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Sample records for indoor allergens endotoxin

  1. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  2. Endotoxin and House Dust Mite Allergen Levels on Synthetic and Buckwheat Pillows

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Park, Choon-Sik; Crane, Julian

    2004-01-01

    Pillows are known to contain significant levels of indoor allergens and endotoxin, that are of importance to house dust mite sensitized asthmatics. Buckwheat pillows are commonly used in Korea. We studied the levels of the house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, and endotoxin on new synthetic and buckwheat pillows and their accumulation over three months. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher on new buckwheat pillows compared to synthetic pillows; geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 60,950 EU/g (30,270-122,700) and 4,887 EU/g (2,570-9,311) respectively (p<0.001). No Der f 1 was detected on the new pillows. After three months Der f 1 levels were similar on buckwheat and synthetic pillows, geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 1.16 µg/g (0.02-8.13) and 1.08 µg/g (0.19-1.68) respectively. These results indicate that buckwheat pillows are a source of very high endotoxin levels that may be of relevance to asthma severity of atopic asthmatics. PMID:15308838

  3. Indoor Allergens in School and Daycare Environments

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Sever, Michelle L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies that have examined exposure to indoor allergens have focused on home environments. However, allergen exposures can be encountered in environments other than the home. For example, many children spend a large part of their time in schools and daycare facilities. Over the past two decades, a large number of studies have been conducted in school and daycare environments. However, the role of indoor exposures in allergy and asthma development or morbidity in these settings is not well characterized. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the importance of indoor allergen exposures in school and daycare settings. We summarize the key findings from recent scientific literature, describe exposure characteristics, discuss the role of these exposures in relation to asthma and allergy symptoms, and provide information on the effectiveness of published interventions. PMID:19577284

  4. Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants in homes of asthmatic children in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Siebers, Robert; Chang, Chin-Fu; Hsieh, Shu-Wen; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chen, Chi-Ying; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian

    2009-09-01

    Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants play a significant role in asthma symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine levels of house dust mite allergens, bacterial endotoxin, and fungal beta-glucan in homes of 120 asthmatic children in central Taiwan. Dust samples from 120 mattresses (67 double-sided) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, and Blo t 5), endotoxin, and beta-glucan. Pillows (n = 118) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens only. Kitchen dust samples were analyzed for the cockroach allergen, Bla g 1. Blo t 5 was detected in 9.3% pillows and 82.2% mattresses, Der p 1 in 95.8% pillows and 93.2% mattresses, and Der f 1 in 82.2% pillows and 83.1% mattresses. Geometric mean levels (95% confidence interval) of endotoxin and beta-glucan in mattresses were 108.4 Eu/mg (81.4-144.2) and 25.2 microg/g (22.7-28.0), respectively. House dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels were significantly lower on the bamboo side of 67 mattresses, compared to the inner sprung mattress side. Geometric mean of kitchen Bla g 1 was 0.61 U/g (95% CI: 0.43-0.85). Given the presence of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in central Taiwan, it is advised to measure allergens of all three house dust mite species to obtain a true index of allergen exposure. Bamboo sides of mattresses had significantly lower house dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels. PMID:19728217

  5. Domestic allergens and endotoxin in three hospitals offering in-patient rehabilitation for allergic diseases in the alpine mountain climate of Bavaria - The AURA study.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, B; Gulyas, A F; Schultz, K; Lecheler, J; Flögel, S; Wolfmeyer, C; Thiessen, K; Jakob, T; Schuster, T; Hollweck, R; Ring, J; Behrendt, H

    2009-01-01

    Endotoxins and allergens represent the major relevant contents of the atmospheric bioaerosol with regard to the triggering and exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, mattress concentrations of endotoxin and indoor allergens were measured in three hospitals in the alpine climate of Bavaria and in adjacent homes. Dust was collected from each of 10 mattresses according to a standardized protocol, and endotoxin was analyzed with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, indoor allergens Der p 1, Der f 1 and Fel d 1 were analyzed by ELISAs. The concentration of endotoxin in the mattresses did not differ significantly between different cities. The percentiles of endotoxin were significantly higher in hospitals than in homes. The concentrations of mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) in the dust were significantly lower in all hospitals than in homes. There was no significant difference of mite allergens between different time points. The concentrations of Fel d 1 were significantly higher in the autumn than in the summer (median: 1376 vs. 478ng/g). No significant differences of Fel d 1 were found between hospitals and homes or between different hospitals. As Fel d 1 concentrations reached levels at which cat allergic patients can experience symptoms, efforts had to be made to reduce the concentrations of Fel d 1 especially in hospitals. In contrast, mite allergens were low in hospitals, which can be clinically beneficial for patients with mite allergies. PMID:18155959

  6. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  7. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  8. Indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F

    2009-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations.

  9. Indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F

    2009-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations. PMID:19585331

  10. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sever, Michelle L; Sly, Peter D; London, Stephanie J; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning. PMID:25715241

  11. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sever, Michelle L.; Sly, Peter D.; London, Stephanie J.; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning. PMID:25715241

  12. Mechanisms and characteristics of airway sensitization to indoor allergens.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Cazzola, M; Russo, M; Gilder, J A; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2001-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases, and particularly of bronchial asthma, has been linked to changes induced by human activities in outdoor and indoor environments. People living in industrialized countries spend most of their time indoors: in private homes, offices and means of transport. Indoor environments are not a refuge from outdoor air pollution. Modern systems for energy saving such as insulated windows and doors reduce the indoor natural ventilation and consequently increase the rate of indoor humidity. These conditions may determine an increase in the level of indoor pollutants (tobacco smoke, gases produced by cooling processes etc.) and of allergens derived from mites, domestic animals and cockroaches. Upholstered furniture, wall-to-wall carpets, central heating systems and/or humidifiers may also contribute to the growth of mite populations. The increasing levels of exposure to pollutants and allergens in indoor environments represents a risk factor for the development of airway sensitization, especially if these materials are inhaled early in life. The major cat allergen Fel d 1 is considered an ubiquitous allergen, since it has been found in many indoor environments where a cat has never been kept. The clothing of cat owners seems to help spread Fel d 1 in cat-free environments. Sensitization to cockroach allergens is very common in patients living in urban areas where unhygenic conditions may favour the growth of cockroach populations. Monitoring of the levels of allergens and strategies of allergen and pollutant avoidance in indoor environments are the main ways to reduce the prevalence of respiratory allergies induced by these materials.

  13. Effect of deployment time on endotoxin and allergen exposure assessment using electrostatic dust collectors.

    PubMed

    Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatic dust collector (EDC) is a passive dust sampling device for exposure assessment of airborne endotoxin and possibly allergens. EDCs consist of a non-conducting plastic folder holding two or four electrostatic cloths of defined area. The sampling time needed to achieve detectable and reproducible loading for bioaerosols has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, in 15 Iowa farm homes EDCs were deployed for 7-, 14-, and 28-day sampling periods to determine if endotoxin and allergens could be quantified and if loading rates were uniform over time, i.e. if loads doubled from 7 to 14 days or 14 to 28 days and quadrupled from 7 to 28 days. Loadings between left and right paired EDC cloths were not significantly different and were highly correlated for endotoxin, total protein, and cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1), and mouse (Mus m1) allergens (P < 0.001). EDCs performed especially well for endotoxin sampling with close agreement between paired samples (Pearson r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Endotoxin loading of the EDCs doubled from 7- to 14-day deployments as hypothesized although the loading rate decreased from 14 to 28 days of sampling with only a 1.38-fold increase. Allergen exposure assessment using EDCs was overall less satisfactory. Although there was reasonable agreement between paired samples, only exposures to cat, dog, and mouse allergens were reliable and these only at the longer deployment times.

  14. Effect of Deployment Time on Endotoxin and Allergen Exposure Assessment Using Electrostatic Dust Collectors

    PubMed Central

    Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatic dust collector (EDC) is a passive dust sampling device for exposure assessment of airborne endotoxin and possibly allergens. EDCs consist of a non-conducting plastic folder holding two or four electrostatic cloths of defined area. The sampling time needed to achieve detectable and reproducible loading for bioaerosols has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, in 15 Iowa farm homes EDCs were deployed for 7-, 14-, and 28-day sampling periods to determine if endotoxin and allergens could be quantified and if loading rates were uniform over time, i.e. if loads doubled from 7 to 14 days or 14 to 28 days and quadrupled from 7 to 28 days. Loadings between left and right paired EDC cloths were not significantly different and were highly correlated for endotoxin, total protein, and cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1), and mouse (Mus m1) allergens (P < 0.001). EDCs performed especially well for endotoxin sampling with close agreement between paired samples (Pearson r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Endotoxin loading of the EDCs doubled from 7- to 14-day deployments as hypothesized although the loading rate decreased from 14 to 28 days of sampling with only a 1.38-fold increase. Allergen exposure assessment using EDCs was overall less satisfactory. Although there was reasonable agreement between paired samples, only exposures to cat, dog, and mouse allergens were reliable and these only at the longer deployment times. PMID:25187036

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, D R

    2000-01-01

    Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma. PMID:10931782

  16. Residential indoor and outdoor coarse particles and associated endotoxin exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Amanda J.; Dobbin, Nina A.; Lyrette, Ninon; Wallace, Lance; Foto, Mark; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Kearney, Jill; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Harrison, Ian; Rispler, Kathleen; Héroux, Marie-Eve

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that coarse particles (PM 10-2.5) have detrimental impacts upon health, especially for respiratory effects. There are limited data available for indoor residential exposures. Some data exist regarding the composition of this PM size fraction with emphasis on crustal elements and biological components. This study includes data from 146 homes sampled in Regina, Saskatchewan (SK) where 5-day integrated concurrent monitoring of indoor and outdoor coarse particles was conducted during the winter and summer of 2007. The coarse particle filters were subsequently analysed for endotoxin content to determine the contribution of this compound. Winter indoor geometric mean concentrations of coarse particles exceeded outdoor concentrations (3.73 μg m -3 vs 2.49 μg m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001); however the reverse was found in summer (4.34 μg m -3 vs 8.82 μg m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001). Linear regression indicated that winter predictors of indoor coarse particles were outdoor coarse particles, ventilation and presence of at least two or more occupants. During the summer, increased use of central air conditioning was associated with reduced coarse particles, while smoking and the presence of two or more occupants resulted in increased coarse particles. Endotoxin concentrations (EU μg -1) were lower indoors than outdoors in both seasons. Spatial variability of ambient coarse particles was assessed to determine the suitability of using a single monitoring station within a city to estimate exposure. The coefficients of variation between homes sampled simultaneously and the central monitoring station were calculated (median COV in summer = 15% and winter = 24%) and showed significant variability by week, especially during the summer months, suggesting a single site may be insufficient for characterizing exposure. Future studies should consider daily measurements per home to understand shorter term exposures and day to day

  17. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-01

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations. PMID:23927534

  18. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-01

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations.

  19. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Allergenic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yongjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, SPH,...

  20. Short-term dynamics of indoor and outdoor endotoxin exposure: Case of Santiago, Chile, 2012.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Heyer, Johanna; Palma, Wilfredo; Edwards, Ana María; Muñoz, Marcelo; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Montoya, Lupita D

    2016-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor endotoxin in PM2.5 was measured for the very first time in Santiago, Chile, in spring 2012. Average endotoxin concentrations were 0.099 and 0.094 [EU/m(3)] for indoor (N=44) and outdoor (N=41) samples, respectively; the indoor-outdoor correlation (log-transformed concentrations) was low: R=-0.06, 95% CI: (-0.35 to 0.24), likely owing to outdoor spatial variability. A linear regression model explained 68% of variability in outdoor endotoxins, using as predictors elemental carbon (a proxy of traffic emissions), chlorine (a tracer of marine air masses reaching the city) and relative humidity (a modulator of surface emissions of dust, vegetation and garbage debris). In this study, for the first time a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was applied to outdoor endotoxin measurements. Wind trajectory analysis identified upwind agricultural sources as contributors to the short-term, outdoor endotoxin variability. Our results confirm an association between combustion particles from traffic and outdoor endotoxin concentrations. For indoor endotoxins, a predictive model was developed but it only explained 44% of endotoxin variability; the significant predictors were tracers of indoor PM2.5 dust (Si, Ca), number of external windows and number of hours with internal doors open. Results suggest that short-term indoor endotoxin variability may be driven by household dust/garbage production and handling. This would explain the modest predictive performance of published models that use answers to household surveys as predictors. One feasible alternative is to increase the sampling period so that household features would arise as significant predictors of long-term airborne endotoxin levels. PMID:27065310

  1. Short-term dynamics of indoor and outdoor endotoxin exposure: Case of Santiago, Chile, 2012.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Heyer, Johanna; Palma, Wilfredo; Edwards, Ana María; Muñoz, Marcelo; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Montoya, Lupita D

    2016-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor endotoxin in PM2.5 was measured for the very first time in Santiago, Chile, in spring 2012. Average endotoxin concentrations were 0.099 and 0.094 [EU/m(3)] for indoor (N=44) and outdoor (N=41) samples, respectively; the indoor-outdoor correlation (log-transformed concentrations) was low: R=-0.06, 95% CI: (-0.35 to 0.24), likely owing to outdoor spatial variability. A linear regression model explained 68% of variability in outdoor endotoxins, using as predictors elemental carbon (a proxy of traffic emissions), chlorine (a tracer of marine air masses reaching the city) and relative humidity (a modulator of surface emissions of dust, vegetation and garbage debris). In this study, for the first time a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was applied to outdoor endotoxin measurements. Wind trajectory analysis identified upwind agricultural sources as contributors to the short-term, outdoor endotoxin variability. Our results confirm an association between combustion particles from traffic and outdoor endotoxin concentrations. For indoor endotoxins, a predictive model was developed but it only explained 44% of endotoxin variability; the significant predictors were tracers of indoor PM2.5 dust (Si, Ca), number of external windows and number of hours with internal doors open. Results suggest that short-term indoor endotoxin variability may be driven by household dust/garbage production and handling. This would explain the modest predictive performance of published models that use answers to household surveys as predictors. One feasible alternative is to increase the sampling period so that household features would arise as significant predictors of long-term airborne endotoxin levels.

  2. Indoor Pollutant Exposures Modify the Effect of Airborne Endotoxin on Asthma in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; Aloe, Charles; Schiltz, Allison M.; Peng, Roger D.; Rabinovitch, Nathan; Ong, Mary Jane; Williams, D’Ann L.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Diette, Gregory B.; Liu, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The effect of endotoxin on asthma morbidity in urban populations is unclear. Objectives: To determine if indoor pollutant exposure modifies the relationships between indoor airborne endotoxin and asthma health and morbidity. Methods: One hundred forty-six children and adolescents with persistent asthma underwent repeated clinical assessments at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Home visits were conducted at the same time points for assessment of airborne nicotine, endotoxin, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The effect of concomitant pollutant exposure on relationships between endotoxin and asthma outcomes were examined in stratified analyses and statistical models with interaction terms. Measurements and Main Results: Both air nicotine and NO2 concentrations modified the relationships between airborne endotoxin and asthma outcomes. Among children living in homes with no detectable air nicotine, higher endotoxin was inversely associated with acute visits and oral corticosteroid bursts, whereas among those in homes with detectable air nicotine, endotoxin was positively associated with these outcomes (interaction P value = 0.004 and 0.07, respectively). Among children living in homes with lower NO2 concentrations (<20 ppb), higher endotoxin was positively associated with acute visits, whereas among those living in homes with higher NO2 concentrations, endotoxin was negatively associated with acute visit (interaction P value = 0.05). NO2 also modified the effect of endotoxin on asthma symptom outcomes in a similar manner. Conclusions: The effects of household airborne endotoxin exposure on asthma are modified by coexposure to air nicotine and NO2, and these pollutants have opposite effects on the relationships between endotoxin and asthma-related outcomes. PMID:24066676

  3. House dust mite and cat allergen in different indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Taggart, S C; Woodcock, A

    1994-12-01

    Allergy to house dust mites (HDM) and domestic pets is a major cause of asthma. People in developed countries spend more than 90% of their time indoors. We have measured levels of HDM allergen Der pI and cat allergen Fel dI in public buildings and public transport. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming a 1 m2 area for 2 min from five schools, six hotels, four cinemas, six pubs, three buses, two trains and 12 domestic households without a cat. Der pI and Fel dI were assayed with monoclonal antibodies in a two-site immunometric ELISA. Der pI concentration was significantly higher in the private homes than in comparable sites in public places except for cinema seats (where high values were found) compared with domestic sofas. Der pI > 2000 ng/g of fine dust was found in 30% of the upholstered seats, 9% having a concentration > 10,000 ng/g. Fel dI levels were significantly higher in the dust from upholstered seats (geometric mean 14.88 micrograms/g) than in carpeted floors (geometric mean 0.73 micrograms/g), and in public places than in private homes. Fel dI > 8 micrograms/g was found in 79% of the upholstered seats or furniture sampled in public buildings or public transport. In conclusion, upholstered seats from public buildings and public transport constitute an allergen reservoir for continuous contamination of the indoor environment which could compromise the effects of allergen avoidance employed at home.

  4. The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Libby A.; Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens. Recent findings Sensitization to Fel d 1 is the dominant event in inhalant responses to cat; however, there are also IgE responses to the lipocalin (Fel d 4), to cat albumin (Fel d 2), and to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) on cat IgA (Fel d 5w) and other molecules. The dose response and routes of sensitization for these allergens are now thought to be diverse. It is important to remember that exposure outside a house with a cat is sufficient to cause sensitization. Furthermore, the only solid evidence about a role in asthma relates to Fel d 1. Recently, it has been shown that tolerance associated with early exposure to cats can persist to age 18 and that IgE to alpha-gal (on cat IgA) is not related to asthma. In addition, a recent study of anti-IgE reinforces the evidence that IgE antibodies to indoor allergens make a major contribution to asthma severity. Summary Exposure to Fel d 1 in a home with a cat is far higher than the levels necessary to induce an allergic (IgE antibody) response. In keeping with that, children may develop tolerance, which can be long-lived. In addition, there is increasing evidence that IgE antibodies to an inhalant allergen, such as Fel d 1, dust mite, or cockroach, are causally related to lung inflammation and asthma. PMID:22081090

  5. The effects of cage design on airborne allergens and endotoxin in animal rooms: high-volume measurements with an ion-charging device.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James; Custis, Natalie; Kenney, Alice; Tsay, Amy; Chapman, Martin; Feldman, Sanford; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms related to both endotoxins and animal allergens continue to be an important cause of occupational disease for animal technicians and scientists working with rodents. Better sampling methods for airborne allergens and endotoxin are needed to help standardize compliance with federal occupational health regulations. Using an ion-charging device, we sampled 20 mouse rooms and four rat rooms at the University of Virginia, along with 43 domestic living rooms in houses in the Charlottesville area with at least one cat or dog. The use of filter tops on cages corresponds to a 50-fold reduction in mean levels of both airborne allergens (P < 0.001) and endotoxin (P < 0.001). The use of vented cages with filtered exhaust ports was associated with additional reductions. However, the mean airborne endotoxin level in all rooms using filter tops without a filtered exhaust port on the cages was significantly lower (P = 0.003) than the level in domestic living rooms. Our results for maximum airborne allergens or endotoxin are comparable with previous reports. However, the sensitivity of the technique allows an accurate assessment of low-level exposure, which makes it possible to evaluate the effect of cage designs. In addition, this approach allows direct comparison with results for airborne allergen and endotoxin in domestic homes. The results could allow a more consistent approach to the application of occupational health guidelines. PMID:15773770

  6. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination. PMID:26656510

  7. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination.

