulatory and legal communities have begun only recently to address the medicolegal issues surrounding indoor air quality. No single governmental agency is responsible for indoor air quality issues. The focus of the federal government's indoor air quality programs is on the gathering and dissemination of information rather than on the regulation of indoor air pollution. State and local regulatory controls vary but may include antismoking ordinances, building codes, and contractor certification programs. Numerous lawsuits involving various parties and legal theories have been filed on the basis of illness allegedly related to indoor air quality. Further regulatory and legal review of indoor air problems will likely occur in the near future, particularly as a result of the characterization of environmental tobacco smoke as a class A carcinogen.

  12. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  13. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  14. A complexity measure based method for studying the dependance of 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity.

    PubMed

    Mihailovic, D T; Udovičić, V; Krmar, M; Arsenić, I

    2014-02-01

    We have suggested a complexity measure based method for studying the dependence of measured (222)Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity. This method is based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KL). We have introduced (i) the sequence of the KL, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity highest value in the sequence (KLM) and (iii) the KL of the product of time series. The noticed loss of the KLM complexity of (222)Rn concentration time series can be attributed to the indoor air humidity that keeps the radon daughters in air.

  15. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  17. The effect of low ventilation rate with elevated bioeffluent concentration on work performance, perceived indoor air quality and health symptoms.

    PubMed

    Maula, Henna; Hongisto, Valtteri; Naatula, Viivi; Haapakangas, Annu; Koskela, Hannu

    2017-04-05

    The aim of this laboratory experiment was to study the effects of ventilation rate, and related changes in air quality, predominantly bioeffluents, on work performance, perceived indoor air quality and health symptoms in a typical conditions of modern open-plan office with low material and equipment emissions. In Condition A, outdoor air flow rate of 28.2 l/s person (CO2 level 540 ppm) was applied and in Condition B, outdoor air flow rate was 2.3 l/s person (CO2 level 2260 ppm). CO2 concentration level was used as an indicator of bioeffluents. Performance was measured with seven different tasks which measure different cognitive processes. Thirty-six subjects participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 4 hours. Condition B had a weak negative effect on performance only in the information retrieval tasks. Condition B increased slightly subjective workload and perceived fatigue. No effects on health symptoms were found. The intensity of symptoms was low in both conditions. The experimental condition had an effect on perceived air quality and observed odour intensity only in the beginning of the session. Although the room temperature was controlled in both conditions, the heat was perceived to impair the performance more in Condition B. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Can changing the timing of outdoor air intake reduce indoor concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in schools?

    PubMed

    MacNeill, M; Dobbin, N; St-Jean, M; Wallace, L; Marro, L; Shin, T; You, H; Kulka, R; Allen, R W; Wheeler, A J

    2016-10-01

    Traffic emissions have been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Many schools are situated close to major roads, and as children spend much of their day in school, methods to reduce traffic-related air pollutant concentrations in the school environment are warranted. One promising method to reduce pollutant concentrations in schools is to alter the timing of the ventilation so that high ventilation time periods do not correspond to rush hour traffic. Health Canada, in collaboration with the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board, tested the effect of this action by collecting traffic-related air pollution data from four schools in Ottawa, Canada, during October and November 2013. A baseline and intervention period was assessed in each school. There were statistically significant (P < 0.05) reductions in concentrations of most of the pollutants measured at the two late-start (9 AM start) schools, after adjusting for outdoor concentrations and the absolute indoor-outdoor temperature difference. The intervention at the early-start (8 AM start) schools did not have significant reductions in pollutant concentrations. Based on these findings, changing the timing of the ventilation may be a cost-effective mechanism of reducing traffic-related pollutants in late-start schools located near major roads.

  19. Indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gold, D R

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and "tight building" syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.

  20. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  1. Indoor radon concentrations in Taiwanese homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, I.F.; Yu, C.C.; Tung, C.J. ); Yang, Y.C.; Chou, K.D. )

    1994-10-01

    Many air pollutants may be present in the indoor environment. Commonly reported pollutants are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, radon and its progeny, asbestos fibers and airborne particles. Among these indoor pollutants, radon and its progeny have been known to increase the risk of lung cancer in the U.S. Various studies also found in general higher concentrations of air pollutants in the indoor environment. It is a serious concern to us because of the long periods of time we spend indoors. In this study, the alpha-track radon monitor was used in the screening of higher risk buildings in Taipei and Hsinchu city. None of the homes in the 32 buildings surveyed in these cities had air concentrations of radon exceeding the action level of 4 pCi/l recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Different sources to indoor radon concentrations are the underlying soil, building materials, outdoor air, water and gaseous fuels. Ventilation of the homes and seasonal variations are major factors of higher radon concentrations. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Probabilistic approach to estimating indoor air concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds from contaminated groundwater: a case study in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic model, based on the Johnson-Ettinger algorithm, developed to characterize the current and historic exposure to tricholorethylene (TCE) and tetrachlorethylene (PCE) in indoor air from plumes of groundwater contamination emanating from the former Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. We estimate indoor air concentration, house by house, in 30 101 homes and compare the estimated concentrations with measured values in a small subset of homes. We also compare two versions of the Johnson-Ettinger model: one used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and another based on an alternative parametrization. The modeled mean predicted PCE concentration historically exceeded PCE screening levels (0.41 ug/m(3)) in 5.5% of houses, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded screening levels in 85.3% of houses. For TCE, the mean concentration exceeded the screening level (0.25 ug/m(3)) in 49% of homes, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded the screening level in 99% of homes. The EPA model predicts slightly lower indoor concentrations than the alternative parametrization. Comparison with measured samples suggests both models, with the inputs selected, underestimate indoor concentrations and that the 95th percentiles of the predicted concentrations are closer to measured concentrations than predicted mean values.

  3. PASSIVE/DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS FOR PESTICIDES IN RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides applied indoors vaporize from treated surfaces (e.g., carpets and baseboards) resulting in elevated air concentrations that may persist for long periods after applications. Estimating long-term respiratory exposures to pesticide vapors in residential indoor environme...

  4. Building materials and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Levin, H

    1989-01-01

    New building materials, products, and furnishings are known to emit a large number of organic chemicals into indoor air. The author addresses the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on building occupants, including building materials evaluation and strategies to reduce airborne concentrations. A major problem is that little is known about the specific health effects of most VOCs at the low concentrations usually found in indoor environments.

  5. Fundamentals of Indoor Air Quality in Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module provides the fundamentals to understanding indoor air quality. It provides a rudimentary framework for understanding how indoor and outdoor sources of pollution affect the indoor air quality of buildings.

  6. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Building materials and furnishings as diverse as: Deteriorated asbestos-containing insulation Newly installed flooring, upholstery or carpet ... more about indoor air pollutants and sources of: Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood ...

  7. Indoor Air Quality in Apartments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Apartments can have the same indoor air problems as single-family homes because many of the pollution sources, such as the interior building materials, furnishings, and household products, are similar.

  8. Guide for Indoor Air Quality Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Influencing Indoor Air Quality ................... 5 Carbon Dioxide and Fresh Air ........................ 6 Relative Humidity...037, A Procedural Guide on Sick Building Syndrome (Liebhaber, 1987), and supplements AFOEHL Report 90-169, Recommended Carbon Dioxide and Relative...symptoms. The causes most implicated in the literature include comfort parameters such as carbon dioxide (C02) concentration, relative humidity

  9. CONCENTRATION OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE IN INDOOR AIR AT A FORMER DRY CLEANER FACILITY AS A FUNCTION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was performed to evaluate indoor air concentrations and vapor intrusion (VI) of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other chlorinated solvents at a commercial retail site in Dallas, TX. The building is approximately 40 years old and once housed a dry cleaning operation. R...

  10. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  11. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  12. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: Impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations

    DOE PAGES

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Russell, Marion L.; ...

    2015-03-17

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX, NO2, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6d periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher inmore » homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, though bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.« less

  13. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mullen, N A; Li, J; Russell, M L; Spears, M; Less, B D; Singer, B C

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX , NO2 , formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6-day periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, although bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.

  14. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

  15. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 μg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem. PMID:25019268

  16. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Miksch, R.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Traynor, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminants and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. These air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings were measured and analyzed with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency.

  17. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-09-30

    Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the

  18. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PARTICLE RESUSPENSION TO INDOOR AND PERSONAL AIR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An association has been demonstrated between ambient PM concentrations and human morbidity/mortality. However, little is known regarding the most important sources of PM exposure, inter- and intrapersonal variability in exposure, and the relationship between personal exposure a...

  19. Concentration of tetrachloroethylene in indoor air at a former dry cleaner facility as a function of subsurface contamination: a case study.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Bart M; Simon, Michelle A

    2007-06-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate indoor air concentrations and vapor intrusion (VI) of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other chlorinated solvents at a commercial retail site in Dallas, TX. The building is approximately 40 yr old and once housed a dry cleaning operation. Results from an initial site characterization were used to select sampling locations for the VI study. The general approach for evaluating VI was to collect time-integrated canister samples for off-site U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method TO-15 analyses. PCE and other chlorinated solvents were measured in shallow soil gas, subslab soil-gas, indoor air, and ambient air. The subslab soil gas exhibited relatively high values: PCE < or =2,600,000 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and trichloroethylene < or =170 ppbv. The attenuation factor, the ratio of indoor air and subslab soil-gas concentrations, was unusually low: approximately 5 x 10(-6) based on the maximum subslab soil-gas concentration of PCE and 1.4 x 10(-5) based on average values.

  20. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  1. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  2. Mold and Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Mold and Indoor Air Quality in Schools Mold and Moisture in Schools Webinar ... premier resource on this issue is the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit. Our schools-related resources ...

  3. Indoor airPLUS Web Linking Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As an Indoor airPLUS partner, your organization is listed on the EPA Indoor airPLUS Partner List. Your listing can also include a link to your organization's website when you meet the following requirements.

  4. Indoor Air vs. Indoor Construction: A New Beginning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicone, Santo

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the steps that can be taken to lessen the impact of indoor air pollution created from indoor renovation projects, including project management tips to help contractors avoid creating unnecessary air pollution. Final comments address air pollution control when installing new furniture, smoking restrictions, occupant relations, and the…

  5. The effect of outdoor air and indoor human activity on mass concentrations of PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Branis, Martin; Rezácová, Pavla; Domasová, Markéta

    2005-10-01

    The 12-h mass concentration of PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) was measured in a lecturing room by means of three co-located Harvard impactors. The filters were changed at 8 AM and at 8 PM to cover the periods of presence and absence of students. Concentrations were assessed by gravimetry. Ambient PM(10) data were available for corresponding 12-h intervals from the nearest state air-quality-monitoring network station. The data were pooled into four periods according to the presence and absence of students-Monday-Thursday day (workday daytime), Monday-Thursday night (workday night), Friday-Sunday day (weekend daytime), and Friday-Sunday night (weekend night). Average indoor workday daytime concentrations were 42.3, 21.9 and 13.7 microgm(-3), workday night were 20.9, 19.1 and 15.2 microgm(-3), weekend daytime were 21.9, 18.1 and 11.4 microgm(-3), and weekend night were 24.5, 21.3, and 15.6 microgm(-3) for PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1), respectively. The highest 12-h mean, median, and maximum (42.3, 43.0, and 76.2 microgm(-3), respectively) indoor concentrations were recorded on workdays during the daytime for PM(10). The statistically significant (r=0.68,P<0.0009) correlation between the number of students per hour per day and the indoor coarse fraction calculated as PM(10--2.5) during daytime on workdays indicates that the presence of people is an important source of coarse particles indoor. On workdays, the daytime PM(10) indoor/outdoor ratio was positively associated (r=0.93) with an increasing indoor coarse fraction (PM(10--2.5)), also indicating that an important portion of indoor PM(10) had its source inside the classroom. With the exception of the calculated coarse fraction (PM(10--2.5)), all of the measured indoor particulate matter fractions were significantly highly correlated with outdoor PM(10) and negatively correlated with wind velocity, showing that outdoor levels of particles influence their indoor concentrations.

  6. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: Impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Less, Brennan D.; Singer, Brett C.

    2015-03-17

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX, NO2, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6d periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, though bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.

  7. Indoor air quality and health in schools*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria da Conceição; Cardoso, Massano

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Methods: We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. Results: In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Conclusions: Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations. PMID:25029649

  8. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  9. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  10. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  11. Reference Guide. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the importance of good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is the backbone of developing an effective Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) program. Poor IAQ can lead to a large variety of health problems and potentially affect comfort, concentration, and staff/student performance. In recognition of tight school budgets, this guidance is designed…

  12. Indoor air quality in a dentistry clinic.

    PubMed

    Helmis, C G; Tzoutzas, J; Flocas, H A; Halios, C H; Stathopoulou, O I; Assimakopoulos, V D; Panis, V; Apostolatou, M; Sgouros, G; Adam, E

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to assess, both experimentally and theoretically the status of air quality in a dentistry clinic of the Athens University Dentistry Faculty with respect to chemical pollutants and identify the indoor sources associated with dental activities. Total VOCs, CO(2), PM(10), PM(2.5), NO(x) and SO(2) were measured over a period of approximately three months in a selected dentistry clinic. High pollution levels during the operation hours regarding CO(2), total VOCs and Particulate Matter were found, while in the non-working periods lower levels were recorded. On the contrary, NO(x) and SO(2) remained at low levels for the whole experimental period. These conditions were associated with the number of occupants, the nature of the dental clinical procedures, the materials used and the ventilation schemes, which lead to high concentrations, far above the limits that are set by international organizations and concern human exposure. The indoor environmental conditions were investigated using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model PHOENICS for inert gases simulation. The results revealed diagonal temperature stratification and low air velocities leading to pollution stratification, accompanied by accumulation of inert gaseous species in certain areas of the room. Different schemes of natural ventilation were also applied in order to examine their effect on the indoor comfort conditions for the occupants, in terms of air renewal and double cross ventilation was found to be most effective. The relative contribution of the indoor sources, which are mainly associated with indoor activities, was assessed by application of the Multi Chamber Indoor Air Quality Model (MIAQ) to the experimental data. It was found that deposition onto indoor surfaces is an important removal mechanism while a great amount of particulate matter emitted in the Clinic burdened severely the indoor air quality. The natural ventilation of the room seemed to reduce the levels of

  13. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a PMID:9769764

  14. A new method for the rapid determination of volatile organic compound breakthrough times for a sorbent at concentrations relevant to indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Scahill, John; Wolfrum, Edward J; Michener, William E; Bergmann, Michael; Blake, Daniel M; Watt, Andrew S

    2004-01-01

    The use of sorbents has been proposed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in ambient air at concentrations in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range, which is typical of indoor air quality applications. Sorbent materials, such as granular activated carbon and molecular sieves, are used to remove VOCs from gas streams in industrial applications, where VOC concentrations are typically in the parts-per-million range. A method for evaluating the VOC removal performance of sorbent materials using toluene concentrations in the ppb range is described. Breakthrough times for toluene at concentrations from 2 to 7500 ppb are presented for a hydrophobic molecular sieve at 25%) relative humidity. By increasing the ratio of challenge gas flow rate to the mass of the sorbent bed and decreasing both the mass of sorbent in the bed and the sorbent particle size, this method reduces the required experimental times by a factor of up to several hundred compared with the proposed American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers method, ASHRAE 145P, making sorbent performance evaluation for ppb-range VOC removal more convenient. The method can be applied to screen sorbent materials for application in the removal of VOCs from indoor air.

  15. Unusually high indoor radon concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennemoser, O.; Ambach, W.; Brunner, P.; Schneider, P.; Oberaigner, W.; Purtscheller, F.; Stingl, V.

    Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the village Umhausen (2600 inhabitants, Ötztal valley, Tyrol, Austria) revealed unusually high indoor radon concentrations up to 274,000 Bq m -3. The medians measured on the basements were 3750 Bq m -3 in winter and 361 Bq m -3 in summer, those on the ground floors were 1180 Bq m -3 and 210 Bq m -3, respectively. Seventy-one per cent of the houses showed basement radon concentrations above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq m -3 in winter, 33% in summer. There are indications that the high radon concentrations are due to a giant rock slide about 8700 years ago. The unusually high radon concentrations in Umhausen coincide with a statistically significant increase in lung cancer mortality. For the period 1970-1991 the age and sex standardized mortality rate is 3.85 (95% confidence interval: 2.9 to 5.1). The control population is the total population of Tyrol (630,000 inhabitants).

  16. Indoor Air Quality and Ice Arenas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All recreational facilities including ice arenas should use good ventilation practices especially where children are present. It is critical that indoor air quality is protected particularly when using fuel-burning equipment indoors.

  17. Cooperative Agreement Funding for Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  18. Indoor air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.

    1985-01-01

    The air inside buildings can contain various threats to human health: cigarette smoke, fumes from fires and cookers, microbes, gases, allergens and fumes produced by household products or building materials. Higher standards of insulation and draught-proofing and more use of air conditioning can increase the problems. This book provides a summary of indoor air quality problems in homes, offices and public buildings. Contents: Preface; Introduction; Formaledhyde and other household contaminants; Radon; Particulates; Combustion products; Involuntary smoking; Energy-efficient buildings and indoor air quality; Control of indoor air pollutants; Indoor air quality problems in office buildings; Legal and regulatory issues; Appendices; Sources and suggested reading; Glossary; Index.

  19. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein. PMID:28250718

  20. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  1. Care for Your Air: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems.

  2. Assessment of indoor air concentrations of VOCs and their associated health risks in the library of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Bhupendra Pratap; Punia, Monika; Singh, Deepak; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, V K

    2014-02-01

    The present work investigated the levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) in different microenvironments in the library of Jawaharlal Nehru University in summer and winter during 2011-2012. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks due to organic compounds were also evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conventional approaches. Real-time monitoring was done for TVOC using a data-logging photo-ionization detector. For BTEX measurements, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method which consists of active sampling of air through activated charcoal, followed by analysis with gas chromatography, was performed. Simultaneously, outdoor measurements for TVOC and BTEX were carried out. Indoor concentrations of TVOC and BTEX (except benzene) were higher as compared to the outdoor for both seasons. Toluene and m/p-xylene were the most abundant organic contaminant observed in this study. Indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios of BTEX compounds were generally greater than unity and ranged from 0.2 to 8.7 and 0.2 to 4.3 in winter and summer, respectively. Statistical analysis and I/O ratios showed that the dominant pollution sources mainly came from indoors. The observed mean concentrations of TVOC lie within the second group of the Molhave criteria of indoor air quality, indicating a multifactorial exposure range. The estimated lifetime cancer risk (LCR) due to benzene in this study exceeded the value of 1 × 10(-6) recommended by USEPA, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk came under an acceptable range.

  3. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  4. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  5. WSN based indoor air quality monitoring in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. K.; Chew, S. P.; Jusoh, M. T.; Khairunissa, A.; Leong, K. Y.; Azid, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring is essential as the human health is directly affected by indoor air quality. This paper presents the investigations of the impact of undergraduate students' concentration during lecture due to the indoor air quality in classroom. Three environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and concentration of carbon dioxide are measured using wireless sensor network based air quality monitoring system. This simple yet reliable system is incorporated with DHT-11 and MG-811 sensors. Two classrooms were selected to install the monitoring system. The level of indoor air quality were measured and students' concentration was assessed using intelligent test during normal lecturing section. The test showed significant correlation between the collected environmental parameters and the students' level of performances in their study.

  6. Distribution of indoor radon concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1990-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2013-01-01

    Median indoor radon concentrations aggregated according to geologic units and hydrogeologic settings are useful for drawing general conclusions about the occurrence of indoor radon in specific geologic units and hydrogeologic settings, but the associated data and maps have limitations. The aggregated indoor radon data have testing and spatial accuracy limitations due to lack of available information regarding testing conditions and the imprecision of geocoded test locations. In addition, the associated data describing geologic units and hydrogeologic settings have spatial and interpretation accuracy limitations, which are a result of using statewide data to define conditions at test locations and geologic data that represent a broad interpretation of geologic units across the State. As a result, indoor air radon concentration distributions are not proposed for use in predicting individual concentrations at specific sites nor for use as a decision-making tool for property owners to decide whether to test for indoor radon concentrations at specific property locations.

  7. Indoor air quality: A psychosocial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  8. Indoor air quality: a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Boxer, P A

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  9. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  10. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece.

    PubMed

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g(-1) with a median value of 1092 ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day(-1) (median 12 ng day(-1)).

  11. Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JaKyoung; Kim, HyungJin; Lim, DaeHyun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with variations in indoor environments. In Korea, many inner walls of homes are covered with wallpaper: such walls emit indoor air pollutants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. This randomized, double-blind study investigated the effects of wallpaper on indoor air quality and AD. Thirty-one children (aged three to eight years) with moderate AD were assigned to environmentally-friendly (EF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallpaper groups. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs, natural VOCs (NVOCs), formaldehyde, and total suspended bacteria were measured before and two (W2) and eight weeks (W8) after wallpapering. Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) evaluations and blood tests were performed during the same period. The EF wallpaper and PVC wallpaper groups showed similar trends in the changes in total VOCs (TVOC) and formaldehyde content in the indoor air. However, the EF wallpaper group showed more improvement on the SCORAD at W2 and W8 than the PVC wallpaper group. The SCORAD index was positively correlated with several indoor air pollutants. Further, the SCORAD index and NVOC % were negatively correlated. Improved SCORAD index and effects of wallpapering on indoor air quality improvements occurred within a short period of time in both groups. We believe that NVOCs in indoor air after EF wallpapering have a beneficial effect on health. PMID:27941696

  12. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  13. Indoor transient SOA formation from ozone + α-pinene reactions: Impacts of air exchange and initial product concentrations, and comparison to limonene ozonolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssefi, Somayeh; Waring, Michael S.

    2015-07-01

    The ozonolysis of reactive organic gases (ROG), e.g. terpenes, generates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. The SOA formation strength of such reactions is parameterized by the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), a.k.a. SOA yield, which is the mass ratio of generated SOA to oxidized ROG. AMFs vary in magnitude both among and for individual ROGs. Here, we quantified dynamic SOA formation from the ozonolysis of α-pinene with 'transient AMFs,' which describe SOA formation due to pulse emission of a ROG in an indoor space with air exchange, as is common when consumer products are intermittently used in ventilated buildings. We performed 19 experiments at low, moderate, and high (0.30, 0.52, and 0.94 h-1, respectively) air exchange rates (AER) at varying concentrations of initial reactants. Transient AMFs as a function of peak SOA concentrations ranged from 0.071 to 0.25, and they tended to increase as the AER and product of the initial reactant concentrations increased. Compared to our similar research on limonene ozonolysis (Youssefi and Waring, 2014), for which formation strength was driven by secondary ozone reactions, the AER impact for α-pinene was opposite in direction and weaker, while the initial reactant product impact was in the same direction but stronger for α-pinene than for limonene. Linear fits of AMFs for α-pinene ozonolysis as a function of the AER and initial reactant concentrations are provided so that future indoor models can predict SOA formation strength.

  14. [Indoor air and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kunkel, G; Rudolph, R; Muckelmann, R

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infects of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chimico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  15. Exploring the consequences of climate change for indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaroff, William W.

    2013-03-01

    Climate change will affect the concentrations of air pollutants in buildings. The resulting shifts in human exposure may influence public health. Changes can be anticipated because of altered outdoor pollution and also owing to changes in buildings effected in response to changing climate. Three classes of factors govern indoor pollutant levels in occupied spaces: (a) properties of pollutants; (b) building factors, such as the ventilation rate; and (c) occupant behavior. Diversity of indoor conditions influences the public health significance of climate change. Potentially vulnerable subpopulations include not only the young and the infirm but also those who lack resources to respond effectively to changing conditions. Indoor air pollutant levels reflect the sum of contributions from indoor sources and from outdoor pollutants that enter with ventilation air. Pollutant classes with important indoor sources include the byproducts of combustion, radon, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Outdoor pollutants of special concern include particulate matter and ozone. To ensure good indoor air quality it is important first to avoid high indoor emission rates for all pollutants and second to ensure adequate ventilation. A third factor is the use of air filtration or air cleaning to achieve further improvements where warranted. Reprinted with permission from Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health (2011) by the National Academy of Sciences, Courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

  16. Indoor airPLUS Videos, Podcasts, Webinars and Interviews

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Webinar presentations will help you discover how Indoor airPLUS homes are designed to improve indoor air quality and increase energy efficiency and learn about the key design and construction features included in Indoor airPLUS homes.

  17. Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE

    SciTech Connect

    Corsi, Dr. Richard; Morandi, Dr. Maria; Siegel, Dr. Jeffrey; Hun, Diana E

    2011-01-01

    Attached garages have been identified as important sources of indoor residential air pollution. However, the literature lacks information on how the proximity of cars to the living area affects indoor concentrations of gasoline-related compounds, and the origin of these pollutants. We analyzed data from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study and evaluated 114 residences with cars in an attached garage, detached garage or carport, or without cars. Results indicate that homes with cars in attached garages were affected the most. Concentrations in homes with cars in detached garages and residences without cars were similar. The contribution from gasoline-related sources to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to be dominated by car exhaust, or a combination of tailpipe and gasoline vapor emissions. Residing in a home with an attached garage could lead to benzene exposures ten times higher than exposures from commuting in heavy traffic.

  18. Use of an indoor air quality model (IAQM) to estimate indoor ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Hayes, S R

    1991-02-01

    Currently, outdoor ozone levels in many U.S. cities exceed the primary health-based national ambient air quality standard. While outdoor ozone levels are an important measure of the severity of those exceedances, people typically spend more than 80 percent of their time indoors, where ozone levels are lower. Indoor ozone levels range from 10 to 80 percent of outdoor levels, with many people receiving a substantial portion of their ozone exposure while indoors. This paper uses an indoor air quality model (IAQM) to estimate indoor ozone levels by microenvironment type (home, office, and vehicle) and configuration (windows open, windows closed, older construction, weatherized, and air conditioned). The formulation of IAQM is discussed, along with specification of model parameters for ozone. The multicompartment version of IAQM is described, with a single-compartment version used for the analyses. IAQM-calculated ozone indoor-outdoor ratios compare well with research-reported values. Results indicate that ozone peak-concentration indoor-outdoor ratios range as follows: home--0.65 (windows open), 0.36 (air conditioned), 0.23 (typical construction, windows closed), and 0.05 (energy-efficient construction, windows closed); office--0.82 (heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems supplying 100 percent outdoor air), 0.60 (typical HVAC), and 0.32 (energy-efficient HVAC); and vehicle--0.41 (85 mph), 0.33 (55 mph), and 0.21 (10 mph). Analysis results are presented to characterize IAQM's sensitivity to assumed model parameters.

  19. Indoor Air Quality Science and Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems. Some pollutants can be chemicals, gases, and living or

  20. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  3. Indoor air quality in elementary schools of Lisbon in spring.

    PubMed

    Pegas, P N; Alves, C A; Evtyugina, M G; Nunes, T; Cerqueira, M; Franchi, M; Pio, C A; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools usually reveals higher levels of pollutants than in outdoor environments. The aims of this study are to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations of NO(2), speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls at 14 elementary schools in Lisbon, Portugal. The investigation was carried out in May-June 2009. Three of the schools were selected to also measure comfort parameters, such as temperature and relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), total VOCs, and bacterial and fungal colony-forming units per cubic metre. Indoor concentrations of CO(2) in the three main schools indicated inadequate classroom air exchange rates. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) NO(2) ratio ranged between 0.36 and 0.95. At the three main schools, the total bacterial and fungal colony-forming units (CFU) in both indoor and outdoor air were above the advised maximum value of 500 CFU/m(3) defined by Portuguese legislation. The aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, followed by ethers, alcohols and terpenes, were usually the most abundant classes of VOCs. In general, the indoor total VOC concentrations were markedly higher than those observed outdoors. At all locations, indoor aldehyde levels were higher than those observed outdoors, particularly for formaldehyde. The inadequate ventilation observed likely favours accumulation of pollutants with additional indoor sources.

  4. Fungal spore concentrations in indoor and outdoor air in university libraries, and their variations in response to changes in meteorological variables.

    PubMed

    Flores, María Elena Báez; Medina, Pável Gaxiola; Camacho, Sylvia Páz Díaz; de Jesús Uribe Beltrán, Magdalena; De la Cruz Otero, María del Carmen; Ramírez, Ignacio Osuna; Hernández, Martín Ernesto Tiznado

    2014-08-01

    The fungal spore concentration (FSC) in the air poses a risk for human health. This work studied the FSC in university libraries and how it is affected by environmental factors. A total of 347 samples were obtained using a Microbio MB2(®) Aerosol Sampler. The wind speed (WS), cross wind (CW), temperature (T), relative humidity (HR), barometric pressure (BP) and dew point (DP) were recorded using a Kestrel(®) 4500 weather station. The median indoor/outdoor FSC was 360/1230 CFU m(-3). FSC correlated inversely with BP, HR and DP; and positively with WS and CW; whereas T showed negative or positive correlation with FSC, depending on the region or sampling time. Eleven fungal genera were found and the dominant isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamarii and Aspergillus oryzae. All fungi identified are known to be allergenic. It was concluded that environmental variables can influence the air FSC in different ways.

  5. Predicting indoor radon-222 concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, M.H.

    1994-12-31

    Radon, a cause of lung cancer among miners, is being investigated as a source of lung cancer in the general population due to long-term low-level exposures in residences. Assessment of cumulative residential radon exposure entails measurements in past residences, some of which no longer exist or are not accessible. Estimates of radon concentrations in these missing homes are necessary for analysis of the radon-lung cancer association. Various approaches have been used by researchers attempting to predict the distribution of radon measurements in homes from specified geological and building characteristics. This study has modelled the set of basement radon measurements of 3788 Connecticut homes with several of these approaches, in addition to a descriptive tree method not previously utilized, and compared their validity on a random subset of homes not used in model construction. Each geographical and geological variable was more predictive of radon concentration than any of the housing characteristics. The single variable which explained the largest fraction of the variability in radon readings was the mean radon concentration for the zipcode area in which the house was located (R{sup 2} = .157). Soil characteristics at individual housing sites were not available for these analyses. They would be expected to increase the predictive power of the models. Multiple regression models, both additive and multiplicative, were not able to explain more than 22% of the variation in radon readings. Variables found to be significant in these models were zipcode mean, residential radon mean of bedrock unit, building age, type of foundation walls, type of water supply, aeroradioactivity reading, and lithology of the bedrock. A site potential index, based upon a classification of the bedrock underlying the house, was a better predictor of indoor radon level than other single geological variables, yet only explained 8% of the radon variability.

  6. Concentrated and piped sunlight for indoor illumination.

    PubMed

    Fraas, L M; Pyle, W R; Ryason, P R

    1983-02-15

    A concept for indoor illumination of buildings using sunlight is described. For this system, a tracking concentrator on the building roof follows the sun and focuses sunlight into a lightguide. A system of transparent lightguides distributes the sunlight to interior rooms. Recent advances in the transparency of acrylic plastic optical fibers suggest that acrylic lightguides could be successfully used for piping sunlight. The proposed system displaces electricity currently used for indoor lighting. It is argued that using sunlight directly for indoor illumination would be about twenty-five times more cost-effective than using sunlight to generate electricity with solar cells for powering electric lamps for indoor lighting.

  7. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  8. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-06-20

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  9. Office Building Occupant's Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us An Office Building Occupants Guide to Indoor Air Quality Indoor Environments Division (6609J) Washington, DC 20460 EPA- ...

  10. Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposure (Highlights)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine issued this report in 2000 describing the role of indoor environmental pollutants in the development and exacerbation of asthma. The report concludes that exposure to indoor pollutants is an important contributor to the asthma problem in this nation. Asthma sufferers should consult with their doctor about reducing their exposure indoor air pollutants.

  11. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  12. Indoor Air Quality Basics for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This fact sheet details important information on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in school buildings, problems associated with IAQ, and various prevention and problem-solving strategies. Most people spend 90 percent of their time indoors, therefore the Environmental Protection Agency ranks IAQ in the top four environmental risks to the public. The…

  13. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert S., Jr.

    This report provides information and practical guidance on how to prevent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools, and it describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources. It includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems, guidelines on specific indoor contaminants, recommendations…

  14. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  15. Relationship among environmental quality variables, housing variables, and residential needs: a secondary analysis of the relationship among indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) concentrations database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Fausto; Shendell, Derek G.; Madrigano, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Retrospective descriptive secondary analyses of data from relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) study homes (in Houston, Texas; Los Angeles County, California; and, Elizabeth, New Jersey May 1999-February 2001) were conducted. Data included air exchange rates, associations between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity, and calculated apparent temperature and humidex. Analyses examined if study homes provided optimum thermal comfort for residents during both heating and cooling seasons when compared to current American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards 62/62.1 and 55. Results suggested outdoor temperature, humidex, and apparent temperature during the cooling season potentially served as indicators of indoor personal exposure to parameters of thermal comfort. Outdoor temperatures, humidex, and apparent temperature during the cooling season had statistically significant predictive abilities in predicting indoor temperature. During the heating season, only humidex in Texas and combined data across study states were statistically significant, but with weaker to moderate predicative ability. The high degree of correlation between outdoor and indoor environmental variables provided support for the validity of epidemiologic studies of weather relying on temporal comparisons. Results indicated most RIOPA study residents experienced thermal comfort; however, many values indicated how several residents may have experienced some discomfort depending on clothing and indoor activities. With climate change, increases in temperature are expected, with more days of extreme heat and humidity and, potentially harsher, longer winters. Homes being built or modernized should be created with the appropriate guidelines to provide comfort for residents daily and in extreme weather events.

  16. Relationship among environmental quality variables, housing variables, and residential needs: a secondary analysis of the relationship among indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) concentrations database.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Fausto; Shendell, Derek G; Madrigano, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Retrospective descriptive secondary analyses of data from relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) study homes (in Houston, Texas; Los Angeles County, California; and, Elizabeth, New Jersey May 1999-February 2001) were conducted. Data included air exchange rates, associations between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity, and calculated apparent temperature and humidex. Analyses examined if study homes provided optimum thermal comfort for residents during both heating and cooling seasons when compared to current American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards 62/62.1 and 55. Results suggested outdoor temperature, humidex, and apparent temperature during the cooling season potentially served as indicators of indoor personal exposure to parameters of thermal comfort. Outdoor temperatures, humidex, and apparent temperature during the cooling season had statistically significant predictive abilities in predicting indoor temperature. During the heating season, only humidex in Texas and combined data across study states were statistically significant, but with weaker to moderate predicative ability. The high degree of correlation between outdoor and indoor environmental variables provided support for the validity of epidemiologic studies of weather relying on temporal comparisons. Results indicated most RIOPA study residents experienced thermal comfort; however, many values indicated how several residents may have experienced some discomfort depending on clothing and indoor activities. With climate change, increases in temperature are expected, with more days of extreme heat and humidity and, potentially harsher, longer winters. Homes being built or modernized should be created with the appropriate guidelines to provide comfort for residents daily and in extreme weather events.

  17. Relationship among environmental quality variables, housing variables, and residential needs: a secondary analysis of the relationship among indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) concentrations database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Fausto; Shendell, Derek G.; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-08-01

    Retrospective descriptive secondary analyses of data from relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) study homes (in Houston, Texas; Los Angeles County, California; and, Elizabeth, New Jersey May 1999-February 2001) were conducted. Data included air exchange rates, associations between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity, and calculated apparent temperature and humidex. Analyses examined if study homes provided optimum thermal comfort for residents during both heating and cooling seasons when compared to current American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards 62/62.1 and 55. Results suggested outdoor temperature, humidex, and apparent temperature during the cooling season potentially served as indicators of indoor personal exposure to parameters of thermal comfort. Outdoor temperatures, humidex, and apparent temperature during the cooling season had statistically significant predictive abilities in predicting indoor temperature. During the heating season, only humidex in Texas and combined data across study states were statistically significant, but with weaker to moderate predicative ability. The high degree of correlation between outdoor and indoor environmental variables provided support for the validity of epidemiologic studies of weather relying on temporal comparisons. Results indicated most RIOPA study residents experienced thermal comfort; however, many values indicated how several residents may have experienced some discomfort depending on clothing and indoor activities. With climate change, increases in temperature are expected, with more days of extreme heat and humidity and, potentially harsher, longer winters. Homes being built or modernized should be created with the appropriate guidelines to provide comfort for residents daily and in extreme weather events.