  8. Importance of indoor allergens in the induction of allergy and elicitation of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Simpson, A; Woodcock, A

    1998-01-01

    During the last few decades, many countries have experienced an increase in the prevalence and severity of asthma. Over the same period, the population in the developed world has retreated indoors, and homes have become better insulated and more energy efficient, resulting in a warm and humid environment with low ventilation rates, ideally suited to house-dust-mite population growth throughout the year. Increasing exposure and increasing sensitivity to indoor allergens represent a progressively higher risk factor for the development of asthma. The development of sensitivity to indoor allergens and the symptoms and severity of asthma in later childhood are directly related to the exposure to allergens in infancy. It was relatively straightforward to demonstrate a quantitative linear dose-response relationship between exposure to house-dust-mite allergens and subsequent sensitization. However, showing the same for exposure and asthma severity has been more difficult, as the relationship between exposure and asthma symptoms in already sensitized individuals is much more complex than in the case of exposure and sensitization. Nevertheless, sensitized individuals are likely to have more severe asthma if exposed to high allergen levels than if their level of exposure is low. Sensitization to house-dust mites is a major independent risk factor for asthma in all areas where climate is conducive to mite population growth. The relevance of allergens other that mite is not consistent between different areas, and depends on the climate, habits, and socio-economic features of the local community. It would appear that presence of mite allergens in homes "overshadows" other allergens (e.g., cat, dog, or cockroach) as a risk factor for sensitization and subsequent development of allergic disease. It is possible that this is the consequence of the difference in inherent potency between allergen sources, and the question of why mite allergens are so potent in inducing sensitization

  9. LOW-DOSE AIRBORNE ENDOTOXIN EXPOSURE ENHANCES BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO INHALED ALLERGEN IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endotoxin exposure has been associated with both protection against development of TH2-immune responses during childhood and exacerbation of asthma in persons who already have allergic airway inflammation.1 Occupational and experimental inhalation exposures to endotoxin have been...

  10. Are Neighborhood-Level Characteristics Associated with Indoor Allergens in the Household?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L.; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Background Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well-studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York Department of City Planning. Objective We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Methods Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n=261) we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates) and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 μg/g; cat: >1 μg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 μg/g. Results Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Conclusions Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions. PMID

  11. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens: the classroom may be a culprit.

    PubMed

    Epstien, B L

    2001-10-01

    Asthma has become the most common chronic illness among children. Indoor environments appear to play a substantial role in the development of asthma. Recent studies indicate strong evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to certain indoor environmental pollutants and development and/or exacerbation of asthma in susceptible individuals. Allergens of concern include those produced by dust mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds. It is important to better understand this relationship and take preventive and corrective steps to reduce or eliminate these sources in schools, homes, and day care centers. Measures include tracking of asthma and allergic response incidents; monitoring for the presence of allergens and molds; effective cleaning procedures; prompt repair of water leaks and/or moisture problems; control of indoor relative humidity; and proper operation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

  12. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The indoor environment has increased in importance to children's health with children now spending more than 90% of their time indoors. Molds are an important component of this environment and have been associated with exacerbation of asthma. Their contribution t...

  13. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens in Native Americans in New York

    PubMed Central

    Surdu, Simona; Montoya, Lupita D; Tarbell, Alice; Carpenter, David O

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between childhood asthma and potential risk factors, especially exposure to indoor allergens, in a Native American population. Methods A case-control study of St. Regis Mohawk tribe children ages 2–14 years, 25 diagnosed with asthma and 25 controls was conducted. Exposure was assessed based on a personal interview and measurement of mite and cat allergens (Der p 1, Fel d 1) in indoor dust. Results A non-significant increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with self-reported family history of asthma, childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and air pollution. There was a significant protective effect of breastfeeding against current asthma in children less than 14 years (5.2 fold lower risk). About 80% of dust mite and 15% of cat allergen samples were above the threshold values for sensitization of 2 and 1 μg/g, respectively. The association between current asthma and exposure to dust mite and cat allergens was positive but not statistically significant. Conclusion This research identified several potential indoor and outdoor risk factors for asthma in Mohawks homes, of which avoidance may reduce or delay the development of asthma in susceptible individuals. PMID:16859546

  14. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens in Native Americans in New York

    PubMed Central

    Surdu, Simona; Montoya, Lupita D; Tarbell, Alice; Carpenter, David O

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between childhood asthma and potential risk factors, especially exposure to indoor allergens, in a Native American population. Methods A case-control study of St. Regis Mohawk tribe children ages 2–14 years, 25 diagnosed with asthma and 25 controls was conducted. Exposure was assessed based on a personal interview and measurement of mite and cat allergens (Der p 1, Fel d 1) in indoor dust. Results A non-significant increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with self-reported family history of asthma, childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and air pollution. There was a significant protective effect of breastfeeding against current asthma in children less than 14 years (5.2 fold lower risk). About 80% of dust mite and 15% of cat allergen samples were above the threshold values for sensitization of 2 and 1 μg/g, respectively. The association between current asthma and exposure to dust mite and cat allergens was positive but not statistically significant. Conclusion This research identified several potential indoor and outdoor risk factors for asthma in Mohawks homes, of which avoidance may reduce or delay the development of asthma in susceptible individuals. PMID:16859546

  15. Concentration and determinants of molds and allergens in indoor air and house dust of French dwellings.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, Arnaud; Le Cann, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Chevrier, Cécile; Costet, Nathalie; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blanchard, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Molds and allergens are common indoor biocontaminants. The aims of this study were to assess the concentrations of common molds in indoor air and floor dust and the concentrations of house dust mite, cat and dog allergens in mattress dust in French dwellings, and to assess predictors of these concentrations. A sample of 150 houses in Brittany (western France) was investigated. Airborne Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in more than 90% of the dwellings, Aspergillus in 46% and Alternaria in only 6% of the housings. Regarding floor dust samples, Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in 92 and 80% of the housings respectively, Aspergillus in 49% and Alternaria in 14%. House dust mite allergens Der p1 and Der f1 were detected in 90% and 77% of the mattress dust samples respectively and Can f1 and Fel d1 in 37% and 89% of the homes. Airborne and dustborne mold concentrations, although not statistically correlated (except for Aspergillus) shared most of their predictors. Multivariate linear models for mold levels, explaining up to 62% of the variability, showed an influence of the season, of the age of the dwelling, of aeration habits, presence of pets, smoking, signals of dampness, temperature and relative humidity. Allergens in the dust of the mattress were strongly related to the presence of pets and cleaning practices of bedsheets, these factors accounting for 60% of the variability. This study highlights ubiquitous contamination by molds and underlines complex interaction between outdoor and indoor sources and factors. PMID:26094801

  16. Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380–690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID

  17. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  18. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Nejat, Arsalan

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat) and Bla g1 (cockroach) allergens were found in the children's bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms.

  19. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Nejat, Arsalan

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat) and Bla g1 (cockroach) allergens were found in the children's bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms. PMID:27090366

  20. Indoor allergen sensitization and the risk of asthma and eczema in children in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Brook M; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sensitization to cockroach and mouse allergens is correlated with presence and severity of asthma, especially among children living in inner cities. This study evaluated the prevalence of positive skin testing to indoor allergens in the Pittsburgh area and the association with asthma and eczema. A retrospective analysis was performed of 540 children from the Pittsburgh area who underwent skin testing to indoor allergens. Presence of asthma and eczema were determined by parent and/or physician report. Asthma and eczema are not significantly more frequent among children who had positive skin testing to cockroaches or mice. However, asthma was more common among children who had positive skin testing to dogs (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65), cats (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58), and dust mites (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37). Eczema was more common in children who had positive skin testing to cats (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02). Both asthma (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.18-1.58) and eczema (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92) were more prevalent among children with any positive skin test. We did not find that sensitization to cockroaches or mice was correlated with the diagnosis or asthma or eczema in the Pittsburgh area. However, sensitization to any allergen, and to cats and/or dogs specifically, was associated with diagnosis of both asthma and eczema. Our result suggests that allergic sensitization is associated with these diseases, but the implicated allergens may vary.

  1. Sorbent trapping solid-phase microextraction of fragrance allergens in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2010-08-13

    Exposure to fragrance substances is exponentially increasing in our daily life due to the enhanced use of scented products. Some fragrances are known to be important sensitizers, inhalation being an important exposure pathway in indoor environments. A simple and sensitive method based on solid-phase enrichment and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the analysis of 24 volatile fragrance allergens in indoor air. Suspected allergens present in the air (0.2 m(3)) were adsorbed onto a very small quantity of florisil (25 mg) and then transferred to a SPME fiber in the headspace mode (HS). To the best of our knowledge, this paper describes the first application of SPME for the determination of these compounds in air samples. The experimental parameters affecting the microextraction process have been optimized using a multifactor experimental design strategy. Accuracy, linearity, precision and detection limits (LODs) were evaluated to assess the performance of the proposed method. External calibration, using spiked sorbent standards, and not requiring the complete sampling process (only the SPME step), demonstrated to be suitable for the quantification of all suspected allergens. Recovery studies were performed at three concentration levels (0.04, 1.00 and 50 microg m(-3)), obtaining quantitative recoveries (> or = 85%) in most cases. LOD values at the low ng m(-3) level were achieved for all the target compounds. The application of the method to daily home air samples demonstrated the ubiquity of this kind of fragrance ingredients in quotidian indoor environments, finding 18 of the 24 considered compounds in concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 56 microg m(-3). Benzyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, ionone and lilial were found in most analyzed samples.

  2. Exposure matrices of endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, fungi, and dust mite allergens in flood-affected homes of New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Atin; Lewis, Jocelyn Suzanne; Reponen, Tiina; Degrasse, Enjoli C; Grimsley, L Faye; Chew, Ginger L; Iossifova, Yulia; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2010-10-15

    This study examined: (i) biocontaminant levels in flooded homes of New Orleans two years after the flooding; (ii) seasonal changes in biocontaminant levels, and (iii) correlations between biocontaminant levels obtained by different environmental monitoring methods. Endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, fungal spores, and dust mite allergens were measured in 35 homes during summer and winter. A combination of dust sampling, aerosolization-based microbial source assessment, and long-term inhalable bioaerosol sampling aided in understanding exposure matrices. On average, endotoxin found in the aerosolized fraction accounted for <2% of that measured in the floor dust, suggesting that vacuuming could overestimate inhalation exposures. In contrast, the (1→3)-β-d-glucan levels in the floor dust and aerosolized fractions were mostly comparable, and 25% of the homes showed aerosolizable levels even higher than the dust-borne levels. The seasonal patterns for endotoxin in dust and the aerosolizable fraction were different from those found for (1→3)-β-d-glucan, reflecting the temperature and humidity effects on bacterial and fungal contamination. While the concentration of airborne endotoxin followed the same seasonal trend as endotoxin aerosolized from surfaces, no significant seasonal difference was identified for the concentrations of airborne (1→3)-β-d-glucan and fungal spores. This was attributed to the difference in the particle size; smaller endotoxin-containing particles can remain airborne for longer time than larger fungal spores or (1→3)-β-d-glucan-containing particles. It is also possible that fungal aerosolization in home environments did not reach its full potential. Detectable dust mite allergens were found only in dust samples, and more commonly in occupied homes. Levels of endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, and fungi in air had decreased during the two-year period following the flooding as compared to immediate measurements; however, the dust

  3. Evaluation of a low-cost electrostatic dust fall collector for indoor air endotoxin exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Noss, Ilka; Wouters, Inge M; Visser, Maaike; Heederik, Dick J J; Thorne, Peter S; Brunekreef, Bert; Doekes, Gert

    2008-09-01

    Exposure to endotoxin in home environments has become a key issue in asthma and allergy research. Most studies have analyzed floor or mattress dust endotoxin, but its validity as a proxy for airborne exposure is unknown, while active airborne dust sampling is not feasible in large-scale population studies because of logistic and financial limitations. We therefore developed and evaluated a simple passive airborne dust collection method for airborne endotoxin exposure assessment. We explored an electrostatic dust fall collector (EDC), consisting of a 42- by 29.6-cm-sized folder with four electrostatic cloths exposed to the air. The EDC was tested during two 14-day periods in seven nonfarm and nine farm homes and in farm stables. In parallel, active airborne dust sampling was performed with Harvard impactors and floor dust collected by vacuuming, using nylon sampling socks. The endotoxin levels could be measured in all EDC cloth extracts. The levels (in EU/m(2)) between EDCs used simultaneously or in different sampling periods in the same home correlated strongly (r > 0.8). EDC endotoxin also correlated moderately to strongly (r = 0.6 to 0.8) with the endotoxin measured by active airborne dust sampling and living room floor dust sampling and-in farm homes-with the endotoxin captured by the EDC in stables. In contrast, endotoxin levels measured by floor dust sampling showed only a poor correlation with the levels measured by active airborne dust sampling. We therefore conclude that measuring endotoxin levels with the EDC is a valid measure of average airborne endotoxin exposure, while reproducibility over time is at least equivalent to that of reservoir dust analyses.

  4. A pilot investigation of the relative toxicity of indoor and outdoor fine particles: in vitro effects of endotoxin and other particulate properties.

    PubMed Central

    Long, C M; Suh, H H; Kobzik, L; Catalano, P J; Ning, Y Y; Koutrakis, P

    2001-01-01

    In this study we assessed the in vitro toxicity of 14 paired indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) samples (particulate matter < or =2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) collected in 9 Boston-area homes. Samples were collected as part of a large indoor particle characterization study that included the simultaneous measurement of indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), particle size distributions, and compositional data (e.g., elemental/organic carbon, endotoxin, etc.). Bioassays were conducted using rat alveolar macrophages (AMs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was measured to assess particle-induced proinflammatory responses. Additional experiments were also conducted in which AMs were primed with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to simulate preexisting pulmonary inflammation such as that which might exist in sick and elderly individuals. Significant TNF production above that of negative controls was observed for AMs exposed to either indoor or outdoor PM(2.5). TNF releases were further amplified for primed AMs, suggesting that preexisting inflammation can potentially exacerbate the toxicity of not only outdoor PM(2.5) (as shown by previous studies) but also indoor PM(2.5). In addition, indoor particle TNF production was found to be significantly higher than outdoor particle TNF production in unprimed AMs, both before and after normalization for endotoxin concentrations. Our results suggest that indoor-generated particles may be more bioactive than ambient particles. Endotoxin was demonstrated to mediate proinflammatory responses for both indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), but study findings suggest the presence of other proinflammatory components of fine particles, particularly for indoor-generated particles. Given these study findings and the fact that people spend 85-90% of their time indoors, future studies are needed to address the toxicity of indoor particles. PMID:11689347

  5. Airborne Endotoxin from Indoor and Outdoor Environments:Effect of Sample Dilution on the Kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne endotoxin in occupational environments are a potential respiratory hazard to individuals. In this study, total and inhalable airborne endotoxin samples were collected via filtration from inside animal housing units and downwind from agricultural production sites and a wastewater treatment ...

  6. Resuspension of indoor aeroallergens and relationship to lung inflammation in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Raja, Suresh; Xu, Ying; Ferro, Andrea R; Jaques, Peter A; Hopke, Philip K

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown links between the concentration of allergens found in homes and asthma. Inhalation of allergens present in settled residential dust can occur when the dust is resuspended via human activity or air currents. Although previous studies have measured allergen concentrations in homes, the focus has been on the presence of the allergens in settled dust samples. However, the actual inhalation exposure is to airborne allergens. The relationship between the settled dust composition and suspended allergens and endotoxin and the effect of exposure of these aeroallergens to asthmatics are not well understood for species typically present indoors. In this study, settled dust and airborne particulate matter samples were collected in the homes and school classrooms of asthmatic children of ages 9 to 16 and analyzed for endotoxin and allergens including dust mite and cockroach allergen, and dog and cat dander (Der p1, Der f1, Bla g1, Can f1, and Fel d1, respectively). Concentrations of cockroach allergen were below detection limit for all samples. Measurements of the settled dust samples show higher dust mite allergen in bedroom samples than in living room samples. Concentrations of airborne endotoxin and indoor allergens were generally higher in the homes than those measured at school. Within the homes, higher concentrations of airborne allergens and endotoxin were observed in the living rooms compared to the bedrooms. Resuspension rates for endotoxin, dust mite allergen, and, cat and dog dander were estimated in this study. Calculated resuspension rates for cat dander (8.1x10(-7)+/-3.5x10(-7)min(-1)) and dust mite allergen (2.1x10(-6)+/-7.6x10(-7)min(-1)and 1.4x10(-5)+/-4.6x10(-6)min(-1) for Der p 1 and Der f 1, respectively) were found to be higher than those for dog dander (3.1x10(-7)+/-1.3x10(-7)min(-1)) and endotoxin (3.6x10(-7)+/-1.6x10(-7)min(-1)). Markers of asthma inflammation including nitrate in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and exhaled nitric

  7. Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Church, Timothy R; Jones, David; Fredrickson, Ann; Sexton, Ken

    2005-11-01

    This article presents measurements of biological contaminants in two elementary schools that serve inner city minority populations. One of the schools is an older building; the other is newer and was designed to minimize indoor air quality problems. Measurements were obtained for airborne fungi, carpet loadings of dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, cat allergens, and carpet fungi. Carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were also measured. Each of these measurements was made in five classrooms in each school over three seasons--fall, winter, and spring. We compared the indoor environments at the two schools and examined the variability in measured parameters between and within schools and across seasons. A fixed-effects, nested analysis was performed to determine the effect of school, season, and room-within-school, as well as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. The levels of all measured parameters were comparable for the two schools. Carpet culturable fungal concentrations and cat allergen levels in the newer school started and remained higher than in the older school over the study period. Cockroach allergen levels in some areas were very high in the newer school and declined over the study period to levels lower than the older school. Dust mite allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in both schools were relatively low compared with benchmark values. The daily averages for temperature and relative humidity frequently did not meet ASHRAE guidelines in either school, which suggests that proper HVAC and general building operation and maintenance procedures are at least as important as proper design and construction for adequate indoor air quality. The results show that for fungi and cat allergens, the school environment can be an important exposure source for children.

  8. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    by extraction of bacterial mass in saline (CA-S), showed the ability of these extracts to evoke inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the lungs, to stimulate alveolar macrophages to produce superoxide anion (O2(-)), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and chemotactic factors for other macrophages and neutrophils, and to increase the pulmonary concentrations of toll-like receptors and chemokines. The most potent properties showed the CA-S which may be attributed to the allergenic properties of P. agglomerans proteins enhanced by the presence of the autologous endotoxin. The results of these experiments are in accord with the clinical studies which revealed a high reactivity of the agricultural and grain industry workers to allergenic extracts of P. agglomerans, and the presence in these populations of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and asthma cases caused by this bacterium. P. agglomerans has been also identified as a potential causative agent of allergic dermatitis in farmers and of allergic pulmonary disorders in cattle. In conclusion, similar to the cotton industry, also in the grain industry and in agriculture, Pantoea agglomerans should be regarded as one of the major causative agents of work-related diseases, caused by the adverse effects of protein allergens and endotoxin produced by this bacterium. PMID:27007514

  9. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    by extraction of bacterial mass in saline (CA-S), showed the ability of these extracts to evoke inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the lungs, to stimulate alveolar macrophages to produce superoxide anion (O2(-)), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and chemotactic factors for other macrophages and neutrophils, and to increase the pulmonary concentrations of toll-like receptors and chemokines. The most potent properties showed the CA-S which may be attributed to the allergenic properties of P. agglomerans proteins enhanced by the presence of the autologous endotoxin. The results of these experiments are in accord with the clinical studies which revealed a high reactivity of the agricultural and grain industry workers to allergenic extracts of P. agglomerans, and the presence in these populations of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and asthma cases caused by this bacterium. P. agglomerans has been also identified as a potential causative agent of allergic dermatitis in farmers and of allergic pulmonary disorders in cattle. In conclusion, similar to the cotton industry, also in the grain industry and in agriculture, Pantoea agglomerans should be regarded as one of the major causative agents of work-related diseases, caused by the adverse effects of protein allergens and endotoxin produced by this bacterium.