  18. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  19. Indoor air pollution: an edifice complex.

    PubMed

    Brooks, B O; Utter, G M; DeBroy, J A; Schimke, R D

    1991-01-01

    The collision of escalating technological sophistication and surging environmental awareness has caused the reexamination of many societal paradigms. Horror stories about lethal chemical exposures involving isolated cases of ignorance, carelessness or greed have caused the public to demand constant vigilance to prevent exposure to potentially hazardous substances. Accordingly, much time and resource has been expanded by the U.S. government and citizens to abate and prevent air and water pollution. While these efforts have met with measurable success, there is increasing public concern about a new generation of pollution-related human illness in office, home and transportation environments. New instances of Sick Building Syndrome or Building Related Illness are reported daily by the popular press. Human health effects such as cancer, infectious disease, allergy and irritation have been ascribed to indoor air pollution. The clinical aspects of indoor air pollution are often discounted by consulting engineers and industrial hygienists involved in indoor air quality. Physicians and clinically-trained scientists have received a "Macedonian call" to sift clinical relevance from the emotional aspects of indoor air quality problems. Point sources of pollutants, associated human health effects, and problem solving approaches associated with indoor air pollution are described. Regulatory and litigational aspects of indoor air pollution are also discussed.

  20. Publications about Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Publications and resources that relate to indoor air quality in schools, and design tools for schools. These publications cover a wide range of issues, including IAQ management, student performance, asthma, mold and moisture, and radon.

  1. Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA completed an extensive modeling study to assess the compatibilities and trade-offs between energy, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort objectives for HVAC systems and to formulate strategies for superior performance across all areas.

  2. Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program acted swiftly and aggressively to tackle mold and moisture problems in its community members’ homes after several residents became ill as a result of environmental exposures.

  3. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Indoor Air Pollution The Basics We ...

  4. Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Hougeiri, Nisrine

    2003-07-01

    This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based on literature-derived emission rates estimates was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasonal temperature changes within the terminal. Control measures to improve indoor air quality at the terminal are also outlined. While carbon monoxide concentrations were below the corresponding American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) standards under normal operating conditions, they exceeded the 8-hr recommended average standard at peak hours and the World Health Organization (WHO) standard at all times. Total suspended particulates levels, on the other hand, were above the 24-hr American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) standard. Carbon monoxide emission rates that were estimated using the transient mass balance model correlated relatively well with those reported in the literature. Modeling results showed that the natural ventilation rate should be at least doubled for acceptable indoor air quality. While pollutant exposure levels depended on the individual activity patterns and the pollutant concentration, pollutant emissions rates within the terminal were affected mostly by the temperature with a 20-25 percent variation in carbon monoxide levels due to changes in seasonal temperatures.

  5. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Sextro, R.G.

    1985-05-01

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results.

  6. Indoor air quality in homes, offices and restaurants in Korean urban areas—indoor/outdoor relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Kim, Yoon-Shin; Perry, Roger

    Air quality monitoring was carried out to collect data on the levels of various indoor and ambient air constituents in two cities in Korea (Seoul and Taegu). Sampling was conducted simultaneously indoors and outdoors at six residences, six offices and six restaurants in each city during summer 1994 and winter 1994-1995. Measured pollutants were respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, in order to evaluate the effect of smoking on indoor air quality, analyses of parameters associated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were undertaken, which are nicotine, ultraviolet (UVPM), fluorescence (FPM) and solanesol particulate matter (SolPM). The results of this study have confirmed the importance of ambient air in determining the quality of air indoors in two major Korean cities. The majority of VOCs measured in both indoor and outdoor environments were derived from outdoor sources, probably motor vehicles. Benzene and other VOC concentrations were much higher during the winter months than the summer months and were not significantly greater in the smoking sites examined. Heating and cooking practices, coupled with generally inadequate ventilation, also were shown to influence indoor air quality. In smoking sites, ETS appears to be a minor contributor to VOC levels as no statistically significant relationships were identified with ETS components and VOCs, whereas very strong correlations were found between indoor and outdoor levels of vehicle-related pollutants. The average contribution of ETS to total RSP concentrations was estimated to range from 10 to 20%.

  7. Dynamic behavior of semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, Michael David Van

    1998-12-09

    Exposures to a wide range of air pollutants are often dominated by those occurring in buildings because of three factors: 1) most people spend a large fraction of their time indoors, 2) many pollutants have strong indoor sources, and 3) the dilution volume in buildings is generally several orders of magnitude smaller than that of an urban airshed. Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCS) are emitted by numerous indoor sources, including tobacco combustion, cooking, carpets, paints, resins, and glues, so indoor gasphase concentrations of these compounds are likely to be elevated relative to ambient levels. The rates of uptake and release of reversibly sorbing SVOCS by indoor materials directly affect both peak concentrations and persistence of the pollutants indoors after source elimination. Thus, accurate predictions of SVOC dynamics in indoor air require an understanding of contaminant sorption on surface materials such as carpet and wallboard. The dynamic behaviors of gas-phase nicotine and phenanthrene were investigated in a 20 ms stainless steel chamber containing carpet and painted wallboard. Each compound was studied independently, first in the empty chamber, then with each sorbent individually, and finally with both sorbents in the chamber.

  8. PM2.5-bound PAHs in three indoor and one outdoor air in Beijing: Concentration, source and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Xinghua; Zhu, Tianle; Han, Yingjie; Lv, Dong

    2017-02-07

    Three indoor (residential home, dormitory, and office) and one outdoor concentrations of PM2.5-bound Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in Beijing across four seasons. The highest and lowest concentration of total PAHs for outdoor appeared in winter and in summer with averages of 200.1 and 9.1ng/m(3) respectively. The seasonal variations of total PAHs in three indoor sites were the same as outdoor. The correlation analysis between the indoor and outdoor samples showed that the annual mean I/O ratios of total PAHs in the three sites were lower than 1. Source apportionment showed vehicle exhaust, coal combustion, and biomass burning were the major contributors of indoor and outdoor PM2.5-bound PAHs. Indoor source, such as camphor pollution, was identified in the dormitory, while camphor pollution and cooking sources were identified in the residential home. The annual averages of Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq) were 7.6, 7.8, 7.7 and 12.7ng/m(3) for the dormitory, office, residential home and outdoor samples respectively, far higher than the annual limit of 1ng/m(3) regulated by European Commission. Life lung cancer risk (LLCR) in four sites across four seasons were over the acceptable cancer risk level, showing the cancer risk were at a high level in both indoor and outdoor sites in Beijing, and its level in indoor sites was much lower than in the outdoor site. The health risk assessment indicated the level of PAHs cancer risk on human for three indoor sites were similar. The results call for the development of more stringent control measures to reduce PAHs emissions.

  9. Distributions of indoor and outdoor air pollutants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Implications to indoor air quality in bayside offices

    SciTech Connect

    Brickus, L.S.R.; Cardoso, J.N.; De Aquino Neto, F.R.

    1998-11-15

    An indoor air quality survey was conducted on selected floors in an office building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sampling sites comprised four offices located along the same vertical column of the building. Measurements were made on alternate days at the same time of day during working hours. Indoor and outdoor samples were collected for volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde, total suspended particles (TSP), nicotine, and ultraviolet respirable suspended particles (UV-RSP). Compared with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde was found in higher concentrations outdoors because of the use of ethanol or ethanol/gasoline blends as alternative fuels for automobiles in Brazil. The TVOC concentration ranged from 304.3 to 1679.9 {micro}g/m{sup 3} indoors and 22 to 643.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} outdoors. The indoor level of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) was especially high in the 13th floor office. A minor contribution from environmental tobacco smoke was found. TSP values exceed the Brazilian Legislation in both outdoor and indoor air in the office located near the street traffic. For all pollutants evaluated 1/0 ratios appeared to be higher in offices located on the top of the building. The characterization of indoor air pollutants allowed the suggestion of several remediation measures to improve air quality in the offices.

  10. Indoor air quality at nine shopping malls in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Li, W M; Lee, S C; Chan, L Y

    2001-06-12

    Hong Kong is one of the most attractive shopping paradises in the world. Many local people and international tourists favor to spend their time in shopping malls in Hong Kong. Good indoor air quality is, therefore, very essential to shoppers. In order to characterize the indoor air quality in shopping malls, nine shopping malls in Hong Kong were selected for this study. The indoor air pollutants included carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), formaldehyde (HCHO), respirable particulate matter (PM10) and total bacteria count (TBC). More than 40% of the shopping malls had 1-h average CO2 levels above the 1000 ppm of the ASHRAE standard on both weekdays and weekends. Also, they had average weekday PM10 concentrations that exceeded the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objective (HKIAQO). The highest indoor PM10 level at a mall was 380 microg/m3. Of the malls surveyed, 30% had indoor airborne bacteria levels above 1000 cfu/m3 set by the HKIAQO. The elevated indoor CO2 and bacteria levels could result from high occupancy combined with insufficient ventilation. The increased PM10 levels could be probably attributed to illegal smoking inside these establishments. In comparison, the shopping malls that contained internal public transport drop-off areas, where vehicles were parked with idling engines and had major entry doors close to heavy traffic roads had higher CO and PM10 indoor levels. In addition, the extensive use of cooking stoves without adequate ventilation inside food courts could increase indoor CO2, CO and PM10 levels.

  11. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  12. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  13. Impacts of Changes of Indoor Air Pressure and Air Exchange Rate in Vapor Intrusion Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rui; Suuberg, Eric M

    2016-02-01

    There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. This paper focuses on two major factors that may be subject to significant transients in vapor intrusion situations, including the indoor air pressure and the air exchange rate in the subject building. A three-dimensional finite element model was employed with consideration of daily and seasonal variations in these factors. From the results, the variations of indoor air pressure and air exchange rate are seen to contribute to significant variations in indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations. Depending upon the assumptions regarding the variations in these parameters, the results are only sometimes consistent with the reports of several orders of magnitude in indoor air concentration variations from field studies. The results point to the need to examine more carefully the interplay of these factors in order to quantitatively understand the variations in potential indoor air exposures.

  14. Impacts of Changes of Indoor Air Pressure and Air Exchange Rate in Vapor Intrusion Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Rui; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. This paper focuses on two major factors that may be subject to significant transients in vapor intrusion situations, including the indoor air pressure and the air exchange rate in the subject building. A three-dimensional finite element model was employed with consideration of daily and seasonal variations in these factors. From the results, the variations of indoor air pressure and air exchange rate are seen to contribute to significant variations in indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations. Depending upon the assumptions regarding the variations in these parameters, the results are only sometimes consistent with the reports of several orders of magnitude in indoor air concentration variations from field studies. The results point to the need to examine more carefully the interplay of these factors in order to quantitatively understand the variations in potential indoor air exposures. PMID:28090133

  15. The status of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A

    1985-01-01

    Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research. PMID:4085429

  16. When Poor Indoor Air Causes a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    An air quality problem originating with a steam leak in an improperly maintained heating system resulted in unanticipated expenses of $420,000 for the Lakeview (Michigan) School District. Indoor air quality complaints require immediate investigation and action; clear communication to parents, staff, and media representatives; competent…

  17. MANAGING INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of managing indoor air quality (IAQ) in the U.S. In contrast to outdoor air, which is regulated through various federal and state statutes, there is no unified and comprehensive governmental regulation of IAQ. Therefore, IAQ is managed through variou...

  18. Investigation of the treatability of the primary indoor volatile organic compounds on activated carbon fiber cloths at typical indoor concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yao, Meng; Zhang, Qiong; Hand, David W; Perram, David L; Taylor, Roy

    2009-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a major concern for indoor air pollution because of the impacts on human health. In recent years, interest has increased in the development and design of activated carbon filters for removing VOCs from indoor air. Although extensive information is available on sources, concentrations, and types of indoor VOCs, there is little or no information on the performance of indoor air adsorption systems for removing low concentrations of primary VOCs. Filter designs need to consider various factors such as empty bed contact time, humidity effects, competitive adsorption, and feed concentration variations, whereas adsorption capacities of the indoor VOCs at the indoor concentration levels are important parameters for filter design. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of using adsorption filters to remove low concentrations of primary VOCs can be performed. This work relates the information (including VOC classes in indoor air, the typical indoor concentrations, and the adsorption isotherms) with the design of a particular adsorbent/adsorbates system. As groundwork for filter design and development, this study selects the primary VOCs in indoor air of residences, schools, and offices in different geographical areas (North America, Europe, and Asia) on the basis of occurrence, concentrations, and health effects. Activated carbon fiber cloths (ACFCs) are chosen as the adsorbents of interest. It is demonstrated that the isotherm of a VOC (e.g., toluene on the ACFC) at typical indoor concentrations-parts per billion by volume (ppbv) level-is different than the isotherm at parts per million by volume (ppmv) levels reported in the publications. The isotherms at the typical indoor concentrations for the selected primary VOCs are estimated using the Dubinin-Radushkevitch equation. The maximum specific throughput for an indoor VOC removal system to remove benzene is calculated as a worst-case scenario. It is shown that VOC adsorption

  19. The influence of photocatalytic interior paints on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auvinen, Joonas; Wirtanen, Leif

    2008-06-01

    A clean indoor air is important for the well-being and health of people. Lately, new photocatalytic paints have been launched on the market, which are claimed to have air-purifying effects. Photocatalysis initiates radical reactions. Radicals are formed when a photocatalyst (e.g. TiO2) is subjected to radiation. Typical radicals are the hydroxyl radical (radOH) and the superoxide radical (radO2-). Radicals cause chain reactions, which degrade and decompose organic compounds. The end products of these chain reactions are water and carbon dioxide, if the reactions are fully completed (mineralization). If mineralization does not take place, then a great number of side products can be formed, whose properties are not well understood. The side products of photocatalytic reactions can be permanent and stabile. The decomposition of indoor air impurities on the surface of photocatalytic paints is not obvious. The ability of photocatalytic indoor paints to reduce chemical indoor air impurities is the key issue of this study. Six different paints with different binder systems, such as lime, polyorganic siloxane, silica sol-gel and organic binders, were examined. The experiments were divided into three topics: degradation of an organic binder, photocatalytic decomposition of formaldehyde, and a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture consisting of five different indoor air VOCs. All tests were carried out in an environmental test chamber under dynamic conditions. The test results indicate that many indoor pollutants are generated under normal- and UVA-light. Typical compounds formed include formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde, etc. A clear decrease of formaldehyde or the VOC mixture concentration was not observed. All possibly generated compounds could not be collected or analyzed in this research project, but the measurements show that photocatalytic reactions do not generate only carbon dioxide and water. Photocatalytic decomposition of indoor air impurities can, however

  20. Unexpectedly high indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations associated with nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Amedro, Damien; Afif, Charbel; Gligorovski, Sasho; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Schoemacker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Wortham, Henri

    2013-08-13

    The hydroxyl (OH) radical is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere since it controls its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are the photolysis of ozone and the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO). Due to the attenuation of solar radiation in the indoor environment, the possibility of OH formation through photolytic pathways indoors has been ignored up to now. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as an alternative route of OH formation. Models and indirect measurements performed up to now according to this hypothesis suggest concentrations of OH radicals on the order of 10(4)-10(5) molecules per cubic centimeter. Here, we present direct measurements of significant amounts of OH radicals of up to 1.8⋅10(6) molecules per cubic centimeter during an experimental campaign carried out in a school classroom in Marseille. This concentration is on the same order of magnitude of outdoor OH levels in the urban scenario. We also show that photolysis of HONO is an important source of OH radicals indoors under certain conditions (i.e., direct solar irradiation inside the room). Additionally, the OH concentrations were found to follow a linear dependence with the product J(HONO)⋅[HONO]. This was also supported by using a simple quasiphotostationary state model on the OH radical budget. These findings force a change in our understanding of indoor air quality because the reactivity linked to OH would involve formation of secondary species through chemical reactions that are potentially more hazardous than the primary pollutants in the indoor air.

  1. Unexpectedly high indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations associated with nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Amedro, Damien; Afif, Charbel; Gligorovski, Sasho; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Wortham, Henri

    2013-01-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) radical is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere since it controls its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are the photolysis of ozone and the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO). Due to the attenuation of solar radiation in the indoor environment, the possibility of OH formation through photolytic pathways indoors has been ignored up to now. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as an alternative route of OH formation. Models and indirect measurements performed up to now according to this hypothesis suggest concentrations of OH radicals on the order of 104–105 molecules per cubic centimeter. Here, we present direct measurements of significant amounts of OH radicals of up to 1.8⋅106 molecules per cubic centimeter during an experimental campaign carried out in a school classroom in Marseille. This concentration is on the same order of magnitude of outdoor OH levels in the urban scenario. We also show that photolysis of HONO is an important source of OH radicals indoors under certain conditions (i.e., direct solar irradiation inside the room). Additionally, the OH concentrations were found to follow a linear dependence with the product J(HONO)⋅[HONO]. This was also supported by using a simple quasiphotostationary state model on the OH radical budget. These findings force a change in our understanding of indoor air quality because the reactivity linked to OH would involve formation of secondary species through chemical reactions that are potentially more hazardous than the primary pollutants in the indoor air. PMID:23898188

  2. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  3. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  4. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, L. M.; Diette, G. B.; Scott, M.; McCormack, M. C.; Matsui, E. C.; Curtin-Brosnan, J.; Williams, D. L.; Kidd-Taylor, A.; Shea, M.; Breysse, P. N.; Hansel, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P < 0.01) and bedroom (22%, P = 0.02), but at 3 months, a significant reduction was seen only in the kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. PMID:24329966

  5. An investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During this study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures -- caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors -- have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality. 87 tabs.

  6. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes results of a literature search into the sources, sizes, and concentrations of particles in indoor air, including the various types: plant, animal, mineral, combustion, home/personal care, and radioactive aerosols. This information, presented in a summary figu...

  7. Indoor airPLUS Sales and Marketing Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presented are useful materials to help you build homes that meet Indoor airPLUS specifications and to promote Indoor airPLUS qualified homes. These materials are FREE of charge and are available in PDF.

  8. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  9. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  10. Publications and Resources About Indoor airPLUS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presented are useful materials to help you build homes that meet Indoor airPLUS specifications and to promote Indoor airPLUS qualified homes. These materials are FREE of charge and are available in PDF.

  11. Filtration and indoor air quality: A practical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.T.; Huza, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    This article describes how filtration systems can be a practical and effective means to control indoor contaminants when properly designed and applied. Although indoor air quality appears to be a complex subject, in reality it reduces to two simple concerns: human health and human comfort. While the interactions exist, the environmental factors that affect human comfort are different from those factors that affect human health. Generally speaking, temperature, relative humidity, air movement and noise level contribute to human comfort, and indoor contaminants affect human health, but they can also cause comfort problems, such as odors. It is important to point out this distinction because many IAQ problems can be solved simply by a small adjustment of the temperature, humidity o ventilation rate, especially when the environment of concern is outside of the comfort zone and the air is perceived as stuffy. However, when the occupants experience headaches, fatigue, eye irritation or coughing or when they smell odors, it is likely that the problems are caused by contaminants in the indoor air. Indoor contaminants may be grouped into four categories: bioaerosols (microorganisms); respirable particulates; gaseous contaminants; and vaporous contaminants. While their concentrations may vary, all of these contaminants may exist regardless of types of building, HVAC system and occupant activity.

  12. Indoor air pollution: a new concern

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Radon, asbestos, and formaldehyde are emerging as major health hazards because home-winterization efforts are trapping toxic agents indoors. Other pollution sources, such as tobacco smoke and unvented heating units, also lower indoor air quality. Radon decay products present in the structural materials of well-insulated homes are linked to lung-cancer deaths. Exposure to asbestos fibers has been identified as a problem in many school buildings, while physical discomfort caused by urea-formaldehyde foam insulation has affected the health of many homeowners. The Environmental Protection Agency is collecting and disseminating information to help local officials and homeowners understand the risks and is urging building auditors to inform clients about indoor air pollution. (DCK)

  13. An indoor air quality assessment for vulnerable populations exposed to volcanic vog from Kilauea Volcano.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei; Green, Joshua B; Longo, Anthony A; Harris, Merylin; Bibilone, Renwick

    2010-01-01

    The Ka'u District of Hawaii is exposed to sulfurous air pollution called vog from the ongoing eruption of Kilauea Volcano. Increased volcanic activity in 2008 prompted an indoor air quality assessment of the district's hospital and schools. All indoor sulfur dioxide concentrations were above the World Health Organization's average 24-hour recommendation. Indoor penetration ratios were up to 94% of ambient levels and dependent upon building construction or the use of air-conditioning. Health-promotion efforts for vulnerable populations at the hospital and schools are under way to improve indoor air quality and respond to those affected by vog exposure.

  14. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  15. Relationships between indoor radon concentrations, thermal retrofit and dwelling characteristics.

    PubMed

    Collignan, Bernard; Le Ponner, Eline; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    A monitoring campaign was conducted on a sample of more than 3400 dwellings in Brittany, France from 2011 to 2014. The measurements were collected using one passive dosimeter per dwelling over two months during the heating season, according to the NF ISO 11665-8 (2013) standard. Moreover, building characteristics such as the period of construction, construction material, type of foundation, and thermal retrofit were determined using a questionnaire. The final data set consisted of 3233 houses with the measurement results and the questionnaire answers. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to explore the relationships between the indoor radon concentrations and building characteristics, particularly the thermal retrofit. The geometric mean of the indoor radon concentration was 155 Bq m(-3) (with a geometric standard deviation of 3). The houses that had undergone a thermal retrofit had a higher average radon concentration than those that had not, which may have been due to a decrease in air permeability of the building envelope following rehabilitation work that did not systematically include proper management of the ventilation. Other building characteristics, primarily the building material and the foundation type, were associated with the indoor radon concentration. The indoor radon concentrations were higher in older houses built with granite or other stone, with a slab-on-grade foundation and without any ventilation system.

  16. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  17. Teacher's Guide to Indoor Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Health Center.

    This guide, designed for fourth- through sixth-grade classrooms, contains information teachers will need to teach an educational unit on indoor air quality. It draws on a variety of students' skills, including science, vocabulary, reasoning, math, and basic biology. Each lesson comes with suggested activities that highlight and reinforce what is…

  18. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  19. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  20. CARBON ADSORPTION FOR INDOOR AIR CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of carbon adsorption for indoor air cleaning, focusing on the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using granular activated carbon (GAC). It addresses GAC performance in two directions. Initially, it presents performance measurements for GAC at...

  1. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuo, Wang; Yunhua, Sun; Song, Tian; Liang, Yu; Weihong, Cui

    2014-03-01

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper.

  2. Radon in indoor concentrations and indoor concentrations of metal dust particles in museums and other public buildings.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, G L; Braz, D; de Jesus, E F; Santos, S M; Cardoso, K; Hecht, A A; Dias da Cunha, Moore K

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the public and occupational exposure to radon and metal-bearing particles in museums and public buildings located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For this study, four buildings were selected: two historic buildings, which currently house an art gallery and an art museum; and two modern buildings, a chapel and a club. Integrated radon concentration measurements were performed using passive radon detectors with solid state nuclear track detector-type Lexan used as nuclear track detector. Air samplers with a cyclone were used to collect the airborne particle samples that were analyzed by the particle-induced X-ray emission technique. The average unattached-radon concentrations in indoor air in the buildings were above 40 Bq/m(3), with the exception of Building D as measured in 2009. The average radon concentrations in indoor air in the four buildings in 2009 were below the recommended reference level by World Health Organization (100 Bq/m(3)); however, in 2011, the average concentrations of radon in Buildings A and C were above this level, though lower than 300 Bq/m(3). The average concentrations of unattached radon were lower than 148 Bq/m(3) (4pCi/L), the USEPA level recommended to take action to reduce the concentrations of radon in indoor air. The unattached-radon average concentrations were also lower than the value recommended by the European Union for new houses. As the unattached-radon concentrations were below the international level recommended to take action to reduce the radon concentration in air, it was concluded that during the period of sampling, there was low risk to human health due to the inhalation of unattached radon in these four buildings.

  3. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  4. Indoor air and respiratory health in preadolescent children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomzi, M.

    The effect of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, particulate matter and parental tobacco smoke on respiratory health was studied over a period of six months in all second graders born and living in two area of continental Croatia 8-10 yr of age. The study group was divided into two sections corresponding to area of residence (industrial/rural). Information on respiratory symptoms was collected from a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents of the children. The mean values of concentrations of indoor air pollution that had been recorded in 24-h samples of air collected at schools were mostly below threshold limit for ambient pollution. In addition, information on parental smoking, the density of habitation and the type of fuel used for heating and/or cooking in the home was obtained by a questionnaire. In the investigated period the prevalence of respiratory illness was 22% in the children exposed to lower indoor air pollution and 25% in those exposed to higher indoor air pollution. Exposure to parental smoking was also associated with more respiratory symptoms (28 : 19%). The results indicate that the measured air pollutants only had a slight effect on the respiratory health of preadolescent children. However, the effect of exposure to parental smoking was more pronounced.

  5. Plant leaves as indoor air passive samplers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Todd A; Doucette, William J

    2015-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) enter indoor environments through internal and external sources. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs vary greatly but are generally higher than outdoors. Plants have been promoted as indoor air purifiers for decades, but reports of their effectiveness differ. However, while air-purifying applications may be questionable, the waxy cuticle coating on leaves may provide a simple, cost-effective approach to sampling indoor air for VOCs. To investigate the potential use of plants as indoor air VOC samplers, a static headspace approach was used to examine the relationship between leaf and air concentrations, leaf lipid contents and octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) for six VOCs and four plant species. The relationship between leaf and air concentrations was further examined in an actual residence after the introduction of several chlorinated VOC emission sources. Leaf-air concentration factors (LACFs), calculated from linear regressions of the laboratory headspace data, were found to increase as the solvent extractable leaf lipid content and Koa value of the VOC increased. In the studies conducted in the residence, leaf concentrations paralleled the changing air concentrations, indicating a relatively rapid air to leaf VOC exchange. Overall, the data from the laboratory and residential studies illustrate the potential for plant leaves to be used as cost effective, real-time indoor air VOC samplers.

  6. Exhaust ventilation in attached garages improves residential indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Mallach, G; St-Jean, M; MacNeill, M; Aubin, D; Wallace, L; Shin, T; Van Ryswyk, K; Kulka, R; You, H; Fugler, D; Lavigne, E; Wheeler, A J

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that indoor benzene levels in homes with attached garages are higher than homes without attached garages. Exhaust ventilation in attached garages is one possible intervention to reduce these concentrations. To evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention, a randomized crossover study was conducted in 33 Ottawa homes in winter 2014. VOCs including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and air exchange rates were measured over four 48-hour periods when a garage exhaust fan was turned on or off. A blower door test conducted in each garage was used to determine the required exhaust fan flow rate to provide a depressurization of 5 Pa in each garage relative to the home. When corrected for ambient concentrations, the fan decreased geometric mean indoor benzene concentrations from 1.04 to 0.40 μg/m(3) , or by 62% (P<.05). The garage exhaust fan also significantly reduced outdoor-corrected geometric mean indoor concentrations of other pollutants, including toluene (53%), ethylbenzene (47%), m,p-xylene (45%), o-xylene (43%), and carbon monoxide (23%) (P<.05) while having no impact on the home air exchange rate. This study provides evidence that mechanical exhaust ventilation in attached garages can reduce indoor concentrations of pollutants originating from within attached garages.

  7. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, S.M.; Karol, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

  8. A smart indoor air quality sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jin

    2006-03-01

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) has an important impact on public health. Currently, the indoor air pollution, caused by gas, particle, and bio-aerosol pollutants, is considered as the top five environmental risks to public health and has an estimated cost of $2 billion/year due to medical cost and lost productivity. Furthermore, current buildings are especially vulnerable for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent contamination because the central air conditioning and ventilation system serve as a nature carrier to spread the released agent from one location to the whole indoor environment within a short time period. To assure the IAQ and safety for either new or existing buildings, real time comprehensive IAQ and CBW measurements are needed. With the development of new sensing technologies, economic and reliable comprehensive IAQ and CBW sensors become promising. However, few studies exist that examine the design and evaluation issues related to IAQ and CBW sensor network. In this paper, relevant research areas including IAQ and CBW sensor development, demand control ventilation, indoor CBW sensor system design, and sensor system design for other areas such as water system protection, fault detection and diagnosis, are reviewed and summarized. Potential research opportunities for IAQ and CBW sensor system design and evaluation are discussed.

  9. Indoor Air Pollutants and Health in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadig, Mohamed; Leith, David; Kalsbeek, William; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Couper, David; Funk, William E.; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Chan, Ronna L.; Trent, Chris B.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Kassab, Maamoon M.; Hasan, Mohamed Y.; Rusyn, Ivan; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive global data on the health effects of indoor air pollutants are lacking. There are few large population-based multi–air pollutant health assessments. Further, little is known about indoor air health risks in the Middle East, especially in countries undergoing rapid economic development. Objectives: To provide multifactorial indoor air exposure and health data, we conducted a population-based study of indoor air pollution and health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population-based sample of 628 households in the UAE. Indoor air pollutants [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter] were measured using passive samplers over a 7-day period. Health information was collected from 1,590 household members via in-person interviews. Results: Participants in households with quantified SO2, NO2, and H2S (i.e., with measured concentrations above the limit of quantification) were twice as likely to report doctor-diagnosed asthma. Participants in homes with quantified SO2 were more likely to report wheezing symptoms {ever wheezing, prevalence odds ratio [POR] 1.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 3.05]; speech-limiting wheeze, POR 3.53 (95% CI: 1.06, 11.74)}. NO2 and H2S were similarly associated with wheezing symptoms. Quantified HCHO was associated with neurologic symptoms (difficulty concentrating POR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.13). Burning incense daily was associated with increased headaches (POR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.21), difficulty concentrating (POR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.70, 5.58), and forgetfulness (POR 2.68: 95% CI: 1.47, 4.89). Conclusions: This study provides new information regarding potential health risks from pollutants commonly found in indoor environments in the UAE and other countries. Multipollutant exposure and health assessments in cohort studies are needed to better characterize health effects

  10. [Effect of combustion devices on the quality of indoor air].

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, G

    1982-01-01

    Combustion devices and the equipment conducting their effluent gases such as ducts and chimneys are factors which might have an unreasonable or even dangerous impact on the quality of air inside buildings. There is a danger of flue gases entering the indoor environment during the heating process (a) if the air-circulation associated with the operation of a combustion device is disturbed or even interrupted, (b) if the air stream - as far as flue gases are involved - flows under elevated pressure, and (c) if the combustion device and the flue gas conducting equipment are not leak-proof. These three cases and their influence on indoor air quality are extensively discussed. In the German Combustion Device Code from 1980 care is taken to minimize the pollutant concentrations in rooms with combustion devices by setting special requirements for the room in which the device is located, and by prescribing the standardization of the technical characteristics of chimneys and combustion devices.

  11. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  12. Indoor characterization of reflective concentrator optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Tobias; Frick, Manuel; Hornung, Thorsten; Nitz, Peter

    2013-09-01

    We report about the indoor characterization of small point focusing mirrors at Fraunhofer ISE. The goal is to determine the mean slope error of the concentrator. This is achieved by measuring the concentration distribution in the focal plane of such a mirror. We modified and expanded a test site which is used for Fresnel lens characterization [1]. A modified version of the method presented in [2] is employed to measure the concentration distribution. By comparing ray tracing simulation results of the ideal mirror to the measurement, the mean slope error can be deduced.

  13. Indoor air problems in hospitals: a challenge for occupational health.

    PubMed

    Hellgren, Ulla-Maija; Reijula, Kari

    2011-03-01

    Indoor air problems, caused by moisture damage and limited ventilation, have been detected in Finnish hospital buildings. A recent survey found that hospital personnel experience indoor air-related symptoms more often than office workers. The aim of this study was to assess the role, capabilities, and methods of hospital occupational health professionals in handling indoor air problems. Data were generated through semi-structured interviews. Representatives of occupational health, occupational safety, and infection control were interviewed in seven central hospitals. The data were analyzed using qualitative methods. According to interviewed professionals, indoor air problems are difficult to tackle. The evaluation of health risks and risk communication were considered particularly difficult. A uniform action model for resolving indoor air problems should be created. An interprofessional indoor air group to handle indoor air problems should be created in all hospitals.

  14. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland.

  15. Organic compounds in indoor air—their relevance for perceived indoor air quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkoff, Peder; Nielsen, Gunnar D.

    It is generally believed that indoor air pollution, one way or another may cause indoor air complaints. However, any association between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations and increase of indoor climate complaints, like the sick-building syndrome symptoms, is not straightforward. The reported symptom rates of, in particular, eye and upper airway irritation cannot generally be explained by our present knowledge of common chemically non-reactive VOCs measured indoors. Recently, experimental evidence has shown those chemical reactions between ozone (either with or without nitrogen dioxide) and unsaturated organic compounds (e.g. from citrus and pine oils) produce strong eye and airway irritating species. These have not yet been well characterised by conventional sampling and analytical techniques. The chemical reactions can occur indoors, and there is indirect evidence that they are associated with eye and airway irritation. However, many other volatile and non-volatile organic compounds have not generally been measured which could equally well have potent biological effects and cause an increase of complaint rates, and posses a health/comfort risk. As a consequence, it is recommended to use a broader analytical window of organic compounds than the classic VOC window as defined by the World Health Organisation. It may include hitherto not yet sampled or identified intermediary species (e.g., radicals, hydroperoxides and ionic compounds like detergents) as well as species deposited onto particles. Additionally, sampling strategies including emission testing of building products should carefully be linked to the measurement of organic compounds that are expected, based on the best available toxicological knowledge, to have biological effects at indoor concentrations.

  16. Indoor air pollution by different heating systems: coal burning, open fireplace and central heating.

    PubMed

    Moriske, H J; Drews, M; Ebert, G; Menk, G; Scheller, C; Schöndube, M; Konieczny, L

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of indoor air pollution by different heating systems in private homes are described. Sixteen homes, 7 with coal burning, 1 with open fireplace (wood burning) and 8 with central heating have been investigated. We measured the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and sedimented dust in indoor air, of total suspended particulates, heavy metals and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were taken during winter (heating period) and during summer (non-heating period). Generally, we found higher indoor air pollution in homes with coal burning and open fireplace than in homes with central heating. Especially, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, sedimented dust and of some heavy metals were higher. In one case, we found also high indoor air pollution in a home with central heating. This apartment is on the ground floor of a block of flats, and the central heating system in the basement showed a malfunctioning of the exhaust system.

  17. Indoor Air '90: the 5th in a series of international conferences on the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Walkinshaw, D

    1992-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate: INDOOR AIR '90 continued a series of international scientific conferences begun in 1978 on a complex, interdisciplinary subject increasingly recognized to be of importance to human comfort, health and productivity, and having important implications for building design and furnishing, office equipment, appliances, cleaning, heating, ventilating, humidifying and air-conditioning. INDOOR AIR '90 constituted a week long program of 542 paper and poster presentations and forum discussions, 100 exhibits, and a public forum. This paper summarizes some of the highlights of this conference and links these to some of the studies reported at earlier INDOOR AIR Conference.

  18. Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989–2013

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Joan A.; Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; Rasmussen, Sara G.; Irving, Jennifer K.; Pollak, Jonathan; Locke, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Most indoor exposure occurs by diffusion of soil gas. Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. Pennsylvania has high indoor radon concentrations; buildings are often tested during real estate transactions, with results reported to the Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Objectives We evaluated predictors of indoor radon concentrations. Methods Using first-floor and basement indoor radon results reported to the PADEP between 1987 and 2013, we evaluated associations of radon concentrations (natural log transformed) with geology, water source, building characteristics, season, weather, community socioeconomic status, community type, and unconventional natural gas development measures based on drilled and producing wells. Results Primary analysis included 866,735 first measurements by building, with the large majority from homes. The geologic rock layer on which the building sat was strongly associated with radon concentration (e.g., Axemann Formation, median = 365 Bq/m3, IQR = 167–679 vs. Stockton Formation, median = 93 Bq/m3, IQR = 52–178). In adjusted analysis, buildings using well water had 21% higher concentrations (β = 0.191, 95% CI: 0.184, 0.198). Buildings in cities (vs. townships) had lower concentrations (β = –0.323, 95% CI: –0.333, –0.314). When we included multiple tests per building, concentrations declined with repeated measurements over time. Between 2005 and 2013, 7,469 unconventional wells were drilled in Pennsylvania. Basement radon concentrations fluctuated between 1987 and 2003, but began an upward trend from 2004 to 2012 in all county categories (p < 0.001), with higher levels in counties having ≥ 100 drilled wells versus counties with none, and with highest levels in the Reading Prong. Conclusions Geologic unit, well water, community, weather, and unconventional natural gas development were associated with indoor radon

  19. A review on mathematical models for estimating indoor radon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Jinheum

    2016-01-01

    Radiation from natural sources is one of causes of the environmental diseases. Radon is the leading environmental cause of lung cancer next to smoking. To investigate the relationship between indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer, researchers must be able to estimate an individual's cumulative level of indoor radon exposure and to do so, one must first be able to assess indoor radon concentrations. In this article, we outline factors affecting indoor radon concentrations and review related mathematical models based on the mass balance equation and the differential equations. Furthermore, we suggest the necessities of applying time-dependent functions for indoor radon concentrations and developing stochastic models.

  20. Examining antecedents of clean indoor air policy support: implications for campaigns promoting clean indoor air.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Bates, Benjamin R; Romina, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to examine the association between knowledge of the risks associated with environmental tobacco smoke and voter support for clean indoor air policies. In doing so, 2 antecedents were employed to enhance understanding of this relationship: attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, differences between nonsmokers and smokers were assessed across the aforementioned variables. The study sampled participants (N = 550) living in the Appalachian foothills as a means of conducting formative research prior to developing messages promoting clean indoor air policies. The study controlled for tobacco usage, age, biological sex, and income. Results revealed that awareness of risk is a good predictor of attitudes and social norms, and in return, attitudes and social norms are good predictors of support for clean indoor air policies. In addition, results reveal that nonsmokers maintain a significantly stronger belief in the dangers associated with environmental tobacco smoke, as well as more favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and support for clean indoor air policies when compared with smokers. These findings are discussed with a focus on message design strategies for practitioners and academics with interests in promoting clean indoor air policies.

  1. Seasonality and indoor/outdoor relationships of flame retardants and PCBs in residential air.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Kalina, Jiří; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2016-11-01

    This study is a systematic assessment of different houses and apartments, their ages and renovation status, indoors and outdoors, and in summer vs. winter, with a goal of bringing some insight into the major sources of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and their variability. Indoor and outdoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs) were determined at 17-20 homes in Czech Republic in winter and summer. Indoor concentrations were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for all compounds; indoor/outdoor ratios ranged from 2-20, with larger differences for the current use NFRs than for legacy PCBs. Seasonal trends differed according to the use status of the compounds: the PCBs had higher summer concentrations both indoors and outdoors, suggesting volatilization as a source of PCBs to air. PBDEs had no seasonal trends indoors, but higher summer concentrations outdoors. Several NFRs (TBX, PBT, PBEB) had higher indoor concentrations in winter relative to summer. The seasonal trends in the flame retardants suggest differences in air exchange rates due to lower building ventilation in winter could be driving the concentration differences. Weak relationships were found with building age for PCBs, with higher concentrations indoors in buildings built before 1984, and with the number of electronics for PBDEs, with higher concentrations in rooms with three or more electronic items. Indoor environments are the primary contributor to human inhalation exposure to these SVOCs, due to the high percentage of time spent indoors (>90%) combined with the higher indoors levels for all the studied compounds. Exposure via the indoor environment contributed ∼96% of the total chronic daily intake via inhalation in summer and ∼98% in winter.

  2. Controlling indoor air pollution from tobacco smoke: models and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J.; Girman, J.R.; Sextro, R.G.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of smoking rate, ventilation, surface deposition, and air cleaning on the indoor concentrations of respirable particulate matter and carbon monoxide generated by cigarette smoke are examined. A general mass balance model is presented which has been extended to include the concept of ventilation efficiency. Following a review of the source and removal terms associated with respirable particles and carbon monoxide, model predictions to various health guidelines are compared. 20 references, 1 figure.

  3. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    PubMed

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  4. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts. PMID:26633448

  5. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors (COPI): Identification of data needs and existing data

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Fisk, William J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Delp, Woody W.; Riley, William J.; Sextro, Richard G.

    2001-12-01

    The process of characterizing human exposure to particulate matter requires information on both particle concentrations in microenvironments and the time-specific activity budgets of individuals among these microenvironments. Because the average amount of time spent indoors by individuals in the US is estimated to be greater than 75%, accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments for the US population. In addition, it is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. The spatial and temporal variations of indoor particle concentrations as well as the factors that affect these variations are important to health scientists. For them, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this report, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles in the indoor environment. Concentrations of particles indoors depend upon the fraction of outdoor particles that penetrate through the building shell or are transported via the air handling (HVAC) system, the generation of particles by indoor sources, and the loss mechanisms that occur indoors, such as deposition. To address these issues, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information including the behavior of particles during air leakage, HVAC operations, and particle filtration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations.

  6. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  7. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air.

    PubMed

    Rudel, Ruthann A; Perovich, Laura J

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals-that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  8. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals—that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  9. Indoor air quality and its determinants in tropical child care centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuraimi, M. S.; Tham, K. W.

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate indoor pollutants concentrations in child care centers (CCCs) and evaluate their determinants involving representative samples in Singapore. Measurements were performed for air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, ventilation rates, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, fine particle mass, bacteria and fungi while information on CCC characteristics and maintenance activities were collected via a combination of inspection and interviews. It was found that due to higher ventilation rates, indoor CO 2 concentration levels were lower in Singapore CCCs compared to those in the cold climates. Determinants of indoor pollutant levels from outdoor and indoor sources and maintenance activities were evaluated with regression analyses based on mass balance principles. Indoor carbon dioxide was positively associated with outdoor concentrations and occupant density while only outdoor levels significantly determined indoor carbon monoxide concentrations. For PM 2.5, outdoor concentration, carpeted floor, presence of curtains and soft toys, recent renovation, shelf area and fan cleaning frequencies were positively associated with indoor levels while determinants of indoor ozone include outdoor concentration, shelf area and table cleaning. Increased human related bacteria levels were associated with high occupant densities and irregular floor but regular table cleaning frequencies. Outdoor concentration, curtain types and floor cleaning were significant determinants for environmental bacteria. Outdoor concentrations, presence of dampness, irregular floor and fan cleaning were associated with increased indoor mesophilic fungi levels. For indoor xerophilic fungi, levels were associated with outdoor concentrations, curtain types, dampness, occupant density and floor cleaning. We conclude that our findings confirm the important influence of indoor sources and maintenance activities on indoor concentrations of pollutants in

  10. Seasonal indoor radon concentration in Eskisehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sogukpinar, H; Algin, E; Asici, C; Altinsoz, M; Cetinkaya, H

    2014-12-01

    Indoor radon concentrations are subject to seasonal variation, which directly depends on weather conditions. The seasonal indoor radon concentrations were measured and the annual effective dose was estimated for the city centre of Eskisehir, Turkey. In order to reflect annual averages measurements were performed over all seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) including also the entire year. Measurements were carried out using Kodak-Pathe LR 115 Type II passive alpha track detectors in 220 different houses. A total of 534 measurements including measurements of different seasons were taken between 2010 and 2011. The radon concentrations for winter ranged from 34 to 531 Bq m(-3), for spring ranged from 22 to 424 Bq m(-3), for summer ranged from 25 to 320 Bq m(-3), and for autumn ranged from 19 to 412 Bq m(-3). Yearly measurements ranged from 19 to 338 Bq m(-3). In this study the average annual effective total dose from radon and its decay products was calculated to be 3.398 mSv y(-1).

  11. The compatibility of energy conservation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Turk, B.H.; Prill, R.J.; Revzan, K.L.

    1988-10-01

    Two studies of indoor air quality in residences are described. In the first air quality measurements are reported in 111 unweatherized houses followed by careful observation of changes in ventilation rates and air quality in a subset of forty of the houses that received staged weatherization. A large fraction of the houses sampled in the eastern portion of the state of Washington contained high concentrations of radon gas. The major change in air quality seen in the sample as the result of weatherization was a substantial decrease in radon concentration in houses having crawlspaces. A second study reported compares ventilation and air quality in 62 new residences. Half were built using Model Conservation Standards to promote energy efficiency; the other half were built using conventional techniques for the region. Little difference was seen in ventilation rates in spite of significant design differences. Larger variations in air quality were seen between houses in different regions than between the Control and test houses in the same region. We conclude that changes in housing design and construction to promote energy efficiency are not incompatible with good indoor air quality. 20 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  13. Indoor air flow and pollutant removal in a room with desk-top ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.

    1993-04-01

    In a furnished experimental facility with three workstations separated by partitions, we studied indoor air flow patterns and tobacco smoke removal efficiency of a desk-top task ventilation system. The task ventilation system permits occupant control of the temperature, flow rate and direction of air supplied through two desk-mounted supply nozzles. In the configuration evaluated, air exited the ventilated space through a ceiling-mounted return grill. To study indoor air flow patterns, we measured the age of air at multiple indoor locations using the tracer gas step-up procedure. To study the intra-room transport of tobacco smoke particles and the efficiency of panicle removal by ventilation, a cigarette was smoked mechanically in one workstation and particle concentrations were measured at multiple indoor locations including the exhaust airstream. Test variables included the direction of air supply from the nozzles, supply nozzle area, supply flow rate and temperature, percent recirculation of chamber air, and internal heatloads. With nozzles pointed toward the occupants, 100% outside air supplied at the desk-top, and air supply rates of approximately 40 L/s per workstation, the age of air at the breathing level of ventilated workstations was approximately 30% less than the age of air that would occur throughout the test space with perfectly mixed indoor air. With smaller air supply rates and/or air supplied parallel to the edges of the desk, ages of air at breathing locations were not significantly lower than the age with perfect mixing. Indoor tobacco smoke particle concentrations at specific locations were generally within 12% of the average measured indoor concentration and concentrations of particles in the exhaust airstream were not significantly different from concentration of particles at breathing locations.

  14. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice. PMID:18684328

  15. Clean indoor air: where, why, and how.

    PubMed

    Henson, Rosemarie; Medina, Larry; St Clair, Steve; Blanke, Doug; Downs, Larry; Jordan, Jerelyn

    2002-01-01

    Clean indoor air policies are an effective way to eliminate exposure to second hand smoke and reduce smoking among youth and adults; they are strongly recommended by the Surgeon General and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. How these policies are put into effect and at what level of government can make a difference. Legislation that preempts local action prevents communities from enacting more stringent laws or tailoring laws to address community-specific issues. Preemptive state laws also can be a barrier to local enforcement because communities not involved in decision making may be less aware of laws, may have no enforcement mechanism, and thus may be less complaint. Preemption is clearly a tobacco industry strategy to take away local control, usually in exchange for a weak law offering little protection from second hand smoke. As communities across the country continue to pass stronger local ordinances, eliminating preemptive laws becomes more important. During 2002, Delaware became the first state to repeal clean air preemption. In Iowa, the attorney general's office has been involved in the determination of whether the state clean air law prevents communities from passing more stringent ordinances. And although Minnesota's pioneer Clean Indoor Air Act does not preempt local laws, the debate over preemption there has not ended but instead has taken new forms.

  16. Indoor air quality in urban nurseries at Porto city: Particulate matter assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, P. T. B. S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Sousa, S. I. V.

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality in nurseries is an interesting case of study mainly due to children's high vulnerability to exposure to air pollution (with special attention to younger ones), and because nursery is the public environment where young children spend most of their time. Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the air pollutants with greater interest. In fact, it can cause acute effects on children's health, as well as may contribute to the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and PMTotal) on different indoor microenvironments in urban nurseries of Porto city; and ii) to analyse those concentrations according to guidelines and references for indoor air quality and children's health. Indoor PM measurements were performed in several class and lunch rooms in three nurseries on weekdays and weekends. Outdoor PM10 concentrations were also obtained to determine I/O ratios. PM concentrations were often found high in the studied classrooms, especially for the finer fractions, reaching maxima hourly mean concentrations of 145 μg m-3 for PM1 and 158 μg m-3 PM2.5, being often above the limits recommended by WHO, reaching 80% of exceedances for PM2.5, which is concerning in terms of exposure effects on children's health. Mean I/O ratios were always above 1 and most times above 2 showing that indoor sources (re-suspension phenomena due to children's activities, cleaning and cooking) were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations when compared with the outdoor influence. Though, poor ventilation to outdoors in classrooms affected indoor air quality by increasing the PM accumulation. So, enhancing air renovation rate and performing cleaning activities after the occupancy period could be good practices to reduce PM indoor air concentrations in nurseries and, consequently, to improve children's health and welfare.

  17. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang; Lu, Chung-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O3), airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO2, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan’s Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA). However, elevated PM10 and PM2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations. PMID:27918460

  18. Indoor Radon and Its Decay Products: Concentrations, Causes, and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    This report is an introduction to the behavior of radon 222 and its decay products in indoor air. This includes review of basic characteristics of radon and its decay products and of features of the indoor environment itself, all of which factors affect behavior in indoor air. The experimental and theoretical evidence on behavior of radon and its decay products is examined, providing a basis for understanding the influence of geological, structural, and meteorological factors on indoor concentrations, as well as the effectiveness of control techniques. We go on to examine three important issues concerning indoor radon. We thus include (1) an appraisal of the concentration distribution in homes, (2) an examination of the utility and limitations of popular monitoring techniques and protocols, and (3) an assessment of the key elements of strategies for controlling radon levels in homes.

  19. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  20. Air Data - Concentration Map

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  1. Mitigation of building-related polychlorinated biphenyls in indoor air of a school

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sealants and other building materials sold in the U.S. from 1958 - 1971 were commonly manufactured with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at percent quantities by weight. Volatilization of PCBs from construction materials has been reported to produce PCB levels in indoor air that exceed health protective guideline values. The discovery of PCBs in indoor air of schools can produce numerous complications including disruption of normal operations and potential risks to health. Understanding the dynamics of building-related PCBs in indoor air is needed to identify effective strategies for managing potential exposures and risks. This paper reports on the efficacy of selected engineering controls implemented to mitigate concentrations of PCBs in indoor air. Methods Three interventions (ventilation, contact encapsulation, and physical barriers) were evaluated in an elementary school with PCB-containing caulk and elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air. Fluorescent light ballasts did not contain PCBs. Following implementation of the final intervention, measurements obtained over 14 months were used to assess the efficacy of the mitigation methods over time as well as temporal variability of PCBs in indoor air. Results Controlling for air exchange rates and temperature, the interventions produced statistically significant (p < 0.05) reductions in concentrations of PCBs in indoor air of the school. The mitigation measures remained effective over the course of the entire follow-up period. After all interventions were implemented, PCB levels in indoor air were associated with indoor temperature. In a "broken-stick" regression model with a node at 20°C, temperature explained 79% of the variability of indoor PCB concentrations over time (p < 0.001). Conclusions Increasing outdoor air ventilation, encapsulating caulk, and constructing a physical barrier over the encapsulated material were shown to be effective at reducing exposure concentrations of PCBs in indoor air

  2. Carbonyl levels in indoor and outdoor air in Mexico City and Xalapa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Báez, Armando; Padilla, Hugo; García, Rocío; Torres, Ma del Carmen; Rosas, Irma; Belmont, Raúl

    2003-01-20

    Carbonyl compounds in air were measured at two houses, three museums, and two offices. All sites lacked air-conditioning systems. Although indoor and outdoor air was measured simultaneously at each site, the sites themselves were sampled in different dates. Mean concentrations were higher in indoor air. Outdoor means concentrations of acetone were the highest in all sites, ranging from 12 to 60 microg m(-3). In general, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde had similar mean concentrations, ranging from 4 to 32 and 6 to 28 microg m(-3), respectively. Formaldehyde and acetone mean indoor concentrations were the highest, ranging from 11 to 97 and 17 to 89 microg m(-3), respectively, followed by acetaldehyde with 5 to 47 microg m(-3). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde had the highest mean concentration in the offices where there were smokers. Propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde concentrations did not show definite differences between indoor and outdoor air. In general, the highest outdoor and indoor hourly concentrations were observed from 10:00 to 15:00 h. Mean indoor/outdoor ratios of carbonyls exceeded 1. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde risks were higher in smoking environments.

  3. Microbial contamination of indoor air due to leakages from crawl space: a field study.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, M; Pasanen, P; Kurnitski, J; Seppänen, O

    2004-02-01

    Mechanical exhaust ventilation system is typical in apartment buildings in Finland. In most buildings the base floor between the first floor apartments and crawl space is not air tight. As the apartments have lower pressure than the crawl space due to ventilation, contaminated air may flow from the crawl space to the apartments. The object of this study was to find out whether a potential air flow from crawl space has an influence on the indoor air quality. The results show that in most cases the concentration of fungal spores was clearly higher in the crawl space than inside the building. The size distribution of fungal spores depended on the fungal species. Correlation between the fungal spores in the crawl space and indoors varied with microbial species. Some species have sources inside the building, which confounds the possible relation between crawl pace and indoor concentrations. Some species, such as Acremonium, do not normally have a source indoors, but its concentration in the crawl space was elevated; our measurements showed also elevated concentrations of Acremonium in the air of the apartments. This consistent finding shows a clear linkage between fungal spores in the indoor air and crawl space. We conclude that a building with a crawl space and pressure difference over the base floor could be a potential risk for indoor air quality in the first floor apartments.

  4. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacci, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan. (PKP)

  5. Indoor air quality during renovation actions: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hameed, A A; Yasser, I H; Khoder, I M

    2004-09-01

    A temporary renovation activity releases considerably high concentrations of particulate matter, viable and non-viable, into air. These pollutants are a potential contributor to unacceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Particulate matter and its constituents lead, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and fungi as well as fungal spores in air were evaluated in a building during renovation action. Suspended dust was recorded at a mean value of 6.1 mg m(-3) which exceeded the Egyptian limit values for indoor air (0.15 mg m(-3)) and occupational environments (5 mg m(-3)). The highest particle frequency (23%) of aerodynamic diameter (dae) was 1.7 microm. Particulate sulfate (SO(4)(2-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), chloride (Cl(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and lead components of suspended dust averaged 2960, 28, 1350, 100 and 13.3 microg m(-3), respectively. Viable fungi associated with suspended dust and that in air averaged 1.11 x 10(6) colony forming unit per gram (cfu g(-1)) and 92 colony forming unit per plate per hour (cfu p(-1) h(-1)), respectively. Cladosporium(33%), Aspergillus(25.6%), Alternaria(11.2%) and Penicillium(6.6%) were the most frequent fungal genera in air, whereas Aspergillus(56.8%), Penicillium(10.3%) and Eurotium(10.3%) were the most common fungal genera associated with suspended dust. The detection of Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Exophiala, Paecilomyces, Scopulariopsis, Ulocladium and Trichoderma is an indication of moisture-damaged building materials. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Scopulariopsis and Nigrospora have dae > 5 microm whereas Aspergillus, Penicillium and Verticillium have dae < 5 microm which are suited to penetrate deeply into lungs. Particulate matter from the working area infiltrates the occupied zones if precautionary measures are inadequate. This may cause deterioration of IAQ, discomfort and acute health problems. Renovation should be carefully designed and managed, in order to minimize degradation of the indoor and outdoor air

  6. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality in Houses of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Vilčeková, Silvia; Apostoloski, Ilija Zoran; Mečiarová, Ľudmila; Krídlová Burdová, Eva; Kiseľák, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    People who live in buildings are exposed to harmful effects of indoor air pollution for many years. Therefore, our research is aimed to investigate the indoor air quality in family houses. The measurements of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matters (PM) and sound pressure level were carried out in 25 houses in several cities of the Republic of Macedonia. Mean values of indoor air temperature and relative humidity ranged from 18.9 °C to 25.6 °C and from 34.1% to 68.0%, respectively. With regard to TVOC, it can be stated that excessive occurrence was recorded. Mean values ranged from 50 μg/m3 to 2610 μg/m3. Recommended value (200 μg/m3) for human exposure to TVOC was exceeded in 32% of houses. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particular matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm) and PM10 (diameter less than 10 µm) are determined to be from 16.80 µg/m3 to 30.70 µg/m3 and from 38.30 µg/m3 to 74.60 µg/m3 individually. Mean values of sound pressure level ranged from 29.8 dB(A) to 50.6 dB(A). Dependence between characteristics of buildings (Year of construction, Year of renovation, Smoke and Heating system) and data from measurements (Temperature, Relative humidity, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) were analyzed using R software. Van der Waerden test shows dependence of Smoke on TVOC and PM2.5. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance shows the effect of interaction of Renovation and Smoke. PMID:28045447

  7. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality in Houses of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Vilčeková, Silvia; Apostoloski, Ilija Zoran; Mečiarová, Ľudmila; Burdová, Eva Krídlová; Kiseľák, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    People who live in buildings are exposed to harmful effects of indoor air pollution for many years. Therefore, our research is aimed to investigate the indoor air quality in family houses. The measurements of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matters (PM) and sound pressure level were carried out in 25 houses in several cities of the Republic of Macedonia. Mean values of indoor air temperature and relative humidity ranged from 18.9 °C to 25.6 °C and from 34.1% to 68.0%, respectively. With regard to TVOC, it can be stated that excessive occurrence was recorded. Mean values ranged from 50 μg/m³ to 2610 μg/m³. Recommended value (200 μg/m³) for human exposure to TVOC was exceeded in 32% of houses. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particular matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (diameter less than 10 μm) are determined to be from 16.80 μg/m³ to 30.70 μg/m³ and from 38.30 μg/m³ to 74.60 μg/m³ individually. Mean values of sound pressure level ranged from 29.8 dB(A) to 50.6 dB(A). Dependence between characteristics of buildings (Year of construction, Year of renovation, Smoke and Heating system) and data from measurements (Temperature, Relative humidity, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) were analyzed using R software. Van der Waerden test shows dependence of Smoke on TVOC and PM2.5. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance shows the effect of interaction of Renovation and Smoke.

  8. Practical approaches for health care: Indoor air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, A.R.; Poulakos, E.M.

    1996-05-01

    The management of indoor air quality (IAQ) is of interest to building occupants, managers, owners, and regulators alike. Whether by poor design, improper attention, inadequate maintenance or the intent to save energy, many buildings today have significantly degraded IAQ levels. Acceptable IAQ is defined by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) in Standard 62-1989 {open_quotes}Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality{close_quotes} as {open_quotes}air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations as determined by cognizant authorities and with which a substantial majority (80 percent or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction.{close_quotes} ASHRAE`s definition not only addresses the chemical compounds that may be present in the air, but it also recognizes a need to address both physiological and psychosocial comfort. The second step is to conduct a performance review of the HVAC systems based on equipment design specifications and guidelines for acceptable IAQ. And the third step is to identify potential chemical, physical and biological sources that are known to contribute to adverse air quality. Upon completion of these three steps, you will able to identify the more significant contributors to IAQ problems and establish applications for prevention and mitigation.

  9. Fungi as contaminants in indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. David

    This article reviews the subject of contamination of indoor air with fungal spores. In the last few years there have been advances in several areas of research on this subject. A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted in the U.K., U.S.A. and Canada. These suggest that exposure to dampness and mold in homes is a significant risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms. Well-known illnesses caused by fungi include allergy and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. There is now evidence that other consequences of exposure to spores of some fungi may be important. In particular, exposure to low molecular weight compounds retained in spores of some molds such as mycotoxins and β 1,3 glucans appears to contribute to some symptoms reported. Fungal contamination of building air is almost always caused by poor design and/or maintenance. Home owners and building operators need to take evidence of fungal contamination seriously.

  10. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor.

    PubMed

    Mura, Maria Chiara; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Fuselli, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6), concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a) node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b) node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c) node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW) non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%); most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  11. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  12. Indoor Air Quality and Student Performance [and Case Studies].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This report examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) affects a child's ability to learn and provides several case studies of schools that have successfully addressed their indoor air problems, the lessons learned from that experience, and what long-term practices and policies emerged from the effort. The report covers the effects from…

  13. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  14. Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

    1999-09-01

    Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity.

  15. Airborne endotoxin concentrations in indoor and outdoor particulate matter and their predictors in an urban city.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Y; Tamura, K; Shima, M

    2017-02-04

    Endotoxins are an important biological component of particulate matter and have been associated with adverse effects on human health. There have been some recent studies on airborne endotoxin concentrations. We collected fine (PM2.5 ) and coarse (PM10-2.5 ) particulate matter twice on weekdays and weekends each for 48 hour, inside and outside 55 homes in an urban city in Japan. Endotoxin concentrations in both fractions were measured using the kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The relationships between endotoxin concentrations and household characteristics were evaluated for each fraction. Both indoor and outdoor endotoxin concentrations were higher in PM2.5 than in PM10-2.5 . In both PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 , indoor endotoxin concentrations were higher than outdoor concentrations, and the indoor endotoxin concentrations significantly correlated with outdoor concentrations in each fraction (R(2) =0.458 and 0.198, respectively). Indoor endotoxin concentrations in PM2.5 were significantly higher in homes with tatami or carpet flooring and in homes with pets, and lower in homes that used air purifiers. Indoor endotoxin concentrations in PM10-2.5 were significantly higher in homes with two or more children and homes with tatami or carpet flooring. These results showed that the indoor endotoxin concentrations were associated with the household characteristics in addition to outdoor endotoxin concentrations.

  16. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  17. A theoretical investigation of the distribution of indoor radon concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabi, R.; Oufni, L.

    2016-11-01

    Inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its decay products are a major source of natural radiation exposure. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. In recent times, numerical modelling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement the Finite Volume Method (FVM) for studying the radon distribution indoor. The findings show that the radon concentration which is distributed in a non-homogeneous way in the room is due to the difference in the radon concentration of different sources (wall, floor and ceiling). Moreover, the radon concentration is much larger near walls, and decreases in the middle of the room because of the effect of air velocity. We notice that the simulation results of radon concentration are in agreement with the results of other experimental studies. The annual effective dose of radon in the model room has been also investigated.

  18. Air-to-air heat exchangers and the indoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1987-02-01

    Air-to-air heat exchangers were installed in 366 energy-efficient homes as part of a demonstration program in the United States. The median incremental cost of AAHX was $1268 ($7.42/mS), and it was less expensive (per square meter) to install this equipment in larger houses than in smaller houses. While most occupants did not notice problems with their AAHX, some households did experience problems related to noise, unpleasant drafts, condensation around the AAHX, and core freezing. Occupants of energy-efficient homes were found to have less problems with their indoor environment (especially mildew/mold and condensation) than a group of control homes.

  19. Pattern of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons on indoor air: Exploratory principal component analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S. ) Wilson, N.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to study polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profiles in indoor air. Fifteen PAHs were measured in ten different homes in Columbus (Ohio) which had different indoor emission characteristics such as gas utilities, wood-burning fireplaces, and cigarette smokers. Different PAH concentration patterns emerged depending upon the emission sources present in the different homes. Of these, cigarette smoking appeared to have the greatest impact on the indoor PAH concentrations. The PCA allowed convenient displays of the multidimensional data set from which the PAH concentration characteristics could be elucidated. The interrelationship between the different PAHs was also studied by correlation analysis.

  20. Reaching agreements on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    The phrases sick building syndrome and indoor air quality (IAQ) are in common use today because of a heightened public awareness of various environmental issues. IAQ complaints must be diplomatically resolved because employers and building owners and managers now face a potential impact on their bottom-lines. The office's IAQ was first questioned when 12 of the 47 employees reported complaints particular to the time they spent in the office building. Three employees were so severely affected, they developed respective cases of rhinitis, conjunctivitis and sinus infection. When the tenant presented this information to the building owner, he was told that there was not an IAQ problem within the building. This article summarizes an unfortunate, yet typical, aspect of IAQ problems. It also offers a more efficient method for evaluating and resolving all IAQ problems.

  1. New units for indoor air quality: decicarbdiox and decitvoc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokl, M. V.

    Two new units are proposed for the evaluation of indoor air quality using the decibel concept, which give a much better approximation of the human perception of odour intensity, compared to the CO2 and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration scales: the decicarbdiox and the devitvoc. On the psychophysical scale according to Yaglou, the weakest odour that can be detected by the human smell sensors is equal to one, and corresponds to the lower limit of percentage dissatisfaction (PD) of 5.8%. It is equivalent to: (1) a CO2 threshold concentration of 485 ppm - 0 dB (odour CO2) - 0 dCd (decicarbdiox), and (2) a TVOC threshold concentration of 50 µg m-3- 0 dB (odour TVOC) - 0 dTv (decitvoc). The upper limit is determined by the initial value of toxicity: (1) CO2- 15,000 ppm - 134 dCd, and (2) TVOC - 25,000 g/m-3- 135 dTv. Optimal pollutant values (corresponding to PD=20%) and admissible values (PD=30%) for unadapted and adapted persons are calculated. Long-term tolerable values (determining the sick building syndrome range) and short-term tolerable values (the beginning of the toxic range) are also stated. The same system used to evaluate noise can be used to evaluate air quality. Additionally, the contribution of the individual constituents (at present acoustic and odour) to the overall quality of the environment can be ascertained. The new units dCd and dTv can express an increase or decrease in air contamination, e.g. by the use of air cleaners, new building materials etc. The proposed system of using dCd and dTv is compatible with BSR/ASHRAE 62-1989 R which can be used to determine the required volume of fresh air for ventilation by an improved method, which takes into account different levels of required indoor air quality.

  2. New units for indoor air quality: decicarbdiox and decitvoc.

    PubMed

    Jokl, M V

    1998-12-01

    Two new units are proposed for the evaluation of indoor air quality using the decibel concept, which give a much better approximation of the human perception of odour intensity, compared to the CO2 and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration scales: the decicarbdiox and the devitvoc. On the psychophysical scale according to Yaglou, the weakest odour that can be detected by the human smell sensors is equal to one, and corresponds to the lower limit of percentage dissatisfaction (PD) of 5.8%. It is equivalent to: (1) a CO2 threshold concentration of 485 ppm-0 dB (odour CO2)-0 dCd (decicarbdiox), and (2) a TVOC threshold concentration of 50 micrograms m-3-0 dB (odour TVOC)-0 dTv (decitvoc). The upper limit is determined by the initial value of toxicity: (1) CO2-15,000 ppm-134 dCd, and (2) TVOC-25,000 g/m-3-135 dTv. Optimal pollutant values (corresponding to PD = 20%) and admissible values (PD = 30%) for unadapted and adapted persons are calculated. Long-term tolerable values (determining the sick building syndrome range) and short-term tolerable values (the beginning of the toxic range) are also stated. The same system used to evaluate noise can be used to evaluate air quality. Additionally, the contribution of the individual constituents (at present acoustic and odour) to the overall quality of the environment can be ascertained. The new units dCd and dTv can express an increase or decrease in air contamination, e.g. by the use of air cleaners, new building materials etc. The proposed system of using dCd and dTv is compatible with BSR/ASHRAE 62-1989 R which can be used to determine the required volume of fresh air for ventilation by an improved method, which takes into account different levels of required indoor air quality.

  3. Characterization of indoor aerosol temporal variations for the real-time management of indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuzas, Darius; Prasauskas, Tadas; Krugly, Edvinas; Sidaraviciute, Ruta; Jurelionis, Andrius; Seduikyte, Lina; Kauneliene, Violeta; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2015-10-01

    The study presents the characterization of dynamic patterns of indoor particulate matter (PM) during various pollution episodes for real-time IAQ management. The variation of PM concentrations was assessed for 20 indoor activities, including cooking related sources, other thermal sources, personal care and household products. The pollution episodes were modelled in full-scale test chamber representing a standard usual living room with the forced ventilation of 0.5 h-1. In most of the pollution episodes, the maximum concentration of particles in exhaust air was reached within a few minutes. The most rapid increase in particle concentration was during thermal source episodes such as candle, cigarette, incense stick burning and cooking related sources, while the slowest decay of concentrations was associated with sources, emitting ultrafine particle precursors, such as furniture polisher spraying, floor wet mopping with detergent etc. Placement of the particle sensors in the ventilation exhaust vs. in the centre of the ceiling yielded comparable results for both measured maximum concentrations and temporal variations, indicating that both locations were suitable for the placement of sensors for the management of IAQ. The obtained data provides information that may be utilized considering measurements of aerosol particles as indicators for the real-time management of IAQ.

  4. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (<100nm), a noticeable decrease in particle concentrations indoors with increasing distance from the road is observed due to Brownian and turbulent diffusion. In addition, the indoor concentration strongly depends on the distance between the roadway and building, particle size, wind condition, and window size and location. A break-even point is observed at D'~2.1 (normalized distance from the roadway by the width of the road). The indoor particle concentration is greater than that at the highway where D'<2.1, and vice versa. For new building planning, the distance from the roadway and the ambient wind condition need to be considered at the early design stage whereas the size and location of the window openings, the interior layout, and the placement of fresh air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways.

  5. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air. Residential air sampling was conducted in Columbus, Ohio during the winter of 1986/87. The PAH derivatives were found at much lower levels than their parent PAH. Higher average indoor levels of all but three target compounds were found compared to outdoor levels. The higher outdoor levels of these three compounds (naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, pyrene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and 2-nitrofluoranthene) are probably due to atmospheric transformation. Cigarette smoking was identified as the most-significant contributor to indoor levels of PAH and PAH derivatives. Homes with gas-heating systems appeared to have higher pollutant levels compared to homes with electric-heating systems.

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana as Bioindicator of Fungal VOCs in Indoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Richard; Yin, Guohua; Klich, Maren A.; Grimm, Casey; Bennett, Joan W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to detect different mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the common indoor fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, and demonstrate the potential usage of the plant as a bioindicator to monitor fungal VOCs in indoor air. We evaluated the volatile production of Aspergillus versicolor strains SRRC 108 (NRRL 3449) and SRRC 2559 (ATCC 32662) grown on nutrient rich fungal medium, and grown under conditions to mimic the substrate encountered in the built environment where fungi would typically grow indoors (moist wallboard and ceiling tiles). Using headspace solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we analyzed VOC profiles of the two strains. The most abundant compound produced by both strains on all three media was 1-octen-3-ol. Strain SRRC 2559 made several terpenes not detected from strain SRRC 108. Using a split-plate bioassay, we grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a shared atmosphere with VOCs from the two strains of Aspergillus versicolor grown on yeast extract sucrose medium. The VOCs emitted by SRRC 2559 had an adverse impact on seed germination and plant growth. Chemical standards of individual VOCs from the Aspergillus versicolor mixture (2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, limonene, and β-farnesene), and β-caryophyllene were tested one by one in seed germination and vegetative plant growth assays. The most inhibitory compound to both seed germination and plant growth was 1-octen-3-ol. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis is a useful model for monitoring indoor air quality as it is sensitive to naturally emitted fungal volatile mixtures as well as to chemical standards of individual compounds, and it exhibits relatively quick concentration- and duration-dependent responses. PMID:27790067

  7. The economic impact of clean indoor air laws.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Michael; Chaloupka, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Clean indoor air laws are easily implemented, are well accepted by the public, reduce nonsmoker exposure to secondhand smoke, and contribute to a reduction in overall cigarette consumption. There are currently thousands of clean indoor air laws throughout the Unites States, and the majority of Americans live in areas where smoking is completely prohibited in workplaces, restaurants, or bars. The vast majority of scientific evidence indicates that there is no negative economic impact of clean indoor air policies, with many studies finding that there may be some positive effects on local businesses. This is despite the fact that tobacco industry-sponsored research has attempted to create fears to the contrary. Further progress in the diffusion of clean indoor air laws will depend on the continued documentation of the economic impact of clean indoor air laws, particularly within the hospitality industry. This article reviews the spread of clean indoor air laws, the effect on public health, and the scientific evidence of the economic impact of implementation of clean indoor air laws.

  8. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  9. Variation of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in different outdoor and indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Boev, Blazo; Zunic, Zora S; Ivanova, Kremena; Ristova, Mimoza; Tsenova, Martina; Ajka, Sorsa; Janevik, Emilija; Taleski, Vaso; Bossew, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Subject of this study is an investigation of the variations of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in outdoor and indoor environments of 40 dwellings, 31 elementary schools and five kindergartens. The buildings are located in three municipalities of two, geologically different, areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track detectors, deployed in the most occupied room of the building, between June 2013 and May 2014. During the deploying campaign, indoor and outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were measured simultaneously at the same location. It appeared that the measured values varied from 22 to 990 Bq/m(3) for indoor radon concentrations, from 50 to 195 nSv/h for outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates, and from 38 to 184 nSv/h for indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. The geometric mean value of indoor to outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates was found to be 0.88, i.e. the outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were on average higher than the indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. All measured can reasonably well be described by log-normal distributions. A detailed statistical analysis of factors which influence the measured quantities is reported.