  10. The indoor environment and inner-city childhood asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Exposure to indoor pollutants and allergens has been speculated to cause asthma symptoms and exacerbations and influence the risk of developing asthma. The aim of this article is to review the medical literature regarding the role of the indoor environment on inner-city childhood asthma. Data sources A literature search was performed in PubMed. Studies focusing on inner-city indoor allergen, childhood asthma, and environmental controls were included. Results The prevalence of asthma in children is increasing especially in inner-city area. Exposure to high levels of indoor allergens and pollutants has been related to asthma development. Studies have shown that mouse, cockroach, pets, dust mite, mold, tobacco smoke, endotoxin and nitrogen dioxide are the important exposures. Recent studies have shown that indoor environmental control is beneficial in reducing asthma morbidity and development. Conclusions Inner-city children are exposed to various indoor allergens and pollutants that may lead to asthma development and exacerbation of existing asthma. Multifaceted environmental controls are beneficial in improving asthma symptom and maybe a viable prevention strategy. Further prospective studies of environmental intervention are needed to further identify effective strategies to improve and prevent asthma symptoms in inner-city children. PMID:25003723

  11. Sensitization to Indigenous Pollen and Molds and Other Outdoor and Indoor Allergens in Allergic Patients From Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Airborne allergens vary from one climatic region to another. Therefore, it is important to analyze the environment of the region to select the most prevalent allergens for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive skin tests to pollen and fungal allergens collected from local indigenous plants or isolated molds, as well as other outdoor and indoor allergens in allergic patients in 6 different geographical areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates, and Sudan. Materials and methods Four hundred ninety-two consecutive patients evaluated at different Allergy Clinics (276 women and 256 men; mean age, 30 years) participated in this study. The selection of indigenous allergens was based on research findings in different areas from Riyadh and adjoining areas. Indigenous raw material for pollen grains was collected from the desert near the capital city of Riyadh, KSA. The following plants were included: Chenopodium murale, Salsola imbricata, Rumex vesicarius, Ricinus communis, Artiplex nummularia, Amaranthus viridis, Artemisia monosperma, Plantago boissieri, and Prosopis juliflora. Indigenous molds were isolated from air sampling in Riyadh and grown to obtain the raw material. These included the following: Ulocladium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium spp., and Alternaria spp. The raw material was processed under Good Manufacturing Practices for skin testing. Other commercially available outdoor (grass and tree pollens) and indoor (mites, cockroach, and cat dander) allergens were also tested. Results The highest sensitization to indigenous pollens was detected to C. murale (32%) in Khartoum (Sudan) and S. imbricata (30%) and P. juliflora (24%) in the Riyadh region. The highest sensitization to molds was detected in Khartoum, especially to Cladosporium spp. (42%), Aspergillus (40%), and Alternaria spp. (38%). Sensitization to mites was also very prevalent

  12. Indoor mite allergens in patients with respiratory allergy living in Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Plácido, J L; Cuesta, C; Delgado, L; da Silva, J P; Miranda, M; Ventas, P; Vaz, M

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the levels of mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, and Lep d 1) in dust samples from the homes of 59 patients with asthma, 36 sensitized to house-dust mites (HDM) and 23 to grass pollen (controls), living in Porto, northern Portugal. The relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM and the influence of housing conditions on mite-allergen levels were also evaluated. Der p 1 (median 9.2 micrograms/g) and Der 2 (4.6 micrograms/g) were the main allergens, while Der f 1 and Lep d 1 levels were always < 1 microgram/g dust and undetectable in 11% and 47% of samples, respectively. All HDM-sensitized asthmatics were exposed to Der p 1 levels > 2 micrograms/g and their homes contained significantly higher levels of Der p 1 (median 12.5 vs 6.4 micrograms/g; P = 0.008) and Der 2 (6.2 vs 3.0 micrograms/g; P = 0.004) when compared to the control group. A significant correlation was observed between the exposure to Der p 1 and the wheal area at skin testing with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) extract (P = 0.01) as well as with serum specific IgE levels to Dp (P = 0.03). Patients with higher levels of serum specific IgE (> or = 17.5 HRU/ml) were also more frequently exposed to Der p 1 levels > or = 10 micrograms/g (P = 0.002). Old homes, presence of carpets, and signs of dampness were conditions associated with significantly higher levels of mite allergens. In conclusion, we found high levels of Der p 1 and Der 2 particularly in the homes of HDM-sensitized patients and we confirm the relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM, assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In additional to a favorable outdoor climate, we found in our region housing conditions propitious to mite growth, suggesting that specific geographic characteristics must also be taken into account for the correct planning of mite-avoidance measures. PMID:8899115

  13. Endotoxin and β-(1,3)-glucan levels in automobiles: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chang, Chin-Fu; Lai, Shu-Mei; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial endotoxin and fungal β-(1,3)-glucan in the indoor environment can induce respiratory symptoms. Automobiles are an exposure source of allergens but it is not known if, and how much exposure there is to endotoxin and fungal β-(1,3)-glucan. The objective of the study was to determine whether automobiles are a potential source of exposure to these microbial products. Dust was sampled from the passenger seats of 40 automobiles. Specific Limulus amoebocyte kinetic assays were used to measure endotoxin and β-(1,3)-glucan, respectively. Endotoxin and β-(1,3)-glucan was detected in all samples ranging from 19.9-247.0 EU/mg and 1.6-59.8 μg/g, respectively. There were no significant differences in endotoxin levels between automobiles of smokers and non-smokers, but β-(1,3)-glucan levels were about two-fold higher in the automobiles of non-smokers. In conclusion, endotoxin and β-(1,3)-glucan exposure in automobiles at levels found in our study may be of importance for asthmatics.

  14. Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: a cross-sectional analysis of los angeles households, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Although racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors have been linked to asthma, and the association between indoor allergens and asthma is well documented, few studies have examined the relationship between these factors and indoor allergens. We examined the frequency of reported indoor allergens and differences by racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics among a diverse sample of Los Angeles households. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data from 723 households from wave 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. The reported presence of rats, mice, cockroaches, mold, pets, and tobacco smoke were the primary outcomes of interest. Hispanic and Asian households had a nearly threefold increase in the odds of reporting cockroaches compared to non-Hispanic Whites (OR, 2.85; 95 % CI 1.38-5.88 and OR, 2.62; 95 % CI 1.02-6.73, respectively) even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Primary caregivers who had obtained a high school degree were significantly less likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to primary caregivers with less than a high school degree (OR, 0.19; 95 % CI 0.08-0.46 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI 0.23-0.68, respectively). Primary caregivers with more than a high school degree were also less likely to report the presence of rats, mice, and cockroaches within their households, compared to those with less than a high school degree. Compared to renters, home owners were less likely to report the presence of mice, cockroaches, and mold within their households. At the neighborhood level, households located within neighborhoods of high concentrated poverty (where the average poverty rate is at least 50 %) were more likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to households in low concentrated poverty neighborhoods (average poverty rate is 10 % or less), after adjusting for individual race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Our study

  15. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  16. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  17. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  18. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James D.; Tuttle, Steven C.; Nelson, Morgan C.; Bradshaw, Rebecca K.; Hoybjerg, Taylor G.; Johnson, Julene B.; Kruman, Bryce A.; Orton, Taylor S.; Cook, Ryan B.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Weber, K. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan–Apr) and summer (July–Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  19. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  20. Determination of fragrance allergens in indoor air by active sampling followed by ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2010-03-19

    Fragrances are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, present in the most of household products, air fresheners, insecticides and cosmetics. Commercial perfumes may contain hundreds of individual fragrance chemicals. In addition to the widespread use and exposure to fragranced products, many of the raw fragrance materials have limited available health and safety data. Because of their nature as artificial fragrances, inhalation should be considered as an important exposure pathway, especially in indoor environments. In this work, a very simple, fast, and sensitive methodology for the analysis of 24 fragrance allergens in indoor air is presented. Considered compounds include those regulated by the EU Directive, excluding limonene; methyl eugenol was also included due to its toxicity. The proposed methodology is based on the use of a very low amount of adsorbent to retain the target compounds, and the rapid ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UAE) using a very low volume of solvent which avoids further extract concentration. Quantification was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influence of main factors involved in the UAE step (type of adsorbent and solvent, solvent volume and extraction time) was studied using an experimental design approach to account for possible factor interactions. Using the optimized procedure, 0.2 m(-3) air are sampled, analytes are retained on 25 mg Florisil, from which they are extracted by UAE (5 min) with 2 mL ethyl acetate. Linearity was demonstrated in a wide concentration range. Efficiency of the total sampling-extraction process was studied at several concentration levels (1, 5 and 125 microg m(-3)), obtaining quantitative recoveries, and good precision (RSD<10%). Method detection limits were < or =0.6 microg m(-3). Finally, the proposed method was applied to real samples collected in indoor environments in which several of the target compounds were determined.

  1. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  2. Longitudinal study of dust and airborne endotoxin in the home.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Spiegelman, D L; Burge, H A; Gold, D R; Chew, G L; Milton, D K

    2000-11-01

    To characterize the seasonal variability of endotoxin levels, we measured endotoxin in dust from the bed, bedroom floor, and kitchen floor in 20 homes, and in air from the bedroom in 15 of the homes. All homes were located in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area and were sampled each month from April 1995 to June 1996. Outdoor air was collected at two locations. We found greater within-home than between-home variance for bedroom floor, kitchen floor, and airborne endotoxin. However, the reverse was true for bed dust endotoxin. Thus, studies using single measurements of dust endotoxin are most likely to reliably distinguish between homes if bed dust is sampled. Dust endotoxin levels were not significantly associated with airborne endotoxin. Airborne endotoxin was significantly (p = 0. 04) and positively associated with absolute humidity in a mixed-effect model adjusting for a random home effect and fixed effect of sampling month and home characteristics. This finding implies that indoor humidity may be an important factor controlling endotoxin exposure. We found a significant (p < 0.05) seasonal effect in kitchen floor dust (spring > fall) and bedroom airborne endotoxin (spring > winter), but not in the other indoor samples. We found significant seasonal pattern in outdoor airborne endotoxin (summer > winter). PMID:11102291

  3. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  4. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. PMID:27545734

  5. Allergen nomenclature*

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031

  6. Personal endotoxin exposure in a panel study of school children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endotoxin exposure has been associated with asthma exacerbations and increased asthma prevalence. However, there is little data regarding personal exposure to endotoxin in children at risk, or the relation of personal endotoxin exposure to residential or ambient airborne endotoxin. The relation between personal endotoxin and personal air pollution exposures is also unknown. Methods We characterized personal endotoxin exposures in 45 school children with asthma ages 9-18 years using 376 repeated measurements from a PM2.5 active personal exposure monitor. We also assayed endotoxin in PM2.5 samples collected from ambient regional sites (N = 97 days) and from a subset of 12 indoor and outdoor subject home sites (N = 109 and 111 days, respectively) in Riverside and Whittier, California. Endotoxin was measured using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate kinetic chromogenic assay. At the same time, we measured personal, home and ambient exposure to PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC). To assess exposure relations we used both rank correlations and mixed linear regression models, adjusted for personal temperature and relative humidity. Results We found small positive correlations of personal endotoxin with personal PM2.5 EC and OC, but not personal PM2.5 mass or stationary site air pollutant measurements. Outdoor home, indoor home and ambient endotoxin were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. However, in mixed models, personal endotoxin was not associated with indoor home or outdoor home endotoxin, but was associated with ambient endotoxin. Dog and cat ownership were significantly associated with increased personal but not indoor endotoxin. Conclusions Daily fixed site measurements of endotoxin in the home environment may not predict daily personal exposure, although a larger sample size may be needed to assess this. This conclusion is relevant to short-term exposures involved in the acute exacerbation of asthma. PMID:21810249

  7. Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Raetz, Christian R. H.; Whitfield, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Summary Since lipopolysaccharide endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria were last reviewed in this series in 1990, much has been learned about the assembly and signaling functions of these remarkable glycoconjugates. Lipopolysaccharides typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a non-repeating “core” oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen). The flood of recent genomic data has made it possible to study lipopolysaccharide assembly in diverse Gram-negative bacteria, many of which are human or plant pathogens, and to create mutants or hybrid constructs with novel properties. Unexpectedly, key genes for lipid A biosynthesis have also been found in higher plants, indicating that eucaryotic lipid A-like molecules may exist. The carbohydrate diversity of lipopolysaccharides is better appreciated now than ten years ago, but much remains to be learned about function. Sequence comparisons suggest that extensive lateral transfer of genes for the assembly of O-antigens has occurred among bacteria. The most significant finding in the field of endotoxin biology since 1990 has been the identification of the plasma membrane protein TLR4 as the lipid A signaling receptor of animal cells. The latter belongs to a family of innate immunity receptors, all of which possess a large extracellular domain of leucine-rich repeats, a single trans-membrane segment and a smaller cytoplasmic signaling region that engages the adaptor protein MyD88. The expanding knowledge of TLR4 specificity and its downstream signaling pathways should provide new opportunities for blocking the inflammatory side effects of sepsis. Future progress will require insights into lipopolysaccharide-protein recognition at the atomic level, greater understanding of intra- and inter-cellular lipopolysaccharide trafficking, and incisive biological approaches that combine the tools of bacterial and animal genetics. PMID:12045108

  8. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Stre...

  9. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  10. Allergen Quantification by Use of Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs): Influence of Deployment Time, Extraction Buffer, and Storage Conditions on the Results.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ingrid; Lotz, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Sampling of endotoxin, beta-glucan, or allergens on electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) is a convenient method for exposure assessment. However, especially for allergens few experiments on validation of this method concerning deployment time or storage and extraction procedure have been performed. The aim of study was to optimize the EDC procedure for sampling of allergens in indoor environments. EDCs were placed in households or day-care centers and after extraction, allergens were quantified by six immunoassays detecting mite antigens (Domestic mites DM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dp, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Tp) or the main allergens from cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and mouse (Mus m 1). For 20 EDC holders, deployment times of cloths were varied between 7 and 28 days, 36 EDCs were used to test reproducibility, and for 28 EDCs extraction buffers were varied (with or without 0.05% Tween 20, borate, or phosphate buffer). The influence of storage of cloths at room temperature (2-629 days) or extracts at -80°C (7-639 days), and variation of extract storage temperature (-20°C and -80°C) for long time storage (1.5 years) on the outcome of allergen quantification were tested for about 150 EDCs. The allergens on EDC cloths increased proportionally with deployment time, and allergen loads on parallel sampled tissues were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001, Pearson of log-transformed values 0.91-0.99). Extraction without Tween reduced all results (P < 0.0001, -51% DM, -85% Dp, -60% Tp, -99% Fel d 1, -86% Can f 1, -52% Mus m 1), and borate buffer resulted in lower yields of Mus m 1 (-53%), DP (-45%), and Tp (-27%) than phosphate buffer. Storage of cloths at room temperature significantly decreased Can f 1 levels (P < 0.0001, -4.8% loss for every 30 days), whereas storage of extracts at -80°C decreased DM results (P < 0.0001, -1.2% loss for every 30 days). Extracts stored at -20°C gave at mean 12% higher DM results compared to extracts stored at -80°C for 1

  11. Allergen Quantification by Use of Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs): Influence of Deployment Time, Extraction Buffer, and Storage Conditions on the Results.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ingrid; Lotz, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Sampling of endotoxin, beta-glucan, or allergens on electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) is a convenient method for exposure assessment. However, especially for allergens few experiments on validation of this method concerning deployment time or storage and extraction procedure have been performed. The aim of study was to optimize the EDC procedure for sampling of allergens in indoor environments. EDCs were placed in households or day-care centers and after extraction, allergens were quantified by six immunoassays detecting mite antigens (Domestic mites DM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dp, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Tp) or the main allergens from cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and mouse (Mus m 1). For 20 EDC holders, deployment times of cloths were varied between 7 and 28 days, 36 EDCs were used to test reproducibility, and for 28 EDCs extraction buffers were varied (with or without 0.05% Tween 20, borate, or phosphate buffer). The influence of storage of cloths at room temperature (2-629 days) or extracts at -80°C (7-639 days), and variation of extract storage temperature (-20°C and -80°C) for long time storage (1.5 years) on the outcome of allergen quantification were tested for about 150 EDCs. The allergens on EDC cloths increased proportionally with deployment time, and allergen loads on parallel sampled tissues were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001, Pearson of log-transformed values 0.91-0.99). Extraction without Tween reduced all results (P < 0.0001, -51% DM, -85% Dp, -60% Tp, -99% Fel d 1, -86% Can f 1, -52% Mus m 1), and borate buffer resulted in lower yields of Mus m 1 (-53%), DP (-45%), and Tp (-27%) than phosphate buffer. Storage of cloths at room temperature significantly decreased Can f 1 levels (P < 0.0001, -4.8% loss for every 30 days), whereas storage of extracts at -80°C decreased DM results (P < 0.0001, -1.2% loss for every 30 days). Extracts stored at -20°C gave at mean 12% higher DM results compared to extracts stored at -80°C for 1

  12. Use of a robotic sampling platform to assess young children's exposure to indoor bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zuocheng; Shalat, Stuart L.; Black, Kathleen; Lioy, Paul J.; Stambler, Adam A.; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Hernandez, Marta; Han, Taewon; Ramagopal, Maya; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2011-01-01

    Indoor exposures to allergens, mold spores and endotoxin have been suggested as etiological agents of asthma; therefore, accurate determination of those exposures, especially in young children (6–36 months), is important for understanding the development of asthma. Since use of personal sampling equipment in this population is difficult, and in children < 1 year of age impossible, we developed a personal sampling surrogate: the Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic sampler (PIPER) to better estimate their exposures. During sampling, PIPER simulates the activity patterns, speed of motion and the height of the breathing zones of young children, and mechanically resuspends the deposited dust just as a young child does during running and crawling. The concentrations of allergens, mold spores and endotoxin measured by PIPER were compared to those measured using traditional stationary air sampling in 75 homes in central New Jersey, US. Endotoxin was detected in all homes with median concentrations of 1.0 and 0.55 EU/m3 for PIPER and stationary sampler, respectively. The difference in median concentrations obtained using the two methods was statistically significant for homes with carpeted floors (p= 0.0001) in the heating season. For such homes, the average ratio of endotoxin concentration measured by PIPER and the stationary sampler was 2.96 (95% CI 2.29–3.63). Fungal spores were detected in all homes, with median fungal concentrations of 316 and 380 spores/m3 for PIPER and stationary sampler, respectively. For fungi, the difference between the two sampling methods was not statistically significant. For both sampling methods, the total airborne mold levels were statistically significantly higher in the non-heating season than in the heating season. Allergens were detected in ~15% of investigated homes. The data indicate that the traditional stationary air sampling methods may substantially underestimate personal exposures to endotoxin, especially

  13. EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children now spend more than 90% of their time indoors. Thus, any exposure to indoor pollutants may be critical to their health. Molds are one of the most important pollutants children are exposed to indoors. Molds produce hundreds of allergens and toxins. These products ha...

  14. [Food allergens].

    PubMed

    Bonneau, J C

    1997-07-01

    Perhaps more than any other kind of allergen, search for a food allergen seems to be difficult. There should be no bias about the usual allergens found in our food, that are a source of pathology that is less spectacular than shocks or giant urticaria that are provoked by easily recognised causes. Crossed allergies must be recognised in their overall features. This may give decisive aid in the etiological approach by facilitating understanding of the symptoms and the discovery of potential triggering allergens which are systematically sought.

  15. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  16. Food allergens.

    PubMed

    Burks, W; Helm, R; Stanley, S; Bannon, G A

    2001-06-01

    A number of advances in the scientific knowledge concerning adverse food reactions have been made in the past few years. Understanding about the nature of the food allergen itself, the molecular characterization of the epitopes on these allergens, the pathophysiology of the clinical reaction, and the diagnostic methods have all been significantly enhanced.

  17. Endotoxin levels in settled airborne dust in European schools: the HITEA school study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J H; Krop, E J M; Borras-Santos, A; Zock, J-P; Taubel, M; Hyvarinnen, A; Pekkanen, J; Doekes, G; Heederik, D J J

    2014-04-01

    Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with different climates. Our aim was to characterize endotoxin levels in primary schools and evaluate associations with potential determinants. Endotoxin levels were repeatedly assessed in 23 schools in Spain (n = 7), the Netherlands (n = 10), and Finland (n = 6) using electrostatic dustfall collectors. In total, 645 measurements were taken in 237 classrooms. Endotoxin levels differed significantly between countries; Dutch schools had the highest levels, while Finnish schools showed the lowest levels. In each country, differences in endotoxin levels were observed between schools and over the sampling periods. Estimates improved after adjustment for sampling period. Factors affecting endotoxin levels in a school differed per country. In general, endotoxin levels were higher in lower grades and in classrooms with higher occupancy. School endotoxin levels may contribute significantly to total endotoxin exposure in children and teachers. As the correlation between the repeated measurements is reasonable, single endotoxin measurements form a reasonable basis for estimating annual endotoxin levels in schools.

  18. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  19. Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.

    PubMed

    McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM₁₀₋₂.₅) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM₁₀₋₂.₅ concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) μg/m³, while PM₂.₅ concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) μg/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM₁₀₋₂.₅ filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM₁₀₋₂.₅ and PM₂.₅ were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM₁₀₋₂.₅ but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage.