  10. Indoor Air Quality Investigations on Particulate Matter, Carbonyls, and Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Sarah E.

    Americans spend upwards of 90% of their time indoors, hence indoor air quality (IAQ) and the impact of IAQ on human health is a major public health concern. IAQ can be negatively impacted by outdoor pollution infiltrating indoors, the emission of indoor pollutants, indoor atmospheric chemistry and poor ventilation. Energy saving measures like retrofits to seal the building envelope to prevent the leakage of heated or cooled air will impact IAQ. However, existing studies have been inconclusive as to whether increased energy efficiency is leading to detrimental IAQ. In this work, field campaigns were conducted in apartment homes in Phoenix, Arizona to evaluate IAQ as it relates to particulate matter (PM), carbonyls, and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA). To investigate the impacts of an energy efficiency retrofit on IAQ, indoor and outdoor air quality sampling was carried out at Sunnyslope Manor, a city-subsidized senior living apartment complex. Measured indoor formaldehyde levels before the building retrofit exceeded reference exposure limits, but in the long term follow-up sampling, indoor formaldehyde decreased for the entire study population by a statistically significant margin. Indoor PM levels were dominated by fine particles and showed a statistically significant decrease in the long term follow-up sampling within certain resident subpopulations (i.e. residents who reported smoking and residents who had lived longer at the apartment complex). Additionally, indoor glyoxal and methylglyoxal exceeded outdoor concentrations, with methylglyoxal being more prevalent pre-retrofit than glyoxal, suggesting different chemical pathways are involved. Indoor concentrations reported are larger than previous studies. TSNAs, specifically N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methyl-nitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal (NNA) and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were evaluated post-retrofit at Sunnyslope Manor. Of the units tested, 86% of the smoking units and

  11. Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

  12. Indoor air quality investigation according to age of the school buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jongryeul; Yang, Wonho; Kim, Jihwan; Son, Busoon; Park, Jinchul

    2009-01-01

    Since the majority of schools are housed in buildings dating from the 1960s and 1970s, a comprehensive construction and renovation program of school buildings has been carried out to improve the educational conditions in Korea. However, classrooms and computer rooms, with pressed wood desks, chairs and furnishings, as well as construction materials, might have negative effects on the indoor air quality. Furthermore, most schools have naturally ventilated classrooms. The purpose of this study was to characterize the concentrations of different indoor air pollutants within Korean schools and to compare their indoor levels within schools according to the age of school buildings. Indoor and outdoor air samples of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), particulate matter (PM(10)), total microbial count (TBC), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were obtained during summer, autumn and winter from three sites; a classroom, a laboratory and a computer classroom at 55 different schools. The selection of the schools was based on the number of years since the schools had been constructed. The problems causing indoor air pollution at the schools were chemicals emitted by building materials or furnishings, and insufficient ventilation rates. The I/O ratio for HCHO was 6.32 during the autumn, and the indoor HCHO concentrations (mean = 0.16 ppm) in schools constructed within 1 year were significantly higher than the Korean Indoor Air Standard, indicating that schools have indoor sources of HCHO. Therefore, increasing the ventilation rate by means of a mechanical system and the use of low-emission furnishings can play key roles in improving the indoor air quality within schools.

  13. Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 μm), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements.

  14. Impact of kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Hanoune, B; Carteret, M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the use of kerosene space heaters as additional or principal heat source has been increasing, because these heaters allow a continuous control on the energy cost. These devices are unvented, and all combustion products are released into the room where the heaters are operated. The indoor air quality of seven private homes using wick-type or electronic injection-type kerosene space heaters was investigated. Concentrations of CO, CO2, NOx, formaldehyde and particulate matter (0.02-10 μm) were measured, using time-resolved instruments when available. All heaters tested are significant sources of submicron particles, NOx and CO2. The average NO2 and CO2 concentrations are determined by the duration of use of the kerosene heaters. These results stress the need to regulate the use of unvented combustion appliances to decrease the exposure of people to air contaminants.

  15. Estimation of optimum requirements for indoor air quality and energy consumption in some residences in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Elkilani, A; Bouhamra, W

    2001-12-01

    Contrasting effects of the dilution of indoor generated pollutants and the energy efficiency of heating and ventilating air conditioning systems (HVAC) for indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort were studied for 10 Kuwaiti residences. The levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the calculated cooling load of the HVAC systems were used as indicators for the IAQ and for the energy consumption, respectively. Air exchange rates and VOCs levels (both indoor and outdoor) were measured. It was found that the outdoor VOC concentrations were always less than the indoor values. Therefore reduction of indoor VOC levels can be accomplished either by increasing the ratio of the makeup air to the recirculation air of the HVAC system or by increasing the infiltration airflow rate through openings. A single compartment IAQ model, modified by the authors, was used to test for the variation in the above two dilution modes and to test the performance sensitivity. Hence, the optimum parameters in terms of IAQ and energy consumption were determined. The results indicated that it was necessary to increase the ratio of the makeup air to the recirculation air from its typical design value of 0.5 to a range of 0.7-1.3 in order to reduce indoor VOC to acceptable levels.

  16. Volatile organic compounds in indoor air: A review ofconcentrations measured in North America since 1990

    SciTech Connect

    ATHodgson@lbl.gov

    2003-04-01

    Central tendency and upper limit concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in indoor air are summarized and reviewed. Data were obtained from published cross-sectional studies of residential and office buildings conducted in North America from 1990through the present. VOC concentrations in existing residences reported in 12 studies comprise the majority of the data set. Central tendency and maximum concentrations are compared between new and existing residences and between existing residences and office buildings. Historical changes in indoor VOC concentrations since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are explored by comparing the current data set with two published reviews of previous data obtained primarily in the 1980s. These historical comparisons suggest average indoor concentrations of some toxic air contaminants, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane have decreased.

  17. Use of ozone generating devices to improve indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Boeniger, M F

    1995-06-01

    Room ozonization has been in widespread use to "freshen" indoor air for more than 100 years. This use is sometimes promoted with the claim that ozone can oxidize airborne gases, and even particulates, to simple carbon dioxide and water vapor. Aside from whether ozone can improve indoor air quality, the potentially deleterious consequences to public health of overexposure to ozone are of concern. The literature on both allegations is reviewed. It indicates that ozone is not a practical and effective means of improving indoor air quality, especially in light of its potentially serious risk to health.

  18. CO and particle pollution of indoor air in Beijing and its elemental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.N.; Zhang, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Three representative types of houses in Beijing were selected and, in each type, smoking and nonsmoking households were compared, IP, RP, and CO concentrations in the living room and kitchen were monitored during each season, and the level of COHb in the heads of the households were measured. The study showed that indoor air pollution was rather severe, especially during winter, when particulate concentrations markedly exceeded the standard and CO concentration was as high as 47 ppm. Indoor air pollution was closely related to the type of house, particularly to the mode of heating. In houses, of the same type, pollution improved greatly after central heating facilities were installed. Analysis of 30 elements revealed that pollution was typically caused by coal burning, aggravated by dusty wind, but high indoor Pb levels were probably due to the use of LPG for cooking. In the authors study the effect of cigarette smoking was sometimes masked by the severe indoor pollution.

  19. CONCRETE BLOCKS' ADVERSE EFFECTS ON INDOOR AIR AND RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air infiltration through highly permeable concrete blocks can allow entry of various serious indoor air pollutants. An easy approach to avoiding these pollutants is to select a less–air-permeable concrete block. Tests show that air permeability of concrete blocks can vary by a fa...

  20. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    PubMed

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  1. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    As concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, understanding indoor aerosols has become increasingly important so that control techniques may be implemented to reduce damaging health effects and soiling problems. This paper begins with a brief look at the me...

  2. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  3. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  4. Differences in indoor versus outdoor concentrations of ultrafine particles, PM2.5, PMabsorbance and NO2 in Swiss homes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Eeftens, Marloes; Phuleria, Harish C; Ineichen, Alex; Corradi, Elisabetta; Davey, Mark; Fierz, Martin; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Schindler, Christian; Rochat, Thierry; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing concern as we spend the majority of time indoors and as new buildings are increasingly airtight for energy saving purposes. For a better understanding of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland we conducted repeated 1-2-week-long indoor and outdoor measurements of particle number concentrations (PNC), particulate matter (PM), light absorbance of PM2.5 (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Residents of all homes were enrolled in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Indoor levels were comparable in urban areas and generally low in rural homes. Average indoor levels were 7800 particles/cm(3) (interquartile range=7200); 8.7 μg/m(3) (6.5) PM2.5 and 10.2 μg/m(3) (11.2) NO2. All pollutants showed large variability of indoor/outdoor ratios between sites. We observed similar diurnal patterns for indoor and outdoor PNC. Nevertheless, the correlation of average indoor and outdoor PNC between sites as well as longitudinal indoor/outdoor correlations within sites were low. Our results show that a careful evaluation of home characteristics is needed when estimating indoor exposure to pollutants with outdoor origin.

  5. Indoor air quality of schools in Alexandria City.

    PubMed

    Abou Taleb, Magda A; Mohamed, Mahmoud F; Nofal, Faten H; Noweir, Kamal H; El-Barawy, Mohamed A

    2002-01-01

    Poor air quality in schools can affect children's desire and ability to concentrate and learn and may lead to increased rate of absenteeism. This study was carried out with the aim of characterizing and measuring indoor air quality in school buildings, measuring ventilation status and studying the impact of design and environmental parameters on some measured pollutant levels. The study was carried out in some primary schools of Alexandria City. All ventilation rate levels exceeded the ASHRAE standard of 15 cfm/pupil except for a few cases. Badly located and small window area led to air stagnation and low ventilation rates. Levels of TSP greatly exceeded a suggested daily guideline of 150 microg/m3. The highest average levels of TSP were found inside classrooms surrounded by unpaved playground and located near semi rural, commercial and heavy traffic areas, while lowest levels were in classrooms located next to residential areas. The average total bacteria were highest in winter. There was also a slight increase in respiratory symptoms and signs in winter. There was a significant positive correlation between average total, pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria with average TSP levels, indoor CO2 levels and relative humidity while a significant negative correlation was observed with ventilation rate and class volume occupied. The average attack rate of respiratory conditions was 1.96 episode per child. Running nose was the highest frequent symptom. Students of first grade, had an incidence rate higher than that among fifth grade students.

  6. Persistent allergic rhinitis and indoor air quality perception--an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Graudenz, G S; Latorre, M R D O; Tribess, A; Oliveira, C H; Kalil, J

    2006-08-01

    In order to compare patterns of indoor air perception, including perceptions of temperature, air movement, indoor air quality (IAQ), mental concentration, and comfort, 33 subjects either with persistent allergic rhinitis or controls were exposed to different temperatures and constant relative humidity in an experimental office environment. Results were obtained by means of a self-administered visual analogue scale, analyzed using mean score comparisons and principal component analysis. At 14 degrees C, the rhinitis group reported higher scores for sensations of air dryness than controls. At 18 degrees C, in the rhinitis group, there was a correlation between dry, stagnant air, and difficult mental concentration. This group also correlated heat, dry air, and poor IAQ, in contrast to the control group, which correlated comfort, easy mental concentration, and freshness. At 22 degrees C, the rhinitis group correlated heat, dryness, stagnant air, and overall discomfort. This group also correlated non-dry air, freshness, and comfort, whereas the control group correlated heat, humidity, good indoor air, freshness, and comfort. This study suggests that the rhinitis group perceives indoor temperatures of 14 degrees C as dryer than controls do, and that at 18 and 22 degrees C this group positively correlates different adverse perceptions of IAQ. By means of a self-administered questionnaire in an experimental condition, the present study compares subjective patterns of indoor air perception from individuals with respiratory allergy (allergic rhinitis) to control individuals. It reports different patterns of perception of indoor air quality (IAQ) between the two groups, suggesting that allergic individuals could have different IAQ perception.

  7. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  8. The effect of structures on indoor humidity--possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality.

    PubMed

    Simonson, C J; Salonvaara, M; Ojanen, T

    2002-12-01

    The research presented in this paper shows that moisture transfer between indoor air and hygroscopic building structures can generally improve indoor humidity conditions. This is important because the literature shows that indoor humidity has a significant effect on occupant comfort, perceived air quality (PAQ), occupant health, building durability, material emissions, and energy consumption. Therefore, it appears possible to improve the quality of life of occupants when appropriately applying hygroscopic wood-based materials. The paper concentrates on the numerical investigation of a bedroom in a wooden building located in four European countries (Finland, Belgium, Germany, and Italy). The results show that moisture transfer between indoor air and the hygroscopic structure significantly reduces the peak indoor humidity. Based on correlations from the literature, which quantify the effect of temperature and humidity on comfort and PAQ for sedentary adults, hygroscopic structures can improve indoor comfort and air quality. In all the investigated climates, it is possible to improve the indoor conditions such that, as many as 10 more people of 100 are satisfied with the thermal comfort conditions (warm respiratory comfort) at the end of occupation. Similarly, the percent dissatisfied with PAQ can be 25% lower in the morning when permeable and hygroscopic structures are applied.

  9. Indoor and outdoor air pollution in the Himalayas

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.I.; Lin, S.F.; Osborn, J.F.; Pandey, M.R.; Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.

    1986-06-01

    Air pollutant concentrations have been measured in residences in the Himalayas of Nepal where biomass fuels are used for cooking and heating. Levels of total suspended particles are in the range 3-42 mg/m/sup 3/, with respirable suspended particles in the range 1-14 mg/m/sup 3/ in the houses sampled. Limited data for gaseous species show appreciable levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and several non-methane hydrocarbons. A questionnaire concerning energy use administered in each household suggests that high per capita use of biomass fuels is responsible for excessive pollutant concentrations. Application of a one-compartment mass balance model to these houses shows only rough agreement between calculated and measured values, due to uncertainties in model input parameters as well as difficulties in estimating average pollutant concentrations throughout each house. High outdoor concentrations of potassium and methyl chloride, previously shown to be tracers of biomass combustion, indicate that the indoor biomass combustion also degrades the outdoor environment. Values of crustal enrichment factors for trace elements in the air and snow of the region suggest that the polluted air is generally confined to the populated villages, with more pristine air at higher elevations. 58 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  10. The Health Protection Act, national guidelines for indoor air quality and development of the national indoor air programs in Finland.

    PubMed

    Husman, T M

    1999-06-01

    This article presents the current handling of disease related to moldy buildings in Finland as an example of an integrated health strategy. It describes the role of the Finnish Health Protection Act for indoor environments and how cases of indoor air problems are dealt with by local, regional, and national authorities.

  11. The Health Protection Act, national guidelines for indoor air quality and development of the national indoor air programs in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Husman, T M

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the current handling of disease related to moldy buildings in Finland as an example of an integrated health strategy. It describes the role of the Finnish Health Protection Act for indoor environments and how cases of indoor air problems are dealt with by local, regional, and national authorities. PMID:10347001

  12. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Schools and Universities: Overview of Indoor Air Quality Issues, and Preliminary Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Buildings International, Inc., Fairfax, VA.

    This guide is intended to help the building design, engineering, and maintenance staff of school buildings maintain a common standard of high indoor air quality (IAQ) and a productive and comfortable workplace for students and staff. The report defines the four basic classifications of indoor environmental pollution, lists the factors impacting…

  13. Concentrations of the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in sidestream cigarette smoke increase after release into indoor air: results from unpublished tobacco industry research.

    PubMed

    Schick, Suzaynn F; Glantz, Stanton

    2007-08-01

    Research has shown that the toxicity of sidestream cigarette smoke, the primary constituent of secondhand smoke, increases over time. To find potential mechanisms that would explain the increase in sidestream smoke toxicity over time, we analyzed unpublished research reports from Philip Morris Co. using the internal tobacco industry documents now available at the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and other Web sites. Unpublished research from Philip Morris Tobacco Company shows that 4-(methylnitrosamino)-I-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a highly carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamine, can form in sidestream cigarette smoke after it has been released into ambient air. In experiments done between 1983 and 1997, Philip Morris scientists measured the concentration of NNK in sidestream smoke in a sealed stainless steel test chamber at initial particle concentrations of 24 mg/m(3) over the course of 6 to 18 h. They repeatedly showed that airborne NNK concentrations in sidestream cigarette smoke can increase by 50% to 200% per hour during the first 6 h after cigarettes are extinguished. Two experiments done in a real office showed that NNK concentrations increase for the first 2 h after cigarettes are extinguished. If NNK formation also occurs in the lower smoke concentrations observed in real smoking environments, these results suggest that nitrosation of nicotine and/or nicotine breakdown products in aging secondhand smoke is a significant contributor to nitrosamine exposure in humans.

  14. Energy, Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change presents many challenges, including the production of severe weather events. These events and efforts to minimize their effects through weatherization can adversely affect indoor environments.

  15. Indoor air quality of houses located in the urban environment of Agra, India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Ajay; Saini, Renuka; Masih, Amit

    2008-10-01

    Increased concern over the adverse health effects of air pollution has highlighted the need for air-pollution measurements, especially in urban areas, where many sources of air pollutants are normally monitored outdoors as part of obligations under the National Air Quality Strategies. Very little is known about air pollution indoors. In fact, the largest exposure to health-damaging indoor pollution probably occurs in the developing world, not in households, schools, and offices of developed countries where most research and control efforts have been focused to date. As a result much of the health impacts from air pollution worldwide seem to occur among the poorest and most vulnerable populations. The authors in their earlier studies have confirmed the importance of ambient air in determining the quality of air indoors. In this study an observation of air quality indoors and outdoors of domestic homes located in an urban environment from October 2004 to December 2005 in Agra, north central India, is performed. The purpose of this study was to characterize the indoor/outdoor (I/O) relationship of airborne pollutants and recognize their probable source in all three seasons, that is, winter, summer, and rainy season. Concentrations of SO(2), NO(2), CO(2), Cl(2), H(2)S, NH(3), RSPM, and PAH were monitored simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. In order to investigate the effect of seasonality on indoor and ambient air quality, winter to summer and winter to monsoon average ratios were calculated. It is apparent that there is a general pattern of increasing levels from monsoon to summer to winter, and similarly from outdoor to indoor air. Regressions analysis had been done to further investigate the influence of outdoor air-pollutant concentrations on indoor concentrations. The most probable categories of sources for these pollutants have been identified by using principal-component analysis. Indoor air pollution is a complex function of energy housing and

  16. Working with the Media on Tribal Indoor Air Quality Issues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Working with the media can be beneficial in publicizing your indoor air quality (IAQ) messages and getting the word out about any activities or events that raise awareness about IAQ in your community.

  17. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Action Kit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit provides schools with information on how to carry out a practical plan to improve indoor air problems at little- or no-cost using straightforward activities and in-house staff.

  18. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  19. Doing Your Homework on Indoor Air Quality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Explains how administrators at the Georgia Institute of Technology were able to build a new residence hall that included a cost-effective ventilation system providing high quality indoor air. Project considerations, design solutions, and project economies are discussed. (GR)

  20. Technical Solutions to Common Indoor Air Quality Issues in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Design Tools for Schools provides voluntary guidance for school personnel, architects, engineers, builders and contractors, parents, and the community on key school construction and renovation issues.

  1. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  2. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    PubMed

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions.

  4. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-03

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations.

  5. The utility of anger in promoting clean indoor air policies.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Bates, Benjamin R; Quinlan, Margaret M; Quinlan, Margaret R

    2009-09-01

    This investigation examined antecedents associated with support for clean indoor air policies. Participants (N = 550) living in a Midwestern county (population = 62,223) were randomly sampled. Results suggest that beliefs in the health risks associated with secondhand smoke are positively associated with favorable attitudes toward clean indoor air policies, whereas trait reactance is negatively associated with these attitudes. Findings also indicate that risks and trait reactance are indirectly associated with support for clean indoor air policies, mediated through anger arousal toward exposure to secondhand smoke. In addition, regression analyses revealed that health risks, trait reactance, and smoking status explained a significant amount of variance regarding anger toward exposure to secondhand smoke, but only health risks and smoking status accounted for a significant amount of variance toward clean indoor air attitudes. Finally, the Smoking Status x Health Risks interaction was supported for anger toward exposure to secondhand smoke and favorable attitudes toward clean indoor air policies. Our findings suggest the incorporation of anger appeals when promoting clean indoor air policies.

  6. Autocorrelation and variability of indoor air quality measurements.

    PubMed

    Luoma, M; Batterman, S A

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous and particulate concentrations are used to characterize the indoor environment, but such measurements may reflect temporary conditions that are not representative of longer time periods. Moreover, indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements are autocorrelated, a result of limited mixing and air exchange, cyclic emissions, HVAC operation, and other factors. This article analyzes the autocorrelation and variability of IAQ measurements using time series analysis techniques in conjunction with a simple IAQ model. Autocorrelations may be estimated using the air exchange rate (alpha) and ventilation effectiveness (epsilon) of the building or room under study, or estimated from pollutant measurements. From this, the variability, required sample size, and other sampling parameters are estimated. The method is tested in a case study in which particle number, fungi, bacteria, and carbon dioxide concentrations were continuously measured in an office building over a 1-week period. The estimated air exchange rate (1.4/hr) for area studied was predicted to yield autocorrelation coefficients of approximately 0.5 for measurements collected on 30-min intervals. Autocorrelation coefficients based on airborne measurements (lag 0.5 hr) ranged from 0.5 to 0.7 for 1-25 microm diameter particles, fungi, and CO2, but near zero for particles < or =1 microm diameter and bacteria. As expected, the variability of measurements with the lowest autocorrelation decreased the most at long sampling times. The implications for spaces with low alpha * epsilon products are that measurements may not benefit significantly from longer averaging periods, measurements on any single day may not be representative, and day-to-day variability may be significant. Steps to determine sample sizes, averaging times, and sampling strategies that can improve the representativeness of IAQ measurements are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of a passive air sampler for measuring indoor formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Tae; Yim, Bongbeen; Jeong, Jaeho

    2007-04-01

    A passive air sampler, using 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole, was evaluated for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor environments. Chromatography paper cleaned using a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution was experimentally determined as being the optimum absorption filter for the collection of formaldehyde (0.05 microg cm(-2) formaldehyde). From a linear-regression analysis between the mass of formaldehyde time-collected on a passive air sampler and the formaldehyde concentration measured by an active sampler, the sampling rate of the passive air sampler was 1.52 L h(-1). The sampling rate, determined for the passive air sampler in relation to the temperature (19 - 28 degrees C) and the relative humidity (30 - 90%), were 1.56 +/- 0.04 and 1.58 +/- 0.07 L h(-1), respectively. The relationship between the sampling rate and the air velocity was a linear-regression within the observed range. In the case of exposed samplers, the stability of the collected formaldehyde decreased with increasing storage time (decrease of ca. 25% after 22 days); but with the unexposed samplers the stability of the blank remained relatively unchanged for 7 days (decrease of ca. 37% after 22 days). The detection limits for the passive air sampler with an exposure time of 1 day and 7 days were 10.4 and 1.48 microg m(-3), respectively.

  8. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, Jane

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  9. The study of indoor air pollution by means of magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenska, M.; Górka-Kostrubiec, B.; Król, E.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to establish what kind of outside pollution penetrate into indoor spaces. Here we report preliminary results of magnetic monitoring study of indoor air pollution by particulate matter (PM) measured inside flats and houses placed in different locations in Warsaw area. Indoor air pollution level was evaluated by measuring magnetic properties of dust taken from vacuum cleaners used in private flats. The dust samples were taken from about 180 locations in Warsaw distributed in such polluted places as city centre or communication lines with heavy traffic and in unpolluted suburb places. The locations were also distributed according to height above ground level. There were taken in flats situated from first to 16th floors. The basic magnetic parameters such us, χ mass magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loop parameters: coercive force (Hc), coercivity of remanence (Hcr), saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs or SIRM) and χfd frequency dependence of susceptibility, have been used to identify indoor pollution level and to characterize domain state and granulometry of magnetic minerals. Identification of magnetic minerals have been made by measuring decay curve of SIRM during heating to temperature of 700 °C. For chosen samples concentration of 20 elements were measured. The most frequent values of susceptibility of dust are between 50 and 150 10-8 m3/kg with the maximum around 100 10-8 m3/kg. Thermomagnetic analysis for dust differs from that for soil samples taken in the vicinity. SIRM(T) curves for dust show remanence loss at 320 °C and at 520- 540 °C. This is diagnostic for pyrrhotite and magnetite as dominant magnetic minerals. Some samples demonstrate loss of remanence at 160 °C and at temperature characteristic for magnetite. Soil samples do not show pyrrhotite presence or loss of remanence at 160 °C. Display of hysteresis parameters on Day-Dunlop plot indicates predominance of SD/MD grains with

  10. Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in six single-family homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taekhee; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Adhikari, Atin; Crawford, Carlos M.; Reponen, Tiina

    In this study, the culturability of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi was determined through long-term sampling (24-h) using a Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler. The air samples were collected during three seasons in six Cincinnati area homes that were free from moisture damage or visible mold. Cultivation and total microscopic enumeration methods were employed for the sample analysis. The geometric means of indoor and outdoor culturable fungal concentrations were 88 and 102 colony-forming units (CFU) m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of the I/ O ratio equal to 0.66. Overall, 26 genera of culturable fungi were recovered from the indoor and outdoor samples. For total fungal spores, the indoor and outdoor geometric means were 211 and 605 spores m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of I/ O ratio equal to 0.32. The identification revealed 37 fungal genera from indoor and outdoor samples based on the total spore analysis. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of culturable and total fungal spores showed significant correlations ( r=0.655, p<0.0001 and r=0.633, p<0.0001, respectively). The indoor and outdoor median viabilities of fungi were 55% and 25%, respectively, which indicates that indoor environment provides more favorable survival conditions for the aerosolized fungi. Among the seasons, the highest indoor and outdoor culturability of fungi was observed in the fall. Cladosporium had a highest median value of culturability (38% and 33% for indoor and outdoor, respectively) followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium (9% and 2%) among predominant genera of fungi. Increased culturability of fungi inside the homes may have important implications because of the potential increase in the release of allergens from viable spores and pathogenicity of viable fungi on immunocompromised individuals.

  11. Respiratory Health and Indoor Air Pollution at High Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Jacky Ann; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Wood, Steve; Eldridge, Marlowe W.

    2009-01-01

    In this research, the authors sought to provide experimental data on indoor air quality, and the resulting respiratory impact, for a high-elevation (4550 m), rural community in Ladakh, India. This community is of interest because the primarily nomadic residents burn biomass inside the home for heating and cooking. The concentrations of particulate matter (PM), endotoxin, and carbon monoxide were determined for 6 homes. Lung function data and induced sputum samples were collected for 9 female test-home subjects. In addition, lung function data were collected for 84 additional Ladakhi highlanders at this location. Sputum from 3 visiting scientists (sojourners) was collected and analyzed as well. The average PM concentration ranged from 2 mg/m3 to 7 mg/m3, with 85% of the sampled PM sized as respirable. The average endotoxin concentration ranged from 2.4 ng/m3 to 19 ng/m3, and average carbon monoxide levels ranged from 50 ppm to 120 ppm. Lung function values for the highlander population and the test-home subjects were equal to or greater than predicted, despite the highlanders’ significant exposure to indoor pollutants. An induced sputum analysis revealed a significantly greater total inflammatory cell count (M ± SD, 105 cell/mg) in the Ladakhi natives than in the sojourners (107.5 ± 75.2 vs 7.1 ± 8.1, p .01). Although the high levels of indoor pollutants did not correlate with significant decrements in lung function, the induced sputum analysis revealed marked airway inflammation dominated by macrophages and neutrophils. It appears that augmented lung mechanics of this high-altitude population are adaptive to reduce the work of breathing; thus, decrements in lung function go undetected because the true predicted values are greater than expected. PMID:16983862

  12. Respiratory health effects of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Perez-Padilla, R; Schilmann, A; Riojas-Rodriguez, H

    2010-09-01

    Domestic pollution is relevant to health because people spend most of their time indoors. One half of the world's population is exposed to high concentrations of solid fuel smoke (biomass and coal) that are produced by inefficient open fires, mainly in the rural areas of developing countries. Concentrations of particulate matter in kitchens increase to the range of milligrams per cubic meter during cooking. Solid fuel smoke possesses the majority of the toxins found in tobacco smoke and has also been associated with a variety of diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women, acute respiratory infection in children and lung cancer in women (if exposed to coal smoke). Other tobacco smoke-associated diseases, such as tuberculosis, asthma, respiratory tract cancer and interstitial lung diseases, may also be associated with solid fuel smoke inhalation, but evidence is limited. As the desirable change to clean fuels is unlikely, efforts have been made to use efficient, vented wood or coal stoves, with varied success due to inconsistent acceptance by the community.

  13. Combustion Processes Indoors: a Source of High OH Radical Concentrations Through the Photolysis of Hono

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomei, V.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Glor, M.; Gligorovski, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Quivet, E.; Strekowski, R.; Zetzsch, C.; Held, A. B.; Wortham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) is one of the most important oxidant species in the atmosphere controlling its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are photolysis of ozone and photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO), among the others. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as the main OH formation pathway. The possibility for OH formation through photolytic pathways in the indoor environment has been, up to now, ignored (Gómez Alvarez et al., 2012). Models and indirect measurements to the present time predicted concentrations of OH radicals in the order of 104 -105 cm-3. Recently, by direct measurements we have detected high OH radical concentrations of 1.8 106 cm-3 in a classroom in Marseille and we demonstrated that its main source is the photolysis of HONO (Gómez Alvarez et al., 2013). The concentrations of HONO are quite high indoors, reaching levels in the order of a few tens of ppbV (Gómez Alvarez et al., 2013). This is mainly due to 1) direct combustion sources and 2) heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on the numerous surfaces present in the indoor environment. HONO levels of 30 ppb were measured in a previous campaign carried out in Bayreuth in July 2012 as direct emissions from the combustion of a candle. The combination between so high concentrations of HONO and higher than expected light transmissions indoors (or indoor artificial lighting) could have a significant impact on the OH concentrations indoors which could feasibly become considerably higher than we measured in our school campaign (Gomez Alvarez et al., 2013). In order to evaluate these upper limits under combustion conditions in the indoor environment, we have carried out a campaign in the LOTASC chamber (Bayreuth, Germany). For this aim, the exhaust fumes from the burning of a commonly used domestic candle have been introduced in the chamber. The chamber was irradiated under well research indoor lighting conditions. A thorough characterization of light intensities

  14. The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

    Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ρ-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

  15. Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection methods and descriptive analyses.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Clifford P; Zhang, Junfeng; Turpin, Barbara J; Morandi, Maria T; Colome, Steven; Stock, Thomas H; Spektor, Dalia M; Korn, Leo; Winer, Arthur M; Kwon, Jaymin; Meng, Qing Yu; Zhang, Lin; Harrington, Robert; Liu, Weili; Reff, Adam; Lee, Jong Hoon; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Mohan, Kishan; Shendell, Derek; Jones, Jennifer; Farrar, L; Maberti, Slivia; Fan, Tina

    2005-11-01

    This study on the relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) was undertaken to collect data for use in evaluating the contribution of outdoor sources of air toxics and particulate matter (PM) to personal exposure. The study was not designed to obtain a population-based sample, but rather to provide matched indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations in homes that varied in their proximity to outdoor pollution sources and had a wide range of air exchange rates (AERs). This design allowed examination of relations among indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations of air toxics and PM across a wide range of environmental conditions; the resulting data set obtained for a wide range of environmental pollutants and AERs can be used to evaluate exposure models. Approximately 100 households with residents who do not smoke participated in each of three cities in distinct locations expected to have different climates and housing characteristics: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Questionnaires were administered to characterize homes, neighborhoods, and personal activities that might affect exposures. The concentrations of a suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds, as well as the fraction of airborne particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5), were measured during continuous 48-hour sessions in which indoor, outdoor, and personal air samples were collected simultaneously. During the same 48-hour period, the AER (exchanges/hr; x hr(-1)) was determined in each home, and carbonyl compounds were measured inside vehicle cabins driven by a subset of the participants. In most of the homes, measurements were made twice, during two different seasons, to obtain a wide distribution of AERs. This report presents in detail the data collection methods, quality control measures, and initial analyses of data distributions and relations among indoor, outdoor, and

  16. Indoor air pollution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, B H; Hong, C J; Pandey, M R; Smith, K R

    1990-01-01

    Of the four principal categories of indoor pollution (combustion products, chemicals, radon and biologicals), research in developing countries has focused on combustion-generated pollutants, and principally those from solid-fuel-fired cooking and heating stoves. Such stoves are used in more than half the world's households and have been shown in many locations to produce high indoor concentrations of particulates, carbon monoxide and other combustion-related pollutants. Although the proportion of all such household stoves that are used in poorly ventilated situations is uncertain, the total population exposed to excessive concentrations is potentially high, probably several hundred million. A number of studies were carried out in the 1980s to discover the health effects of such stove exposures. The majority of such studies were done in South Asia in homes burning biomass fuels or in China with coal-burning homes, although a sprinkling of studies examining biomass-burning have been done in Oceania, Latin America and Africa. Of the health effects that might be expected from such exposures, little, if any, work seems to have been done on low birthweight and eye problems, although there are anecdotal accounts making the connection. Decreased lung function has been noted in Nepali women reporting more time spent near the stove as it has for Chinese women using coal stoves as compared to those using gas stoves. Respiratory distress symptoms have been associated with use of smoky fuels in West India, Ladakh and in several Chinese studies among different age groups, some with large population samples. Acute respiratory infection in children, one of the chief causes of infant and childhood mortality, has been associated with Nepali household-smoke exposures. Studies of chronic disease endpoints are difficult because of the need to construct exposure histories over long periods. Nevertheless, chronic obstructive lung disease has been associated with the daily time spent near

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

  18. CFD simulation research on residential indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; He, Bao-Jie

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays people are excessively depending on air conditioning to create a comfortable indoor environment, but it could cause some health problems in a long run. In this paper, wind velocity field, temperature field and air age field in a bedroom with wall-hanging air conditioning running in summer are analyzed by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that wall-hanging air conditioning system can undertake indoor heat load and conduct good indoor thermal comfort. In terms of wind velocity, air speed in activity area where people sit and stand is moderate, most of which cannot feel wind flow and meet the summer indoor wind comfort requirement. However, for air quality, there are local areas without ventilation and toxic gases not discharged in time. Therefore it is necessary to take effective measures to improve air quality. Compared with the traditional measurement method, CFD software has many advantages in simulating indoor environment, so it is hopeful for humans to create a more comfortable, healthy living environment by CFD in the future.

  19. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  20. Controlling Pollutants and Sources: Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To protect indoor environmental quality the designer should understand indoor air quality problems and seek to eliminate potential sources of contamination that originate from outdoors as well as indoors.

  1. The effect of penetration factor, deposition, and environmental factors on the indoor concentration of PM2.5 sulfate, nitrate, and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, T.L.; Lunden, M.M.; Sextro, R.G.; Hering, S.; Brown, N.J.

    2002-04-15

    Indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin constitutes an important exposure pathway. We conducted an intensive set of indoor particle measurements in an unoccupied house under differing operating conditions. Real-time measurements were conducted both indoors and outdoors, including PM2.5 nitrate, sulfate, and carbon. Because the time-scale of the fluctuations in outdoor particle concentrations and meteorological conditions are often similar to the time constant for building air exchange, a steady state concentration may never be reached. The time-series experimental data were used to determine the effect of changes in air exchange rate and indoor/outdoor temperature and relative humidity differences on indoor particle concentrations. A multivariate regression was performed to investigate the difference between measured indoor concentrations and results from a simple time-dependent physical model. Environmental conditions had a significant effect on indoor concentrations of all three PM2.5 species, but did not explain all of the model variation.

  2. Evaluation of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during night periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Detelin

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-understand procedure for prediction of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during the night periods. The mathematical model is based on the assumptions for homogeneity and perfect mixing of the indoor air, the ideal gas model for non-reacting gas mixtures, mass conservation equations for the entire system and for each species, a model for prediction of basal metabolic rate of humans as well as a model for prediction of O2 consumption rate and both CO2 and H2O generation rates by breathing. Time variation of indoor air composition is predicted at constant indoor air temperature for three scenarios based on the analytical solution of the mathematical model. The results achieved reveal both the most probable scenario for indoor air time variation in air-tight occupied spaces as well as the cause for morning tiredness after having a sleep in a modern energy efficient space.