  20. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life. PMID:25720597

  1. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  2. Extracorporeal adsorption of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Staubach, K H; Rosenfeldt, J A; Veit, O; Bruch, H P

    1997-02-01

    In a porcine endotoxin shock model using a continuous intravenous endotoxin infusion of 250 ng/kg body weight per hour, the cardiorespiratory and hematologic parameters were studied while applying a new on-line polymyxin B immobilized adsorption system. This preliminary report shows that the new adsorbent can remove endotoxin selectively from the circulation and confers a good amount of protection from endotoxin-induced cardiopulmonary decompensation as well as hematologic alterations. Survival time could be extended from 216 min to 313 min. Whereas cardiac output and mean arterial pressure declined critically after 3 h in the controls, the treated group remained stable for another 3 h. These data show that endotoxin adsorption by polymyxin B coupled covalently to acrylic spheres as an adjunctive on-line measure in the septic syndrome seems feasible. PMID:10225785

  3. Allergen databases and allergen semantics.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    The efficacy of any specific bioinformatic analysis of the potential allergenicity of new food proteins depends directly on the nature and content of the databases that are used in the analysis. A number of different allergen-related databases have been developed, each designed to meet a different need. These databases differ in content, organization, and accessibility. These differences create barriers for users and prevent data sharing and integration. The development and application of appropriate semantic web technologies, (for example, a food allergen ontology) could help to overcome these barriers and promote the development of more advanced analytic capabilities.

  4. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  5. Predictors of coarse particulate matter and associated endotoxin concentrations in residential environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; MacNeill, Morgan; Kindzierski, Warren B.; Wallace, Lance; Héroux, Marie-Ève; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM), i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM10-2.5), is of increasing interest due to the potential for health effects including asthma, allergy and respiratory symptoms. Limited information is available on indoor and outdoor coarse PM and associated endotoxin exposures. Seven consecutive 24-h samples of indoor and outdoor coarse PM were collected during winter and summer 2010 using Harvard Coarse Impactors in a total of 74 Edmonton homes where no reported smoking took place. Coarse PM filters were subsequently analyzed for endotoxin content. Data were also collected on indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity, air exchange rate, housing characteristics and occupants' activities. During winter, outdoor concentrations of coarse PM (median = 6.7 μg/m3, interquartile range, IQR = 3.4-12 μg/m3) were found to be higher than indoor concentrations (median 3.4 μg/m3, IQR = 1.6-5.7 μg/m3); while summer levels of indoor and outdoor concentrations were similar (median 4.5 μg/m3, IQR = 2.3-6.8 μg/m3, and median 4.7 μg/m3, IQR = 2.1-7.9 μg/m3, respectively). Similar predictors were identified for indoor coarse PM in both seasons and included corresponding outdoor coarse PM concentrations, whether vacuuming, sweeping or dusting was performed during the sampling period, and number of occupants in the home. Winter indoor coarse PM predictors also included the number of dogs and indoor endotoxin concentrations. Summer median endotoxin concentrations (indoor: 0.41 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.64 EU/m3) were 4-fold higher than winter concentrations (indoor: 0.12 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.16 EU/m3). Other than outdoor endotoxin concentrations, indoor endotoxin concentration predictors for both seasons were different. Winter endotoxin predictors also included presence of furry pets and whether the vacuum had a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Summer endotoxin predictors were problems with mice in the

  6. Endotoxin levels in homes and classrooms of Dutch school children and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, José H; Krop, Esmeralda J M; de Wind, Siegfried; Spithoven, Jack; Heederik, Dick J J

    2013-08-01

    Several studies describe indoor pollutant exposure in homes and to a lesser extent in schools. Population studies that include both environments are sparse. This study aims to assess endotoxin levels in primary schools and homes of children. Endotoxin was also studied in relation to asthma and sensitisation. 10 schools with (index) and without (reference) dampness were selected, based on reports and inspections. Cases and controls were selected from 169 homes based on the presence or absence of asthma-like symptoms of children. Classroom and bedroom airborne settled dust was sampled using electrostatic dust fall collectors. Average endotoxin levels in schools ranged from 2178 to 6914 endotoxin units (EU)·m(-2) per week compared with 462-1285 EU·m(-2) per week in homes. After mutual adjustment for home and school endotoxin, school endotoxin was positively associated with nonatopic asthma (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.27), while no associations with endotoxin were found at home. The high endotoxin levels in schools compared with homes indicate that exposure at school can contribute considerably to environmental endotoxin exposure of children and teachers. Our results also suggest that endotoxin in schools may be associated with nonatopic asthmatic symptoms in pupils, although the results require reproduction because of the modest sample size.

  7. Endotoxin Exposure and Eczema in the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Phipatanakul, Wanda; Celedón, Juan C.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Milton, Donald K.; Sredl, Diane; Weiss, Scott T.; Gold, Diane R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Exposure to endotoxin in early life has been proposed as a factor that may protect against the development of allergic diseases such as eczema. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between endotoxin exposure in early life and eczema in the first year of life in children with parental history of asthma or allergies. Methods This study used a prospective birth cohort study of 498 children who had a history of allergy or asthma in at least 1 parent and lived in metropolitan Boston. A subset of 401 living rooms had house dust samples adequate for analysis of endotoxin. Results In multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, income, and season of birth, endotoxin levels in the living room at 2 to 3 months of age was inversely associated with physician- or nurse-diagnosed eczema in the first year of life (odds ratio [OR] for each quartile increment: 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61–0.96). Exposure to a dog in the home at age 2 to 3 months was also inversely associated with eczema in the first year of life, but the CI widened when endotoxin was included in the multivariate model (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.27–1.09). Other variables associated with eczema in the first year of life included paternal history of eczema (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.03–3.55) and maternal specific immunoglobulin E positivity to ≥1 allergen (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.01–2.56). Conclusions Among children with parental history of asthma or allergies, exposure to high levels of endotoxin in early life may be protective against eczema in the first year of life. In these children, paternal history of eczema and maternal sensitization to at least 1 allergen are associated with an increased risk of eczema in the first year of life. PMID:15231902

  8. Within-Home versus Between-Home Variability of House Dust Endotoxin in a Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Joseph H.; Gold, Diane R.; Dockery, Douglas W.; Ryan, Louise; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Milton, Donald K.

    2005-01-01

    Endotoxin exposure has been proposed as an environmental determinant of allergen responses in children. To better understand the implications of using a single measurement of house dust endotoxin to characterize exposure in the first year of life, we evaluated room-specific within-home and between-home variability in dust endotoxin obtained from 470 households in Boston, Massachusetts. Homes were sampled up to two times over 5–11 months. We analyzed 1,287 dust samples from the kitchen, family room, and baby’s bedroom for endotoxin. We fit a mixed-effects model to estimate mean levels and the variation of endotoxin between homes, between rooms, and between sampling times. Endotoxin ranged from 2 to 1,945 units per milligram of dust. Levels were highest during summer and lowest in the winter. Mean endotoxin levels varied significantly from room to room. Cross-sectionally, endotoxin was moderately correlated between family room and bedroom floor (r = 0.30), between family room and kitchen (r = 0.32), and between kitchen and bedroom (r = 0.42). Adjusting for season, the correlation of endotoxin levels within homes over time was 0.65 for both the bedroom and kitchen and 0.54 for the family room. The temporal within-home variance of endotoxin was lowest for bedroom floor samples and highest for kitchen samples. Between-home variance was lowest in the family room and highest for kitchen samples. Adjusting for season, within-home variation was less than between-home variation for all three rooms. These results suggest that room-to-room and home-to-home differences in endotoxin influence the total variability more than factors affecting endotoxin levels within a room over time. PMID:16263505

  9. Endotoxin in meningococcal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Tubbs, H R

    1980-01-01

    26 children with meningococcal infections were studied to find out the relationaship between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of endotoxin, the clinical outcome, the level of antigen in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, and indices of complement activation and disseminated intravascular coagulation. No association was found between endotoxin levels and the other factors. A high cerebrospinal fluid antigen level in patients with meningitis was associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:6776899

  10. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus M. Anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaerosol contamination. One of ...

  11. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaer...

  12. Allergen Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rael, Efren

    2016-09-01

    Allergies affect a large proportion of the population. Allergies can adversely affect productivity, sleep, and quality of life and can lead to life-threatening reactions. Allergies can spread to affect multiple organ systems. Allergen immunotherapy is the only therapy that can change the natural history of allergic disease. PMID:27545737

  13. Peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The earliest known evidence of peanut farming dates back 7,600 years. With a prevalence of roughly 1%, peanut allergy is a diagnostic and treatment challenge, but is also a very good model for studying all aspects of food allergy, including its molecular basis and pathomechanisms. Therefore, the very starting point for elucidating all these aspects is the identification of peanut allergens with subsequent clearing of their structure and their preparation as pure recombinant and/or natural allergens. This is the basis for in vitro diagnostic tests as well as the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. With regard to class I food allergy, peanut allergy affects by far the largest group of patients. In peanuts, 12 allergens have been identified and their molecular characteristics are described herein. Ara h 1, Ara h 3.01 and Ara h 3.02 (the former Ara h 4) belong to the cupin superfamily. The conglutins Ara h 2, Ara h 6 and Ara h 7, and the non-specific lipid transfer protein Ara h 9 belong to the prolamin superfamily. Ara h 5 (profilin) and Ara h 8 (Bet v 1-homologous protein) cause class II food allergies and are associated with inhalation allergy to pollen via the sequential and/or conformational similarity of molecules. Two peanut oleosins are listed as Ara h 10 and Ara h 11 and two defensins as Ara h 12 and Ara h 13 by the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The effect of the above-specified allergens has to be considered in the context of their matrix, which is influenced by processing factors and the individual's immune system. PMID:24925406

  14. Variability of Offending Allergens of Allergic Rhinitis According to Age: Optimization of Skin Prick Test Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Ahn, Jae-Chul; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Jung-Whun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates offending allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) according to age that establish a minimal panel for skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify if a patient is sensitized. Methods We retrospectively analyzed SPT results according to age to determine the minimum test battery panel necessary to screen at least 93%-95% of AR patients. Allergic skin tests (common airborne indoor and outdoor allergens) were performed on 7,182 patients from January 2007 to June 2011. All patients were classified into 9 groups according to age; subsequently, we investigated offending allergens by age group. Results A total of 5,032 (70.1%) patients were found sensitized to at least one of the 55 aeroallergen extracts tested. The annual ranking of offending allergens was not significantly different from each other over the past 5 years. House dust mites (HDM) were the most prevalent allergens ranked from first to third for all 5 years. The allergens in the minimum test panel differed slightly among all age groups; in addition, the types of sensitized allergen sources were more diverse in the older versus younger age group. HDM covered a larger proportion of the sensitized allergens in the younger age group versus the older age group. Testing with 5 allergens (Dermatophagoides farinae, Tetranychus urticae, oak, mugwort and cockroach) adequately identified over 90% of the sensitized patients. Conclusions A SPT with around 5-7 allergens adequately detected most of the sensitization in the majority of the age groups in Korea. However, this study suggests that physicians perform the SPT with appropriately selected allergens in each age category for the screening of AR. PMID:24404393

  15. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  16. Animal Allergens and Their Presence in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  17. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Ambient Endotoxin Concentrations in Fresno, California

    PubMed Central

    Tager, Ira B.; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Haight, Thaddeus; Alcorn, Siana; Penfold, Bryan; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2010-01-01

    Background Endotoxins are found in indoor dust generated by human activity and pets, in soil, and adsorbed onto the surfaces of ambient combustion particles. Endotoxin concentrations have been associated with respiratory symptoms and the risk of atopy and asthma in children. Objective We characterized the temporal and spatial variability of ambient endotoxin in Fresno/Clovis, California, located in California’s Central Valley, to identify correlates and potential predictors of ambient endotoxin concentrations in a cohort of children with asthma [Fresno Asthmatic Children’s Environment Study (FACES)]. Methods Between May 2001 and October 2004, daily ambient endotoxin and air pollutants were collected at the central ambient monitoring site of the California Air Resources Board in Fresno and, for shorter time periods, at 10 schools and indoors and outdoors at 84 residences in the community. Analyses were restricted to May–October, the dry months during which endotoxin concentrations are highest. Results Daily endotoxin concentration patterns were determined mainly by meteorologic factors, particularly the degree of air stagnation. Overall concentrations were lowest in areas distant from agricultural activities. Highest concentrations were found in areas immediately downwind from agricultural/pasture land. Among three other measured air pollutants [fine particulate matter, elemental carbon (a marker of traffic in Fresno), and coarse particulate matter (PMc)], PMc was the only pollutant correlated with endotoxin. Endotoxin, however, was the most spatially variable. Conclusions Our data support the need to evaluate the spatial/temporal variability of endotoxin concentrations, rather than relying on a few measurements made at one location, in studies of exposure and and respiratory health effects, particularly in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:20494854

  18. [Allergen analysis].

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental requirement when testing for and ensuring compliance with legally required labelling regulations is the reliable analysis of food allergens. This can be carried out by means of either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or protein detection. Protein detection has the advantage of directly detecting the allergenic component and can currently be carried out using immunological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA])/lateral flow devices [LFD]) or mass spectrometry-based techniques. DNA detection is indirect, but allows the presence of food allergens to be validated through the use of another marker. Each method has its pros and cons, which have to be considered on a case-by-case basis. ELISA is quantitative, quick and easy to carry out and has high sensitivity. LFD testing is ideal for industrial applications, as the tests can be carried out on-site. Both antibody-based tests may have problems with processed foods and false positive results. Mass-spectrometric techniques show a lot of promise, but are currently still time-consuming and complex to carry out. They also run into problems with processed foods and their degree of sensitivity is matrix and parameter dependent. For these reasons, this technique is only occasionally used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides the highest specificity and, depending on the target sequence, a very good to good level of sensitivity. Despite the high stability of DNA, PCR is still subject to the influence of processing and matrix related factors. Due to natural variation and production-related changes in the structures relevant in the process of detection, all methods exhibit a relatively high level of uncertainty of measurement. At present, there is no method which provides the absolute correct quantification. However, by means of laboratory-based analyses it is possible to calibrate for the allergen in question and thus be able to make reliable measurements using methods that are already available. PMID

  19. Biosensor of endotoxin and sepsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Xiang; Wu, Xi; Gao, Wei; He, Qing-hua; Cai, Shaoxi

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the relation between biosensor of endotoxin and endotoxin of plasma in sepsis. Method: biosensor of endotoxin was designed with technology of quartz crystal microbalance bioaffinity sensor ligand of endotoxin were immobilized by protein A conjugate. When a sample soliton of plasma containing endotoxin 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0Eu, treated with perchloric acid and injected into slot of quartz crystal surface respectively, the ligand was released from the surface of quartz crystal to form a more stable complex with endotoxin in solution. The endotoxin concentration corresponded to the weight change on the crystal surface, and caused change of frequency that occurred when desorbed. The result was biosensor of endotoxin might detect endotoxin of plasma in sepsis, measurements range between 0.05Eu and 0.5Eu in the stop flow mode, measurement range between 0.1Eu and 1Eu in the flow mode. The sensor of endotoxin could detect the endotoxin of plasm rapidly, and use for detection sepsis in clinically.

  20. Perioperative anti-endotoxin strategies.

    PubMed

    Houdijk, A P; Meijer, C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Van Leeuwen, P A

    1997-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria are potent stimuli for the production of numerous cytokines by the immune cells. The systemic inflammatory response to these gut-derived endotoxins is therefore dependent on the responsiveness of the immune system. This paper presents results on anti-endotoxin strategies and the responsiveness to endotoxin in animal models of liver failure. Following partial hepatectomy in the normal rat, anti-endotoxin treatment using the enteral endotoxin binder cholestyramine and the bactericidal permeability-increasing protein showed beneficial effects in terms of reducing the exaggerated metabolic and inflammatory responses. Similar beneficial effects of gut endotoxin restriction were found in bile duct ligated rats subjected to a laparotomy. The beneficial effects of anti-endotoxin strategies in these models were explained by completely different mechanisms. In partial hepatectomized rats the effects were explained by the direct inhibition of the stimulatory action of endotoxin on immune cells preventing an exaggerated inflammatory response. In contrast, in postoperative BDL rats the effects of anti-endotoxin therapy were explained by the restoration of endotoxin sensitivity of the immune cells resulting in an inflammatory response necessary for an adequate reaction to surgery. These different mechanism will be discussed in the light of the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance.

  1. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    PubMed

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  2. Anti-endotoxin vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) infections are a leading cause of serious infections both in hospitals and the community. The mortality remains high despite potent antimicrobials and modern supportive care. In the last decade invasive GNB have become increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics, and attempts to intervene with novel biological therapies have been unsuccessful. Earlier studies with antibodies directed against a highly conserved core region in the GNB lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or endotoxin) suggested that this approach may have therapeutic benefit, and led to the development of a subunit vaccine that has progressed to phase 1 clinical testing. Since only a few serogroups of GNB cause bacteremia, O-specific vaccines had been developed, but these were not deployed because of the availability of other therapeutic options at the time. Given the likelihood that new antibiotics will not be soon available, the development of vaccines and antibodies directed against endotoxin, both O and core antigens, deserves a “second look”. PMID:23974910

  3. Bat feces as an indoor allergen.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Irañeta, S G; Rodríguez, S M; Scavini, L M; Rodríguez, S R

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated in an animal model (specific IgG) as well as in atopic patients suffering from rhinitis/asthma (specific IgE) that bat feces have antigenic properties. A single peak with high glycoprotein content was obtained by chromatography, while SDS-PAGE revealed several proteins between 29 and 116 kDa which showed immune serum blotting at 43.6 and 66 kDa. Positive specific skin tests with bat feces and IgE-RAST anti-bat feces were detected in atopic patients living in tall buildings and old houses in Buenos Aires. As bat feces did not cross-react with bat epithelium, studies evaluating rat serum and epithelium and pigeon feces in order to analyze the role of bat serum proteins, such as IgA, are encouraged. PMID:10028484

  4. Mold Allergens in Respiratory Allergy: From Structure to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Swoboda, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy. PMID:25840710

  5. Comparison of endotoxin levels and gram-negative bacteria under different conditions in microbial laboratories and a biowaste site.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Uk; Joo, Se Ik; Park, Hyun Hee; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we assessed airborne endotoxin levels in university laboratories, hospital diagnostic laboratories, and a biowaste site. We also investigated indoor and outdoor sampling, sampling site, type of ventilation system, presence of open biowaste boxes, weather, and detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). A total of 69 air samples were collected from 11 facilities in three institutions. Average total airborne endotoxin levels ranged from <0.01 to 10.02 EU m(-3), with an overall mean of 1.03 EU m(-3). Endotoxin levels were high in window-ventilated facilities, in facilities in which GNB were detected; levels were also high when it was rainy (all ps<0.05). Endotoxin levels were significantly correlated with humidity (r=0.70, p<0.01). The presence of HVAC; humidity; and the presence of open biowaste boxes affect endotoxin levels in laboratories. PMID:21726888

  6. Lead, Allergen, and Pesticide Levels in Licensed Child Care Centers in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergens, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels ...

  7. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  8. Endotoxin hitchhiking on polymer nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnell, Mason L.; Lyon, Andrew J.; Mormile, Melanie R.; Barua, Sutapa

    2016-07-01

    The control of microbial infections is critical for the preparation of biological media including water to prevent lethal septic shock. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. More than half a million patients suffer from sepsis every year. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are responsible for septic infection by the most common organisms i.e., Escherichia coli and Pseuodomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial cell membrane releases negatively charged endotoxins upon death and enzymatic destruction, which stimulate antigenic response in humans to gram-negative infections. Several methods including distillation, ethylene oxide treatment, filtration and irradiation have been employed to remove endotoxins from contaminated samples, however, the reduction efficiency remains low, and presents a challenge. Polymer nanoparticles can be used to overcome the current inability to effectively sequester endotoxins from water. This process is termed endotoxin hitchhiking. The binding of endotoxin on polymer nanoparticles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions offers efficient removal from water. However, the effect of polymer nanoparticles and its surface areas has not been investigated for removal of endotoxins. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer was tested for its ability to effectively bind and remove endotoxins from water. By employing a simple one-step phase separation technique, we were able to synthesize PCL nanoparticles of 398.3 ± 95.13 nm size and a polydispersity index of 0.2. PCL nanoparticles showed ∼78.8% endotoxin removal efficiency, the equivalent of 3.9 × 105 endotoxin units (EU) per ml. This is 8.34-fold more effective than that reported for commercially available membranes. Transmission electron microscopic images confirmed binding of multiple endotoxins to the nanoparticle surface. The concept of using nanoparticles may be applicable not only to eliminate gram-negative bacteria, but also for any gram

  9. Endotoxin hitchhiking on polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Donnell, Mason L; Lyon, Andrew J; Mormile, Melanie R; Barua, Sutapa

    2016-07-15

    The control of microbial infections is critical for the preparation of biological media including water to prevent lethal septic shock. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. More than half a million patients suffer from sepsis every year. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are responsible for septic infection by the most common organisms i.e., Escherichia coli and Pseuodomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial cell membrane releases negatively charged endotoxins upon death and enzymatic destruction, which stimulate antigenic response in humans to gram-negative infections. Several methods including distillation, ethylene oxide treatment, filtration and irradiation have been employed to remove endotoxins from contaminated samples, however, the reduction efficiency remains low, and presents a challenge. Polymer nanoparticles can be used to overcome the current inability to effectively sequester endotoxins from water. This process is termed endotoxin hitchhiking. The binding of endotoxin on polymer nanoparticles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions offers efficient removal from water. However, the effect of polymer nanoparticles and its surface areas has not been investigated for removal of endotoxins. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer was tested for its ability to effectively bind and remove endotoxins from water. By employing a simple one-step phase separation technique, we were able to synthesize PCL nanoparticles of 398.3 ± 95.13 nm size and a polydispersity index of 0.2. PCL nanoparticles showed ∼78.8% endotoxin removal efficiency, the equivalent of 3.9 × 10(5) endotoxin units (EU) per ml. This is 8.34-fold more effective than that reported for commercially available membranes. Transmission electron microscopic images confirmed binding of multiple endotoxins to the nanoparticle surface. The concept of using nanoparticles may be applicable not only to eliminate gram-negative bacteria, but also for any gram

  10. Endotoxin hitchhiking on polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Donnell, Mason L; Lyon, Andrew J; Mormile, Melanie R; Barua, Sutapa

    2016-07-15

    The control of microbial infections is critical for the preparation of biological media including water to prevent lethal septic shock. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. More than half a million patients suffer from sepsis every year. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are responsible for septic infection by the most common organisms i.e., Escherichia coli and Pseuodomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial cell membrane releases negatively charged endotoxins upon death and enzymatic destruction, which stimulate antigenic response in humans to gram-negative infections. Several methods including distillation, ethylene oxide treatment, filtration and irradiation have been employed to remove endotoxins from contaminated samples, however, the reduction efficiency remains low, and presents a challenge. Polymer nanoparticles can be used to overcome the current inability to effectively sequester endotoxins from water. This process is termed endotoxin hitchhiking. The binding of endotoxin on polymer nanoparticles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions offers efficient removal from water. However, the effect of polymer nanoparticles and its surface areas has not been investigated for removal of endotoxins. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer was tested for its ability to effectively bind and remove endotoxins from water. By employing a simple one-step phase separation technique, we were able to synthesize PCL nanoparticles of 398.3 ± 95.13 nm size and a polydispersity index of 0.2. PCL nanoparticles showed ∼78.8% endotoxin removal efficiency, the equivalent of 3.9 × 10(5) endotoxin units (EU) per ml. This is 8.34-fold more effective than that reported for commercially available membranes. Transmission electron microscopic images confirmed binding of multiple endotoxins to the nanoparticle surface. The concept of using nanoparticles may be applicable not only to eliminate gram-negative bacteria, but also for any gram

  11. Chylomicrons enhance endotoxin excretion in bile.

    PubMed Central

    Read, T E; Harris, H W; Grunfeld, C; Feingold, K R; Calhoun, M C; Kane, J P; Rapp, J H

    1993-01-01

    Chylomicrons prevent endotoxin toxicity and increase endotoxin uptake by hepatocytes. As a consequence, less endotoxin is available to activate macrophages, thereby reducing tumor necrosis factor secretion. To determine whether the chylomicron-mediated increase in hepatocellular uptake of endotoxin results in increased endotoxin excretion into bile, we examined bile after endotoxin administration. A sublethal dose (7 micrograms/kg) of 125I-endotoxin was incubated with either rat mesenteric lymph containing nascent chylomicrons (500 mg of chylomicron triglyceride per kg of body weight) or an equal volume of normal saline (controls) for 3 h and then infused into male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bile samples were collected via a common bile duct catheter for 24 h. Infusion of endotoxin incubated with chylomicrons increased biliary excretion of endotoxin by 67% at 3 h (P < or = 0.006) and by 20% at 24 h (P < or = 0.01) compared with infusion of endotoxin incubated in saline. Endotoxin activity, as measured by the Limulus assay, was not detected in the bile of test animals. However, endotoxin activity was detected after hot phenol-water extraction of bile, demonstrating that endotoxin is inactive in the presence of bile but retains bioactivity after hepatic processing. Since the majority of an intravenous endotoxin load has been shown to be cleared by the liver, acceleration of hepatocyte clearance and biliary excretion of endotoxin may represent a component of the mechanism by which chylomicrons protect against endotoxin-induced lethality. PMID:8335381

  12. Allergen structures and epitopes.

    PubMed

    Meno, K H

    2011-07-01

    Human type 1 hypersensitivity diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis are characterized by allergen-specific IgE antibodies produced in allergic individuals after allergen exposure. IgE antibodies bound to receptors on the surface of effector cells trigger an allergic response by interacting with three-dimensional (conformational) epitopes on the allergen surface. Crystal structures are available for complexes of antibody specifically bound to five allergens, from birch pollen, bee venom, cockroach, cow's milk and timothy grass pollen. The details of the antibody-allergen interaction extending all the way to atomic resolution are available from such complexes. In vitro investigations using recombinant monoclonal antibodies and human basophils show that binding affinity is a key to triggering the allergic response. Continued molecular characterization of antibody-allergen interactions is paving the way for the use of recombinant allergens in allergen-specific diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:21668845

  13. New tree nut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...

  14. Indoor air pollution and airway disease.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Simoni, M; Scognamiglio, A; Baldacci, S; Pistelli, F; Carrozzi, L; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2004-12-01

    Scientific interest in indoor pollution has been increasing since the second half of the 1980s. Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Indoor environments include dwellings, workplaces, schools and day care centres, bars, discotheques and vehicles. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections, and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  15. Passive airborne dust sampling with the electrostatic dustfall collector: optimization of storage and extraction procedures for endotoxin and glucan measurement.

    PubMed

    Noss, Ilka; Doekes, Gert; Sander, Ingrid; Heederik, Dick J J; Thorne, Peter S; Wouters, Inge M

    2010-08-01

    We recently introduced a passive dust sampling method for airborne endotoxin and glucan exposure assessment-the electrostatic dustfall collector (EDC). In this study, we assessed the effects of different storage and extraction procedures on measured endotoxin and glucan levels, using 12 parallel EDC samples from 10 low exposed indoor environments. Additionally, we compared 2- and 4-week sampling with the prospect of reaching higher dust yields. Endotoxin concentrations were highest after extraction with pyrogen-free water (pf water) + Tween. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-Tween yielded significantly (44%) lower levels, and practically no endotoxin was detected after extraction in pf water without Tween. Glucan levels were highest after extraction in PBS-Tween at 120 degrees C, whereas extracts made in NaOH at room temperature or 120 degrees C were completely negative. Direct extraction from the EDC cloth or sequential extraction after a preceding endotoxin extraction yielded comparable glucan levels. Sample storage at different temperatures before extraction did not affect endotoxin and glucan concentrations. Doubling the sampling duration yielded similar endotoxin and only 50% higher glucan levels. In conclusion, of the tested variables, the extraction medium was the predominant factor affecting endotoxin and glucan yields.

  16. Peanut allergens: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Montealegre, Cristina; Marina, Maria Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and, especially, the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always renewed. This article reviews the information currently available on peanut allergens and on the techniques used for their chemical characterization. Moreover, a general overview on the current biotechnological approaches used to reduce or eliminate peanut allergens is also provided. PMID:23638932

  17. Allergens in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. S.; Janda, J.; Jensen-Jarolim, E.; Rhyner, C.; Marti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. PMID:26280544

  18. Lead, allergen, and pesticide levels in licensed child care centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Viet, Susan Marie; Rogers, John; Marker, David; Fraser, Alexa; Friedman, Warren; Jacobs, David; Zhou, J; Tulve, Nicolle

    2013-12-01

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergen, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels were measured in settled dust; and pesticide residues were measured on indoor surfaces and in play area soil. Fourteen percent of centers had significant lead hazards, suggesting that an estimated 470,000 children under age six (approximately 10% of all children in licensed centers) attend centers with significant lead hazards. Approximately 5% of centers had levels of allergens associated with asthma and allergic conditions. Three-quarters of centers had pesticides applied (either indoors or outdoors) during the previous year. Although most centers did not appear to present risks from lead and allergens, some centers did have unsafe levels of these contaminants. These conclusions cannot be generalized to unlicensed child care arrangements. PMID:24437044

  19. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Chiu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust) and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:23840530

  20. Endotoxin Deactivation by Transient Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Melina M.; Xu, Xiumin; Klein, Dagmar; Kenyon, Norma S; Ricordi, Camillo; Felipe, Maria Sueli S.; Pastori, Ricardo L.

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are an important tool for research and therapeutic applications. Therapeutic proteins have been delivered to several cell types and tissues and might be used to improve the outcome of the cell transplantation. Recombinant proteins are propagated in bacteria, which will contaminate them with the lypopolysacharide-endotoxin found in the outer bacterial membrane. Endotoxin could interfere with in vitro biological assays and is the major pathological factor, which must be removed or inactivated before in vivo administration. Here we describe a one-step protocol in which the endotoxin activity on recombinant proteins is remarkably reduced by transient exposure to acidic conditions. Maximum endotoxin deactivation occurs at acidic pH below their respective isoelectric point (pI). This method does not require additional protein purification or separation of the protein from the endotoxin fraction. The endotoxin level was measured both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro assessment we have utilized Limulus Amebocyte Lysate method for in vivo the pyrogenic test. We have tested the above-mentioned method with 5 different recombinant proteins including a monoclonal antibody clone 5c8 against CD154 produced by hybridomas. More than 99% of endotoxin was deactivated in all of the proteins, the recovery of the protein after deactivation varied between maximum 72.9 and minimum 46.8%. The anti CD154 clone 5c8 activity remained unchanged as verified by the measurement of binding capability to activated lymphocytes. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this method was not significantly altered by urea, commonly used in protein purification. This procedure provides a simple and cost-efficient way to reduce the endotoxin activity in antibodies and recombinant proteins. PMID:20412635

  1. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  2. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  3. Indoor climate.

    PubMed

    Höppe, P R

    1993-09-15

    In industrialized countries most of the time is spent indoors. The basic ambient parameters for a thermally comfortable indoor climate are air temperature, air velocity, humidity and radiation pattern. Besides the thermal component, the concentrations of air pollutants in the indoor air are also of importance for wellbeing and health. Their levels are influenced both by the outdoor concentrations and the indoor emissions. The increasing use of air conditioning systems in many cases has not resulted in improving the indoor climate but causes a wide range of irritations and health problems summarized as 'sick building syndrome'.

  4. Mammal-derived respiratory lipocalin allergens do not exhibit dendritic cell-activating capacity.

    PubMed

    Parviainen, S; Kinnunen, T; Rytkönen-Nissinen, M; Nieminen, A; Liukko, A; Virtanen, T

    2013-03-01

    Most mammal-derived respiratory allergens belong to the lipocalin family of proteins. Determinants of their allergenic capacity are still unknown. Innate immune cells, in particular dendritic cells, have been shown to be involved in the allergenicity of some proteins. As recognition by dendritic cells is one of the few plausible mechanisms for the allergenicity of proteins, we wanted to investigate their role in the allergenicity of lipocalin allergens. Therefore, we first incubated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells with immunologically functional recombinant allergens mouse Mus m 1, dog Can f 1 and 2, cow Bos d 2, horse Equ c 1 and natural Bos d 2. Then, the surface marker expression and cytokine production of dendritic cells and their capacity to promote T cell proliferation and Th2 immune deviation in naïve CD4(+) T cells were examined in vitro. We found that near to endotoxin-free lipocalin allergens had no effect on the activation, allostimulatory capacity or cytokine production of dendritic cells. The dendritic cells could not induce immune deviation in naïve CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide activated the dendritic cells efficiently. However, lipocalin allergens were not able to modify the lipopolysaccharide-induced responses. We conclude that an important group of mammal-derived respiratory allergens, lipocalins, appear not to be able to activate dendritic cells, a major component involved in the allergenicity of some proteins. It is conceivable that this incapacity of lipocalin allergens to arouse innate immunity may be associated with their poor capacity to induce a strong T cell response, verified in several studies.

  5. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity.

  6. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE. D. M. Brass, J. D. Savov, *S. H. Gavett, ?C. George, D. A. Schwartz. Duke Univ Medical Center Durham, NC, *U.S. E.P.A. Research Triangle Park, NC, ?Univ of Iowa,...

  7. Allergenic characteristics of a modified peanut allergen.

    PubMed

    King, Nina; Helm, Ricki; Stanley, J Steven; Vieths, Stefan; Lüttkopf, Dirk; Hatahet, Lina; Sampson, Hugh; Pons, Laurent; Burks, Wesley; Bannon, Gary A

    2005-10-01

    Attempts to treat peanut allergy using traditional methods of allergen desensitization are accompanied by a high risk of anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine if modifications to the IgE-binding epitopes of a major peanut allergen would result in a safer immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of peanut-allergic patients. IgE-binding epitopes on the Ara h 2 allergen were modified, and modified Ara h 2 (mAra h 2) protein was produced. Wild-type (wAra h 2) and mAra h 2 proteins were analyzed for their ability to interact with T-cells, their ability to bind IgE, and their ability to release mediators from a passively sensitized RBL-2H3 cell line. Multiple T-cell epitopes were identified on the major peanut allergen, Ara h 2. Ara h 2 amino acid regions 11-35, 86-125, and 121-155 contained the majority of peptides that interact with T-cells from most patients. The wAra h 2 and mAra h 2 proteins stimulated proliferation of T-cells from peanut-allergic patients to similar levels. In contrast, the mAra h 2 protein exhibited greatly reduced IgE-binding capacity compared to the wild-type allergen. In addition, the modified allergen released significantly lower amounts of beta-hexosaminidase, a marker for IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 degranulation, compared to the wild-type allergen.

  8. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  9. Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

  10. Lipocalins as allergens.

    PubMed

    Mäntyjärvi, R; Rautiainen, J; Virtanen, T

    2000-10-18

    The term allergy refers to clinical conditions caused by an inappropriate immune response to innocuous proteins in genetically predisposed persons. Allergens of animal origin are responsible for a significant proportion of allergies. In recent years, it has become evident that practically all respiratory animal allergens characterized at the molecular level belong to the lipocalin family of proteins. The current list comprises the major allergens of horse, cow, dog, mouse, rat and cockroach as well as beta-lactoglobulin of cow's milk. While the molecular structure of all these allergens is known, far less information is available regarding their immunological characteristics. Knowing the way the immune system recognizes these allergens and reacts to them might, however, be the key for discovering the common denominator of the allergenicity of lipocalins. The human body contains numerous endogenous lipocalins, and the immune system has to adapt to their presence. We have proposed that under these conditions the immune response against the lipocalin allergens which are structurally related to endogenous lipocalins might be the pathway to allergy in genetically predisposed persons. The same might well apply also to other allergens with homologous endogenous counterparts. PMID:11058771

  11. Deteriorated housing contributes to high cockroach allergen levels in inner-city households.

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Virginia A; Chew, Ginger R; Garfinkel, Robin S

    2002-01-01

    The high prevalence of childhood asthma in low-income, inner-city populations is not fully understood but has been at least partly attributed to the disproportionate exposures associated with socioeconomic disadvantage. The contribution of indoor allergens to asthma is well documented, but links between socioeconomic disadvantage and indoor allergen levels are not clear. We investigated levels of cockroach allergens (Bla g 2) in a sample of 132 Dominican or African American low-income households with young children in northern Manhattan in New York City (40% were receiving public assistance) to determine whether the distribution of allergens is a function of housing deterioration. Deterioration was measured by the presence and number of physical housing problems (holes in the ceilings and walls, water damage, etc.). More than 50% of the sample had two or more types of housing dilapidation, and 67% of the sample reported cockroach sightings in their homes. Samples of dust were collected from kitchen and bedroom surfaces. We hypothesized that the greater the dilapidation, the higher the allergen levels, independent of income, sociocultural factors, and pest-control methods. In addition, we hypothesized that the homes of families characterized by frequent moves (23.5%) would have higher allergen levels than more stable families. Results showed significant positive associations between housing deterioration and allergen levels in kitchens, after adjusting for income and ethnicity, with independent effects of residential stability (p< 0.05). Bedroom allergen levels were associated with housing instability (p < 0.01) and ethnicity (p< 0.01). Findings demonstrated that indoor household allergen levels are related to degree of household disrepair, after adjusting for individual family attributes, suggesting that social-structural aspects of housing may be appropriate targets for public health interventions designed to reduce allergen exposure. PMID:11929744

  12. Socioeconomic predictors of high allergen levels in homes in the greater Boston area.

    PubMed Central

    Kitch, B T; Chew, G; Burge, H A; Muilenberg, M L; Weiss, S T; Platts-Mills, T A; O'Connor, G; Gold, D R

    2000-01-01

    In the United States, childhood asthma morbidity and prevalence rates are the highest in less affluent urban minority communities. More than 80% of childhood asthmatics are allergic to one or more inhalant allergens. We evaluated whether socioeconomic status was associated with a differential in the levels and types of indoor home allergens. Dust samples for an ELISA allergen assay were collected from the homes of 499 families as part of a metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, longitudinal birth cohort study of home allergens and asthma in children with a parental history of asthma or allergy. The proportion of homes with maximum home allergen levels in the highest category was 42% for dust mite allergen (> or = 10 microg/g Der p 1 or Der f 1), 13% for cockroach allergen (> or = 2 U/g Bla g 1 or Bla g 2), 26% for cat allergen (> or = 8 microg/g Fel d 1), and 20% for dog allergen (> or = 10 microg/g Can f 1). Homes in the high-poverty area (> 20% of the population below the poverty level) were more likely to have high cockroach allergen levels than homes in the low-poverty area [51 vs. 3%; OR, 33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 12-90], but less likely to have high levels of dust mite allergen (16 vs. 53%; OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1-0.4). Lower family income, less maternal education, and race/ethnicity (black or Hispanic vs. white) were also associated with a lower risk of high dust mite levels and a greater risk of high cockroach allergen levels. Within a single U.S. metropolitan area we found marked between-community differences in the types of allergens present in the home, but not necessarily in the overall burden of allergen exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753087

  13. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn.

  14. Dimerization of lipocalin allergens

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Merja H.; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja; Miettinen, Ilja; Jänis, Janne; Virtanen, Tuomas; Rouvinen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Lipocalins are one of the most important groups of inhalant animal allergens. The analysis of structural features of these proteins is important to get insights into their allergenicity. We have determined two different dimeric crystal structures for bovine dander lipocalin Bos d 2, which was earlier described as a monomeric allergen. The crystal structure analysis of all other determined lipocalin allergens also revealed oligomeric structures which broadly utilize inherent structural features of the β-sheet in dimer formation. According to the moderate size of monomer-monomer interfaces, most of these dimers would be transient in solution. Native mass spectrometry was employed to characterize quantitatively transient dimerization of two lipocalin allergens, Bos d 2 and Bos d 5, in solution. PMID:26346541

  15. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn. PMID:12915766

  16. Allergen sensitization of asthmatic and nonasthmatic schoolchildren in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quiros, M; Gutierrez, I; Calvo, N; Araya, C; Karlberg, J; Hanson, L A; Belin, L

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in Costa Rica is very high -- at the level of 20-30% -- and the reason is still unknown. A group of children from our previous epidemiologic study was randomly selected in order to establish the relation between asthma symptoms and allergy sensitization to common allergens. Serum samples from children with and without asthma were analyzed for the presence of IgE antibodies to 36 different allergens, for the presence of IgE antibodies to a pool of 10 common allergens, and for total serum IgE. The most prevalent IgE antibodies were those to mite, cockroach, dog, and house-dust allergens with MAST pipettes for the serologic measurements. Positive reactions to house dust, mite, cat, and the two molds (Alternaria and Cladosporium), and food allergens such as egg white, peanut, and shellfish were significantly more prevalent among the asthmatics than the nonasthmatics. Sensitization was equally prevalent at different ages, but the house-dust, mite, cat, dog, cockroach, Alternaria, and egg-white allergens had sensitized boys more often than girls (P < 0.01). The result of the analysis of IgE antibodies to a pool of 10 common allergens by Phadiatop supported the MAST pipette results, showing allergen sensitization in 57.7% of the asthmatic children and 42.3% in the nonasthmatic group. The concentration of IgE was significantly higher among the asthmatic children (372.2 kU/l) than among the nonasthmatic children (249.1 kU/l) (P < 0.00001). Parasitic infestations were not examined in this study, but in most of Costa Rica these have largely been eliminated and could not explain the high total IgE levels. Our data indicate that the very high prevalence of bronchial asthma in Costa Rican schoolchildren can be related to sensitization, especially to airborne indoor allergens such as those of mites, cockroaches, and dogs.