  3. Nitrogen Dioxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The two most prevalent oxides of nitrogen are nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO). Both are toxic gases with NO2 being a highly reactive oxidant and corrosive. The primary sources indoors are combustion processes.

  4. Bioassay of complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants. Chapter 7

    SciTech Connect

    Lewtas, J.; Claxton, L.; Mumford, J.; Lofroth, G.

    1990-01-01

    There are several strategies for conducting bioassay studies of indoor air pollutant mixtures. One approach is to generate indoor pollutants from sources under laboratory conditions suitable for human, animal, or in vitro bioassay studies. This approach was used extensively to evaluate tobacco smoke and to a lesser extent for other indoor combustion sources such as kerosene heaters. A second approach is to simulate these complex mixtures by simpler mixtures of pure chemicals which can be used in biological studies. The third approach, which is described in more detail here, is to use bioassays in the direct evaluation of complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants. The mixtures of organics found indoors from combustion sources, building materials, household products and human activities are extremely complex. They consist of thousands of components which are not well characterized or quantified. Many of these mixtures and certain components are potential human carcinogens. The development of short-term bioassays to detect mutagens and potential carcinogens has facilitated studies of complex mixtures including air pollutants and combustion emissions. Chapter 7 will focus on the development and application of bacterial mutagenicity assays to complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in indoor air sampled in children's bedrooms.

    PubMed

    Winkens, Kerstin; Koponen, Jani; Schuster, Jasmin; Shoeib, Mahiba; Vestergren, Robin; Berger, Urs; Karvonen, Anne M; Pekkanen, Juha; Kiviranta, Hannu; Cousins, Ian T

    2017-03-01

    The contamination levels and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors in indoor air of children's bedrooms in Finland, Northern Europe, were investigated. Our study is among the most comprehensive indoor air monitoring studies (n = 57) and to our knowledge the first one to analyse air in children's bedrooms for PFASs (17 PFAAs and 9 precursors, including two acrylates, 6:2 FTAC and 6:2 FTMAC). The most frequently detected compound was 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) with the highest median concentration (3570 pg/m(3)). FTOH concentrations were generally similar to previous studies, indicating that in 2014/2015 the impact of the industrial transition had been minor on FTOH levels in indoor air. However, in contrast to earlier studies (with one exception), median concentrations of 6:2 FTOH were higher than 10:2 FTOH. The C8 PFAAs are still the most abundant acids, even though they have now been phased out by major manufacturers. The mean concentrations of FOSE/As, especially MeFOSE (89.9 pg/m(3)), were at least an order of magnitude lower compared to previous studies. Collectively the comparison of FTOHs, PFAAs and FOSE/FOSAs with previous studies indicates that indoor air levels of PFASs display a time lag to changes in production of several years. This is the first indoor air study investigating 6:2 FTMAC, which was frequently detected (58%) and displayed some of the highest maximum concentrations (13 000 pg/m(3)). There were several statistically significant correlations between particular house and room characteristics and PFAS concentrations, most interestingly higher EtFOSE air concentrations in rooms with plastic floors compared to wood or laminate.

  6. A real-time monitoring and assessment method for calculation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted in subway stations.

    PubMed

    Oh, TaeSeok; Kim, MinJeong; Lim, JungJin; Kang, OnYu; Vidya Shetty, K; SankaraRao, B; Yoo, ChangKyoo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2012-05-01

    Subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, in this study, a new cumulative calculation method for the estimation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside the subway station is proposed by taking cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept. Minimum concentration of individual air pollutants which naturally exist in indoor space is referred as base concentration of air pollutants and can be found from the data collected. After subtracting the value of base concentration from data point of each data set of indoor air pollutant, the primary quantity of emitted air pollutant is calculated. After integration is carried out with these values, adding the base concentration to the integration quantity gives the total amount of indoor air pollutant emitted. Moreover, the values of new index for cumulative indoor air quality obtained for 1 day are calculated using the values of cumulative air quality index (CAI). Cumulative comprehensive indoor air quality index (CCIAI) is also proposed to compare the values of cumulative concentrations of indoor air pollutants. From the results, it is clear that the cumulative assessment approach of indoor air quality (IAQ) is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, in case of exposure to indoor air pollutants for a long time. Also, the values of CCIAI are influenced more by the values of concentration of NO2, which is released due to the use of air conditioners and combustion of the fuel. The results obtained in

  7. Bioluminescent liquid light guide pad biosensor for indoor air toxicity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Eltzov, Evgeni; Cohen, Avital; Marks, Robert S

    2015-04-07

    Indoor air pollution became a recent concern found to be oftentimes worse than outdoor air quality. We developed a tool that is cheap and simple and enables continuous monitoring of air toxicity. It is a biosensor with both a nondisposable (monitor) and disposable (calcium alginate pads with immobilized bacteria) elements. Various parameters to enhance its signal have been tested (including the effect of the pad's orientation, it's exposure to either temperature or time with the air toxicant analyte, and various concentrations thereof). Lastly, the sensor has demonstrated its ability to sense the presence of chemicals in a real, indoor environment. This is the first step in the creation of a sensitive and simple operative tool that may be used in different indoor environments.

  8. Evaluation of indoor air pollution and its effect on human health in Beijing's rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hansheng; Liu, Youcheng )

    1989-01-01

    Average exposures to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, Inhalable Particles (IP), common bacteria and streptococci were monitored in 1986 in 24 new and old village households in the northern suburb of Beijing. Four hundred and fifty school children were also measured and observed for chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and illnesses, pulmonary function, immune response, carboxyhemoglobin level and eye response time to signals so as to evaluate the effects of rural indoor air pollution on human health. The results of air monitoring data showed that the new heating systems were effective in reducing the indoor concentrations of the measured pollutants by 23 to 76% in winter, but present concentrations still exceed China's Standard because of inadequate house design. Health outcomes suggested that children in the new village demonstrated signs of improvement for better health. The implications of different factors affecting indoor air pollution are evaluated and discussed.

  9. Indoor air quality and the law in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, P

    1999-12-01

    With the greater use of air-conditioned offices in Singapore, achieving good indoor air quality has become an important issue. The laws that impose duties upon designers and contractors with respect to the design and construction of air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems are set out in the Building Control Regulations and the Singapore Standard Code of Practice for Mechanical Ventilation and Air-conditioning in Buildings (hereinafter "SS CP 13:1980"). ACMV maintenance is governed by the Environmental Public Health Act, the Building and Common Property (Maintenance and Management) Act, and the Land Titles (Strata) Act, as well as by lease or tenancy agreements. Designers, contractors, developers, building owners and management corporations may also be liable to the workers, occupants and other premises users for indoor air quality (IAQ)-related injuries under the general principles of contract and tort. Recently, the Guidelines for Good Indoor Air Quality in Office Premises was issued by the Ministry of Environment to complement SS CP 13:1980 toward improving the indoor air quality of air-conditioned office premises. Although the Guidelines have no statutory effect, they may be adopted as contractual requirements in construction, lease and maintenance contracts. They may also be used to determine the relevant standard of duty of care required to discharge tortious liability. This paper looks at the existing laws and rules affecting the design, construction and maintenance of air-conditioned offices in light of Part III of the Ministry's Guidelines.

  10. Indoor aldehydes concentration and emission rate of formaldehyde in libraries and private reading rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Kim, Seojin; Lee, Kiyoung; Yoon, Dongwon; Lee, Jiryang; Ju, DaeYoung

    2013-06-01

    Aldehydes are of particularly interest due to their potential adverse impact on human health. Formaldehyde is one of the most abundant indoor pollutants. To improve indoor air quality, identifying and removing the major emission sources of formaldehyde would be desirable. The purposes of this study were to determine aldehyde concentrations in libraries and reading rooms and to identify emission sources of formaldehyde in private reading rooms. Indoor aldehyde concentrations were quantified at 66 facilities, including public libraries, children's libraries, public reading rooms, and private reading rooms, in the Seoul metropolitan area. Emission fluxes of formaldehyde from the surfaces of desks, chairs, floors, walls, and ceilings in 19 private reading rooms were measured using a passive emission colorimetric sensor. Indoor aldehyde (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propioaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and hexaldehyde) levels were significantly higher than outdoor levels. Indoor formaldehyde geometric mean concentrations in private reading rooms (119.3 μg m-3) were significantly higher than in public libraries (29.2 μg m-3), children's libraries (29.3 μg m-3), and public reading rooms (40.8 μg m-3). Indoor formaldehyde levels were associated with relative humidity. In private reading rooms, the emission rates from desks (255.5 ± 214.8 μg h-1) and walls (231.7 ± 192.3 μg h-1) were significantly higher than that from chairs (79.6 ± 88.5 μg h-1). Desks (31%) and walls (29%) were the major emission sources of formaldehyde in 14 facilities in which measurements exceeded the indoor standard of 100 μg m-3. The age of interior materials was a significant factor for indoor formaldehyde emission flux. Controlling the emission rates of desks and walls is recommended to improve formaldehyde concentrations in private reading rooms.

  11. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations in urban China: Preliminary study of some important influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaodan; Wei, Wenjuan; Weschler, Louise B; Salthammer, Tunga; Kan, Haidong; Bu, Zhongming; Zhang, Yinping

    2017-07-15

    The Huai River and Qingling Mountain divide (H-Q) divide China into north and south with respect to public policies for building construction and operation practises. China's building energy efficiency standard mandates that air exchange rates be 0.5h(-1) north of the H-Q divide and 1h(-1) south of the divide. China's heating policy allows space heating systems only north of the H-Q divide. Consequently, indoor temperature and humidity differ considerably between north and south. A theoretical model using indoor temperature, humidity, and air change rate was developed to predict indoor formaldehyde concentrations. Data for 39 cities were obtained from 42 studies. There was good agreement between the literature and modelling in a theoretical reference room. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) model was applied to estimate cancer risk from formaldehyde exposure indoors. The median indoor formaldehyde concentration for renovation ever from 2002 to 2015 in Chinese cities was 125μg/m(3), which is higher than the WHO threshold, 100μg/m(3). The median indoor formaldehyde concentrations in the north were higher than in the south (0.5 times higher for dwellings renovated within the past year and 0.2 times higher for renovation ever), driven by the much higher northern winter concentrations (40-1320%). The U.S.EPA model predicts that the lifetime formaldehyde related cancer risk for people living north of the H-Q divide is 1.2 times greater than for people living south. This can be partly explained by greater indoor exposure to formaldehyde for Chinese living north of the H-Q divide.

  12. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Kelly G; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m(3) and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an "Imminent Hazard" condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed.

  13. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Kelly G.; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D.; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M.; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m3 and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an “Imminent Hazard” condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed. PMID:23950637

  14. Indoor air quality assessment in the air traffic control tower of the Athens Airport, Greece.

    PubMed

    Helmis, Costas G; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D; Flocas, Helena A; Stathopoulou, Ourania I; Sgouros, George; Hatzaki, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort in the Athens Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) offices of Hellinicon building complex, which is mechanically ventilated, is presented. Measurements of PM(10), PM(2.5), TVOCs and CO(2) concentrations were performed during three experimental cycles, while the Thom Discomfort Index was calculated to describe the employees' feeling of discomfort. The aim of the first cycle was to identify the IAQ status, the second to investigate the effectiveness of certain measures taken, and the third to continuously monitor and control IAQ. During the first two cycles, daily spot measurements of TVOCs and CO(2) were performed at various indoor locations and at the respective outdoor air intake positions, in addition with mean 24-h spot measurements of indoor PM(10) and PM(2.5). Results revealed that pollution levels vary according to the occupancy and the kind of activity. Following that, an automated system (IMAS) was designed and employed to continuously monitor indoor and outdoor CO(2), TVOCs, temperature and relative humidity. The ultimate scope was to control the IAQ and offer acceptable comfort conditions to the employees, whose work is of special nature and extremely demanding. Intervention scenarios were formulated and applied to the system to improve indoor conditions, when and where necessary. Regarding the third cycle, 1-year measurements collected from the system to examine its effectiveness. While it was shown that discomfort may be attributed to co-existence of unsatisfactory thermal comfort conditions and IAQ, usually the sole predominant factor of discomfort feeling is thermal comfort.

  15. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution. Report for March 1988-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1990-04-01

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes, and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types.

  16. Improving Indoor Air Quality in St. Cloud Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forer, Mike; Haus, El

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the St. Cloud Area School District (Minnesota), using Tools for Schools provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, managed the improvement of their school building indoor air quality (IAQ). The district goals of the IAQ Management Committee and the policy elements used to maintain high classroom air quality are…

  17. Text Version of the Indoor Air Quality House Tour

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Get a quick glimpse of some of the most important ways to protect the air in your home by touring the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) House. Room-by-room, you'll learn about the key pollutants and how to address them.

  18. Microbial air contamination in indoor environment of a university library.

    PubMed

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Burkowska, Aleksandra; Wilk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the number of bacteria and mould fungi in the indoor and outdoor environment of Toruń University Library. The sampling sites were located in the rooms serving the functions typical of libraries (i.e. in the Main Reading Room, Current Periodicals Reading Room, Collections Conservation Laboratory, Old Prints Storeroom, in rooms serving other (non-library) functions (i.e. main hall, cafeteria, and toilet) as well as outside the library building. The analyses reveal that the concentrations of bacterial as well as fungal aerosols estimated with the use of the impaction method ranged between 10(1)-10(3) CFU·m(-3), which corresponds to the concentrations normally observed in areas of this kind. Evaluation of the hygienic condition of the studied areas was based on the criteria for microbiological cleanliness in interiors submitted by the European Commission in 1993. According to this classification, the air was considered to be heavily or moderately contaminated with bacteria, while the air contamination with mould fungi was described as low or moderate. The air in the Old Prints Storeroom was considered the least contaminated with microbial aerosol.

  19. Passive dosimeters for nitrogen dioxide in personal/indoor air sampling: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Morandi, Maria T.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor environments, including personal exposures, is a fundamental step for linking atmospheric nitrogen dioxide levels to potential health and ecological effects. The measurement has been conducted generally in two ways: active (pumped) sampling and passive (diffusive) sampling. Diffusion samplers, initially developed and used for workplace air monitoring, have been found to be useful and cost-effective alternatives to conventional pumped samplers for monitoring ambient, indoor and personal exposures at the lower concentrations found in environmental settings. Since the 1970s, passive samplers have been deployed for ambient air monitoring in urban and rural sites, and to determine personal and indoor exposure to NO2. This article reviews the development of NO2 passive samplers, the sampling characteristics of passive samplers currently available, and their application in ambient and indoor air monitoring and personal exposure studies. The limitations and advantages of the various passive sampler geometries (i.e., tube, badge, and radial type) are also discussed. This review provides researchers and risk assessors with practical information about NO2 passive samplers, especially useful when designing field sampling strategies for exposure and indoor/outdoor air sampling. PMID:18446185

  20. Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at schools in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Chang, M

    2000-07-01

    Five classrooms in Hong Kong (HK), air-conditioned or ceiling fans ventilated, were chosen for investigation of indoor and outdoor air quality. Parameters such as temperature, relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), respirable particulate matter (PM10), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total bacteria counts were monitored indoors and outdoors simultaneously. The average respirable particulate matter concentrations were higher than the HK Objective, and the maximum indoor PM10 level exceeded 1000 microg/m3. Indoor CO2 concentrations often exceeded 1000 microl/l in air-conditioning and ceiling fan classrooms, indicating inadequate ventilation. Maximum indoor CO2 level reached 5900 microl/l during class at the classroom with cooling tower ventilation. Increasing the rate of ventilation or implementation of breaks between classes is recommended to alleviate the high CO2 level. Other pollution parameters measured in this study complied with the standards. The two most important classroom air quality problems in Hong Kong were PM10 and CO2 levels.

  1. Field study of exhaust fans for mitigating indoor air quality problems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Szydlowski, R.F.; Turk, B.H.

    1986-09-01

    Residential ventilation in the United States housing stock is provided primarily by infiltration, the natural leakage of outdoor air into a building through cracks and holes in the building shell. Since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for control of indoor pollutant concentrations, low infiltration rates caused fluctuation in weather conditions may lead to high indoor pollutant concentrations. Supplemental mechanical ventilation can be used to eliminate these periods of low infiltration. This study examined effects of small continuously-operating exhaust fan on pollutant concentrations and energy use in residences.

  2. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  3. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective.

  4. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary performance: Investigating errors in exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hasabelnaby, N.A.; Ware, J.H.; Fuller, W.A.; Glesser, L.

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary function measurements on pre-adolescent children and indoor air pollution measurements in the homes of these children are used to illustrate estimation techniques for linear regression models containing independent variables measured with error. In the data set, replicate measures of indoor air pollutant concentrations provide one method of estimating measurement error variances. Surrogate information in the form of cigarettes smoked is also available for the pollutant of interest. Several estimation procedures are presented, and two estimators were combined, one based on surrogate information and one based on replication information, using generalized least squares.

  5. Humidification and perceived indoor air quality in the office environment.

    PubMed Central

    Reinikainen, L M; Aunela-Tapola, L; Jaakkola, J J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of humidification on the odour, acceptability, and stuffiness of indoor air. METHODS: In a six period cross over trial at the Pasila Office Center, Helsinki, the air of two wings of the building in turn were ventilated with air of 30%-40% humidity. A third wing served as a non-humidified control area. The quality of indoor air was assessed weekly by a panel containing 18 to 23 members. The intraindividual differences in the ratings for odour, stuffiness, and acceptability between humidified and non-humidified wings were used to assess the effect of humidification. The roles of sex, current smoking, and age as potential effect modifiers were assessed by comparing the mean intraindividual differences in ratings between the groups. RESULTS: Humidified air was found to be more odorous and stuffy (paired t test P = 0.0001) and less acceptable than the non-humidified air (McNemar's test P < 0.001). The differences in odour and stuffiness between humidified and non-humidified air were greater for women and for non-smokers, and greatest differences were in the youngest age group, and least in the oldest age group. The differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: An untrained panel of 20 members is able to differentiate a slight malodour and stuffiness in indoor air. The results suggest that steam air humidification decreases the perceived air quality. This effect is strongest in women and young subjects. PMID:9196454

  6. Bayesian Prediction of Mean Indoor Radon Concentrations for Minnesota Counties

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.N.; Nero, A.V.; Gelman, A.

    1995-08-01

    Past efforts to identify areas having higher than average indoor radon concentrations by examining the statistical relationship between local mean concentrations and physical parameters such as the soil radium concentration have been hampered by the noise in local means caused by the small number of homes monitored in some or most areas, In the present paper, indoor radon data from a survey in Minnesota are analyzed in such a way as to minimize the effect of finite sample size within counties, in order to determine the true county-to-county variation of indoor radon concentrations in the state and the extent to which this variation is explained by the variation in surficial radium concentration among counties, The analysis uses hierarchical modeling, in which some parameters of interest (such as county geometric mean (GM) radon concentrations) are assumed to be drawn from a single population, for which the distributional parameters are estimated from the data. Extensions of this technique, known as a random effects regression and mixed effects regression, are used to determine the relationship between predictive variables and indoor radon concentrations; the results are used to refine the predictions of each county's radon levels, resulting in a great decrease in uncertainty. The true county-to-county variation of GM radon levels is found to be substantially less than the county-to-county variation of the observed GMs, much of which is due to the small sample size in each county. The variation in the logarithm of surficial radium content is shown to explain approximately 80% of the variation of the logarithm of GM radon concentration among counties. The influences of housing and measurement factors, such as whether the monitored home has a basement and whether the measurement was made in a basement, are also discussed. This approach offers a self-consistent statistical method for predicting the mean values of indoor radon concentrations or other geographically

  7. Indoor Air Quality Management for Operations and Maintenance Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    about indoor air quality (IAQ). Items in the news-notably the outbreak of legionnaires disease in 1976-focused widespread public attention on the IAQ...humans can be transmitted by the air (Table 2). Legionnaires disease , a potentially fatal lung infection, has been associated with infiltration of...aerosols from exterior sources such as cooling towers. The most common means of spreading legionnaires disease involves air-cooling equipment that becomes

  8. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  9. COST ANALYSIS OF ACTIVATED CARBON VERSUS PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR REMOVING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cost comparison has been conducted of 1 m3/s indoor air cleaners using granular activated carbon (GAC) vs. photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) for treating a steady-state inlet volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration of 0.3 mg/m3. The commercial GAC unit was costed assuming t...

  10. SERDP and ESTCP Workshop on Vapor Intrusion into Indoor Air from Contaminated Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    mitigating radon and volatile organic compound (VOC) subsurface vapor intrusion. These projects have determined that vapor concentrations can be highly...Validation of More Cost-Effective Methods for Mitigating Radon and VOC Subsurface Vapor Intrusion to Indoor Air Todd McAlary Geosyntec 1045 Morning

  11. Emissions of indoor air pollutants from six user scenarios in a model room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höllbacher, Eva; Ters, Thomas; Rieder-Gradinger, Cornelia; Srebotnik, Ewald

    2017-02-01

    In this study six common user scenarios putatively influencing indoor air quality were performed in a model room constructed according to the specifications of the European Reference Room given in the new horizontal prestandard prEN 16516 to gain further information about the influence of user activities on indoor air quality. These scenarios included the use of cleaning agent, an electric air freshener, an ethanol fireplace and cosmetics as well as cigarette smoking and peeling of oranges. Four common indoor air pollutants were monitored: volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), carbonyl compounds and CO2. The development of all pollutants was determined during and after the test performance. For each measured pollutant, well-defined maximum values could be assigned to one or more of the individual user scenarios. The highest VOC concentration was measured during orange-peeling reaching a maximum value of 3547 μg m-3. Carbonyl compounds and PM were strongly elevated while cigarette smoking. Here, a maximum formaldehyde concentration of 76 μg m-3 and PM concentration of 378 μg m-3 were measured. CO2 was only slightly affected by most of the tests except the use of the ethanol fireplace where a maximum concentration of 1612 ppm was reached. Generally, the user scenarios resulted in a distinct increase of several indoor pollutants that usually decreased rapidly after the removal of the source.

  12. Links Related to the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  13. Bibliography for the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  14. MANAGING EXPOSURE TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the factors to be considered in managing indoor air pollutants in residential and office environments to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment a...

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in indoor and outdoor air in an eight-home study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Jane C.; Mack, Gregory A.; Kuhlman, Michael R.; Wilson, Nancy K.

    A pilot field study was performed in Columbus, OH, during the winter of 1986/1987. The objectives were to determine the feasibility of the use of a newly developed quiet sampler in indoor air sampling for particles and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) and to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in air in selected residences. Eight homes were chosen for sampling on the basis of these characteristics: electric/gas heating system, electric/gas cooking appliances, and the absence/presence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The indoor sampler was equipped with a quartz-fiber filter to collect particles followed by XAD-4 resin to trap SVOC. A PS-1 sampler with a similar sampling module was used outdoors. The indoor air was sampled in the kitchen and living room areas over two consecutive 8-h periods. The outdoor air was sampled concurrently with the indoor samples over a 16-h period. Fifteen PAH, five nitro-PAH, five oxygenated PAH, and three nitrogen heterocyclic compounds were determined in these samples. The most abundant PAH found indoors was naphthalene. The indoor concentrations of PAH derivatives were lower than those of their parent compounds. Average concentrations of all but three target compounds (naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, pyrene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and 2-nitrofluoranthene) were higher indoors than outdoors. Environmental tobacco smoke was the most significant influence on indoor pollutant levels. Homes with gas heating systems had higher indoor pollutant levels than homes with electric heating systems. However, the true effects of heating and cooking systems were not characterized as accurately as the effects of ETS because of the small sample sizes and the lack of statistical significance for most pollutant differences in the absence of ETS. The concentrations of PAH marker compounds (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) correlated well with the concentrations

  16. Indoor air quality at Salarjung Museum, Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M K; Suneela, M; Sumathi, M; Reddy, R C

    2005-06-01

    Deterioration of art objects at Salarjung Museum has been noticed such as blackening of white and pink pigments of Indian miniature paintings and other objects like pigments, paints, varnishes, coatings, silver ware, zari works, textiles, which are displayed in museum galleries. The cause of deterioration of the artifacts is attributed to air pollution. The outdoor air pollution levels with respect to suspended particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, aldehydes and oxidants are observed to be high when compared with background environment and ambient air quality standards for sensitive areas. The indoor air quality levels in terms of various parameters including temperature and relative humidity (RH) observed to be more than the threshold limits. The climatic conditions coupled with polluted indoor air are the main causes for the deterioration of art objects. Hence remedial measures are suggested to avoid further deterioration of objects.

  17. Indoor air quality in a restaurant kitchen using margarine for deep-frying.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Sait C; Toprak, Melis; Inal, Fikret; Cimrin, Arif H

    2015-10-01

    Indoor air quality has a great impact on human health. Cooking, in particular frying, is one of the most important sources of indoor air pollution. Indoor air CO, CO2, particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, including aldehydes, were measured in the kitchen of a small establishment where a special deep-frying margarine was used. The objective was to assess occupational exposure concentrations for cooks of such restaurants. While individual VOC and PM2.5 concentrations were measured before, during, and after frying events using active sampling, TVOC, PM10, CO, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity were continuously monitored through the whole period. VOC and aldehyde concentrations did not increase to considerable levels with deep-frying compared to the background and public indoor environment levels, whereas PM10 increased significantly (1.85 to 6.6 folds). The average PM2.5 concentration of the whole period ranged between 76 and 249 μg/m(3). Hence, considerable PM exposures could occur during deep-frying with the special margarine, which might be sufficiently high to cause health effects on cooks considering their chronic occupational exposures.

  18. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  19. Hazardous indoor CO2 concentrations in volcanic environments.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, Fátima; Gaspar, João L; Ferreira, Teresa; Silva, Catarina

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the main soil gases released silently and permanently in diffuse degassing areas, both in volcanic and non-volcanic zones. In the volcanic islands of the Azores (Portugal) several villages are located over diffuse degassing areas. Lethal indoor CO2 concentrations (higher than 10 vol %) were measured in a shelter located at Furnas village, inside the caldera of the quiescent Furnas Volcano (S. Miguel Island). Hazardous CO2 concentrations were detected not only underground, but also at the ground floor level. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to the CO2 and environmental time series recorded between April 2008 and March 2010 at Furnas village. The results show that about 30% of the indoor CO2 variation is explained by environmental variables, namely barometric pressure, soil water content and wind speed. The highest indoor CO2 concentrations were recorded during bad weather conditions, characterized by low barometric pressure together with rainfall periods and high wind speed. In addition to the spike-like changes observed on the CO2 time series, long-term oscillations were also identified and appeared to represent seasonal variations. In fact, indoor CO2 concentrations were higher during winter period when compared to the dry summer months. Considering the permanent emission of CO2 in various volcanic regions of the world, CO2 hazard maps are crucial and need to be accounted by the land-use planners and authorities.

  20. Assessment of ventilation and indoor air pollutants in nursery and elementary schools in France.

    PubMed

    Canha, N; Mandin, C; Ramalho, O; Wyart, G; Ribéron, J; Dassonville, C; Hänninen, O; Almeida, S M; Derbez, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and ventilation in French classrooms. Various parameters were measured over one school week, including volatile organic compounds, aldehydes, particulate matter (PM2.5 mass concentration and number concentration), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), air temperature, and relative humidity in 51 classrooms at 17 schools. The ventilation was characterized by several indicators, such as the air exchange rate, ventilation rate (VR), and air stuffiness index (ICONE), that are linked to indoor CO2 concentration. The influences of the season (heating or non-heating), type of school (nursery or elementary), and ventilation on the IAQ were studied. Based on the minimum value of 4.2 l/s per person required by the French legislation for mechanically ventilated classrooms, 91% of the classrooms had insufficient ventilation. The VR was significantly higher in mechanically ventilated classrooms compared with naturally ventilated rooms. The correlations between IAQ and ventilation vary according to the location of the primary source of each pollutant (outdoor vs. indoor), and for an indoor source, whether it is associated with occupant activity or continuous emission.

  1. Houseplants, Indoor Air Pollutants, and Allergic Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology of using houseplant leaves for reducing volatile organics inside closed facilities has been demonstrated with formaldehyde and benzene. Philodendrons are among the most effective plants tested to date. Philodendron domesticum had demonstrated the ability to remove formaldehyde from small experimental chambers at a rate of 4.31 micro-g/sq cm leaf surface area with initial starting concentrations of 22 ppm. At initial starting concentrations of 2.3 ppm a formaldehyde removal rate of 0.57 micro-g/sq cm was achieved during a 24 hour test. Aleo vera demonstrated a much higher formaldehyde efficiency removal rate than Philodendron domesticum at low formaldehyde concentrations. During a 24 hour exposure period 5 ppm of formaldehyde were reduced to 0.5 ppm demonstrating a removal efficiency rate of 3.27 micro-g/sq cm. Removal efficiency rates can be expected to decrease with concentration levels because fewer molecules of chemicals come in contact with the leaf surface area. Several centimeters of small washed gravel should be used to cover the surface of pot plants when large numbers of plants are kept in the home. The reason for this is to reduce the exposed area of damp potting soil which encourages the growth of molds (fungi). The leaves of Philodendron domesticum and golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) have also demonstrated their ability to remove benzene and carbon monoxide from closed chambers. A combination of activated carbon and plant roots have demonstrated the greatest potential for removing large volumes of volatile organics along with smoke and possible radon from closed systems. Although fewer plants are required for this concept a mechanical blower motor must be used to pull or push the air through the carbon-root filter. NASA studies on motor sizes and bioregeneration rates should be completed by 1988.

  2. Gaseous chemical compounds in indoor and outdoor air of 602 houses throughout Japan in winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Tomizawa, Takuya; Tokoro, Asumo; Aoki, Manami; Hishiki, Mayu; Yamada, Tomomi; Tanaka, Reiko; Sakamoto, Hironari; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    A nationwide survey of indoor air quality in Japan was conducted using four types of diffusive samplers. Gaseous chemical compounds such as carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOC), acid gases, basic gases, and ozone were measured in indoor and outdoor air of 602 houses throughout Japan in winter and summer. Four kinds of diffusive samplers were used in this study: DSD-BPE/DNPH packed with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine and trans-1,2-bis(2-pyridyl)ethylene coated silica for ozone and carbonyls; VOC-SD packed with Carboxen 564 particles for volatile organic compounds; DSD-TEA packed with triethanolamine impregnated silica for acid gases; and DSD-NH3 packed with phosphoric acid impregnated silica for basic gases. These samplers are small and lightweight and do not require a power source, hence, it was possible to obtain a large number of air samples via mail from throughout Japan. Almost all compounds in indoor air were present at higher levels in summer than in winter. In particular, formaldehyde, toluene, and ammonia were strongly dependent on temperature, and their levels increased with temperature. The nitrogen dioxide concentration in indoor air particularly increased only during winter and was well correlated with the formic acid concentration (correlation coefficient=0.959). Ozone concentrations in indoor air were extremely low compared with the outdoor concentrations. Ozone flowing from outdoor air may be decomposed quickly by chemical compounds in indoor air; therefore, it is suggested that the indoor/outdoor ratio of ozone represents the ventilation of the indoor environment.

  3. Seasonal evaluation of outdoor/indoor air quality in primary schools in Lisbon.

    PubMed

    Pegas, P N; Alves, C A; Evtyugina, M G; Nunes, T; Cerqueira, M; Franchi, M; Pio, C A; Almeida, S M; Verde, S Cabo; Freitas, M C

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the indoor (I) and outdoor (O) levels of NO₂, speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls at fourteen primary schools in Lisbon (Portugal) during spring, autumn and winter. Three of these schools were also selected to be monitored for comfort parameters, such as temperature and relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), total VOCs, and both bacterial and fungal colony-forming units per cubic metre. The concentration of CO₂ and bioaerosols greatly exceeded the acceptable maximum values of 1800 mg m⁻³ and 500 CFU m⁻³, respectively, in all seasons. Most of the assessed VOCs and carbonyls occurred at I/O ratios above unity in all seasons, thus showing the importance of indoor sources and building conditions in indoor air quality. However, it has been observed that higher indoor VOC concentrations occurred more often in the colder months, while carbonyl concentrations were higher in the warm months. In general, the I/O NO₂ ratios ranged between 0.35 and 1, never exceeding the unity. Some actions are suggested to improve the indoor air quality in Lisbon primary schools.

  4. US EPA Base Study Standard Operating Procedure for Sampling and Characterization of Viable and Non-Viable Bioaerosols in Indoor Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of the procedure is to collect a representative sample concentration of total airborne fungal spores (viable and non-viable) that may be present in indoor air and in the outdoor air supplied to the space tested.

  5. Control of respirable particles in indoor air with portable air cleaners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offermann, F. J.; Sextro, R. G.; Fisk, W. J.; Grimsrud, D. T.; Nazaroff, W. W.; Nero, A. V.; Revzan, K. L.; Yater, J.

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 μm and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h -1. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was most efficient air cleaner studied.

  6. Control of Respirable Particles in Indoor Air with Portable AirCleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-10-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h{sup -1}. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner studied.

  7. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and health in homes undergoing weatherization.

    PubMed

    Francisco, P W; Jacobs, D E; Targos, L; Dixon, S L; Breysse, J; Rose, W; Cali, S

    2017-03-01

    Ventilation standards, health, and indoor air quality have not been adequately examined for residential weatherization. This randomized trial showed how ASHRAE 62-1989 (n=39 houses) and ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (n=42 houses) influenced ventilation rates, moisture balance, indoor air quality, and self-reported physical and mental health outcomes. Average total airflow was nearly twice as high for ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (79 vs. 39 cfm). Volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and carbon dioxide were all significantly reduced for the newer standard and first-floor radon was marginally lower, but for the older standard, only formaldehyde significantly decreased. Humidity in the ASHRAE 62.2-2010 group was only about half that of the ASHRAE 62-1989 group using the moisture balance metric. Radon was higher in the basement but lower on the first floor for ASHRAE 62.2-2010. Children in each group had fewer headaches, eczema, and skin allergies after weatherization and adults had improvements in psychological distress. Indoor air quality and health improve when weatherization is accompanied by an ASHRAE residential ventilation standard, and the 2010 ASHRAE standard has greater improvements in certain outcomes compared to the 1989 standard. Weatherization, home repair, and energy conservation projects should use the newer ASHRAE standard to improve indoor air quality and health.

  8. School Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prill, R.; Blake, D.; Hales, D.

    This paper describes the effectiveness of a three-step indoor air quality (IAQ) program implemented by 156 schools in the states of Washington and Idaho during the 2000-2001 school year. An experienced IAQ/building science specialist conducted walk-through assessments at each school. These assessments documented deficiencies and served as an…

  9. Impact of Florida's Clean Indoor Air Act on Student Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Steven B.; Daly, Janice; Lee, Dae Taek

    1997-01-01

    Surveys college students to determine the impact of the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act on student life. Results show that smoking regulations were well supported by the majority of students, represented an inconvenience to smokers rather than a deterrent to smoking and that such restrictions are unlikely to lead to conflict among students. (MKA)

  10. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Allergenic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yongjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, SPH,...

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a complete classification of all materials used in the construction of, or brought inside, homes and office buildings. n the classification tables Presented in the report, shaded entries are potential Sources of indoor air emissions. he classification system is b...

  12. Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution in Homes with Infants

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Anna Ruth; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Infants spend most of their indoor time at home; however, residential air quality is poorly understood. We investigated the air quality of infants’ homes in the New England area of the U.S. Participants (N = 53) were parents of infants (0–6 months) who completed telephone surveys to identify potential pollutant sources in their residence. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were measured in 10 homes over 4–7 days, and levels were compared with health-based guidelines. Pollutant levels varied substantially across homes and within homes with overall levels for some homes up to 20 times higher than for other homes. Average levels were 0.85 ppm, 663.2 ppm, 18.7 µg/m3, and 1626 µg/m3 for CO, CO2, PM0.5, and TVOCs, respectively. CO2, TVOCs, and PM0.5 levels exceeded health-based indoor air quality guidelines. Survey results suggest that nursery renovations and related potential pollutant sources may be associated with differences in urbanicity, income, and presence of older children with respiratory ailments, which could potentially confound health studies. While there are no standards for indoor residential air quality, our findings suggest that additional research is needed to assess indoor pollution exposure for infants, which may be a vulnerable population. PMID:22408586

  13. ASSESSING THE ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the Allergic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yonjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, S...