  17. Quantitation of latex allergens.

    PubMed

    Palosuo, Timo; Alenius, Harri; Turjanmaa, Kristiina

    2002-05-01

    Minimizing allergen concentration in latex goods to prevent sensitization to natural rubber latex (NRL) and thereby the development of clinical allergy is acknowledged as of mutual interest for rubber manufacturers and regulatory health authorities. However, measuring total protein, the principal currently available method, cannot be deemed a satisfactory regulatory measure to control allergen content. Specific methods based on human IgE-containing reagents, such as radioallergosorbent test (RAST) inhibition, have been available in certain laboratories for demonstrating NRL allergens in rubber products but the methods lack standardization. Currently, one commercial test has become available for measuring individual NRL allergens by capture ELISA-based assays using monoclonal antibodies and purified or recombinant allergens. Such methods are specific, they can be properly standardized, and they are of sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Results from medical gloves collected in two national market surveys in Finland in 1995 and 1999, respectively, show that Hev b 6.02 and Hev b 5, the two major allergens for NRL-allergic adults, are the most abundant allergens regularly detectable in high- and moderate-allergen gloves. In addition, Hev b 3 and Hev b 1, the two major allergens for children with spina bifida, are also commonly found. In general, when the sum of the four allergens exceeded 1 microg/g, most NRL-allergic patients showed positive skin prick test reactions against them. Using these new methods assessment of threshold levels that could in due course become guidelines for the rubber industry and regulatory health authorities is becoming possible. Eventually, this progress is expected to lead to a declining incidence of latex allergy. PMID:12079417

  18. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  19. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut. PMID:26593515

  20. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut.

  1. Allergens in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  2. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria. PMID:19671382

  3. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria.

  4. Allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Harold S; Norman, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy was introduced for the treatment of grass pollen-induced hay fever in 1911. The treatment was soon extended to other pollens as well as perennial allergens, and to the treatment of bronchial asthma. Definitive studies of its efficacy for both rhinitis and asthma came only many decades later. Understanding gradually emerged of the underlying immunologic mechanisms that include the generation of regulatory T lymphocytes, immune deviation from allergen-specific Th2 to Th1 responses, and a shift in allergen-specific antibody production from immunoglobulin (Ig) E to IgG4. Along with understanding of the immune basis came an appreciation that immunotherapy modifies allergic disease expression, producing protection against disease progression and symptomatic improvement that persists for years after the treatment is discontinued. Recent new directions for immunotherapy include sublingual administration of inhalant allergens and use of the oral route to treat food allergy.

  5. [Indoor pollution].

    PubMed

    Tarsitani, G

    1995-01-01

    The Author reports more important phases from the beginning of housing to now: the indoor pollution time. Shelter is a basic need; humans require protection against the elements, somewhere to store and prepare the food, and a secure place to raise offspring; but indoor environment is not always safe. It has been known since Hippocrates' time that housing conditions affect health. Today situation starts from the enormous growth of urbanization. At 1888 in Italy first legislation on health, including healthy building, has been issued. The prevention policies were based on local hygiene regulations. At present housing programmes of who stress the problem in consideration too of the great part of time that, in industrialized Countries, we all pass at home, in the indoor environment. Following the general introduction the Author relates on the features of indoor climate, that may be identical that out of doors, or may be modified by heating, cooling, humidification and ventilation. Larger commentaries are reported on indoor pollution and its increasing by modern technology producing several new hazards. Physical, chemical and biological indoor air pollutants, with their principal sources and health damages associated, are analyzed. In conclusion the author shows some data from a research on indoor pollution in the houses of Rome.

  6. Lyral: a fragrance allergen.

    PubMed

    Militello, Giuseppe; James, William

    2005-03-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of contact dermatitis and account for a large percentage of reactions to cosmetic products. Novel fragrance compounds that may not be detected by the common fragrance screening agents (including balsam of Peru and fragrance mix) are continually being produced. Lyral is one of those allergens found in many cosmetic and household products. This review will discuss the recent literature and the significance of this allergen to allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Monitoring for airborne allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, H.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Monitoring for allergens can provide some information on the kinds and levels of exposure experienced by local patient populations, providing volumetric methods are used for sample collection and analysis is accurate and consistent. Such data can also be used to develop standards for the specific environment and to begin to develop predictive models. Comparing outdoor allergen aerosols between different monitoring sites requires identical collection and analysis methods and some kind of rational standard, whether arbitrary, or based on recognized health effects.32 references.

  8. Allergens in school settings: results of environmental assessments in 3 city school systems.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Stuart L; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P; Bartholomew, L Kay; Joseph, Christine L M; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-08-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom allergen levels from 3 different geographic sites obtained from dust samples collected in the fall and in spring. Environmental dust samples were collected from elementary schools in Birmingham (AL), Detroit (MI), and Houston (TX), from 4 room locations, including the cafeteria, library, upper grades, and lower grades. Samples were assayed for dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae), cat (Felis domesticus), and cockroach (Blatella germanica 2) allergen levels. Allergen levels varied by geographic location and type of schoolroom. Schoolroom settings differed by the type of flooring (hard and carpet), room characteristics and use (food service, library shelves with books, and general classroom with multiple types of materials [individual desks and different types of furniture]), and the average age of the schoolroom dwellers (younger vs. older children). Dust mite, cat, and cockroach allergens were present in all schoolrooms and all sites at varying levels by season and by type of room. Schools may be important sources of direct allergen exposure and reservoirs that could potentially contribute to allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation in children. Further studies are needed to carefully examine the environmental allergen load in schools and its effect on children.

  9. Allergen and irritant control: importance and implementation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H S

    1998-01-01

    The Expert Panel Report 2. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (1) begins its section on controlling factors that precipitate or worsen asthma with the statement: "For successful long-term asthma management, it is essential to identify and reduce exposures to relevant allergens and irritants and to control other factors that have been shown to increase asthma symptoms and/or precipitate asthma exacerbations." The presence of allergy to indoor allergens and certain seasonal fungal spores has been found to be a risk factor for asthma in epidemiologic studies around the world. Generally between 70% and 85% of asthmatic populations studied have been reported to have positive skin-prick tests. Exposure of allergic patients to inhalant allergens increases airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, asthma symptoms, need for medication, severe attacks, and even death due to asthma. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure has been shown to increase the prevalence of childhood asthma and to increase asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness while reducing pulmonary function in children chronically exposed. Exposure to other indoor irritants, largely products of unvented combustion, has also been found to increase asthma symptoms. Outdoor air pollution increases asthma symptoms; levels of specific pollutants correlate with emergency room visits and hospitalization for asthma. Rhinitis/sinusitis and gastroesophageal reflux are commonly associated with asthma, and treatment of these conditions has been shown to improve asthma. In patients sensitive to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or metabisulfites, exposure to these agents can precipitate severe attacks of asthma. Viral infections are common causes for exacerbations of asthma. Infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae contribute to acute exacerbations and perhaps to long-term morbidity, as well. This chapter will discuss preventive and therapeutic measures

  10. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection. PMID:23934306

  11. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection.

  12. Recombinant allergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy: 10 years anniversary of immunotherapy with recombinant allergens.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, B; Swoboda, I; Niederberger, V

    2011-06-01

    The broad applicability of allergen-specific immunotherapy for the treatment and eventually prevention of IgE-mediated allergy is limited by the poor quality and allergenic activity of natural allergen extracts that are used for the production of current allergy vaccines. Today, the genetic code of the most important allergens has been deciphered; recombinant allergens equalling their natural counterparts have been produced for diagnosis and immunotherapy, and a large panel of genetically modified allergens with reduced allergenic activity has been characterized to improve safety of immunotherapy and explore allergen-specific prevention strategies. Successful immunotherapy studies have been performed with recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and will lead to the registration of the first recombinant allergen-based vaccines in the near future. There is no doubt that recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies will be generally applicable to most allergen sources, including respiratory, food and venom allergens and allow to produce safe allergy vaccines for the treatment of the most common forms of IgE-mediated allergies.

  13. Longitudinal evaluation of allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in inner-city households.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sook Ja; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Grengs, Jason; Ryan, Andrew D; Eberly, Lynn E; Adgate, John L

    2008-02-01

    To characterize seasonal variation of three allergens (dust mite, cat, and cockroach) and total culturable fungi and to explore whether residential characteristics were associated with the concentrations of these agents, floor dust was collected from 47 inner-city homes in Minneapolis, Minnesota, over a 1-year period. A longitudinal analysis of allergen and fungal concentrations was carried out using mixed-effect models. Overall, relative humidity was a better predictor of allergen concentrations over time than indoor temperature. Seasonal variation of cat and cockroach allergens was negligible compared with the variability associated with residential characteristics such as race/ethnicity, family income, and the presence of cats. Fungal concentrations showed significant seasonal variation that outweighed the variability associated with residential characteristics. Less than 30% of the dust mite allergen and cockroach allergens concentrations were above limits of detection. Observed cockroach allergen concentrations were higher in Spanish- and Somali-speaking households than in English-speaking households, while English-speaking households had significantly higher cat allergen concentrations compared with the other language groups. The ratios of within-home to between-home variance for total culturable fungi, dust mite, cockroach, and cat allergen concentrations were 2.54, 1.91, 0.55, and 0.24, respectively. This ratio is used to predict the number of repeated measurements of each allergen required to robustly estimate long-term exposure estimates such that exposure misclassification bias is kept within acceptable limits. It is not clear whether repeated measurements of dust mite and cockroach allergens are required for long-term average exposure because of the large fraction of nondetects. It is concluded that a single measurement of cat allergen is a reasonable surrogate for long-term average exposure, since repeated measurements over time were highly correlated

  14. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  15. Mite, cat, and cockroach exposure, allergen sensitisation, and asthma in children: a case-control study of three schools

    PubMed Central

    Sporik, R.; Squillace, S.; Ingram, J. M.; Rakes, G.; Honsinger, R.; Platts-Mills, T.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The amount of allergen necessary to sensitise genetically "at risk" children is unclear. The relation between allergen exposure and asthma is also uncertain.
METHODS—To ensure a wide range of allergen exposures the data from case-control studies of asthma in children aged 12-14 years attending three schools in Los Alamos, New Mexico and Central Virginia were combined. Skin prick tests to indoor and outdoor allergens and bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine were assessed in children with and without symptoms of asthma. The concentration of mite, cat, and cockroach allergens in dust from the children's homes was used as a marker of exposure.
RESULTS—Three hundred and thirty two children (157 with asthmatic symptoms and 175 controls) were investigated. One hundred and eighty three were classified as atopic on the basis of allergen skin prick tests and 68 as asthmatic (symptoms plus bronchial responsiveness). The prevalence and degree of sensitisation to mite and cockroach, but not cat, was strongly associated in atopic children with increasing domestic concentrations of these allergens. Asthma was strongly associated with sensitisation to indoor allergens (p<10-6) and weakly to outdoor allergens (p = 0.026). There was an association between current asthma and the concentration of mite allergen amongst atopic children (p = 0.008) but not amongst those who were specifically mite sensitised (p = 0.16).
CONCLUSIONS—The domestic reservoir concentration of mite and cockroach, but not cat, allergen was closely related to the prevalence of sensitisation in atopic children. However, the prevalence of current asthma had a limited relationship to these allergen measurements, suggesting that other factors play a major part in determining which allergic individuals develop asthma.

 PMID:10413718

  16. [Current contact allergens].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products.

  17. Two new types of allergens from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y; Long, C; Bai, X; Liu, W; Rong, M; Lai, R; An, S

    2015-12-01

    Periplaneta americana cockroach is an important source of inhalant indoor allergen resource, and there are more than twenty IgE-binding components identified in P. americana, but only nine allergens were characterized. Our knowledge about cockroach allergens remains poor. In this work, two novel allergen proteins Per a 11 (alpha-amylase) and Per a 12 (chitinase) with molecular weight around 55 and 45 kDa, respectively, were purified and characterized from the midgut of cockroaches. Their primary sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning. Sera from 39 and 30 of 47 (83.0% and 63.8%) patients reacted to Per a 11 and Per a 12 on immunoblots, respectively. The allergenicity of Per a 11 and Per a 12 was further confirmed by competitive ELISA, basophil activation test (BAT), and skin prick test (SPT). They appear to be of importance for the allergic reactions induced by cockroach and have a potential for component-based diagnosis of allergy. PMID:26361742

  18. Indoor radon

    SciTech Connect

    Rabkin, M.A.; Bodansky, D.

    1988-12-31

    The first awareness of radon as a health hazard came from observations of increased lung cancer incidence among uranium and other miners. During the past decade there has been increasing recognition of the importance of radon in the indoor environment as well. Extrapolations from radon exposures in mines to those in homes indicate that radon will cause a significant number of lung cancer deaths among the general population if its effects are linearly proportional to the magnitude of the exposure. For example, in the United States roughly 5000 to 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year are now attributed to indoor radon. Consistent with this, the effective dose equivalent from indoor radon is larger than the dose from any other radiation source for most people in temperate climates. Radon is a noble gas and can diffuse freely through the air. The most important isotope of radon, Rn-222, is produced in the alpha-particle decay of Ra-226, which is present in all soil and rock as a product of the U-238 decay series. In consequence, radon is present in both the outdoor and indoor environments, primarily due to its escape from the soil into the open air or into houses. The indoor concentrations are usually much higher than the outdoor concentrations, because the radon that enters into houses escapes relatively slowly. 120 refs., 12 tabs.

  19. [Allergenicity of lupin flour].

    PubMed

    Leduc, V; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guérin, L

    2002-06-01

    Lupin flour is used in human food for its high quality nutritional and functional qualities. The frequency of crossed allergy between lupin flour and peanuts, both members of the family of Leguminosae, is strong, since 68% of patients who are allergic to peanut have shown positive reactions to lupin flour when tested by TPO-DA. Cases of isolated allergy to lupin flour without pre-existence of peanut allergy as well as workplace asthma by inhalation are also rarely seen. The specific allergens of lupin and those that participate in crosses with peanut have been studied by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. The diversity of allergens contained in different lupin flour has also been studied. Further, the detection of lupin flour in a "pizza" flour which induced a strong allergic reaction exposed its eventual implication as a masked allergen.

  20. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient. PMID:26433528

  1. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  2. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  3. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  4. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  5. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay....

  7. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions

    PubMed Central

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. Methods A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. Results HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. Conclusions In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect. PMID:27126724

  8. Quality of indoor residential air and health

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert; Liu, Ling; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Gilbert, Nicolas L.

    2008-01-01

    About 90% of our time is spent indoors where we are exposed to chemical and biological contaminants and possibly to carcinogens. These agents may influence the risk of developing nonspecific respiratory and neurologic symptoms, allergies, asthma and lung cancer. We review the sources, health effects and control strategies for several of these agents. There are conflicting data about indoor allergens. Early exposure may increase or may decrease the risk of future sensitization. Reports of indoor moulds or dampness or both are consistently associated with increased respiratory symptoms but causality has not been established. After cigarette smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon are the most common causes of lung cancer. Homeowners can improve the air quality in their homes, often with relatively simple measures, which should provide health benefits. PMID:18625986

  9. Endotoxins and other sepsis triggers.

    PubMed

    Opal, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxin, or more accurately termed bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is recognized as the most potent microbial mediator implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. Yet despite its discovery well over a century ago, the fundamental role of circulating endotoxin in the blood of most patients with septic shock remains enigmatic and a subject of considerable controversy. LPS is the most prominent 'alarm molecule' sensed by the host's early warning system of innate immunity presaging the threat of invasion of the internal milieu by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. In small doses within a localized tissue space, LPS signaling is advantageous to the host in orchestrating an appropriate antimicrobial defense and bacterial clearance mechanisms. Conversely, the sudden release of large quantities of LPS into the bloodstream is clearly deleterious to the host, initiating the release of a dysregulated and potentially lethal array of inflammatory mediators and procoagulant factors in the systemic circulation. The massive host response to this single bacterial pattern recognition molecule is sufficient to generate diffuse endothelial injury, tissue hypoperfusion, disseminated intravascular coagulation and refractory shock. Numerous attempts to block endotoxin activity in clinical trials with septic patients have met with inconsistent and largely negative results. Yet the groundbreaking discoveries within the past decade into the precise molecular basis for LPS-mediated cellular activation and tissue injury has rekindled optimism that a new generation of therapies that specifically disrupt LPS signaling might succeed. Other microbial mediators found in Gram-positive bacterial and viral and fungal pathogens are now appreciated to activate many of the same host defense networks induced by LPS. This information is providing novel interventions in the continuing effots to improve the care of septic patients.

  10. [Shrimp as an allergen source].

    PubMed

    Múnera, Marlon; Gómez, Luis; Puerta, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to shellfish is one of the most prevalent food allergies in several countries, especially the one induced by consuming or having contact with shrimp. Several shrimp species are known to induce allergy diseases. However, the whole spectrum of allergens they contain is unknown and few of them have been completely characterized. This study was done in order to know the recent advances in the characterization of shrimp allergens and its relationship with allergens from other arthropods of importance in allergic diseases. We emphasize the species Litopenaeus vannamei , the most consumed shrimp in Colombia. Well characterized shrimp allergens are named following an official classification; nevertheless, they are better known according to the biological function associated with them. Tropomiosin, the main and most studied allergen in different shrimp species, is involved in crossreactivity among shrimp and other arthropods like domestic mites. The other characterized allergens seem to have a minor participation in this cross-reactivity. The allergenic potential of L. vannamei is not well known and few of its allergens have been characterized, whilst others that were recently identified such as the hemocyanin and the fatty acid binding proteins are beginning to be studied. Preliminary results suggest that these allergens are involved in the cross-reactivity between shrimp and domestic mites, which deserves further evaluation. The molecular and immunological characterization of all allergens present in shrimp would help understanding its allergenic role.