  14. School Indoor Air Quality Best Management Practices Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard; Ellis, Richard; Hardin, Tim

    This manual, written in response to requirements of the Washington State legislature, focuses on practices which can be undertaken during the siting, design, construction, or renovation of a school, recommends practices to help ensure good indoor air quality during building occupancy, and suggests protocols and useful reference documents for…

  15. Indoor air quality standards of performance applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, R.J.; Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of standards of performance (SOPs) for HVAC and R equipment, plumbing systems, and building envelope systems in relation to maintaining acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) in buildings. The utilization of the SOP procedure, developed in ASHRAE Research Project 853, will aid in the proper operation of systems and verify that acceptable building IAQ levels are obtained.

  16. Science Laboratories and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Some of the issues surrounding the indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by science labs are discussed. Described are possible contaminants in labs, such as chemicals and biological organisms, and ways to lessen accidents arising from these sources are suggested. Some of the factors contributing to comfort, such as temperature levels, are…

  17. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Action Kit. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This kit contains materials to assist a school indoor air quality (IAQ) coordinator in conducting a school IAQ program. The kit contains the following: IAQ coordinator's guide; IAQ coordinator forms; IAQ backgrounder; teacher's classroom checklist; administrative staff checklist; health officer/school nurse checklist; ventilation checklist and…

  18. Interior Painting and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Ways in which school facility planners, managers, and others can guard against the potential indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by paint are covered in this bulletin. It opens with an overview of paint formulations and the functional quality of different paints, paying special attention to the volatile organic compounds present in some…

  19. Carpet and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    Ways in which carpeting can affect a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) are discussed. Carpeting is defined as a system of components that includes pads, adhesives, floor preparation compounds, and seam sealers. For the last several years, these products have been increasingly scrutinized as to how they affect IAQ. Carpeting gives off volatile…

  20. Indoor climate and air quality . Review of current and future topics in the field of ISB study group 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppe, P.; Martinac, Ivo

    In industrialized countries about 90% of the time is spent indoors. The ambient parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature and humidity, air velocity, and radiant heat exchange within an enclosure. In assessing the thermal environment, one needs to consider all ambient parameters, the insulating properties of the occupants' clothing, and the activity level of the occupants by means of heat balance models of the human body. Apart from thermal parameters, air quality (measured and perceived) is also of importance for well-being and health in indoor environments. Pollutant levels are influenced by both outdoor concentrations and by indoor emissions. Indoor levels can thus be lower (e.g. in the case of ozone and SO2) or higher (e.g. for CO2 and formaldehyde) than outdoor levels. Emissions from cooking play an important role, especially in developing countries. The humidity of the ambient air has a wide range of effects on the energy and water balance of the body as well as on elasticity, air quality perception, build-up of electrostatic charge and the formation or mould. However, its effect on the indoor climate is often overestimated. While air-handling systems are commonly used for achieving comfortable indoor climates, their use has also been linked to a variety of problems, some of which have received attention within the context of ''sick building syndrome''.

  1. Bayesian Prediction of Mean Indoor Radon Concentrations for Minnesota Counties

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.N.; Nero, A.V.; Gelman, A.

    1996-02-01

    Past efforts to identify areas with higher than average indoor radon concentrations by examining the statistical relationship between local mean concentrations and physical parameters such as the soil radium concentration have been hampered by the variation in local means caused by the small number of homes monitored in most areas. In this paper, indoor radon data from a survey in Minnesota are analyzed to minimize the effect of finite sample size within counties, to determine the true county-to-county variation of indoor radon concentrations in the state, and to find the extent to which this variation is explained by the variation in surficial radium concentration among counties. The analysis uses hierarchical modeling, in which some parameters of interest (such as county geometric mean (GM) radon concentrations) are assumed to be drawn from a single population, for which the distributional parameters are estimated from the data. Extensions of this technique, known as a random effects regression and mixed effects regression, are used to determine the relationship between predictive variables and indoor radon concentrations; the results are used to refine the predictions of each county's radon levels, resulting in a great decrease in uncertainty. The true county-to-county variation of GM radon levels is found to be substantially less than the county-to-county variation of the observed GMs, much of which is due to the small sample size in each county. The variation in the logarithm of surficial radium content is shown to explain approximately 80% of the variation of the logarithm of GM radon concentration among counties. The influences of housing and measurement factors, such as whether the monitored home has a basement and whether the measurement was made in a basement, are also discussed. The statistical method can be used to predict mean radon concentrations, or applied to other geographically distributed environmental parameters.

  2. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Uibel, Stefanie; Groneberg, David A

    2011-12-16

    The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources.Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.

  3. Indoor airPLUS constructores profesionales

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El Programa Interior de airPLUS es una asociación entre EPA, los constructores, raters, las utilidades, y organizaciones sanitarias e interiores ambientales de mejorar aire interior en nuevas casas casas verdes.

  4. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  5. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  7. Exposure to Air Ions in Indoor Environments: Experimental Study with Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Panny, Michael; Tappler, Peter; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been a scientific debate about the potential effects of air ions on biological tissues, wellbeing and health. Effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system as well as on mental health have been described. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this topic. In an experimental indoor setting we conducted a double-blind cross-over trial to determine if higher levels of air ions, generated by a special wall paint, affect cognitive performance, wellbeing, lung function, and cardiovascular function. Twenty healthy non-smoking volunteers (10 female, 10 male) participated in the study. Levels of air ions, volatile organic compounds and indoor climate factors were determined by standardized measurement procedures. Air ions affected the autonomous nervous system (in terms of an increase of sympathetic activity accompanied by a small decrease of vagal efferent activity): In the test room with higher levels of air ions (2194/cm3 vs. 1038/cm3) a significantly higher low to high frequency ratio of the electrocardiography (ECG) beat-to-beat interval spectrogram was found. Furthermore, six of nine subtests of a cognitive performance test were solved better, three of them statistically significant (verbal factor, reasoning, and perceptual speed), in the room with higher ion concentration. There was no influence of air ions on lung function and on wellbeing. Our results indicate slightly activating and cognitive performance enhancing effects of a short-term exposure to higher indoor air ion concentrations. PMID:26569277

  8. Exposure to Air Ions in Indoor Environments: Experimental Study with Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Panny, Michael; Tappler, Peter; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-10

    Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been a scientific debate about the potential effects of air ions on biological tissues, wellbeing and health. Effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system as well as on mental health have been described. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this topic. In an experimental indoor setting we conducted a double-blind cross-over trial to determine if higher levels of air ions, generated by a special wall paint, affect cognitive performance, wellbeing, lung function, and cardiovascular function. Twenty healthy non-smoking volunteers (10 female, 10 male) participated in the study. Levels of air ions, volatile organic compounds and indoor climate factors were determined by standardized measurement procedures. Air ions affected the autonomous nervous system (in terms of an increase of sympathetic activity accompanied by a small decrease of vagal efferent activity): In the test room with higher levels of air ions (2194/cm³ vs. 1038/cm³) a significantly higher low to high frequency ratio of the electrocardiography (ECG) beat-to-beat interval spectrogram was found. Furthermore, six of nine subtests of a cognitive performance test were solved better, three of them statistically significant (verbal factor, reasoning, and perceptual speed), in the room with higher ion concentration. There was no influence of air ions on lung function and on wellbeing. Our results indicate slightly activating and cognitive performance enhancing effects of a short-term exposure to higher indoor air ion concentrations.

  9. Indoor air condensate as a novel matrix for monitoring inhalable organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Roll, Isaac B; Halden, Rolf U; Pycke, Benny F G

    2015-05-15

    With the population of developed nations spending nearly 90% of their time indoors, indoor air quality (IAQ) is a critical indicator of human health risks from inhalation of airborne contaminants. We present a novel approach for qualitative monitoring of IAQ through the collection and analysis of indoor air condensate discharged from heat exchangers of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Condensate samples were collected from six suburban homes and one business in Maricopa County, Arizona, concentrated via solid-phase extraction, analyzed for 10 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and screened for additional organic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 10 EDCs were detected in at least one of the sampled buildings. More than 100 additional compounds were detected by GC-MS, of which 40 were tentatively identified using spectral database searches. Twelve compounds listed as designated chemicals for biomonitoring by the California Environmental Contaminant Biomonitoring Program were detected. Microfiltration of condensate samples prior to extraction had no discernable effect on contaminant concentration, suggesting that contaminants were freely dissolved or associated with inhalable, submicron particles. This study is the first to document the utility of HVAC condensate for the qualitative assessment of indoor air for pollutants.

  10. Characteristics of indoor air pollution in rural mountainous and rural coastal communities in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huboyo, Haryono S.; Tohno, Susumu; Lestari, Puji; Mizohata, Akira; Okumura, Motonori

    2014-01-01

    The increased use of biomass fuel use among rural Indonesian households for years despite national program on subsidized LPG fuel distribution pose threat of indoor air pollution for the householders. Indoor air pollution levels of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchen of 40 households using the fuelwood as the main cooking fuel were measured in the same season in mountainous and coastal areas in Indonesia. The temporal variations of PM2.5 and its size distributions were simultaneously measured using photoelectric UCB monitor and personal cascade impactor, respectively. While carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured using USB-CO monitors. Household indoor air pollution in the mountainous area was generally higher than that in the coastal area. This is because the households in coastal area have higher kitchen volume (about three times), smaller ventilation area (about 1.7 times) and shorter cooking duration with wood fuel (0.6 times) than those in mountainous area. Yet, during cooking with fuelwood, the indoor PM2.5 concentrations at the cook site showed almost comparable results for both sites. The wood stove burning in coastal area tended to be in flaming combustion than in mountainous area. This can be indicated by a higher fraction of finest particles in PM2.5, a higher fraction of EC in PM2.5 and a higher fraction of K+ and Cl- ions in PM2.5 mass concentrations. The time-averaged CO concentrations for 22-h measurements at the mountainous area were higher than those in coastal area. The mountainous area showed higher positive correlation relationship between the measured concentrations of CO and PM2.5 than those in the coastal area. The use of cleaner fuel, e.g., subsidized LPG fuel in rural area should be promoted and managed intensively in mountainous area than in coastal area to avoid people exposure of health damaging indoor air pollutants.

  11. Determinants of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in indoor ice skating rinks.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J I; Lee, K; Yanagisawa, Y; Hutchinson, P; Spengler, J D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The combination of poor ventilation and fuel-powered ice resurfacers has resulted in elevated nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in many indoor ice skating rinks. This study examined the factors influencing concentrations and the effects of various engineering controls in ice rinks with different resurfacer fuels. METHODS: Indoor NO2 concentrations were measured in 19 enclosed ice skating rinks over 3 winters by means of passive samplers, with 1-week average measurements during the first winter pilot study and single-day working-hour measurements in the final 2 winters. Personal exposures to drivers also were assessed during the last winter. RESULTS: Rinks in which propane-fueled resurfacers were used had a daily mean indoor NO2 concentration of 206 ppb, compared with 132 ppb for gasoline-fueled and 37 ppb for electric-powered resurfacers. Engineering controls, such as increased ventilation and resurfacer tuning, reduced NO2 concentrations by 65% on average, but outcomes varied widely, and concentrations increased in subsequent months. CONCLUSIONS: Electric ice resurfacers, increased ventilation, or emission control systems are recommended to protect the health of workers and patrons, with surveillance programs proposed to track implementation and maintain an observer effect. PMID:9842374

  12. The lasting effect of limonene-induced particle formation on air quality in a genuine indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Rösch, Carolin; Wissenbach, Dirk K; von Bergen, Martin; Franck, Ulrich; Wendisch, Manfred; Schlink, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric ozone-terpene reactions, which form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, can affect indoor air quality when outdoor air mixes with indoor air during ventilation. This study, conducted in Leipzig, Germany, focused on limonene-induced particle formation in a genuine indoor environment (24 m(3)). Particle number, limonene and ozone concentrations were monitored during the whole experimental period. After manual ventilation for 30 min, during which indoor ozone levels reached up to 22.7 ppb, limonene was introduced into the room at concentrations of approximately 180 to 250 μg m(-3). We observed strong particle formation and growth within a diameter range of 9 to 50 nm under real-room conditions. Larger particles with diameters above 100 nm were less affected by limonene introduction. The total particle number concentrations (TPNCs) after limonene introduction clearly exceed outdoor values by a factor of 4.5 to 41 reaching maximum concentrations of up to 267,000 particles cm(-3). The formation strength was influenced by background particles, which attenuated the formation of new SOA with increasing concentration, and by ozone levels, an increase of which by 10 ppb will result in a six times higher TPNC. This study emphasizes indoor environments to be preferred locations for particle formation and growth after ventilation events. As a consequence, SOA formation can produce significantly higher amounts of particles than transported by ventilation into the indoor air.

  13. Formaldehyde emission behavior of building materials: on-site measurements and modeling approach to predict indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Delphine; Mocho, Pierre; Desauziers, Valérie; Plaisance, Hervé

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate formaldehyde emission behavior of building materials from on-site measurements of air phase concentration at material surface used as input data of a box model to estimate the indoor air pollution of a newly built classroom. The relevance of this approach was explored using CFD modeling. In this box model, the contribution of building materials to indoor air pollution was estimated with two parameters: the convective mass transfer coefficient in the material/air boundary layer and the on-site measurements of gas phase concentration at material surfaces. An experimental method based on an emission test chamber was developed to quantify this convective mass transfer coefficient. The on-site measurement of gas phase concentration at material surface was measured by coupling a home-made sampler to SPME. First results had shown an accurate estimation of indoor formaldehyde concentration in this classroom by using a simple box model.

  14. Sustainable Design of EPA's Campus in Research Triangle Park, NC—Environmental Performance Specifications in Construction Contracts—Section 01445 Testing for Indoor Air Quality, Baseline IAQ, and Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    More information on testing for maximum indoor pollutant concentrations for acceptance of the facility, as well as requirements for Independent Materials Testing of specific materials anticipated to have major impact on indoor air quality.

  15. Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    U.S. House of Representative members requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes…

  16. Modeling the effect of outdoor particle concentrations on indoor concentrations in a heated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pandian, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Exposure to suspended particulate mater in the home or workplace can produce adverse human health effects. Sources of suspended particulate matter include cigarette smoke, consumer spray products, and dust from cement manufacture, metal processing, and coal-fired power generation. The particle concentrations in these indoor environments can be determined from experimental studies or modeling techniques. Many experimental studies have been conducted to determine the mass concentration of total suspended particulate matter, usually expressed in {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and the elemental composition of particulate matter in these environments. However, there is not much reported data on particle size distributions in indoor environments. One of the early indoor modeling efforts was undertaken by Shair and Heitner, who conducted a theoretical analysis for relating indoor pollutant concentrations to those outdoors. The author describes the theoretical analysis and compared it to results obtained from experiments on conditioned cigarette smoke particle concentrations in a room at 20{degrees}C and 60 {percent}.

  17. Factors affecting indoor radon concentrations in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gunby, J A; Darby, S C; Miles, J C; Green, B M; Cox, D R

    1993-01-01

    Data collected in a nationwide study on natural radiation exposure in UK dwellings (Wrixon et al. 1988) were re-analyzed to investigate the effects of rock type and various building and lifestyle characteristics, taken into account simultaneously, on indoor radon concentrations. A multiplicative model which takes into consideration the outdoor radon concentration is used. Indoor radon concentrations were found to be influenced by type of rock underlying the dwelling, double glazing, house type, floor level of rooms in which measurements were taken, window opening habits in the main bedroom, building materials used in the construction of the walls, floor type, and draught proofing. However, these eight factors together account for only 22% of the variation between dwellings. Estimates of the size of the effect associated with each factor are given.

  18. Estimation of annual effective dose from indoor radon/thoron concentrations and measurement of radon concentrations in soil.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rohit; Bala, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Radon short-lived decay products generated from the earth is one of the serious indoor air and soil pollutants. The RAD-7 Electronic Radon Detector with a special accessory is used for the purpose of measurement. The radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of the study area are found to vary from 35±0.5 to 315.2±5.35 Bq m(-3) and 66.1±2.3 to 1710±139.36 Bq m(-3) with the average values of 98.65±1.9 and 388.19±11 Bq m(-3), respectively. From indoor air, the total annual effective dose is calculated and it varies from 0.88 to 7.94 mSv y(-1). The preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than the radon concentration in the houses of the study area. In general, the values of the indoor air are within the recommended action level of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, 2009.

  19. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr-1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 μg/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 μg/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  20. House-plant placement for indoor air purification and health benefits on asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Young; Park, Jung-Won; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Lim, Byung-Seo; Lee, Geon-Woo; Lee, Si-Eun; Shin, Dong-Chun; Lim, Young-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Some plants were placed in indoor locations frequented by asthmatics in order to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits to asthmatics. Methods The present study classified the participants into two groups: households of continuation and households of withdrawal by a quasi-experimental design. The households of continuation spent the two observation terms with indoor plants, whereas the households of withdrawal passed the former observation terms with indoor plants and went through the latter observation term without any indoor plants. Results The household of continuation showed a continual decrease in the indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the entire observation period, but the household of withdrawal performed an increase in the indoor concentrations of VOCs, except formaldehyde and toluene during the latter observation term after the decrease during the former observation term. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) increased in the households of continuation with the value of 13.9 L/min in the morning and 20.6 L/ min in the evening, but decreased in the households of withdrawal with the value of -24.7 L/min in the morning and -30.2 L/min in the evening in the first experimental season. All of the households exhibited a decrease in the value of PEFR in the second experimental season. Conclusions Limitations to the generalizability of findings regarding the presence of plants indoors can be seen as a more general expression of such a benefit of human-environment relations. PMID:25384387

  1. Effects of energy-efficient ventilation rates on indoor air quality at an Ohio elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, J. V.; Young, R.; Hollowell, C. D.; Turiel, I.; Pepper, J.

    1980-04-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to monitor air outdoors and at three indoor sites (two classrooms and a large multipurpose room); tests were made at three different ventilation rates. The parameters measured were outside air flow rates, odor perception, microbial burden, particulate mass, total aldehydes, carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen oxides. The results of these measurements are given and compared with the existing outdoor air quality standards. Carbon dioxide concentrations increased as the ventilation rate decreased, but still did not exceed current standards. Odor perceptibility increased slightly at the lowest ventilation rate. Other pollutants showed very low concentrations, which did not change with reductions in ventilation rate.

  2. Concrete blocks` adverse effects on indoor air and recommended solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppersberger, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    Air infiltration through highly permeable concrete blocks can allow entry of various serious indoor air pollutants including radon. An easy approach to avoiding these pollutants is to select a less-air-permeable concrete block. Tests show that air permeability of concrete blocks can vary by a factor greater than 50 (0.63--35 standard L/min/m{sup 2} at 3 Pa). The surface texture of the blocks correlates well with air permeability; test results of smoother, closed-surface-texture blocks were usually less air-permeable. During construction, air infiltration can be minimized by capping walls and carefully sealing around openings for utilities or other penetrations. Structures with indoor air-quality problems due to soil-gas entry can be mitigated more effectively with less coating material if the blocks have a closed surface texture. All coatings evaluated--cementaceous block filler (which has the lowest applied cost and is more than 99.5% effective), surface bonding cement, water-based epoxy, polysulfide vinyl acrylic, and latex (three coats)--were highly effective (more than 98%) in reducing air permeability when adequately applied. Coating selection should be influenced by expected service life, considering surface condition and cost.

  3. Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Syazwan, AI; Rafee, B Mohd; Hafizan, Juahir; Azman, AZF; Nizar, AM; Izwyn, Z; Muhaimin, AA; Yunos, MA Syafiq; Anita, AR; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, MS; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Azizan, HS; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J

    2012-01-01

    Background To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ) component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest a multidisciplinary, integrated IAQ checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants. This IAQ checklist proposed to support employers, workers, and assessors in understanding a wide range of important elements in the indoor air environment to promote awareness in nonindustrial workplaces. Methods The general structure of and specific items in the IAQ checklist were discussed in a focus group meeting with IAQ assessors based upon the result of a literature review, previous industrial code of practice, and previous interviews with company employers and workers. Results For practicality and validity, several sessions were held to elicit the opinions of company members, and, as a result, modifications were made. The newly developed IAQ checklist was finally formulated, consisting of seven core areas, nine technical areas, and 71 essential items. Each item was linked to a suitable section in the Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality published by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. Conclusion Combined usage of an IAQ checklist with the information from the Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality would provide easily comprehensible information and practical support. Intervention and evaluation studies using this newly developed IAQ checklist will clarify the effectiveness of a new approach in evaluating the risk of indoor air pollutants in the workplace. PMID:22570579

  4. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S.

    2010-07-07

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  5. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, H.; Twardella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Heitmann, D.; Schierl, R.; Liebl, B.; Rüden, H.

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between particle mass (PM) concentration in outside air and the occurrence of health related problems and/or diseases. However, much less is known about indoor PM concentrations and associated health risks. In particular, data are needed on air quality in schools, since children are assumed to be more vulnerable to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. On this background, we evaluated indoor air quality in 64 schools in the city of Munich and a neighbouring district outside the city boundary. In winter 2004-2005 in 92 classrooms, and in summer 2005 in 75 classrooms, data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and various dust particle fractions (PM 10, PM 2.5) were collected; for the latter both gravimetrical and continuous measurements by laser aerosol spectrometer (LAS) were implemented. In the summer period, the particle number concentration (PNC), was determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Additionally, data on room and building characteristics were collected by use of a standardized form. Only data collected during teaching hours were considered in analysis. For continuously measured parameters the daily median was used to describe the exposure level in a classroom. The median indoor CO 2 concentration in a classroom was 1603 ppm in winter and 405 ppm in summer. With LAS in winter, median PM concentrations of 19.8 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 91.5 μg m -3 (PM 10) were observed, in summer PM concentrations were significantly reduced (median PM 2.5=12.7 μg m -3, median PM 10=64.9 μg m -3). PM 2.5 concentrations determined by the gravimetric method were in general higher (median in winter: 36.7 μg m -3, median in summer: 20.2 μg m -3) but correlated strongly with the LAS-measured results. In explorative analysis, we identified a significant increase of LAS-measured PM 2.5 by 1.7 μg m -3 per increase

  6. Photocatalytic air purifiers for indoor air: European standard and pilot room experiments.

    PubMed

    Costarramone, N; Cantau, C; Desauziers, V; Pécheyran, C; Pigot, T; Lacombe, S

    2016-09-15

    At the European level (CEN/TC386), some efforts are currently devoted to new standards for comparing the efficiency of commercial photocatalytic material/devices in various application fields. Concerning prototype or commercial indoor photocatalytic air purifiers designed for volatile organic compounds (VOC) abatement, the methodology is based on a laboratory airtight chamber. The photocatalytic function is demonstrated by the mineralization of a mixture of five VOCs. Experimental data were obtained for four selected commercial devices and three commercial materials: drop of VOC concentration, but also identification of secondary species (with special attention to formaldehyde), mineralization rates, and Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR). With two efficient air purifiers, these laboratory experiments were compared to the results in two experimental rooms (35-40 m(3)) where air pollution was introduced through wooden floor and furniture. The systems' ageing was also studied. The safety of the commercial products was also assessed by the determination of nanoparticle release. Standardized tests are useful to rank photocatalytic air purifiers and passive materials and to discard inefficient ones. A good correlation between the standard experiments and the experimental room experiments was found, even if in the latter case, the concentration of lower weight VOCs drops less quickly than that of heavier VOCs.

  7. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  8. Indoor Air Pollution and Risk of Lung Cancer among Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lina; Liu, Li; Niu, Rungui; Zhao, Baoxing; Shi, Jianping; Li, Yanli; Scheider, William; Su, Jia; Chang, Shen-Chih; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate indoor particulate matter (PM) level and various indoor air pollution exposure, and to examine their relationships with risk of lung cancer in an urban Chinese population, with a focus on non-smoking women. Methods We conducted a case-control study in Taiyuan, China, consisting of 399 lung cancer cases and 466 controls, of which 164 cases and 218 controls were female non-smokers. Indoor PM concentrations, including PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10 and TSP, were measured using a particle mass monitor. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, education, annual income and smoking. Results Among non-smoking women, lung cancer was strongly associated with multiple sources of indoor air pollution 10 years ago, including heavy exposure to ETS at work (aOR=3.65), high frequency of cooking (aOR=3.30), and solid fuel usage for cooking (aOR=4.08) and heating (aORcoal stove=2.00). Housing characteristics related to poor ventilation, including single-story, less window area, no separate kitchen, no ventilator and rarely having windows open, are associated with lung cancer. Indoor medium PM2.5 concentration was 68ug/m3, and PM10 was 230ug/m3. PM levels in winter are strongly correlated with solid fuel usage for cooking, heating and ventilators. PM1 levels in cases are more than 3-time higher than that in controls. Every 10 ug/m3 increase in PM1 is associated with 45% increased risk of lung cancer. Conclusions Indoor air pollution plays an important role in the development of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. PMID:23314675

  9. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  10. Reconstruction of national distribution of indoor radon concentration in Russia using results of regional indoor radon measurement programs.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Malinovsky, G; Vasilyev, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is a reconstruction of the national distribution and estimation of the arithmetic average indoor radon concentration in Russia using the data of official annual 4-DOZ reports. Annual 4-DOZ reports summarize results of radiation measurements in 83 regions of Russian Federation. Information on more than 400,000 indoor radon measurements includes the average indoor radon isotopes equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) and number of measurements by regions and by three main types of houses: wooden, one-storey non-wooden, and multi-storey non-wooden houses. To reconstruct the national distribution, all-Russian model sample was generated by integration of sub-samples created using the results of each annual regional program of indoor radon measurements in each type of buildings. According to indoor radon concentration distribution reconstruction, all-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m(3). Average indoor radon concentration by region ranges from 12 to 207 Bq/m(3). The 95-th percentile of the distribution is reached at indoor radon concentration 160 Bq/m(3).

  11. Numerical Assessment of Indoor Air Exposure Risk from Subsurface NAPL Contamination under Hydrologic Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, A.; Yu, S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the risk of indoor air exposure to residual contaminants in the subsurface following the redevelopment of contaminated land redevelopment project is a central issue at many brownfield sites. In this study, we examine various mechanisms controlling vapor phase intrusion into the indoor air of a typical residential dwelling from a NAPL source located below the water table, and consequently assess the indoor air exposure risk under multiple hydrologic uncertainties. For this purpose, a multi-phase multi-component numerical model, CompFlow Bio is used to simulate the evolution of a TCE source zone and dissolved plume in a variably saturated heterogeneous aquifer, along with the transport of dissolved TCE upwards through the capillary fringe with subsequent migration of TCE vapors in the vadose zone subject to barometric pressure fluctuations. The TCE vapors then enter the basement of the residential dwelling through a crack in the foundation slab, driven by a slight vacuum within the basement relative to the ambient atmosphere as well as the barometric pressure fluctuations. Hydrologic uncertainties affecting the indoor air concentration of TCE include the vacuum in the basement, the aperture of the crack in the foundation slab, the heterogeneous permeability field, the thickness of the capillary fringe, barometric fluctuations, recharge rates and the location of the TCE source zone. CompFlow Bio is then used to determine the future concentration of TCE into the basement as a consequence of imperfect knowledge in the various hydrologic parameters, and to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative remedial and foundation design options to minimize the exposure risk to the indoor air conditional upon the available data collected at the site. The outcome of this approach is two-fold. First, the owner of the site can reasonably evaluate the future indoor air exposure risk following the redevelopment of a formerly contaminated site following remediation

  12. Assessment of the impact of oxidation processes on indoor air pollution using the new time-resolved INCA-Indoor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Maxence; Blond, Nadège; Blondeau, Patrice; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Hauglustaine, Didier A.

    2015-12-01

    INCA-Indoor, a new indoor air quality (IAQ) model, has been developed to simulate the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxidants considering indoor air specific processes such as: emission, ventilation, surface interactions (sorption, deposition, uptake). Based on the detailed version of SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism, INCA-Indoor is able to analyze the contribution of the production and loss pathways of key chemical species (VOCs, oxidants, radical species). The potential of this model has been tested through three complementary analyses: a comparison with the most detailed IAQ model found in the literature, focusing on oxidant species; realistic scenarios covering a large range of conditions, involving variable OH sources like HONO; and the investigation of alkenes ozonolysis under a large range of indoor conditions that can increase OH and HO2 concentrations. Simulations have been run changing nitrous acid (HONO) concentrations, NOx levels, photolysis rates and ventilation rates, showing that HONO can be the main source of indoor OH. Cleaning events using products containing D-limonene have been simulated at different periods of the day. These scenarios show that HOX concentrations can significantly increase in specific conditions. An assessment of the impact of indoor chemistry on the potential formation of secondary species such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) has been carried out under various room configuration scenarios and a study of the HOx budget for different realistic scenarios has been performed. It has been shown that, under the simulation conditions, formaldehyde can be affected by oxidant concentrations via chemical production which can account for more than 10% of the total production, representing 6.5 ppb/h. On the other hand, acetaldehyde production is affected more by oxidation processes. When the photolysis rates are high, chemical processes are responsible for about 50% of the total production of

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.25 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? 102-80.25 Section 102-80.25... Environmental Management Indoor Air Quality § 102-80.25 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? Federal agencies must assess indoor air quality of buildings...

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.25 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? 102-80.25 Section 102-80.25... Environmental Management Indoor Air Quality § 102-80.25 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? Federal agencies must assess indoor air quality of buildings...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.25 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? 102-80.25 Section 102-80.25... Environmental Management Indoor Air Quality § 102-80.25 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? Federal agencies must assess indoor air quality of buildings...

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.25 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? 102-80.25 Section 102-80.25... Environmental Management Indoor Air Quality § 102-80.25 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? Federal agencies must assess indoor air quality of buildings...

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.25 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? 102-80.25 Section 102-80.25... Environmental Management Indoor Air Quality § 102-80.25 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? Federal agencies must assess indoor air quality of buildings...

  18. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low

  19. Natural radioactivity content in soil and indoor air of Chellanam.

    PubMed

    Mathew, S; Rajagopalan, M; Abraham, J P; Balakrishnan, D; Umadevi, A G

    2012-11-01

    Contribution of terrestrial radiation due to the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil and air constitutes a significant component of the background radiation exposure to the population. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the soil and indoor air of Chellanam were investigated with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity level and radiation hazard to the population. Chellanam is in the suburbs of Cochin, with the Arabian Sea in the west and the Cochin backwaters in the east. Chellanam is situated at ∼25 km from the sites of these factories. The data obtained serve as a reference in documenting changes to the environmental radioactivity due to technical activities. Soil samples were collected from 30 locations of the study area. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in the samples were analysed using gamma spectrometry. The gamma dose rates were calculated using conversion factors recommended by UNSCEAR [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR (2000)]. The ambient radiation exposure rates measured in the area ranged from 74 to 195 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1). The significant radionuclides being (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K, their activities were used to arrive at the absorbed gamma dose rate with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1) and the radium equivalent activity with a mean value of 162 Bq kg(-1). The radon progeny levels varied from 0.21 to 1.4 mWL with a mean value of 0.6 mWL. The thoron progeny varied from 0.34 to 2.9 mWL with a mean value of 0.85 mWL. The ratio between thoron and radon progenies varied from 1.4 to 2.3 with a mean of 1.6. The details of the study, analysis and results are discussed.

  20. Indoor air quality large building characterization project planning. Report for September 1992--May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Menetrez, M.Y.; Kulp, R.N.; Pyle, B.; Williamson, A.; McDonough, S.

    1998-08-01

    Three buildings were characterized in this project by examining radon concentrations and indoor air quality (IAQ) levels as affected by building ventilation dynamics. IAQ data collection stations (IAQDS) for monitoring and data logging, remote switches (pressure and sail switches), and a weather station were installed. Measurements of indoor radon carbon dioxide, particle concentrations, temperature, humidity, pressure differentials, ambient and sub-slab radon concentrations, and outdoor air (OA) intake flow rates were collected. The OA intake was adjusted when possible, and fan cycles were controlled while tracer gas measurements were taken in all zones and IAQDS data were collected. Ventilation, infiltration, mixing rates, radon entry, pressure/temperature convective driving forces, CO{sub 2} generation/decay rates, and IAQ levels were established for baseline and OA-adjusted conditions.

  1. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2012-01-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m3) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m3). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. PMID:23001651

  2. Seasonal variations of indoor microbial exposures and their relation to temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-12-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m(3)). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m(3)). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.

  3. Measurement of Radon in Indoor Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Daniel M.; Simolunas, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment to teach the principles of air sampling, gamma ray spectroscopy, nuclear decay, and radioactive equilibrium. Analyzes radon by carbon adsorption and gamma ray counting. Provides methodology and rate of decay equations. (MVL)

  4. Lead's Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. There are many ways in which humans are exposed to lead: through air, drinking water, food, contaminated soil, deteriorating paint, and dust.

  5. Coordinator's Guide for Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit - IAQ Coordinator's Guide. This guidance is designed to present practical and often low-cost actions you can take to identify and address existing or potential air quality problems.

  6. Bacterial constituents of indoor air in a high throughput building in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Li, Tee Chin; Ambu, Stephen; Mohandas, Kavitha; Wah, Mak Joon; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Murgaiyah, Malathi

    2014-09-01

    Airborne bacteria are significant biotic constituents of bioaerosol. Bacteria at high concentrations in the air can compromise indoor air quality (IAQ) and result in many diseases. In tropical environments like Malaysia that extensively utilize air-conditioning systems, this is particularly significant due to continuous recirculation of indoor air and the potential implications for human health. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of airborne bacteria on IAQ in Malaysia. This study was prompted by a need for reliable baseline data on airborne bacteria in the indoor environment of tropical equatorial Malaysia, that may be used as a reference for further investigations on the potential role played by airborne bacteria as an agent of disease in this region. It was further necessitated due to the threat of bioterrorism with the potentiality of release of exotic pathogenic microorganisms into indoor or outdoor air. Before scientists can detect the latter, a gauge of the common microorganisms in indoor (as well as outdoor) air needs to be ascertained, hence the expediency of this study. Bacterial counts from the broad-based and targeted study were generally in the order of 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU) per m(3) of air. The most prevalent airborne bacteria found in the broad-based study that encompassed all five levels of the building were Gram-positive cocci (67.73%), followed by Gram-positive rods (24.26%) and Gram-negative rods (7.10%). Gram-negative cocci were rarely detected (0.71%). Amongst the genera identified, Kytococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Leifsonia sp., Bacillus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. predominated in indoor air. The most dominant bacterial species were Kytococcus sedentarius, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus. The opportunistic and nosocomial pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was also discovered at a high percentage in the cafeteria. The bacteria isolated in this study have been

  7. USE OF REAL-TIME LIGHT SCATTERING DATA TO ESTIMATE THE CONTRIBUTION OF INFILTRATED AND INDOOR-GENERATED PARTICLES TO INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of outdoor particulate matter (PM) to residential indoor concentrations is currently not well understood. Most importantly, separating indoor PM into indoor- and outdoor-generated components will greatly enhance our knowledge of the outdoor contribution to tot...

  8. Indoor Air Pollution by Methylsiloxane in Household and Automobile Settings.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanyong; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study examines characteristics of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution in indoor settings where interior renovation/redecoration is being undertaken, in addition to ordinary family homes and inside family cars. Concentrations of atmospheric methylsiloxane in these locations were approximately one order of magnitude higher than that in outdoor areas. The average indoor concentration of methylsiloxane where renovation was being undertaken was 9.4 μg/m3, which is slightly higher than that in an ordinary family home (7.88 μg/m3), while samples from family cars showed lower concentration (3.10 μg/m3). The indoor atmospheric concentration during renovation/redecoration work was significantly positively correlated with the duration of the work. The structure of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution is basically the same in these three venues. The concentration of annulus siloxane was much higher than that of linear compounds (85% of the total methylsiloxane concentrations). Household dust in average family homes showed total methylsiloxane concentration of 9.5 μg/m3 (average); the structure mainly consisted of linear siloxane (approximately 98% of total concentration), thereby differing from that of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution. The comparatively high concentration of methylsiloxane in these three venues indicates that interior renovation and decoration work, and even travelling in cars, can involve exposure to more serious siloxane contamination during everyday activities.

  9. INDOOR AIR QUALITY DATA BASE FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the compilation of a data base for concentrations of organic compounds measured indoors. ased on a review of the literature from 1979 through 1990, the data base contains information on over 220 compounds ranging in molecular weight from 30 to 446. he ...

  10. A New Tool for Eliminating Indoor Air Quality Complaints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keady, Patricia B.; Halvorsen, Tom

    2000-06-01

    Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can cause a variety of health problems for building occupants including headaches, respiratory problems, eye irritation and fatigue. Traditional IAQ measurements often fail to identify the root cause of the problems and solutions remain elusive. A new IAQ metric, ultrafine particles, is shown to have a high correlation with complaint areas. Researchers are studying the toxicology of these tiny pollutants on animals and humans. Ultrafine particles are defined as particles smaller than 100 nm diameter; `nanoparticles', those smaller than 50 nm diameter, are a subset of ultrafine particles. A battery-powered, portable condensation particle counter (CPC) can be used to quickly identify the source and transport pathways of ultrafine particle contaminants so they can be eliminated or controlled. The CPC condenses isopropyl alcohol on the particles to grow them to an optically detectable size. The hand-held instrument is fast responding, has a wide concentration range, and can log data to detect trends and short-term excursions. Adding the metric of ultrafine particles may become very important to IAQ investigations in the future.

  11. An Office Building Occupants Guide to Indoor Air Quality - Printable Version

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide is intended to help people who work in office buildings learn about the factors that contribute to indoor air quality and comfort problems and the roles of building managers and occupants in maintaining a good indoor environment.

  12. Flame retardants in indoor dust and air of a hotel in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Go; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Ishikawa, Yukari; Sunami, Masakiyo; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Occurrence of flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor environment of highly flame-retarded public facilities is an important concern from the viewpoint of exposure because it is likely that FRs are used to a greater degree in these facilities than in homes. For this study, brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame-retardants and plasticizers (OPs), and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/DFs) were measured in eight floor dust samples taken from a Japanese commercial hotel that was assumed to have many flame-retardant materials. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) varied by about two orders of magnitude, from 9.8-1700 ng/g (median of 1200 ng/g) and from 72-1300 ng/g (median of 740 ng/g), respectively. Concentrations of the two types of BFRs described above were most dominant among the investigated BFRs in the dust samples. It is inferred that BFR and PBDD/DF concentrations are on the same level as those in house and office dust samples reported based on past studies. Regarding concentrations of 11 OPs, 7 OPs were detected on the order of micrograms per gram, which are equivalent to or exceed the BFR concentrations such as PBDEs and HBCDs. Concentrations of the investigated compounds were not uniform among dust samples collected throughout the hotel: concentrations differed among floors, suggesting that localization of source products is associated with FR concentrations in dust. Passive air sampling was also conducted to monitor BFRs in the indoor air of hotel rooms: the performance of an air cleaner placed in the room was evaluated in terms of reducing airborne BFR concentrations. Monitoring results suggest that operation of an appropriate air cleaner can reduce both gaseous and particulate BFRs in indoor air.

  13. Real-time sensors for indoor air monitoring and challenges ahead in deploying them to urban buildings.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Skouloudis, Andreas N; Bell, Margaret; Viana, Mar; Carotta, M Cristina; Biskos, George; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-08-01

    Household air pollution is ranked the 9(th) largest Global Burden of Disease risk (Forouzanfar et al., The Lancet 2015). People, particularly urban dwellers, typically spend over 90% of their daily time indoors, where levels of air pollution often surpass those of outdoor environments. Indoor air quality (IAQ) standards and approaches for assessment and control of indoor air require measurements of pollutant concentrations and thermal comfort using conventional instruments. However, the outcomes of such measurements are usually averages over long integrated time periods, which become available after the exposure has already occurred. Moreover, conventional monitoring is generally incapable of addressing temporal and spatial heterogeneity of indoor air pollution, or providing information on peak exposures that occur when specific indoor sources are in operation. This article provides a review of new air pollution sensing methods to determine IAQ and discusses how real-time sensing could bring a paradigm shift in controlling the concentration of key air pollutants in billions of urban houses worldwide. We also show that besides the opportunities, challenges still remain in terms of maturing technologies, or data mining and their interpretation. Moreover, we discuss further research and essential development needed to close gaps between what is available today and needed tomorrow. In particular, we demonstrate that awareness of IAQ risks and availability of appropriate regulation are lagging behind the technologies.

  14. Characterization of Micrococcus strains isolated from indoor air

    PubMed Central

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of microbes, such as of opportunists and pathogens (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]), in indoor air is important for understanding disease transmission from person-to-person. Common genera found in the human skin microbiome include Micrococcus and Staphylococcus, but there only a limited number of tests to differentiate these genera and/or species. Both genera are believed to be released into indoor air from the shedding of human skin and are morphologically difficult to distinguish. In the current work, after the extraction of proteins from micrococci and the separation of these proteins on one dimensional electrophoretic gels, tryptic peptides were analyzed by MALDI TOF MS and the mass profiles compared with those of a reference strain (ATCC 4698). The results confirmed that all strains were consistent in identity with Micrococcus luteus. PMID:21963944

  15. Characterization of Micrococcus strains isolated from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Kooken, Jennifer M; Fox, Karen F; Fox, Alvin

    2012-02-01

    The characterization of microbes, such as opportunists and pathogens (e.g., methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]), in indoor air is important for understanding disease transmission from person-to-person. Common genera found in the human skin microbiome include Micrococcus and Staphylococcus, but there only a limited number of tests to differentiate these genera and/or species. Both genera are believed to be released into indoor air from the shedding of human skin and are morphologically difficult to distinguish. In the current work, after the extraction of proteins from micrococci and the separation of these proteins on one dimensional electrophoretic gels, tryptic peptides were analyzed by MALDI TOF MS and the mass profiles compared with those of a reference strain (ATCC 4698). The results confirmed that all strains were consistent in identity with Micrococcus luteus.

  16. A pilot study of indoor air quality in screen golf courses.

    PubMed

    Goung, Sun-Ju Nam; Yang, Jinho; Kim, Yoon Shin; Lee, Cheol Min

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were to provide basic data for determining policies on air quality for multi-user facilities, including the legal enrollment of the indoor air quality regulation as designated by the Ministry of Environment, and to establish control plans. To this end, concentrations of ten pollutants (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), radon (Rn), oxone (O3), total bacteria counts (TBC), and asbestos) in addition to nicotine, a smoking index material used to determine the impact of smoking on the air quality, were investigated in indoor game rooms and lobbies of 64 screen golf courses. The average concentration of none of the ten pollutants in the game rooms and lobbies of screen golf courses was found to exceed the limit set by the law. There were, however, pollutant concentrations exceeding limits in some screen golf courses, in order to establish a control plan for the indoor air quality of screen golf courses, a study on the emission sources of each pollutant was conducted. The major emission sources were found to be facility users' activities such as smoking and the use of combustion appliances, building materials, and finishing materials.

  17. Indoor air and human health revisited: A recent IAQ symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Indoor Air and Human Health Revisited was a speciality symposium examining the scientific underpinnings of sensory and sensitivity effects, allergy and respiratory disease, neurotoxicity and cancer. An organizing committee selected four persons to chain the sessions and invite experts to give state-of-the-art presentations that will be published as a book. A summary of the presentations is made and some critical issues identified.

  18. Detection of 34 plasticizers and 25 flame retardants in indoor air from houses in Sapporo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ikue; Jin, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto

    2014-09-01

    Various plasticizers and flame retardants are contained in building materials and furniture produced for indoor environments. However, some of these material inclusions have been reported to cause endocrine-disrupting and mucosa-irritating effects. Because of the local climate, buildings in Sapporo are better insulated against cold weather than those in many other areas in Japan. In this study, we measured 59 compounds, including plasticizers (phthalates, adipates, and others) and flame retardants (organo-phosphates and brominated compounds), from indoor air samples from six houses in Sapporo. These compounds were measured separately in the gas phase and the particle phase using a two-stage cartridge equipped with a quartz fiber filter (1 μm mesh) and C18 solid-phase extraction disk for sampling and analyzed by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS (for the detection of brominated flame retardants). Among the 59 compounds measured in this study, 34 compounds were detected from the indoor air of the six houses. The highest concentration among the 34 compounds found in a newly built house was 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TXIB) at 20.8 μg/m(3). Di(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)terephthalate (DEHT), which has been used in recent years as an alternative to di(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)phthalate (DEHP), was found in all six houses, although at low concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.027 μg/m(3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of DEHT in indoor air in Japan. Among the compounds detected in this study, those with lower molecular weights tended to be captured in the C18 solid-phase extraction disk rather than in the quartz fiber filter. These results suggest that compounds with higher volatility exist preferentially in the gas phase, whereas compounds with lower volatility exist preferentially in the particulate phase in indoor air.

  19. Impacts of air cleaners on indoor air quality in residences impacted by wood smoke.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M

    2014-10-21

    Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources.

  20. Indoor and outdoor formaldehyde concentrations in homes in residential areas in Greater Cairo.

    PubMed

    Khoder, M I; Shakour, A A; Farag, S A; Abdel Hameed, A A

    2000-04-01

    Indoor and outdoor measurements of formaldehyde were conducted at seven flats located in residential areas in Greater Cairo, during spring and summer seasons 1999. The mean daytime formaldehyde concentrations in kitchens, bedrooms and living rooms were 89, 100 and 100 ppb, respectively, in the seven flats. Significant positive correlations were found between the concentrations of formaldehyde found in these three rooms. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between the mean formaldehyde concentrations in these three rooms. The maximum mean concentration of formaldehyde (147 ppb) was recorded in a new flat, while the minimum concentration (43 ppb) was observed in an old flat. The maximum hourly and daytime concentrations were 350 and 225 ppb, respectively. Air temperature, relative humidity and the age of the flat are factors affecting the emission and concentration of formaldehyde. The maximum indoor and outdoor formaldehyde concentrations were recorded during the summer season. During the spring, 38% of the samples indicated that the concentration of formaldehyde in the seven flats exceeded 0.1 ppm, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) standard; in the summer, this figure increased to 53%.

  1. Assessment of indoor air in Austrian apartments with and without visible mold growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Galler, H.; Buzina, W.; Schlacher, R.; Marth, E.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    Fungal spores are transported across great distances in the outdoor air and are also regularly found indoors. Building conditions and behavior-related problems in apartments may lead to massive growth of mold within a very short period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the visible growth of mold indoors influences the concentration of fungal spores in the air as well as the variety of their species. Samples were collected from 66 households in Austria. For each sampling, the corresponding outdoor air was measured as reference value. The size of the visible mold growth was categorized in order to correlate the extent of mold growth with the concentration of airborne spores as well as the fungal genera. In order to determine fungal spore concentrations in the air, the one-stage MAS-100 ® air sampler was used. Malt extract agar (MEA) and dichloran glycerol agar (DG18) plates were used as culture media. The total colony forming units (CFU) per m 3 were determined. The fungi were identified from the isolated colonies. The results show that in apartments visibly affected by mold, the median values were significantly higher than those of apartments without visible mold growth. The extent of visible mold growth is significantly correlated with both concentration of fungal spores ( p<0.001) as well as the predominance of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. ( p<0.001) in indoor air. The total fungal concentration of Penicillium and Aspergillus in the air of apartments is recommended for assessing fungal exposure.

  2. Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems & Indoor Air Quality - Exhaust Fan Mitigation.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-07-01

    Overall, the findings show that exhaust fans basically provide small amounts of ventilation compensation. By monitoring the common indoor air pollutants (radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor), it was found that the quality of the indoor air was not adversely affected by the use of exhaust fans. Nor did their use provide any measurable or significant benefits since no improvement in air quality was ascertained. While exhaust fans of this small size did not increase radon, which is the contaminant of most concern, the researchers caution that operation of a larger fan or installation in a very tight home could result in higher levels because depressurization is greater. The daily energy consumption for use of these appliances during the heating season was calculated to be 1.5 kilowatt hours or approximately 3% of the energy consumption in the study homes. The information collected in this collaborative field study indicates that the use of these particular ventilation systems has no significant effect on indoor air quality.

  3. Mitigation of elevated indoor radon gas resulting from underground air return usage.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, K J; Metzger, R L; Kraft, K R; Holbert, K E

    1992-12-01

    Underground air returns have been found to be active transportation pathways for radon gas entry into homes. Several homes for which underground air returns were contributing to elevated indoor 222Rn concentrations were evaluated for possible mitigation. Two houses with such problems were successfully mitigated by inserting flexible ducts into the returns. In one of these houses, the initial mitigation attempt resulted in an exacerbation of the problem due to leakage of the ducting. This was solved by re-sleeving the returns using a stronger material. Mitigation of elevated indoor radon gas caused by use of underground air returns by inserting flexible ducts is not possible for all situations, especially those for which the returns are small, filled with debris, misaligned, or inaccessible.

  4. Measuring Infiltration Rates in Homes as a Basis for Understanding Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerz, G. G.; Lamb, B. K.; Pressley, S. N.; O'Keeffe, P.; Fuchs, M.; Kirk, M.

    2015-12-01

    Infiltration rates, or the rate of air exchange, of houses are important to understand because ventilation can be a dominate factor in determining indoor air quality. There are chemicals that are emitted from surfaces or point sources inside the home which are harmful to humans; these chemicals come from various objects including furniture, cleaning supplies, building materials, gas stoves, and the surrounding environment. The use of proper ventilation to cycle cleaner outdoor air into the house can be crucial for maintaining healthy living conditions in the home. At the same time, there can also be outdoor pollutants which infiltrate the house and contribute to poor indoor air quality. In either case, it is important to determine infiltration rates as a function of outdoor weather conditions, the house structure properties and indoor heating and cooling systems. In this work, the objective is to measure ventilation rates using periodic releases of a tracer gas and measuring how quickly the tracer concentration decays. CO2 will be used as the tracer gas because it is inert and harmless at low levels. An Arduino timer is connected to a release valve which controls the release of 9.00 SLPM of CO2 into the uptake vent within the test home. CO2 will be released until there is at least a 200 to 300 ppm increase above ambient indoor levels. Computers with CO2 sensors and temperature/pressure sensors attached will be used to record data from different locations within the home which will continuously record data up to a week. The results from these periodic ventilation measurements will be analyzed with respect to outdoor wind and temperature conditions and house structure properties. The data will be used to evaluate an established indoor air quality model.

  5. [Health evaluation of trichloroethylene in indoor air : communication from the German ad-hoc working group on indoor guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and of the states' supreme health authorities].

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    In the European Hazardous Substances Regulation No 1272/2008 trichloroethylene has been classified as a probable human carcinogen and a suspected mutagen. According to several Committees (German Committee on Hazardous Substances, European Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits, European Chemicals Agency´s Committee for Risk Assessment (ECHA-RAC)) concentrations of trichloroethylene cytotoxic to renal tubuli may increase the risk to develop renal cancer. At non-cytotoxic concentrations of trichloroethylene a much lower cancer risk may be assumed. Therefore, evaluating the cancer risk to the public following inhalation of trichloroethylene ECHA-RAC has assumed a sublinear exposure-response relationship for carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene. Specifically, ECHA-RAC assessed a cancer risk of 6.4 × 10(- 5) (mg/m(3))(- 1) following life time exposure to trichloroethylene below a NOAEC for renal cytotoxicity of 6 mg trichloroethylene/m(3). Further evaluation yields a life-time risk of 10(- 6) corresponding to 0.02 mg trichloroethylene/m(3). This concentration is well above the reference (e.g. background) concentration of trichloroethylene in indoor air. Consequently the Ad-hoc Working Group on Indoor Guidelines recommends 0.02 mg trichloroethylene/m(3) as a risk-related guideline for indoor air. Measures to reduce exposure are considered inappropriate at concentrations below this guideline.

  6. [Guide values for 1-butanol in indoor air. Report of the German Ad Hoc Working Group on Indoor Guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and of the States' Supreme Health Authorities].

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    The German Ad Hoc Working Group on Indoor Guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and the States' Supreme Health Authorities is issuing indoor air guide values to protect public health. No human studies of sufficient quality are available for the evaluation of 1-butanol in indoor air. In a well-documented oral study on reproduction toxicity in rats, assessed as reliable, impairment of embryo development was observed. Benchmark modeling of the study data by US-EPA revealed a BMDL10 of 26.1 mg/kg b.w. per day. The working group used this BMDL10 as the point of departure for the derivation of the guide value II. Considering a human respiration rate of 20 m(3) per day and a human body weight of 70 kg, this dose was converted into an inhalative concentration. Applying a factor of 0.6 to account for the inhalative absorption rate, an allometric extrapolation factor from rat to human (factor 4), an interspecies factor of 2.5 for toxicodynamics, and a factor of 10 to account for individual differences (intraspecies factor), results in a health hazard guide value (RW II) of 2 mg 1-butanol/m(3). The benchmark dose calculation of the same study generated a BMDL05 of 12.4 mg/kg b.w. per day. Applying the same assessment factors as for RW II, a precautionary guide value (RW I) of 0.7 mg 1-butanol/m(3) indoor air is calculated.

  7. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  8. An electrical circuit model for simulation of indoor radon concentration.

    PubMed

    Musavi Nasab, S M; Negarestani, A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new model based on electric circuit theory was introduced to simulate the behaviour of indoor radon concentration. In this model, a voltage source simulates radon generation in walls, conductivity simulates migration through walls and voltage across a capacitor simulates radon concentration in a room. This simulation considers migration of radon through walls by diffusion mechanism in one-dimensional geometry. Data reported in a typical Greek house were employed to examine the application of this technique of simulation to the behaviour of radon.

  9. Indoor-to-outdoor particle concentration ratio model for human exposure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Ryu, Sung Hee; Lee, Gwangjae; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2016-02-01

    This study presents an indoor-to-outdoor particle concentration ratio (IOR) model for improved estimates of indoor exposure levels. This model is useful in epidemiological studies with large population, because sampling indoor pollutants in all participants' house is often necessary but impractical. As a part of a study examining the association between air pollutants and atopic dermatitis in children, 16 parents agreed to measure the indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at their homes for 48 h. Correlation analysis and multi-step multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to develop the IOR model. Temperature and floor level were found to be powerful predictors of the IOR. Despite the simplicity of the model, it demonstrated high accuracy in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE). Especially for long-term IOR estimations, the RMSE was as low as 0.064 and 0.063 for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. When using a prediction model in an epidemiological study, understanding the consequence of the modeling error and justifying the use of the model is very important. In the last section, this paper discussed the impact of the modeling error and developed a novel methodology to justify the use of the model.

  10. Assessment of indoor air quality in office buildings across Europe - The OFFICAIR study.

    PubMed

    Mandin, Corinne; Trantallidi, Marilena; Cattaneo, Andrea; Canha, Nuno; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Mabilia, Rosanna; Perreca, Erica; Spinazzè, Andrea; Fossati, Serena; De Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Cornelissen, Eric; Sakellaris, Ioannis; Saraga, Dikaia; Hänninen, Otto; De Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Ventura, Gabriela; Wolkoff, Peder; Carrer, Paolo; Bartzis, John

    2017-02-01

    The European project OFFICAIR aimed to broaden the existing knowledge regarding indoor air quality (IAQ) in modern office buildings, i.e., recently built or refurbished buildings. Thirty-seven office buildings participated in the summer campaign (2012), and thirty-five participated in the winter campaign (2012-2013). Four rooms were investigated per building. The target pollutants were twelve volatile organic compounds, seven aldehydes, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm (PM2.5). Compared to other studies in office buildings, the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene concentrations were lower in OFFICAIR buildings, while the α-pinene and d-limonene concentrations were higher, and the aldehyde, nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 concentrations were of the same order of magnitude. When comparing summer and winter, significantly higher concentrations were measured in summer for formaldehyde and ozone, and in winter for benzene, α-pinene, d-limonene, and nitrogen dioxide. The terpene and 2-ethylhexanol concentrations showed heterogeneity within buildings regardless of the season. Considering the average of the summer and winter concentrations, the acetaldehyde and hexanal concentrations tended to increase by 4-5% on average with every floor level increase, and the nitrogen dioxide concentration tended to decrease by 3% on average with every floor level increase. A preliminary evaluation of IAQ in terms of potential irritative and respiratory health effects was performed. The 5-day median and maximum indoor air concentrations of formaldehyde and ozone did not exceed their respective WHO air quality guidelines, and those of acrolein, α-pinene, and d-limonene were lower than their estimated thresholds for irritative and respiratory effects. PM2.5 indoor concentrations were higher than the 24-h and annual WHO ambient air quality guidelines.

  11. Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at 14 public places in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Chan, L.Y.; Chiu, M.Y.

    1999-05-01

    The indoor and outdoor air quality of 14 public places with mechanical ventilation systems in Hong Kong were investigated from October 1996 to March 1997. Fourteen public places located in urban residential, commercial, industrial, and rural areas were selected for indoor/outdoor (I/O) air pollutant measurement. The public places included restaurants, libraries, recreation places, shopping malls, sport centers, and a car park. The concentrations of SO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons (THC), and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were measured during peak traffic hours at each sampling location. I/O correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed. High I/O ratios of CO, CO{sub 2}, THC, and PM{sub 10} were due to a high infiltration rate and the presence of indoor sources. The results show that the I/O ratios at public places were higher than those at homes and offices. Insufficient ventilation caused high CO{sub 2} levels. The I/O ratios of PM{sub 10} and CO at public places where tobacco smoking is permitted were 4 times and 1.6 times those where smoking is prohibited.

  12. Emerging developments in the standardized chemical characterization of indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Nehr, Sascha; Hösen, Elisabeth; Tanabe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that the special characteristics of indoor air pollution make closed environments quite different from outdoor environments, the conceptual ideas for assessing air quality indoors and outdoors are similar. Therefore, the elaboration of International Standards for air quality characterization in view of controlling indoor air quality should resort to this common basis. In this short review we describe the possibilities of standardization of tools dedicated to indoor air quality characterization with a focus on the tools permitting to study the indoor air chemistry. The link between indoor exposure and health as well as the critical processes driving the indoor air quality are introduced. Available International Standards for the assessment of indoor air quality are depicted. The standards comprise requirements for the sampling on site, the analytical procedures, and the determination of material emissions. To date, these standardized procedures assure that indoor air, settled dust and material samples are analyzed in a comparable manner. However, existing International Standards exclusively specify conventional, event-driven target-screening using discontinuous measurement methods for long-lived pollutants. Therefore, this review draws a parallel between physico-chemical processes in indoor and outdoor environments. The achievements in atmospheric sciences also improve our understanding of indoor environments. The community of atmospheric scientists can be both ideal and supporter for researchers in the area of indoor air quality characterization. This short review concludes with propositions for future standardization activities for the chemical characterization of indoor air quality. Future standardization efforts should focus on: (i) the elaboration of standardized measurement methods and measurement strategies for online monitoring of long-lived and short-lived pollutants, (ii) the assessment of the potential and the limitations of non

  13. Evaluating heterogeneity in indoor and outdoor air pollution using land-use regression and constrained factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Clougherty, Jane E; Baxter, Lisa K; Houseman, E Andres; Paciorek, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic exposures and a variety of adverse health effects, but many of these studies relied on proximity measures rather than measured or modeled concentrations of specific air pollutants, complicating interpretability of the findings. An increasing number of studies have used land-use regression (LUR) or other techniques to model small-scale variability in concentrations of specific air pollutants. However, these studies have generally considered a limited number of pollutants, focused on outdoor concentrations (or indoor concentrations of ambient origin) when indoor concentrations are better proxies for personal exposures, and have not taken full advantage of statistical methods for source apportionment that may have provided insight about the structure of the LUR models and the interpretability of model results. Given these issues, the primary objective of our study was to determine predictors of indoor and outdoor residential concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within an urban area, based on a combination of central site monitoring data; geographic information system (GIS) covariates reflecting traffic and other outdoor sources; questionnaire data reflecting indoor sources and activities that affect ventilation rates; and factor-analytic methods to better infer source contributions. As part of a prospective birth cohort study assessing asthma etiology in urban Boston, we collected indoor and/or outdoor 3-to-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5) at 44 residences during multiple seasons of the year from 2003 through 2005. We performed reflectance analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on particle filters to estimate the concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), trace elements, and water-soluble metals, respectively. We derived

  14. Analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air: part 1. Volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Barro, Ruth; Regueiro, Jorge; Llompart, María; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2009-01-16

    This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air in the framework of the REACH project, which is mainly intended to improve protection of human health and the environment from the risks of more than 34 millions of chemical substances. Industrial pollutants that can be found in indoor air may be of very different types and origin, belonging to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) categories. Several compounds have been classified into the priority organic pollutants (POPs) class such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs) and related polychlorinated compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of these compounds are partially associated to the air gas phase, but also to the suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, settled dust can act as a concentrator for the less volatile pollutants and has become a matrix of great concern for indoors contamination. Main literature considered in this review are papers from the last 10 years reporting analytical developments and applications regarding VOCs, aldehydes and other carbonyls, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PAHs in the indoor environment. Sample collection and pretreatment, analyte extraction, clean-up procedures, determination techniques, performance results, as well as compound concentrations in indoor samples, are summarized and discussed. Emergent contaminants and pesticides related to the industrial development that can be found in indoor air are reviewed in a second part in this volume.

  15. Application of zonal model on indoor air sensor network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin

    2007-04-01

    Growing concerns over the safety of the indoor environment have made the use of sensors ubiquitous. Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is more informed by intuition and experience rather by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, a proper indoor airflow modeling approach is needed. Various indoor airflow modeling techniques, from complicated computational fluid dynamics approaches to simplified multi-zone approaches, exist in the literature. In this study, the effects of two airflow modeling techniques, multi-zone modeling technique and zonal modeling technique, on indoor air protection sensor system design are discussed. Common building attack scenarios, using a typical CBW agent, are simulated. Both multi-zone and zonal models are used to predict airflows and contaminant dispersion. Genetic Algorithm is then applied to optimize the sensor location and quantity. Differences in the sensor system design resulting from the two airflow models are discussed for a typical office environment and a large hall environment.

  16. Distribution of volatile organic chemicals in outdoor and indoor air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Jitendra J.; Singh, Hanwant B.

    1988-01-01

    The EPA volatile organic chemistry (VOC) national ambient data base (Shah, 1988) is discussed. The 320 chemicals included in the VOC data base are listed. The methods used to obtain the data are reviewed and the availability, accessibility, and operation of the data base are examined. Tables of the daily outdoor concentrations for 66 chemicals and the daily indoor concentrations for 35 chemicals are presented.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  18. Detection of volatile organic peroxides in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Hong, J; Maguhn, J; Freitag, D; Kettrup, A

    2001-12-01

    A supercritical fluid extraction cell filled with adsorbent (Carbotrap and Carbotrap C) was used directly as a sampling tube to enrich volatile organic compounds in air. After sampling, the analytes were extracted by supercritical fluid CO2 with methanol as modifier. Collected organic peroxides were then determined by a RP-HPLC method developed and validated previously using post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection. Some volatile organic peroxides were found in indoor air in a new car and a newly decorated kitchen in the lower microg m(-3) range. tert-Butyl perbenzoate, di-tert-butyl peroxide, and tert-butylcumyl peroxide could be identified.

  19. Indoor air: Spatial variations of chlorinated pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David J.; Hites, Ronald A.

    The concentrations of two classes of chlorinated pesticides were measured in various locations within four homes. The prevalent compounds were chlorinated derivatives of cyclopentadiene which had been used as termiticides. These compounds were found in basement areas at higher concentrations than in upstairs areas of the homes. Another class of chlorinated pesticide was represented by chlorpyrifos; its spatial profile was consistent with its application in upstairs areas.

  20. Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries-part I: CO{sub 2} and comfort assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-07-15

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nurseries is an emerging case-study. Thus, this study, as the Part I of the larger study “Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries”, aimed to: i) evaluate nurseries’ indoor concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a global IAQ indicator, in class and lunch rooms; ii) assess indoor comfort parameters–temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH); and iii) analyse them according to guidelines and references for IAQ, comfort and children's health. Indoor continuous measurements were performed. Non-compliances with guidelines were found in comfort parameters, which could cause discomfort situations and also microbial proliferation. Exceedances in CO{sub 2} concentrations were also found and they were caused by poor ventilation and high classroom occupation. More efficient ventilation and control of comfort parameters, as well as to reduce occupation by reviewing Portuguese legislation on that matter, would certainly improve IAQ and comfort in nurseries and consequently safeguard children's health. - Highlights: • High occupation and poor ventilation were main determinants of IAQ in nurseries. • T and RH indoor values found in nurseries are likely to cause thermal discomfort. • Building characteristics and an inadequate ventilation determined T and RH values. • High CO{sub 2} concentrations found could indicate accumulation of other air pollutants.

  1. Evaluation of the Indoor Air Quality Procedure for Use in Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Spencer M.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Mendell, Mark J.; Barrios, Marcella; Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Eliseeva, Katerina; Fisk, William J.

    2013-02-01

    California's building efficiency standards (Title 24) mandate minimum prescribed ventilation rates (VRs) for commercial buildings. Title 24 standards currently include a prescriptive procedure similar to ASHRAE’s prescriptive “ventilation rate procedure”, but does not include an alternative procedure, akin to ASHRAE’s non-prescriptive “indoor air quality procedure” (IAQP). The IAQP determines minimum VRs based on objectively and subjectively evaluated indoor air quality (IAQ). The first primary goal of this study was to determine, in a set of California retail stores, the adequacy of Title 24 VRs and observed current measured VRs in providing the level of IAQ specified through an IAQP process, The second primary goal was to evaluate whether several VRs implemented experimentally in a big box store would achieve adequate IAQ, assessed objectively and subjectively. For the first goal, a list of contaminants of concern (CoCs) and reference exposure levels (RELs) were selected for evaluating IAQ. Ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor CoC concentrations were measured in 13 stores, including one “big box” store. Mass balance models were employed to calculate indoor contaminant source strengths for CoCs in each store. Using these source strengths and typical outdoor air contaminant concentrations, mass balance models were again used to calculate for each store the “IAQP” VR that would maintain indoor CoC concentrations below selected RELs. These IAQP VRs were compared to the observed VRs and to the Title 24- prescribed VRs. For the second goal, a VR intervention study was performed in the big box store to determine how objectively assessed indoor contaminant levels and subjectively assessed IAQ varied with VR. The three intervention study VRs included an approximation of the store’s current VR [0.24 air changes per hour (ACH)], the Title 24-prescribed VR [0.69 ACH], and the calculated IAQPbased VR [1.51 ACH]). Calculations of IAQP-based VRs showed

  2. Problems with Estimating Annual Mean Indoor Radon Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Marusiakova, Miriam; Hulka, Jiri

    2010-09-30

    Radon and its progeny in dwellings is responsible for the majority of the total radiation dose among the general population. The indoor radon concentration varies considerably during the daytime, individual days, seasons and even years. It is affected by many factors such as ventilation, soil concentration, quality of house insulation and others.The annual mean value of the radon concentration in buildings is important in order to estimate the effective dose to inhabitants. However, it is not always possible to perform radon measurements over a period of one year. Thus estimates based on short-term continuous measurements are suggested.We analyse hourly radon measurements obtained from one uninhabited rural house in Teleci in the Czech Republic. We study the behaviour of the radon concentration with time and its relationship to meteorological variables such as outdoor temperature, wind speed or pressure. Further we discuss various estimates of the annual mean radon concentration and their properties.

  3. Indoor air quality in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João; Ramos, Elisabete; Barros, Henrique; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to characterize the indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, PM2.5, PM10, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi were assessed in 73 classrooms from 20 public primary schools located in Porto, Portugal. Children who attended the selected classrooms (n = 1134) were evaluated by a standardised health questionnaire completed by the legal guardians; spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide tests. The results indicated that no classrooms presented individual VOC pollutant concentrations higher than the WHO IAQ guidelines or by INDEX recommendations; while PM2.5, PM10 and bacteria levels exceeded the WHO air quality guidelines or national limit values. High levels of total VOC, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher odds of wheezing in children. Thus, indoor air pollutants, some even at low exposure levels, were related with the development of respiratory symptoms. The results pointed out that it is crucial to take into account the unique characteristics of the public primary schools, to develop appropriate control strategies in order to reduce the exposure to indoor air pollutants and, therefore, to minimize the adverse health effects.

  4. Spatiotemporal variability of tetrachloroethylene in residential indoor air due to vapor intrusion: a longitudinal, community-based study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2014-11-01

    The migration of volatile contaminants from groundwater and soil into indoor air is a potential health threat at thousands of contaminated sites across the country. This phenomenon, known as vapor intrusion, is characterized by spatial and temporal heterogeneity. This study examined short-term fluctuations in concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in the indoor air of residential homes due to vapor intrusion in a community in San Antonio, Texas, that sits atop an extensive, shallow plume of contaminated groundwater. Using a community-based design, we removed potential indoor sources of PCE and then collected twelve 3-day passive indoor air samples in each of the 20 homes. Results demonstrated a one-order-of-magnitude variability in concentration across both space and time among the study homes, although all measured concentrations were below risk-based screening levels. We found that within any given home, indoor concentrations increase with the magnitude of the barometric pressure drop (P=0.048) and humidity (P<0.001), while concentrations decrease as wind speed increases (P<0.001) and also during winter (P=0.001). In a second analysis to examine sources of spatial variability, we found that indoor air PCE concentrations between homes increase with groundwater concentration (P=0.030) and a slab-on-grade (as compared with a crawl space) foundation (P=0.028), whereas concentrations decrease in homes without air conditioners (P=0.015). This study offers insights into the drivers of temporal and spatial variability in vapor intrusion that can inform decisions regarding monitoring and exposure assessment at affected sites.

  5. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing

  6. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas.

  7. Radon as an Anthropogenic Indoor Air Pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, including granite ornaments/artefacts, uranium glass and glazed objects as well radium dial watches. This presentation concerns an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, many of which were once viewed as everyday items, and the radon that emanates from them. Such objects were very popular in industrialised countries such as the USA, UK and European countries) particularly between and including the two World Wars but are still readily available. A watch collection examined gave rise to a hazardous radon concentration of 13.24 kBq•m-3 approximately 67 times the Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3.The results for an aircraft altimeter are comparable to those of the watches, indicating radon activity equivalent to several watches, and also indicate an equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room ca. 33 times the UK domestic Action Level. Results from a granite block indicate a radon emanation of 19.7 Bq•kg-1, but the indicated equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room is only ca. 1.7% of the UK domestic Action Level. Uranium-glazed crockery and green uranium glass were scoped for radon activity. The former yielded a radon concentration of ca. 44 Bq•m-3 in a small (7 L) sealed container. The latter yielded a lower radon concentration in a larger (125 L) sealed container of ca. 6 Bq•m-3. This is barely above the background radon concentration in the laboratory, which was typically ca. 1-2 Bq•m-3. Individual items then are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level in rooms in houses, particularly if poorly ventilated. We highlight the gap in the remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally

  8. Simulating an exclusion zone for vapour intrusion of TCE from groundwater into indoor air.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth L

    2012-10-01

    This paper is an extension of the work by Yu et al. (2009) to examine exposure pathways of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from a NAPL source zone located below the water table, and their potential impact on multiple residential dwellings down-gradient of the source zone. The three-dimensional problem geometry is based on the Rivett (1995) field experiment in the Borden aquifer, and contains houses located both above and adjacent to the groundwater plume in order to define an exclusion zone. Simulation results using the numerical model CompFlow Bio indicate that houses which are laterally offset from the groundwater plume are less affected by vapour intrusion than those located directly above the plume due to limited transverse horizontal flux of TCE within the groundwater plume, in agreement with the ASTM (2008) guidance. Uncertainty in the simulated indoor air concentration is sensitive to heterogeneity in the permeability structure of a stratigraphically continuous aquifer, with uncertainty defined as the probability of simulated indoor air concentrations exceeding the NYSDOH (2005) regulatory limit. Within this uncertainty framework, this work shows that the Johnson and Ettinger (1991), ASTM (2008) and CompFlow Bio models all delineate an identical exclusion zone at a 99.9% confidence interval of indoor air concentrations based on the probability of exceedence.