  11. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  12. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  13. Allergens are not pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Richard; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Thalhamer, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against infectious diseases has been one of the major breakthroughs in human medical history, saving the lives of millions of people each year. More recently, prophylactic vaccination against non-infectious diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and type I allergy is being investigated. Particularly in case of IgE-driven allergic disorders, which afflict almost a quarter of the population in highly developed countries, preventative measures would represent a major improvement for patients’ health as well as an economic relief for public health services. As an alternative to allergen-specific immunotherapy, prophylactic vaccination against type I allergic diseases could slow down or even stop the progress of the allergy pandemic. Allergen-encoding gene-based vaccines, i.e., plasmid DNA and mRNA vaccines, provide the advantage of purity over crude allergen extracts, which involve the risk of de novo sensitizations. Furthermore, these formulations have been demonstrated to induce T helper 1 as well as T regulatory immune responses—a pre-requisite for prophylactic intervention against allergies. However, prophylactic vaccines against environmental allergens strikingly differ from conventional vaccines against infectious diseases or therapeutic approaches concerning the underlying immunological mechanisms. PMID:24280693

  14. Orthologous Allergens and Diagnostic Utility of Major Allergen Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Antonio; Alcover, Javier; Rodríguez, David; Palacios, Ricardo; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypersensitivity to fungi is associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. For some fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), the symptoms of asthma are persistent, increasing disease severity and the risk of fatal outcomes. There are a large number of species of fungi but knowledge of them remains limited. This, together with the difficulties in obtaining adequate standardized extracts, means that there remain significant challenges in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy associated with fungi. The type of indoor fungi related to asthma/allergy varies according to geographic, climatic, and seasonal factors, making their study difficult. The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to indoor fungi in a population from Cuenca, Spain. Methods Thirty-five patients with symptoms compatible with rhinitis or asthma who showed clear worsening of their symptoms in their homes or workplace were included. In vivo and in vitro tests were made with a battery of fungal allergens, including the species isolated in the home or workplace. Results Ulocladium botrytis (U. botrytis) and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. These species showed very high concordance in skin tests, specific IgE, and histamine release. The allergen Alt a 1, which was recognized in all patients, was detected in A. alternata, U. botrytis, and Stemphylium botryosum (S. botryosum). Conclusions U. botrytis and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. Alt a 1 was recognized in all patients and may be considered a non-species-specific allergen that could be used as a diagnostic source of sensitization to some species of the Pleosporaceae family. PMID:27334781

  15. Environmental control for fungal allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Peyton A

    2003-09-01

    With our limited knowledge of the mold allergens, we must rely on common sense to reduce environmental exposure for patients who are allergic to mold. We understand that the first step is moisture control. Appropriate building design, keeping rainwater and ground water away from the interior, accomplishes this. In addition, the heating ventilation and air conditioning system must be appropriately designed and maintained. Functional maintenance of inside water sources such as free water from plumbing, appliances, and showers can prevent damaging leaks. Indoor humidity or water vapor must be controlled and maintained to prevent condensation on walls or in microenvironments, such as attics, bedrooms, basements, and beneath wall-to-wall carpeting. Few abatement trials have been published, but several suggest that such measures can reduce mold exposure.

  16. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  17. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  18. New strategies for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carnés, Jerónimo; Robinson, Douglas S

    2008-06-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy, consisting in the administration of increasing amounts of offending allergens into sensitive patients was first used nearly one hundred years ago and remains in use worldwide for treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. It has been recognised as the only effective treatment for type I allergic diseases when the appropriate quantities of allergens are used. The immunological mechanisms by which specific immunotherapy is effective include the modulation of T cells and the response of B-cells and is accompanied by significant decreases of specific IgE and increases in allergen specific IgG antibodies, mainly IgG4. While specific allergen injection immunotherapy is highly effective and the most common way of administration other routes such as oral or intranasal ways have been considered as and alternative to subcutaneous injections. During the last century, allergenic vaccines have been prepared using individual allergens adsorbed to different adjuvant substances. These vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and good results in different clinical trials. However, many novel approaches to allergen immunotherapy have been developed in the last years in order to increase the safety and efficacy of allergenic vaccines. In that way, different and modern vaccines have been prepared including more purified products such as depigmented allergen extracts; allergoids, consisting on big molecules of thousands of kDa, which contain all the individual allergens and show a significant decrease in severe adverse reactions; peptides or small aminoacid sequences; recombinant allergens; hypoallergenic vaccines where the IgE binding sites have been modified; or allergen-CpG fusion molecules. New presentations are under study and new treatments will be developed in the near future with the objective that the prevention of allergic disease may become a reality. The review article also discuss recent patent related to the field. PMID:19075996

  19. Addressing endotoxin issues in bioengineered heparin.

    PubMed

    Suwan, Jiraporn; Torelli, Amanda; Onishi, Akihiro; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant that is prepared from pig intestine. A contamination of heparin in 2008 has led to a reexamination of animal-derived pharmaceuticals. A bioengineered heparin prepared by bacterial fermentation and chemical and enzymatic processing is currently under development. This study examines the challenges of reducing or removing endotoxins associated with this process that are necessary to proceed with preclinical in vivo evaluation of bioengineered heparin. The current process is assessed for endotoxin levels, and strategies are examined for endotoxin removal from polysaccharides and enzymes involved in this process. PMID:23586950

  20. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  1. Development of sandwich ELISA for detection and quantification of invertebrate major allergen tropomyosin by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Lu, Ying; Ushio, Hideki; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    Muscle protein tropomyosins of invertebrates are major allergens responsible for wide spread allergic reactions against invertebrates such as shellfish and insects. In order to develop a sandwich enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) for detection and quantification of the invertebrate pan-allergen tropomyosin, a specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), CE7B2, was produced. We have successfully established a sandwich ELISA for measuring invertebrate tropomyosin concentrations in food and food materials. The sandwich ELISA system using the MAb CE7B2 is a useful tool to detect and quantify levels of tropomyosin in food. The method is also helpful to detect mite and cockroach tropomyosins, the important indoor allergens.

  2. New treatments for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Akdis, Mübeccel

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents the only curative and specific way for the treatment of allergic diseases, which have reached a pandemic dimension in industrial countries affecting up to 20-30% of the population. Although applied for 100 years to cure allergy, SIT still faces several problems related to side effects and limited efficacy. Currently, allergen-SIT is performed with vaccines based on allergen extracts that can cause severe, often life threatening, anaphylactic reactions as well as new IgE sensitization to other allergens present in the extract. Low patient adherence and high costs due to long duration (3 to 5 years) of treatment have been commonly reported. Several strategies have been developed to tackle these issues and it became possible to produce recombinant allergen-SIT vaccines with reduced allergenic activity.

  3. New treatments for allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents the only curative and specific way for the treatment of allergic diseases, which have reached a pandemic dimension in industrial countries affecting up to 20-30% of the population. Although applied for 100 years to cure allergy, SIT still faces several problems related to side effects and limited efficacy. Currently, allergen-SIT is performed with vaccines based on allergen extracts that can cause severe, often life threatening, anaphylactic reactions as well as new IgE sensitization to other allergens present in the extract. Low patient adherence and high costs due to long duration (3 to 5 years) of treatment have been commonly reported. Several strategies have been developed to tackle these issues and it became possible to produce recombinant allergen-SIT vaccines with reduced allergenic activity. PMID:25258656

  4. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  5. Association of House Dust Allergen Concentrations With Residential Conditions in City and in Rural Houses

    PubMed Central

    Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Pełka, Jolanta; Korzon, Leszek; Kaczała, Magdalena; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Gwardys, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between house dust mite, cat and dog allergen levels with household characteristics in the houses of children living in urban and rural areas in central Poland. Methods Dust samples were collected from 141 urban and 191 rural houses. Der f1 + Der p1, Can f 1, and Fel d1 levels were measured and associated with residential conditions and atopy-related health outcomes assessed by clinical examination and skin prick testing. Results Concentrations of mite allergens were lower, and cat and dog allergen levels were higher in urban houses. Fel d1 and Can f1 levels depended on the presence of a respective animal in the house. In urban houses, Der p1 + Der f1 concentration was lower in households with central heating, whereas Can f1 concentration was related to building age. Multivariate analyses revealed that the concentrations of house dust mite and dog allergens were associated with relative humidity, number of people in the household, and the presence of a dog at home. There was no significant association between allergen level and sensitization or atopic diseases. Conclusions Concentrations of indoor allergens in urban and rural houses differ significantly, and residential conditions associated with allergen levels seem to be different in both environments. PMID:23268467

  6. Citalopram reduces endotoxin-induced fatigue.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Jonas; DellaGioia, Nicole; Ortiz, Nyrma; Pittman, Brian; Bhagwagar, Zubin

    2011-02-01

    Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) may play a role in depression. Mild depressive-like symptoms can be induced in humans through activation of the innate immune system with endotoxin. Whether preventive treatment with antidepressants can reduce endotoxin-induced symptoms has never been tested. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we administered intravenous low-dose endotoxin (0.8 ng/kg) or placebo to 11 healthy subjects who had received oral pre-treatment with citalopram (10 mg twice a day) or placebo for 5 days. The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a visual analog scale were used to measure depressive and anxiety symptoms and social anhedonia. Serum levels of TNF and IL-6 were measured with immunoassays. Compared to placebo, endotoxin administration increased serum levels of TNF and IL-6, and caused mild depressive-like symptoms, in particular lassitude and social anhedonia. While citalopram pre-treatment had no effect on the innate immune response to endotoxin, it reduced the endotoxin-induced MADRS total score by 50%, with a moderate effect size (Cohen's d=0.5). Most of the MADRS total score was due to the lassitude item, and citalopram pre-treatment specifically reduced endotoxin-induced lassitude with a large effect size (Cohen's d=0.9). These results suggest that subchronic pre-treatment with the serotonin-reuptake inhibitor citalopram blunts mood symptoms induced by acute immune system activation with endotoxin without inhibiting the peripheral immune response.

  7. Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

  8. Indoor radon.

    PubMed

    Polpong, P; Bovornkitti, S

    1998-01-01

    The naturally radioactive but chemically inert gas, radon, is formed from the radioactive decay of radium which is part of the uranium series. Radon gas, which has a half life of 3.8 days, must escape from soil particles through air-filled pores in order to enter the atmosphere following the decay of radium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies, depending on the place, time, height above the ground and meteorological conditions. It is thus an inescapable source of radiation exposure, both at home and at work. The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from indoor radon gas and its daughter products are of great concern worldwide. Noting of an excessive lung cancer risk among several groups of underground miners exposed to radon and its daughter products, studies on radon concentrations in the workplace and in dwellings have been conducted in many countries. The results have shown that the distribution of radon concentrations are approximately lognormal from which population weighted; the arithmetic mean of radon concentration of 40 Bq.m-3 has been adopted worldwide for dwellings and workplaces. The principal methods for reducing a high indoor radon concentration are: reducing the radon supply by reversing the pressure difference between the building and the soil; raising the resistance of the foundations to soil gas entry; removing the radon sources such as water or underlying soil; diluting the concentration by increasing the ventilation rate; and reducing the concentration of radon progeny by filtering and increasing the circulation of indoor air. Buildings which have a radon concentration higher than 200 Bq.m-3 should be investigated by the national authorities concerned; meanwhile, householders should be advised to take simple temporary precautions, such as increasing ventilation, until a permanent remedy can be effected. PMID:9470322

  9. Indoor radon.

    PubMed

    Polpong, P; Bovornkitti, S

    1998-01-01

    The naturally radioactive but chemically inert gas, radon, is formed from the radioactive decay of radium which is part of the uranium series. Radon gas, which has a half life of 3.8 days, must escape from soil particles through air-filled pores in order to enter the atmosphere following the decay of radium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies, depending on the place, time, height above the ground and meteorological conditions. It is thus an inescapable source of radiation exposure, both at home and at work. The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from indoor radon gas and its daughter products are of great concern worldwide. Noting of an excessive lung cancer risk among several groups of underground miners exposed to radon and its daughter products, studies on radon concentrations in the workplace and in dwellings have been conducted in many countries. The results have shown that the distribution of radon concentrations are approximately lognormal from which population weighted; the arithmetic mean of radon concentration of 40 Bq.m-3 has been adopted worldwide for dwellings and workplaces. The principal methods for reducing a high indoor radon concentration are: reducing the radon supply by reversing the pressure difference between the building and the soil; raising the resistance of the foundations to soil gas entry; removing the radon sources such as water or underlying soil; diluting the concentration by increasing the ventilation rate; and reducing the concentration of radon progeny by filtering and increasing the circulation of indoor air. Buildings which have a radon concentration higher than 200 Bq.m-3 should be investigated by the national authorities concerned; meanwhile, householders should be advised to take simple temporary precautions, such as increasing ventilation, until a permanent remedy can be effected.

  10. Endotoxins in Environmental and Clinical Samples Assessed by GC-Tandem MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szponar, Bogumila

    Bacteria appeared on the Earth millions years before us and human evolution was triggered by the constant presence of pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms in our surroundings. Interplay occurred between higher organism and microbial consortia residing in the host organs and on the epithelial surfaces; another natural space of bacteria-human interaction is the indoor environment where we spend the majority of our lifetime. Indoor microbial exposure affects our well-being and can result in respiratory symptoms, such as allergies and asthma, since both dead and live microorganisms and their cell constituents, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxins), interact with our immune system. Thus, there is a demand for robust tools for qualitative and quantitative determination of the microbial communities that we are exposed to.

  11. Mold and Endotoxin Levels in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Project of Homes in New Orleans Undergoing Renovation

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ginger L.; Wilson, Jonathan; Rabito, Felicia A.; Grimsley, Faye; Iqbal, Shahed; Reponen, Tiina; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Thorne, Peter S.; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Morley, Rebecca L.

    2006-01-01

    Background After Hurricane Katrina, many New Orleans homes remained flooded for weeks, promoting heavy microbial growth. Objectives A small demonstration project was conducted November 2005–January 2006 aiming to recommend safe remediation techniques and safe levels of worker protection, and to characterize airborne mold and endotoxin throughout cleanup. Methods Three houses with floodwater lines between 0.3 and 2 m underwent intervention, including disposal of damaged furnishings and drywall, cleaning surfaces, drying remaining structure, and treatment with a biostatic agent. We measured indoor and outdoor bioaerosols before, during, and after intervention. Samples were analyzed for fungi [culture, spore analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and endotoxin. In one house, real-time particle counts were also assessed, and respirator-efficiency testing was performed to establish workplace protection factors (WPF). Results At baseline, culturable mold ranged from 22,000 to 515,000 colony-forming units/m3, spore counts ranged from 82,000 to 630,000 spores/m3, and endotoxin ranged from 17 to 139 endotoxin units/m3. Culture, spore analysis, and PCR indicated that Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces predominated. After intervention, levels of mold and endotoxin were generally lower (sometimes, orders of magnitude). The average WPF against fungal spores for elastomeric respirators was higher than for the N-95 respirators. Conclusions During baseline and intervention, mold and endotoxin levels were similar to those found in agricultural environments. We strongly recommend that those entering, cleaning, and repairing flood-damaged homes wear respirators at least as protective as elastomeric respirators. Recommendations based on this demonstration will benefit those involved in the current cleanup activities and will inform efforts to respond to future disasters. PMID:17185280

  12. Stability of patch test allergens.

    PubMed

    Joy, Nicole Marie; Rice, Kristen R; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is widely used in evaluating suspected contact dermatitis. One major component of a quality patch test result is a dependable, predictable allergen supply. The allergen needs to be present at a sufficient concentration to elicit a reaction in an allergic patient. To better understand the stability of patch-test allergens, we completed a systematic review of the literature. We found that there is variability in stability among patch-test allergens and that although a few have been shown to be stable, many degrade when in storage. In most cases, expiration dates should be honored. In addition, allergen panels should be prepared as close to the time of patch test application as is possible.

  13. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  14. Stability of patch test allergens.

    PubMed

    Joy, Nicole Marie; Rice, Kristen R; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is widely used in evaluating suspected contact dermatitis. One major component of a quality patch test result is a dependable, predictable allergen supply. The allergen needs to be present at a sufficient concentration to elicit a reaction in an allergic patient. To better understand the stability of patch-test allergens, we completed a systematic review of the literature. We found that there is variability in stability among patch-test allergens and that although a few have been shown to be stable, many degrade when in storage. In most cases, expiration dates should be honored. In addition, allergen panels should be prepared as close to the time of patch test application as is possible. PMID:24030367

  15. Allergen-free probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mogna, Giovanni; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Mogna, Luca

    2008-09-01

    Food sensitivities are constantly increasing in "westernized" countries and may pose serious health risks to sensitized individuals. Severe allergy episodes have also been reported after the intake of probiotic products containing milk protein residues, especially in children. The need for safe and effective probiotic strains and food supplements, which contain them, is now emerging clearly. The present work describes the way of achieving this aim by the avoidance of any kind of raw materials at risk, both in probiotic strain industrial manufacturing and finished product formulation. Allergen-free probiotics represent, without any doubt, an innovative and safe tool for human health.

  16. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E.M.; Biggin, J.H.; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.

  17. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments.

    PubMed Central

    Arundel, A V; Sterling, E M; Biggin, J H; Sterling, T D

    1986-01-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens. PMID:3709462

  18. Biochemical and molecular biological aspects of silverfish allergens.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Bianca; Di Felice, Gabriella; Pini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Insects and insect-derived materials have been implicated as a risk factor for sensitization and subsequent elicitation of allergic rhinitis and allergic bronchial asthma. During the last decades, insects other than those known as allergenic, were investigated for their potential role in inducing and triggering an IgE immune response. Among these, the silverfish, an insect belonging to the Thysanura order, appeared to be of particular interest. Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) is the most primitive living insect, and represents a descendent of the ancestral wingless insects. They are 3-12 mm long, have three tail feelers and are covered with shiny scales. They shun light and need a humid environment and their diet consists of carbohydrate materials such as paper and book-binding glue, crumbs of bread and flour. Because of these features, silverfish finds an optimal habitat both in dwellings and workplaces and in spite of its antiquity, silverfish has succeeded in exploiting the new opportunity created by man. Although its importance significantly increased when it has been demonstrated that house dust contains significant silverfish levels even in houses where the inhabitants were unaware of its presence, no silverfish extract for diagnosis of allergic diseases is commercially available yet. Identification of optimal extraction conditions and characterization of allergenic extracts are the first steps to obtain an effective allergen preparation suitable for diagnosis and therapy, and will be useful as a reference preparation for assessing silverfish exposure in different indoor environments. It has been cloned and characterized a silverfish tropomyosin, named Lep s 1, which represents the first allergen identified in silverfish extract and can be regarded as a molecule cross-reactive among inhalant and edible invertebrates allergenic sources. rLep s 1 displayed biological activity, suggesting that it could be regarded as a useful tool to study the role of silverfish

  19. [Comparative immunological characteristics of Daphnia allergens].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, V M; Mochalov, A A; Sipitsyna, N E; Petrova, N S; Kanchurin, A Kh

    1986-08-01

    Materials on the study of Daphnia allergens are presented. Daphnia allergens have been shown to possess considerable sensitizing properties. The optimum method for the preparation of the allergen has been selected. The method of measuring the electrophoretic mobility of cells with a view to the evaluation of the specific activity of Daphnia allergen is proposed. PMID:2429484

  20. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. PMID:26725152

  1. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group.