  9. Simulating an exclusion zone for vapour intrusion of TCE from groundwater into indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaomin; Unger, Andre J. A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2012-10-01

    This paper is an extension of the work by Yu et al. (2009) to examine exposure pathways of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from a NAPL source zone located below the water table, and their potential impact on multiple residential dwellings down-gradient of the source zone. The three-dimensional problem geometry is based on the Rivett (1995) field experiment in the Borden aquifer, and contains houses located both above and adjacent to the groundwater plume in order to define an exclusion zone. Simulation results using the numerical model CompFlow Bio indicate that houses which are laterally offset from the groundwater plume are less affected by vapour intrusion than those located directly above the plume due to limited transverse horizontal flux of TCE within the groundwater plume, in agreement with the ASTM (2008) guidance. Uncertainty in the simulated indoor air concentration is sensitive to heterogeneity in the permeability structure of a stratigraphically continuous aquifer, with uncertainty defined as the probability of simulated indoor air concentrations exceeding the NYSDOH (2005) regulatory limit. Within this uncertainty framework, this work shows that the Johnson and Ettinger (1991), ASTM (2008) and CompFlow Bio models all delineate an identical exclusion zone at a 99.9% confidence interval of indoor air concentrations based on the probability of exceedence.

  10. Experimental investigation of outdoor and indoor mean concentrations and concentration fluctuations of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. M.; Mavroidis, I.; Reis, N. C.; Pagel, E. C.

    2011-11-01

    Tracer gas was released upwind of a two-compartment complex shaped building under unstable atmospheric conditions. The mean wind direction was normal to or at 45° to the long face of the building. The general patterns of concentration distribution on the building external walls and inside the building were analysed and the influence of natural and mechanical ventilation on indoor concentration distributions was discussed. Mean concentration levels, as well as the concentration fluctuation intensity, were higher on the windward walls of the building, although concentration levels varied along each wall. Concentration fluctuations measured inside the building were lower than those measured outside. Inside the two compartments of the building, the time series of concentrations had a similar general behaviour; however, gas concentrations took approximately 1.5 times longer to reach the mean maximum concentration value at the downwind compartment 02 while they also decreased more rapidly in the upwind compartment 01 after the source was turned off. The highest indoor concentration and concentration fluctuation values were observed at the detectors located close to the windward walls, especially when the building windows were open. Experiments with and without natural ventilation suggested that infiltration and exfiltration of contaminants is much faster when the building windows are open, resulting to higher indoor concentration levels. Furthermore, mechanical ventilation tends to homogenize concentrations and suppress concentration fluctuations, leading to lower maximum concentration values.

  11. Measurement of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations during Superstorm Sandy.

    PubMed

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Paul, Prateek; Stieff, Alex; Stieff, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Superstorm Sandy affected much of the US East Coast extending over 1800 km. It passed over the test location in the State of Maryland on 29 October 2012. Being 350 km away from the regions of highest intensity the storm was of lower intensity at the test location. Continuous radon monitors and passive radon monitors were used for the measurement. The test location was the basement of a single family home representing the indoor concentration. A partially opened garage of the same test home represented the outdoor radon concentration. In 24 h, the atmospheric pressure dropped from 990 to 960 mbar and the indoor radon concentration increased from 70 to 1500 Bq m(-3) and returned to the normal of 70 Bq m(-3) at the end of the storm. Throughout the storm, the outdoor radon concentration was not significantly affected. Probable reasons for such surprisingly large changes are discussed. However, the outdoor temperature dropped from 13°C to 7°C during the radon peak.

  12. Relationships between 222Rn dissolved in ground water supplies and indoor 222Rn concentrations in some Colorado front range houses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folger, P.F.; Nyberg, P.; Wanty, R.B.; Poeter, E.

    1994-01-01

    Indoor 222Rn concentrations were measured in 37 houses with alpha track detectors placed in water-use rooms near water sources (bathrooms, laundry rooms, and kitchens) and in non-water-use living rooms, dining rooms, and bedrooms away from water sources. Results show that relative contributions of 222Rn to indoor air from water use are insignificant when soil-gas concentrations are high but become increasingly important as the ratio of 222Rn-in-water:222Rn-in-soil gas increases. High soil-gas 222Rn concentrations may mask 222Rn contributions from water even when waterborne 222Rn concentrations are as high as 750 kBq m-3. Ground water in Precambrian Pikes Peak granite averages 340 kBq m-3222Rn, vs. 170 kBq m-3 in Precambrian migmatite, but average 222Rn concentrations in soil gas are also lower in migmatite. Because the ratio of 222Rn-in- water:222Rn-in-soil gas may be consistently higher for houses in migmatite than in Pikes Peak granite, indoor air in houses built on migmatite may have a greater relative contribution from water use even though average 222Rn concentrations in the water are lower. Continuous monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in air on 15-min intervals also indicates that additions to indoor concentrations from water use are significant and measurable only when soil-gas concentrations are low and concentrations in water are high. When soil-gas concentrations were mitigated to less than 150 Bq m-3 in one house, water contributes 20-40% of the annual indoor 222Rn concentration in the laundry room (222Rn concentration in water of 670 kBq m-3). Conversely, when the mitigation system is inactive, diurnal fluctuations and other variations in the soil-gas 222Rn contribution swamp the variability due to water use in the house. Measurable variations in indoor concentrations from water use were not detected in one house despite a low soil-gas contribution of approximately 150 Bq m-3 because waterborne 222Rn concentrations also are low (80 kBq m-3). This

  13. Relationships between 222Rn dissolved in ground water supplies and indoor 222Rn concentrations in some Colorado front range houses.

    PubMed

    Folger, P F; Nyberg, P; Wanty, R B; Poeter, E

    1994-09-01

    Indoor 222Rn concentrations were measured in 37 houses with alpha track detectors placed in water-use rooms near water sources (bathrooms, laundry rooms, and kitchens) and in non-water-use living rooms, dining rooms, and bedrooms away from water sources. Results show that relative contributions of 222Rn to indoor air from water use are insignificant when soil-gas concentrations are high but become increasingly important as the ratio of 222Rn-in-water: 222Rn-in-soil gas increases. High soil-gas 222Rn concentrations may mask 222Rn contributions from water even when waterborne 222Rn concentrations are as high as 750 kBq m-3. Ground water in Precambrian Pikes Peak granite averages 340 kBq m-3 222Rn, vs. 170 kBq m-3 in Precambrian migmatite, but average 222Rn concentrations in soil gas are also lower in migmatite. Because the ratio of 222Rn-in-water: 222Rn-in-soil gas may be consistently higher for houses in migmatite than in Pikes Peak granite, indoor air in houses built on migmatite may have a greater relative contribution from water use even though average 222Rn concentrations in the water are lower. Continuous monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in air on 15-min intervals also indicates that additions to indoor concentrations from water use are significant and measurable only when soil-gas concentrations are low and concentrations in water are high. When soil-gas concentrations were mitigated to less than 150 Bq m-3 in one house, water contributes 20-40% of the annual indoor 222Rn concentration in the laundry room (222Rn concentration in water of 670 kBq m-3). Conversely, when the mitigation system is inactive, diurnal fluctuations and other variations in the soil-gas 222Rn contribution swamp the variability due to water use in the house. Measurable variations in indoor concentrations from water use were not detected in one house despite a low soil-gas contribution of approximately 150 Bq m-3 because waterborne 222Rn concentrations also are low (80 kBq m-3). This

  14. Child exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in schools in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivas, I; Viana, M; Moreno, T; Pandolfi, M; Amato, F; Reche, C; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-08-01

    Proximity to road traffic involves higher health risks because of atmospheric pollutants. In addition to outdoor air, indoor air quality contributes to overall exposure. In the framework of the BREATHE study, indoor and outdoor air pollution was assessed in 39 schools in Barcelona. The study quantifies indoor and outdoor air quality during school hours of the BREATHE schools. High levels of fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), equivalent black carbon (EBC), ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentration and road traffic related trace metals were detected in school playgrounds and indoor environments. PM2.5 almost doubled (factor of 1.7) the usual urban background (UB) levels reported for Barcelona owing to high school-sourced PM2.5 contributions: [1] an indoor-generated source characterised mainly by organic carbon (OC) from organic textile fibres, cooking and other organic emissions, and by calcium and strontium (chalk dust) and; [2] mineral elements from sand-filled playgrounds, detected both indoors and outdoors. The levels of mineral elements are unusually high in PM2.5 because of the breakdown of mineral particles during playground activities. Moreover, anthropogenic PM components (such as OC and arsenic) are dry/wet deposited in this mineral matter. Therefore, PM2.5 cannot be considered a good tracer of traffic emissions in schools despite being influenced by them. On the other hand, outdoor NO2, EBC, UFP, and antimony appear to be good indicators of traffic emissions. The concentrations of NO2 are 1.2 times higher at schools than UB, suggesting the proximity of some schools to road traffic. Indoor levels of these traffic-sourced pollutants are very similar to those detected outdoors, indicating easy penetration of atmospheric pollutants. Spatial variation shows higher levels of EBC, NO2, UFP and, partially, PM2.5 in schools in the centre than in the outskirts of Barcelona, highlighting the influence of traffic emissions. Mean child exposure to

  15. Integrated Field-Scale, Lab-Scale, and Modeling Studies for Improving the Ability to Assess the Groundwater to Indoor Air Pathway at Chlorinated Solvent-Impacted Groundwater Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring of Indoor Air Radon Concentrations with Time .................................14 Radon Concentrations in Soil Gas... Radon soil gas concentration contours [pCi/L] ...........................................................15 Figure 13. SF6 in indoor air with a constant...calibrations ect. August 2010- present* *SF6 started in December 2010, Radon started in February 2011 All available soil gas and

  16. Reflections on the history of indoor air science, focusing on the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Sundell, J

    2017-01-20

    The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science, 26 992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air. Topics of concern were first radon, environmental tobacco smoke, and lung cancer, followed by volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and sick building syndrome, house dust-mites, asthma and allergies, Legionnaires disease, and other airborne infections. Later emerged dampness/mold-associated allergies and today's concern with "modern exposures-modern diseases." Ventilation, thermal comfort, indoor air chemistry, semi-volatile organic compounds, building simulation by computational fluid dynamics, and fine particulate matter are common topics today. From their beginning in Denmark and Sweden, then in the USA, the indoor air sciences now show increasing activity in East and Southeast Asia.

  17. Quantification of ozone levels in indoor environments generated by ionization and ozonolysis air purifiers.

    PubMed

    Britigan, Nicole; Alshawa, Ahmad; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2006-05-01

    Indoor air purifiers are advertised as safe household products for health-conscious individuals, especially for those suffering from allergies and asthma. However, certain air purifiers produce ozone (O3) during operation, either intentionally or as a byproduct of air ionization. This is a serious concern, because O3 is a criteria air pollutant regulated by health-related federal and state standards. Several types of air purifiers were tested for their ability to produce ozone in various indoor environments at 40-50% relative humidity, including office rooms, bathrooms, bedrooms, and cars. O3 levels generated by personal wearable air purifiers were also tested. In many cases, O3 concentrations were well in excess of public and/or industrial safety levels established by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, California Air Resources Board, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Simple kinetic equations were obtained that can predict the steady-state level of O3 in a room from the O3 emission rate of the air purifier and the first-order decay rate of O3 in the room. The additivity of O3 levels generated by independent O3 generators was experimentally demonstrated.

  18. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  19. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored.

  20. A rights-based approach to indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jamie; Petersen, Stephen; Schwarz, Dan; Schwarz, Ryan; Maru, Duncan

    2013-12-12

    Household indoor air pollution from open-fire cookstoves remains a public health and environmental hazard which impacts negatively on people's right to health. Technologically improved cookstoves designed to reduce air pollution have demonstrated their efficacy in laboratory studies. Despite the tremendous need for such stoves, in the field they have often failed to be effective, with low rates of long-term adoption by users, mainly due to poor maintenance of the stoves. In poor, rural, isolated communities, there is unlikely to be a single behavioral or technological "fix" to this problem. In this paper, we suggest that improved cookstoves are an important health intervention to which people have a right, as they do to family planning, vaccination, and essential primary care medicines. Like these other necessary elements in the fulfillment of the right to health, access to clean indoor air should be incorporated into state health strategies, policies, and plans. State infrastructure and health systems should support public and private sector delivery of improved cookstove services, and ensure that such services reach all communities, even those that are poor, located remotely, and likely not to be served by the market. We suggest that community health workers could play a critical role in creating demand for, implementing facilitation and delivery of, and monitoring these cookstoves and related services. Through this approach, improved cookstoves could become an appealing, available, and sustainable option for the rural poor. In this paper, we adopt a human rights-based approach to overcome the problem of indoor air pollution, and we use Nepal as an example.

  1. Mutagenicity of indoor air particles in a residential pilot field study: application and evaluation of new methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lewtas, J.; Goto, S.; Williams, K.; Chuang, J.C.; Petersen, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The mutagenicity of indoor air-particulate matter was measured in a pilot field study of homes in Columbus, Ohio, during the 1984 winter. The study was conducted in eight all-natural-gas homes and two all-electric homes. Particulate matter and semi-volatile organic compounds were collected indoors using a medium-volume sampler. A micro-forward mutation bioassay employing Salmonella typhimurium strain TM 677 was used to quantify the mutagenicity in solvent extracts of microgram quantities of indoor air particles. The mutagenicity was quantified in terms of both mutation frequency per mg of organic matter extracted and per cubic meter of air sampled. The combustion-source variables explored in this study included woodburning in fireplaces and cigarette smoking. Homes in which cigarette smoking occurred had the highest concentrations of mutagenicity per cubic meter of air.

  2. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Shuguang

    2008-04-01

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM2.5 accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM2.5-10 fraction (17.6%) and >PM10 fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks.

  3. α-Pinene, 3-carene and d-limonene in indoor air of Polish apartments: the impact on air quality and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Król, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2014-01-15

    Monoterpenes are among most ubiquitous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be detected in indoor air. Since the quality of indoor air is considered important for inhabitants' well-being, the present study aimed at investigating impact of human activity on levels of selected monoterpenes applying passive sampling technique followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry. One of the objectives of the present work was to identify and characterize main emission sources as well as to investigate relationship between selected monoterpenes in indoor air. Concentration levels obtained for studied monoterpenes varied from 3 μg m(-3) for 3-carene to 1261 μg m(-3) for d-limonene. D-limonene was reported the most abundant of studied monoterpenes in indoor air. The strong correlation observed between monoterpenes suggests that studied compounds originate from same emission sources, while the I/O >1 proves the strong contribution of endogenous emission sources. The in-depth study of day-night fluctuations in concentrations of monoterpenes lead to the conclusion that human presence and specific pattern of behavior strongly influences presence and concentrations of VOCs in indoor environment. The evaluation of human exposure to selected monoterpenes via inhalation of air revealed that infants, toddlers and young children were the highly exposed individuals.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF BUILDING FEATURES ON INDOOR AIR AND POLLUTANT MOVEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses full-scale residential building tests to determine the effects of building features on indoor air and pollutant movement. It was found that the activated heating and air-conditioning (HAC) system served as a conductor that enhanced the indoor air movement and ...

  5. California residential indoor air quality study. Volume 2. Carbon monoxide and air exchange rate: A univariate and multivariate analysis. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Colome, S.D.; Wilson, A.L.; Tian, Y.

    1994-07-01

    This second volume provides a systematic evaluation of the data set focusing on the relationships of the recorded parameters with the following four outcome measures: indoor 48-hour average CO; net 48-hour average indoor minus outdoor CO; air exchange rates; and maximum 8-hour average indoor CO. Over 350 variables were measured and/or recorded for each house in the pilot study. These parameters included the concentrations of pollutants of interest (CO, benzene, NO2, toluene, radon, formaldehyde, and methane), housing characteristics (e.g., cooking fuel, burner adjustments, proper venting) and occupant practices (e.g., cigarette smoking, heating with the range/oven).

  6. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m−3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m−3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational) exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m−3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10−4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene’s sources and

  7. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m2, in 2014 for bars ≥100 m2, and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m2 (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m2 (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m3 pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m3 after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m2, ≥100 m2, and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  8. Effects by inhalation of abundant fragrances in indoor air - An overview.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Peder; Nielsen, Gunnar D

    2017-01-23

    Odorous compounds (odors) like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. To assess their importance by inhalation, we have reviewed how the four major abundant and common airborne fragrances (α-pinene (APN), limonene (LIM), linalool (LIL), and eugenol (EUG)) impact the perceived indoor air quality as odor annoyance, sensory irritation and sensitization in the airways. Breathing and cardiovascular effects, and work performance, and the impact in the airways of ozone-initiated gas- and particle phase reactions products have also been assessed. Measured maximum indoor concentrations for APN, LIM and LIL are close to or above their odor thresholds, but far below their thresholds for sensory irritation in the eyes and upper airways; no information could be traced for EUG. Likewise, reported risk values for long-term effects are far above reported indoor concentrations. Human exposure studies with mixtures of APN and LIM and supported by animal inhalation models do not support sensitization of the airways at indoor levels by inhalation that include other selected fragrances. Human exposure studies, in general, indicate that reported lung function effects are likely due to the perception rather than toxic effects of the fragrances. In general, effects on the breathing rate and mood by exposure to the fragrances are inconclusive. The fragrances may increase the high-frequency heart rate variability, but aerosol exposure during cleaning activities may result in a reduction. Distractive effects influencing the work performance by fragrance/odor exposure are consistently reported, but their persistence over time is unknown. Mice inhalation studies indicate that LIM or its reaction mixture may possess anti-inflammatory properties. There is insufficient information that ozone-initiated reactions with APN or LIM at typical indoor levels cause airway effects in humans. Limited experimental information is available on long-term effects of ozone-initiated reaction products of

  9. Reactions of ozone with human skin lipids: Sources of carbonyls, dicarbonyls, and hydroxycarbonyls in indoor air

    PubMed Central

    Wisthaler, Armin; Weschler, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    This study has used proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for direct air analyses of volatile products resulting from the reactions of ozone with human skin lipids. An initial series of small-scale in vitro and in vivo experiments were followed by experiments conducted with human subjects in a simulated office. The latter were conducted using realistic ozone mixing ratios (≈15 ppb with occupants present). Detected products included mono- and bifunctional compounds that contain carbonyl, carboxyl, or α-hydroxy ketone groups. Among these, three previously unreported dicarbonyls have been identified, and two previously unreported α-hydroxy ketones have been tentatively identified. The compounds detected in this study (excepting acetone) have been overlooked in surveys of indoor pollutants, reflecting the limitations of the analytical methods routinely used to monitor indoor air. The results are fully consistent with the Criegee mechanism for ozone reacting with squalene, the single most abundant unsaturated constituent of skin lipids, and several unsaturated fatty acid moieties in their free or esterified forms. Quantitative product analysis confirms that squalene is the major scavenger of ozone at the interface between room air and the human envelope. Reactions between ozone and human skin lipids reduce the mixing ratio of ozone in indoor air, but concomitantly increase the mixing ratios of volatile products and, presumably, skin surface concentrations of less volatile products. Some of the volatile products, especially the dicarbonyls, may be respiratory irritants. Some of the less volatile products may be skin irritants. PMID:19706436

  10. Indoor radon concentration in geothermal areas of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Ciolini, R; Mazed, D

    2010-09-01

    The indoor radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration was measured between January and June in the schools of two geothermal areas in Tuscany, central Italy. One of these areas (the Larderello area) is characterized by a large number of geothermal power plants, covering about 9% of the world's geothermal power production. In contrast, the other area, Monte Pisano, has not any such facilities. About 250 measurements were made using track etch detectors. Only a slight difference in the concentrations between the two major sampling areas (98 Bq m(-3) for Larderello area and 43 Bq m(-3) for Monte Pisano area) was found, and this was related to different geological characteristics of the ground and not the presence of the geothermal plants. The measured radon concentrations were always well below the intervention levels in both areas, and health risks for students and personnel in the examined schools were excluded.

  11. Global burden of disease as a result of indoor air pollution in Shaanxi, Hubei and Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mestl, Heidi E S; Edwards, Rufus

    2011-03-15

    Indoor air pollution in developing countries is a major global health problem, yet estimates of the global burden of disease vary widely and are associated with large uncertainty. The World Health Organization uses the fuel based approach to estimate 1.6 million premature deaths globally each year associated with exposure to indoor air pollution, of which 420000 are in China. The fuel based approach uses a ventilation factor to account for differences in indoor air concentrations and exposures in different parts of the world based on regional differences in stove technology. In China this approach assumes that flues eliminate the majority of indoor air pollution, with a ventilation factor of 0.25. To account for historic exposure leading to current disease patterns the ventilation factor was adjusted to 0.5 for adult health endpoints. Measurements in three Chinese provinces, Shaanxi, Hubei and Zhejiang, however, show that high PM(4) concentrations are present in kitchens and living rooms even with stoves with flues as a result of multiple stove and flue use. Comparison of Indian and Chinese indoor air concentrations suggests more appropriate ventilation factors in the range 0.76-1.0 for women and children, and 1.0 for men. Premature mortality in the three provinces using these estimates would be closer to 60600, rather than current estimates of 46000. With the addition of cardiovascular diseases these estimates would increase by 92000. Pollutant based estimates using measured indoor air concentrations and combined with dose-response estimates would imply a burden of disease of 157800 premature deaths including cardiovascular diseases, a tripling of current estimates.

  12. [The effect of lacquer coatings on indoor air quality using as example radiator lacquers].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, D; Nagel, R; Seifert, B

    1982-01-01

    Examination of the air of a redecorated office room revealed the lacquer used to paint the radiators as one of the possible reasons for complaints by persons working in that room. The dry lacquer was found to contain solvent residues and considerable amounts of aldehydes (from propanol to n-nonanal), in particular of n-hexanal. In model studies, the details of aldehyde formation have been elucidated. An electric radiator was painted twice with special radiator lacquer, allowed to dry for 3 days and placed into a 1 m3 glass cube. The cube was continuously purged with clean air, simulating air exchange rates of 0.6 and 0.15 per hour. During the experiment, air samples were taken at intervals of several days and analyzed by gas chromatography. The temperature of the radiator was varied between 40 and 60 degrees C. In addition to the different aldehydes which appeared in the air of the cube each at concentrations of up to the mg/m3 range, remarkable concentrations of the corresponding carboxylic acids were found. In analogy to the aldehyde series with a predominance of n-hexanal, there was a maximum concentration of 50 mg/m3 of n-hexanoic acid in the air of the cube. Taking as an example n-butyric acid, which has an odour threshold value of appr. 4 micrograms/m3, the values measured in the cube were used to calculate the corresponding indoor air concentration in a room of 50 m3 with an air exchange rate of 0.6 per hour. It was found that even after a 4-weeks operation of such a radiator, the odour threshold value was surpassed by a factor of 3. By using other types of lacquers (e.g. water-soluble lacquers), the occurrence of such aldehydes and carboxylic acids in indoor air can be largely prevented.

  13. Magnetic signature of indoor air pollution: Household dust study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata; Jeleńska, Maria; Król, Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    The combination of magnetic and geochemical methods was used to determine the mineralogy, grain size and domain structure of magnetic particles in indoor dust collected in 195 sites in Warsaw, Poland. Data show an asymmetric distribution of magnetic susceptibility (χ) in the wide range of 20-1514 × 10-8 m3 kg-1. Comparison of magnetic parameters shows that the internal dust contains outside pollution characteristic for air and soil. More than 90% of indoor dust samples were characterized by roughly uniform magnetic mineralogy, typical for fine grained magnetite (diameter of 0.2-5 μm), and grain size between pseudo-single-domain and small multi-domain with small contribution of superpara-magnetic particles (˜10%). Samples with χ larger than 220 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 contain mainly magnetite and an anthropogenic metallic Fe with T C > 700°C. The indoor dust contains, characteristic for the urban areas, spherical magnetic particles originated from fossil fuel combustion processes and mixture of irregular angular iron-oxides grains containing other elements, including Na, Ca, Al, Si, K, S, Mn, Cl, and Mg.

  14. Dispersal in microbes: fungi in indoor air are dominated by outdoor air and show dispersal limitation at short distances.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel I; Miletto, Marzia; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Thomas D

    2013-07-01

    The indoor microbiome is a complex system that is thought to depend on dispersal from the outdoor biome and the occupants' microbiome combined with selective pressures imposed by the occupants' behaviors and the building itself. We set out to determine the pattern of fungal diversity and composition in indoor air on a local scale and to identify processes behind that pattern. We surveyed airborne fungal assemblages within 1-month time periods at two seasons, with high replication, indoors and outdoors, within and across standardized residences at a university housing facility. Fungal assemblages indoors were diverse and strongly determined by dispersal from outdoors, and no fungal taxa were found as indicators of indoor air. There was a seasonal effect on the fungi found in both indoor and outdoor air, and quantitatively more fungal biomass was detected outdoors than indoors. A strong signal of isolation by distance existed in both outdoor and indoor airborne fungal assemblages, despite the small geographic scale in which this study was undertaken (<500 m). Moreover, room and occupant behavior had no detectable effect on the fungi found in indoor air. These results show that at the local level, outdoor air fungi dominate the patterning of indoor air. More broadly, they provide additional support for the growing evidence that dispersal limitation, even on small geographic scales, is a key process in structuring the often-observed distance-decay biogeographic pattern in microbial communities.

  15. A proactive approach for managing indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.E.; Casey, J.M.; Williams, P.L.

    1997-11-01

    Ventilation and maintenance, followed by psychosocial issues, are the factors most often implicated in indoor air quality (IAQ) investigations. The absence of accepted exposure standards and the presence of a wide variety of building designs, ages, ventilation systems, and usages often make IAQ complaint investigations ineffective. Thus, the best approach to achieving IAQ is to prevent problems from occurring. This paper presents the framework for a proactive approach to managing the causes most often implicated in IAQ investigations. It is the aim of this proactive protocol to provide a cost-effective guide for preventing IAQ problems in nonindustrial settings and in buildings for which there are no current IAQ complaints. The proposed protocol focuses on heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system maintenance and operation; psychosocial factors; and the handling and investigation of complaints. An IAQ manager is designated to implement and manage the protocol. The HVAC system portion of the protocol focuses on proper maintenance of the components often identified as sources of problems in IAQ studies, documentation of the maintenance procedures, and training of individuals responsible for building maintenance. The protocol addresses the psychosocial factors with an environmental survey that rates the occupants` perceptions of the indoor air to identify potential IAQ problems. The psychosocial portion of the protocol also incorporates occupant education and awareness. Finally, a three-step initial investigation procedure for addressing IAQ problems is presented.

  16. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael; Bennett, Deborah H.; Faulkner, David; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P; Trout, Amber L.

    2008-07-01

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, were low, relative to reference exposure levels and air quality standards for comparable office buildings. We found slightly elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including two compounds often found in"green" cleaning products. In addition, we found two industrial solvents at levels higher than typically seen in office buildings, but the levels were not sufficient to be of a health concern. The ventilation rates in the two study spaces were high by any standard. Ventilation rates in the building should be further investigated and adjusted to be in line with the building design. Based on our measurements, we conclude that the IAQ is satisfactory in the zone we tested, but IAQ may need to be re-checked after the ventilation rates have been lowered.

  17. Determination of VOCs in the Indoor Air of a New and a Renovated Apartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meciarova, Ludmila; Vilcekova, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    This study deals with the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the indoor environment of a new and a renovated apartment. Qualitative determination of VOCs was carried out with a gas chromatograph with surface acoustic wave detector (GC/SAW). Concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were determined by a photoionization detector with UV lamp. Simultaneously, temperature and relative humidity were monitored with a data logger. The aim of this study was to determine of TVOC concentrations, to use of GC/SAW for determination of individual VOCs in indoor air as well as to predict possible sources of VOCs in these apartments. Measurements were performed after each construction work for better resolution of the contributions of individual materials to the levels of VOC. Mean concentrations of TVOC were 624 μg/m3 in the renovated apartment and 1,686 μg/m3 in the new apartment after completion of all works. The results from the renovated apartment showed that the use of new materials can lead to lower levels of organic compounds in indoor air compared to old materials that were less environmentally friendly. Many types of VOCs were found in both apartments. After reviewing the possible sources, it seems that the main sources of these substances were applied coatings and flooring materials.

  18. An investigation of the potential causes for the seasonal and annual variations in indoor radon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barazza, F; Gfeller, W; Palacios, M; Murith, C

    2015-11-01

    Indoor radon concentrations exhibit strong variations on short and long timescales. Besides human influences, meteorological factors significantly affect the radon concentrations indoors as well as outdoors. In this article, long-term measurements showing strong annual variations are presented, which take a very similar course in different buildings located in largely separated regions in Switzerland. Also, seasonal variations can be very significant. In general, variations in indoor radon levels can primarily be attributed to human influences. On the other hand, specific weather conditions can have a significant impact on indoor radon levels. In order to further investigate the connection between indoor radon levels and meteorological factors, a measuring campaign has been started in two buildings located in two different regions in Switzerland exhibiting different climatic characteristics. Preliminary results of these investigations are presented, which provide evidence for correlations between indoor radon levels and in particular outdoor temperatures, contributing to seasonal and annual as well as short-term variations in indoor radon concentrations.

  19. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

    2007-02-01

    We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in

  20. Spatial and indoor/outdoor gradients in urban concentrations of ultrafine particles and PM2.5 mass and chemical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Trentini, Arianna; Bacco, Dimitri; Maccone, Claudio; Castellazzi, Silvia; Lauriola, Paolo; Poluzzi, Vanes; Harrison, Roy M.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate relationships between outdoor air pollution and concentrations indoors, a novel design of experiment has been conducted at two sites, one heavily trafficked and the other residential. The novel design aspect involves the introduction of air directly to the centre of an unoccupied room by use of a fan and duct giving a controlled air exchange rate and allowing an evaluation of particle losses purely due to uptake on indoor surfaces without the losses during penetration of the building envelope which affect most measurement programmes. The rooms were unoccupied and free of indoor sources, and consequently reductions in particle concentration were due to deposition processes within the room alone. Measurements were made of indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5, major chemical components and particle number size distributions. Despite the absence of penetration losses, indoor to outdoor ratios were very similar to those in other studies showing that deposition to indoor surfaces is likely to be the major loss process for indoor air. The results demonstrated a dramatic loss of nitrate in the indoor atmosphere as well as a selective loss of particles in the size range below 50 nm, in comparison to coarser particles. Depletion of indoor particles was greater during a period of cold weather with higher outdoor concentrations probably due to an enhancement of semi-volatile materials in the outdoor particulate matter. Indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 were generally higher at the trafficked site than the residential site, but for particle number were generally lower, reflecting the different chemical composition and size distributions of particles at the two sites.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air during waste TV recycling process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Lin, Kuangfei; Deng, Jingjing; Fu, Xiaoxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Recycling process for waste TV sets mainly consists of dismantling, printed wiring board (PWB) heating, PWB recycling, and plastic crushing in formal recycling plant. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contained in waste TV sets are released to indoor air. Air samples at 4 different workshops were collected to measure the PBDEs concentrations in both gaseous and particulate phases. The mean concentrations of ∑PBDEs in indoor air were in the range of 6780-2,280,000 pg/m(3). The highest concentration in gaseous phase (291,000 pg/m(3)) was detected in the PWB heating workshop. The ∑12PBDEs concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 at the 4 workshops ranged in 6.8-6670 μg/g and 32.6-6790 μg/g, respectively. The gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs was disrupted as PBDEs were continuously released during the recycling processes. Occupational exposure assessment showed that only the exposure concentration of BDE-47 (0.118 μg/kg/day) through inhalation in the PWB heating workshop for workers without facemask exceeded the reference dose (0.1 μg/kg/day), posing a health hazard to workers. All the results demonstrated that recycling of TV sets was an important source of PBDEs emission, and PBDEs emission pollution was related to the composition of TV sets, interior dust, and recycling process.

  2. Variation of annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air in Marwar region of Rajasthan, India

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Asha; Mittal, Sudhir; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-08-28

    In the present work, indoor radon and thoron measurements have been carried out from different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India using RAD7, a solid state alpha detector. The radon and thoron concentration in indoor air varies from 8.75 to 61.25 Bq m{sup −3} and 32.7 to 147.2 Bq m{sup −3} with the mean value of 32 and 73 Bq m{sup −3} respectively. The observed indoor radon concentration values are well below the action level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (200-300 Bq m{sup −3}) and Environmental Protection Agency (148 Bq m{sup −3}). The survey reveals that the thoron concentration values in the indoor air are well within the International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005). The calculated total annual effective dose due to radon level in indoor air varies from 0.22 to 1.54 mSv y{sup −1} with the mean value of 0.81 mSv y{sup −1} which is less than even the lower limit of action level 3-10 mSv y{sup −1} recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (2005)

  3. Factors affecting yearly variations of indoor radon concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, D.J.; Baynes, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    Since indoor radon exposures take place over many years while radon measurement periods are shorter, we are studying the yearly variation of indoor radon concentrations in approximately 100 houses located throughout Minnesota. Most houses were initially measured for one or more years in the late 1980`s and for 5 consecutive years starting in 1990. Two houses have been monitored for 12 y. Each year, two alpha track detectors were placed on the two lowest livable levels. The year-to-year variations averaged about 35% (corrected for instrumental uncertainties) in both basements and first floors. The minimum observed variation was 5% and the maximum was 130%. Some homes have shown substantial variation associated with Structural modifications. While most homes show no obvious systematic trends, a few houses have shown temporal trends that may be associated with aging or climate. We are studying possible correlation between year-to-year radon variation, climatic variables (yearly-average and seasonal such as heating/cooling degree days, precipitation, soil moisture), and structural changes.

  4. Procedure for the characterization of radon potential in existing dwellings and to assess the annual average indoor radon concentration.

    PubMed

    Collignan, Bernard; Powaga, Emilie

    2014-11-01

    Risk assessment due to radon exposure indoors is based on annual average indoor radon activity concentration. To assess the radon exposure in a building, measurement is generally performed during at least two months during heating period in order to be representative of the annual average value. This is because radon presence indoors could be very variable during time. This measurement protocol is fairly reliable but may be a limiting in the radon risk management, particularly during a real estate transaction due to the duration of the measurement and the limitation of the measurement period. A previous field study defined a rapid methodology to characterize radon entry in dwellings. The objective of this study was at first, to test this methodology in various dwellings to assess its relevance with a daily test. At second, a ventilation model was used to assess numerically the air renewal of a building, the indoor air quality all along the year and the annual average indoor radon activity concentration, based on local meteorological conditions, some building characteristics and in-situ characterization of indoor pollutant emission laws. Experimental results obtained on thirteen individual dwellings showed that it is generally possible to obtain a representative characterization of radon entry into homes. It was also possible to refine the methodology defined in the previous study. In addition, numerical assessments of annual average indoor radon activity concentration showed generally a good agreement with measured values. These results are encouraging to allow a procedure with a short measurement time to be used to characterize long-term radon potential in dwellings.

  5. Electronic cigarettes and indoor air quality: a simple approach to modeling potential bystander exposures to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Colard, Stéphane; O'Connell, Grant; Verron, Thomas; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2014-12-24

    There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes ("vaping") in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents.

  6. Secondary organic aerosol formation initiated by α-terpineol ozonolysis in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Waring, M S

    2016-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) owing to reactive organic gas (ROG) ozonolysis can be an important indoor particle source. However, SOA formation owing to ozonolysis of α-terpineol, which is emitted by consumer product usage and reacts strongly with ozone, has not been systematically quantified. Therefore, we conducted 21 experiments to investigate the SOA formation initiated by α-terpineol ozonolysis for high (0.84 h(-1) ), moderate (0.61 h(-1) ), and low (0.36 h(-1) ) air exchange rates (AER), which is the frequency with which indoor is replaced by outdoor air. α-Terpineol concentrations of 6.39 to 226 ppb were combined with high ozone (~25 ppm) to ensure rapid and complete ozonolysis. No reactants were replenished, so SOA peaked quickly and then decreased due to AER and surface losses, and peak SOA ranged from 2.03 to 281 μg/m(3) at unit density. SOA mass formation was parameterized with the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), a.k.a. the SOA yield, and AMFs ranged from 0.056 to 0.24. The AMFs strongly and positively correlated with reacted α-terpineol, whereas they weakly and negatively correlated with higher AERs. One-product, two-product, and volatility basis set (VBS) models were fit to the AMF data. Predictive modeling demonstrated that α-terpineol ozonolysis could meaningfully form SOA in indoor air.

  7. A Study of Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Douglas, Willard L.; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Previously, preliminary data on the ability of a group of common indoor plants to remove organic chemical from indoor air was presented. The group of plants chosen for this study was determined by joint agreement between NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America. The chemicals chosen for study were benzene, trichloroethylene, and formaldehyde. The results show that plants can play a major role in removal of organic chemicals from indoor air.

  8. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  9. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  10. Formation and growth of indoor air aerosol particles as a result of D-limonene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartiainen, E.; Kulmala, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Taipale, R.; Rinne, J.; Vehkamäki, H.

    <