  2. Endotoxin Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, G. W.; McSherry, B. J.; Valli, V. E. O.

    1974-01-01

    Endotoxin administered intravenously to a group of four calves resulted in disseminated intravascular coagulation. A sublethal dose of piromen, a commercially available Pseudomonas spp endotoxin, was used. Serial measurements of total plasma fibrinogen, soluble fibrin levels, ethanol gelation tests, protamine sulfate tests, fibrinogen-fibrin-related antigen (FR-antigen) and prothrombin and thrombin times were done. Initial depression of plasma fibrinogen with a nadir of about 40% of pre-endotoxin levels at eight to 11 hours post-endotoxin (+8 to +11 hours) followed by an overcompensation to 180% at +60 to +108 hours was shown. Soluble fibrin was demonstrated in plasma from +2 to +22 hours with a peak of 100-114 mg/100 ml at +4 to +9 hours. Positive plasma ethanol gelation and protamine sulfate tests, as well as the presence of serum FR-antigen, occurred consistently following endotoxin administration. Significant increases in prothrombin times (PT) from +4 to +40 hours and in thrombin times (TT) from +4 to +16 hours were demonstrated. The peak increase of PT at +8 to +10 hours was 180%. The peak increase of TT at +6 to +9 hours was 260-290%. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4279765

  3. Studies with Radioactive Endotoxin II. Clearance of 3H-Labelled Endotoxin from the Blood of Calves

    PubMed Central

    Maxie, M. G.; Valli, V. E. O.; Lumsden, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The clearance of 3H-labelled Pseudomonas endotoxin from the blood was studied in a nontolerant and in an endotoxin tolerant state. Calves were rendered tolerant to the toxic effects of the endotoxin by four daily intravenous injections of endotoxin at the dose rate of 5 µg/kg body weight. Clearance of 3H-endotoxin from the blood of nontolerant calves occurred more slowly than did clearance of 51Cr-endotoxin and was not significantly (P<0.05) affected by the development of tolerance. The lungs and liver were the major organs involved in the clearance of 3H-endotoxin from the blood of calves. Leukocytes and erythrocytes, but not platelets, were shown to participate in endotoxin clearance in calves. 3H2O, the control substance used in calves, was not concentrated within any particular organ but rapidly equilibrated with total body water and was slowly excreted. PMID:4279755

  4. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  5. Characterization of a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae—Der f 28

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-Li; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Yu-Lan; Sun, Bao-Qing; Gao, An-Jian; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background House dust mites (HDMs) are the major sources of indoor allergens which induce asthma, dermatitis, rhinitis, and some other allergic diseases. Close to 30 sub-allergens have been identified. Methods Through analyzing the full genome sequence of dust mite, a new allergen whose primary structure belongs to the heat shock protein family was identified. The sequence of this allergen was determined by cDNA cloning. The allergenicity was assayed by skin prick test, Western-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results r-Der f 28 bound to serum IgE from mite allergic patients. Positive responses to r-Der f 28 were shown in 11.5% by skin prick testing from 26 DM-allergic patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE and IL-4 were significantly increased in allergic asthma mouse model sensitized to r-Der f 28. Conclusions Der f 28 is a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae. PMID:26623108

  6. Indoor mold and Children's health

    PubMed

    Etzel; Rylander

    1999-06-01

    Reactive airways disease in children is increasing in many countries around the world. The clinical diagnosis of asthma or reactive airways disease includes a variable airflow and an increased sensitivity in the airways. This condition can develop after an augmented reaction to a specific agent (allergen) and may cause a life-threatening situation within a very short period of exposure. It can also develop after a long-term exposure to irritating agents that cause an inflammation in the airways in the absence of an allergen. (paragraph) Several environmental agents have been shown to be associated with the increased incidence of childhood asthma. They include allergens, cat dander, outdoor as well as indoor air pollution, cooking fumes, and infections. There is, however, increasing evidence that mold growth indoors in damp buildings is an important risk factor. About 30 investigations from various countries around the world have demonstrated a close relationship between living in damp homes or homes with mold growth, and the extent of adverse respiratory symptoms in children. Some studies show a relation between dampness/mold and objective measures of lung function. Apart from airways symptoms, some studies demonstrate the presence of general symptoms that include fatigue and headache and symptoms from the central nervous system. At excessive exposures, an increased risk for hemorraghic pneumonia and death among infants has been reported. (paragraph) The described effects may have important consequences for children in the early years of life. A child's immune system is developing from birth to adolescence and requires a natural, physiologic stimulation with antigens as well as inflammatory agents. Any disturbances of this normal maturing process will increase the risk for abnormal reactions to inhaled antigens and inflammagenic agents in the environment. (paragraph) The knowledge about health risks due to mold exposure is not widespread and health authorities in

  7. Effects of endotoxin on the lactating mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) sequences in trans by a host gene, the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, was suspected from a genetic linkage analysis. The Lps locus mediates the mouse's response to the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the responder mouse while mice with the deficient allele are incapable of responding. Others have found that endotoxin exposure reduces milk production in lactating animals. This observation was confirmed in mice and extended by examining /sup 125/I-prolactin binding to liver membranes of lactating mice. Endotoxin treatment of responder mice increases liver prolactin binding within 15 minutes, followed by a decline over 6 hours. Scatchard analysis shows that the immediate increase comes from both increased affinity and abundance of the prolactin receptor. No such change in prolactin binding is seen in the non-responder following endotoxin treatment nor in /sup 125/I-insulin binding in responders.

  8. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  9. The allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Bos, J D; van der Meeren, H L; van Joost, T; Jagtman, B A; Weyland, J W

    1988-10-01

    The ingredients responsible for allergy to cosmetics were determined in 119 patients suffering from cosmetic-related contact dermatitis. Most reactions (56.3%) were caused by skin care products, followed by nail cosmetics (13.4%), perfumes (8.4%), and hair cosmetics (5.9%). Preservatives were most frequently implicated (32.0%), followed by fragrances (26.5%) and emulsifiers (14.3%). By far the most important cosmetic allergen was Kathon CG, (a preservative system containing, as active ingredients, a mixture of methylisothiazolinone and methyl chloroisothiazolinone) reacting in 33 patients (27.7%). Other frequent causes of cosmetic-related contact allergic reactions were toluenesulfonamide/formaldehyde resin in nail hardener and/or nail lacquer (15 patients [12.6%]), and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine, an emulsifier in baby body lotion (13 patients [10.9%]).

  10. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa; Hayward, Barbara J.

    1962-01-01

    Cocksfoot and Timothy pollen extracts are each found to contain at least fifteen components antigenic in rabbits. Most of these can also be allergens for man, but only a few are regularly so. These `principal' allergens have now been isolated in highly purified form. Procedures are given for a simple method of preparing extracts for clinical purposes and for the partial separation, concentration and purification of the allergens by means of differential extractions of the pollens and by means of ultrafiltration, isoelectric precipitation and salt fractionations (at acid and neutral pH) of the extracts. Isoelectric precipitations gave highly pigmented acid complexes, two of which moved as single sharp peaks at pH 7.4 in free electrophoresis, but proved to be hardly active by skin tests. Acid NaCl fractionation of the remainder resulted for Cocksfoot and Timothy in the isolation of a nearly white powder (T21.111121112 = T21B) which was weight for weight 1000–10,000 times as active as the pollen from which it had been derived. The powders have retained their activity for 7 years. By gel diffusion tests, they were found to contain two antigens (one in each preparation) which were immunologically partially related, but the Timothy preparation contained in addition the `innermost' `twin' antigens specific for Timothy that we had discovered previously in the crude extracts by gel diffusion methods. Skin reactions could be elicited in hay-fever subjects by prick tests with concentrations of 10-9–10-8 g./ml., which is equivalent to intradermal injections of 10-11–10-10 mg. and represents a 300-fold purification with respect to the concentrates of crude pollen extracts prepared by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Fractionation on DEAE-cellulose of one of the highly purified Timothy preparations (T21.11112112 = T21A) and other, crude Timothy and Cocksfoot extracts resulted in considerable and reproducible separation of the various antigens, with no indication of the

  11. Characterisation of allergens and airborne fungi in low and middle-income homes of primary school children in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jafta, Nkosana; Batterman, Stuart A.; Gqaleni, Nceba; Naidoo, Rajen N.; Robins, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    The South Durban Health Study is a population-based study that examined the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollutants and respiratory disease among school children with high prevalence of asthma who resided in two purposely-selected communities in north and south Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. From these participants, a subgroup of 135 families was selected for investigation of household characteristics potentially related to respiratory health. In these households, a walkthrough investigation was conducted, and settled dust and air samples were collected for allergen and fungal measurements using standardised techniques. Asp f1 allergen was detected in all homes, and Bla g1 allergen was detected in half of the homes. House dust allergens, Der f1 and Der p1 exceeded concentrations associated with risk of sensitization and exacerbation of asthma in 3 and 13%, respectively, of the sampled homes, while Bla g1 exceeded guidance values in 13% of the homes. Although airborne fungal concentrations in sleep areas and indoors were lower than outdoor concentrations, they exceeded 1000 CFU/m3 in 29% of the homes. Multivariate analyses identified several home characteristics that were predictors of airborne fungal concentrations, including moisture, ventilation, floor type and bedding type. Airborne fungal concentrations were similar indoors and outdoors, which likely reduced the significance of housing and indoor factors as determinants of indoor concentrations. Conclusion Allergen concentrations were highly variable in homes, and a portion of the variability can be attributed to easily-recognised conditions. PMID:22674665

  12. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.

  13. Are specific allergen sensitivities inherited?

    PubMed

    Misiak, Rana Tawil; Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward

    2010-09-01

    A family history of an allergic condition is a well-accepted risk factor for the development of an allergic condition in an individual, particularly for allergic disorders such as asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis. However, the question of whether specific allergen sensitization is inherited requires a complicated answer, as environmental exposure plays an important role in the development of allergen-specific IgE. This article summarizes the findings of recent studies in the literature regarding what is known about the inheritance of specific allergens. Overall, properly collected and analyzed data appear to both support and refute the hypothesis that specific allergen sensitization is inherited, even when attempting to account for the complexities of varying study methodologies and the evaluation of diverse populations and communities. PMID:20574668

  14. Allantoin as a solid phase adsorbent for removing endotoxins.

    PubMed

    Vagenende, Vincent; Ching, Tim-Jang; Chua, Rui-Jing; Gagnon, Pete

    2013-10-01

    In this study we present a simple and robust method for removing endotoxins from protein solutions by using crystals of the small-molecule compound 2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl urea (allantoin) as a solid phase adsorbent. Allantoin crystalline powder is added to a protein solution at supersaturated concentrations, endotoxins bind and undissolved allantoin crystals with bound endotoxins are removed by filtration or centrifugation. This method removes an average of 99.98% endotoxin for 20 test proteins. The average protein recovery is ∼80%. Endotoxin binding is largely independent of pH, conductivity, reducing agent and various organic solvents. This is consistent with a hydrogen-bond based binding mechanism. Allantoin does not affect protein activity and stability, and the use of allantoin as a solid phase adsorbent provides better endotoxin removal than anion exchange, polymixin affinity and biological affinity methods for endotoxin clearance.

  15. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  16. Fungi: the neglected allergenic sources.

    PubMed

    Crameri, R; Garbani, M; Rhyner, C; Huitema, C

    2014-02-01

    Allergic diseases are considered the epidemics of the twentieth century estimated to affect more than 30% of the population in industrialized countries with a still increasing incidence. During the past two decades, the application of molecular biology allowed cloning, production and characterization of hundreds of recombinant allergens. In turn, knowledge about molecular, chemical and biologically relevant allergens contributed to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reactions. It has been largely demonstrated that fungi are potent sources of allergenic molecules covering a vast variety of molecular structures including enzymes, toxins, cell wall components and phylogenetically highly conserved cross-reactive proteins. Despite the large knowledge accumulated and the compelling evidence for an involvement of fungal allergens in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, fungi as a prominent source of allergens are still largely neglected in basic research as well as in clinical practice. This review aims to highlight the impact of fungal allergens with focus on asthma and atopic dermatitis.

  17. Indoor Air Quality in Schools (IAQ): The Importance of Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundersingh, David; Bearg, David W.

    This article highlights indoor air quality and exposure to pollutants at school. Typical air pollutants within schools include environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, allergens, pathogens, radon, pesticides, lead, and dust. Inadequate ventilation, inefficient…

  18. [The role of bacterial endotoxins, receptors and cytokines in the pathogenesis of septic (endotoxin) shock].

    PubMed

    Lazarov, S; Balutsov, M; Ianev, E

    2000-01-01

    Sepsis, resistant to therapy, results in the development of septic (endotoxin) shock. The latter is caused by the endotoxins of different Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin (bacterial lipopdisacharide--LPS) interacts with cells through specific membrane or plasma soluble endotoxin receptors (sCD14, mlD14, LBP, CD13/CD14, CD16, CD116/CD18, L-selectin, etc.). Endotoxin interaction with the mCD14 receptor of the monocytes, macrophages and the neutrophils results in the production of a number of proinflammatory cytokines--tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukines 1 and 6 (IL-1 and IL-6, etc), antiinflammatory cytokines--interleukines 10 and 12 (IL-10 and IL-12), cell adhesion molecules (P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, etc.) and inducible enzymes: inducible NO synthase (iNOS), inducible phospholipase A2 (cPL-A2), inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). All pathologic processes in the structure and function of human body during endotoxin shock are a result of the disbalance of a number of mediators with a proinflammatory and antiinflammatory effects.

  19. Kinetics of Hydrothermal Inactivation of Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lixiong; Wilbur, Chris L.; Mintz, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model was established for the inactivation of endotoxins in water at temperatures ranging from 210°C to 270°C and a pressure of 6.2 × 106 Pa. Data were generated using a bench scale continuous-flow reactor system to process feed water spiked with endotoxin standard (Escherichia coli O113:H10). Product water samples were collected and quantified by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. At 250°C, 5-log endotoxin inactivation was achieved in about 1 s of exposure, followed by a lower inactivation rate. This non-log-linear pattern is similar to reported trends in microbial survival curves. Predictions and parameters of several non-log-linear models are presented. In the fast-reaction zone (3- to 5-log reduction), the Arrhenius rate constant fits well at temperatures ranging from 120°C to 250°C on the basis of data from this work and the literature. Both biphasic and modified Weibull models are comparable to account for both the high and low rates of inactivation in terms of prediction accuracy and the number of parameters used. A unified representation of thermal resistance curves for a 3-log reduction and a 3 D value associated with endotoxin inactivation and microbial survival, respectively, is presented. PMID:21193667

  20. Removal of endotoxin from dairy wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of various treatments on removing endotoxin (ET) from wastewater was tested by using the treated water to induce a systemic reaction via intratracheal inoculation (20 ml/goat, 6 goats/group). Treatments (T1-T7) of wastewater were as follows: 1) autoclaved 15 min, centrifuged and contain...

  1. Bronchial Venular Leakage During Endotoxin Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pietra, G. G.; Szidon, J. P.; Carpenter, H. A.; Fishman, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    The pulmonary effects of endotoxin shock were investigated in dogs by a combination of anatomic and physiologic technics. Shock was produced in 14 dogs by injecting Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intravenously. Three dogs in hypovolemic shock and 6 untreated dogs served as controls. Colloidal carbon was injected intravenously to detect sites of pathologic increase in vascular permeability. During the first hour of endotoxin shock, bronchial venules allowed carbon and blood elements to traverse their walls, whereas no leakage of these large particles or ultrastructural changes could be detected in the alveolar walls. Only after the first hour was bronchial venular leakage accompanied by focal degenerative changes in the alveolar endothelium, focal interstitial edema in the alveolar septum and sequestration of damaged leukocytes in the alveolar capillaries. In contrast to these observations in endotoxin shock, control dogs in hypovolemic shock did not show bronchial venous leakage. Our findings suggest that the leakage of bronchial venules may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary interstitial edema caused by endotoxin shock. ImagesFig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 1 PMID:4611225

  2. Characterization of Airborne Molds, Endotoxins, and Glucans in Homes in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita▿

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Carol Y.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Chew, Ginger L.; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Thorne, Peter S.; Van Sickle, David; Dunn, Kevin H.; Brown, Clive

    2007-01-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused breeches in the New Orleans, LA, levee system, resulting in catastrophic flooding. The city remained flooded for several weeks, leading to extraordinary mold growth in homes. To characterize the potential risks of mold exposures, we measured airborne molds and markers of molds and bacteria in New Orleans area homes. In October 2005, we collected air samples from 5 mildly water-damaged houses, 15 moderately to heavily water-damaged houses, and 11 outdoor locations. The air filters were analyzed for culturable fungi, spores, (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans, and endotoxins. Culturable fungi were significantly higher in the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses (geometric mean = 67,000 CFU/m3) than in the mildly water-damaged houses (geometric mean = 3,700 CFU/m3) (P = 0.02). The predominant molds found were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma, and Paecilomyces. The indoor and outdoor geometric means for endotoxins were 22.3 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 and 10.5 EU/m3, respectively, and for (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans were 1.7 μg/m3 and 0.9 μg/m3, respectively. In the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses, the geometric means were 31.3 EU/m3 for endotoxins and 1.8 μg/m3 for (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans. Molds, endotoxins, and fungal glucans were detected in the environment after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans at concentrations that have been associated with health effects. The species and concentrations were different from those previously reported for non-water-damaged buildings in the southeastern United States. PMID:17209066

  3. Characterization of airborne molds, endotoxins, and glucans in homes in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Rao, Carol Y; Riggs, Margaret A; Chew, Ginger L; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Van Sickle, David; Dunn, Kevin H; Brown, Clive

    2007-03-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused breeches in the New Orleans, LA, levee system, resulting in catastrophic flooding. The city remained flooded for several weeks, leading to extraordinary mold growth in homes. To characterize the potential risks of mold exposures, we measured airborne molds and markers of molds and bacteria in New Orleans area homes. In October 2005, we collected air samples from 5 mildly water-damaged houses, 15 moderately to heavily water-damaged houses, and 11 outdoor locations. The air filters were analyzed for culturable fungi, spores, (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans, and endotoxins. Culturable fungi were significantly higher in the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses (geometric mean=67,000 CFU/m3) than in the mildly water-damaged houses (geometric mean=3,700 CFU/m3) (P=0.02). The predominant molds found were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma, and Paecilomyces. The indoor and outdoor geometric means for endotoxins were 22.3 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 and 10.5 EU/m3, respectively, and for (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans were 1.7 microg/m3 and 0.9 microg/m3, respectively. In the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses, the geometric means were 31.3 EU/m3 for endotoxins and 1.8 microg/m3 for (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans. Molds, endotoxins, and fungal glucans were detected in the environment after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans at concentrations that have been associated with health effects. The species and concentrations were different from those previously reported for non-water-damaged buildings in the southeastern United States.

  4. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  5. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  6. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  7. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines. PMID:26644466

  8. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  9. Mediated effect of endotoxin and lead upon hepatic metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Kuttner, R.E.; Ebata, T.; Schumer, W.

    1984-10-01

    A test was made of the possibility that gram-negative bacterial cell wall lipopolysaccharides acted directly on key glucoregulatory enzymes in rat liver cytosol to cause the characteristic hypoglycemia of severe endotoxemia. Fasted male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by the simultaneous intravenous injection of lead acetate. The minimum systemic dosage of endotoxin necessary to perturb the normal pattern of hepatic glycolytic intermediates was determined by serial testing with diminishing dosages of endotoxin. The hepatocyte concentration of endotoxin was then calculated from this minimum dosage by use of literature data on the fraction of endotoxin delivered to liver cells after a systemic intravenous injection of radiochromium labeled lipopolysaccharides. Accepting a molecular weight of 118,000 daltons for the smallest endotoxin monomer capable of evoking a physiologic response, the molar amount of endotoxin present in 1 gram of hepatocytes was readily calculated. The concentration of glucoregulatory enzymes in parenchymal cells was then estimated from other literature sources. It was found that the amount of endotoxin in the hepatocytes was insufficient to combine directly with even 1 per cent of the quantity of a single key glucoregulatory enzyme in liver parenchyma. Since a one to one stoichiometric reaction between endotoxin and enzyme could not occur in the liver cytosol, a direct interaction mechanism between agonist and biocatalyst can be ruled out. It is concluded that bacterial endotoxin must act on hepatic glucoregulation by an indirect mechanism presumably based upon the release and operation of mediators.

  10. Detecting endotoxin with a flow cytometry-based magnetic aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ming-Yan; Chen, Li-Juan; Jiang, Hao; Tan, Lin; Luo, Zhao-Feng; Wang, Yan-Mei

    2014-12-01

    Endotoxin, which is also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a marker for intruding gram-negative pathogens. It is essential to detect endotoxin quickly and sensitively in a complex milieu. A new flow cytometry (FCM)-based magnetic aptasensor assay that employs two endotoxin-binding aptamers and magnetic beads has been developed to detect endotoxin. The endotoxin-conjugated sandwich complex on magnetic beads was observed by scanning confocal laser microscopy. The resulting magnetic aptasensor rapidly detected (<1 min) endotoxin within a broad dynamic detection range of 10(-8) to 10(0)mg/ml in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), RNA, sucrose, and glucose, which are most likely to coexist with endotoxin in the majority of biological liquids. Only 2 μl of magnetic aptasensor was required to quantify the endotoxin solution. Furthermore, the magnetic aptasensor could be regenerated seven times and still presented an outstanding response to the endotoxin solution. Therefore, the magnetic aptasensor exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility, thereby serving as a powerful tool for the quality control and high-throughput detection of endotoxin in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Moving Environmental Justice Indoors: Understanding Structural Influences on Residential Exposure Patterns in Low-Income Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Chahine, Teresa; Julien, Rhona; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The indoor environment has not been fully incorporated into the environmental justice dialogue. To inform strategies to reduce disparities, we developed a framework to identify the individual and place-based drivers of indoor environment quality. Methods. We reviewed empirical evidence of socioeconomic disparities in indoor exposures and key determinants of these exposures for air pollutants, lead, allergens, and semivolatile organic compounds. We also used an indoor air quality model applied to multifamily housing to illustrate how nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) vary as a function of factors known to be influenced by socioeconomic status. Results. Indoor concentrations of multiple pollutants are elevated in low-socioeconomic status households. Differences in these exposures are driven by the combined influences of indoor sources, outdoor sources, physical structures, and residential activity patterns. Simulation models confirmed indoor sources’ importance in determining indoor NO2 and PM2.5 exposures and showed the influence of household-specific determinants. Conclusions. Both theoretical models and empirical evidence emphasized that disparities in indoor environmental exposure can be significant. Understanding key determinants of multiple indoor exposures can aid in developing policies to reduce these disparities. PMID:21836112

  12. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, L F; Wildfire, J; Lichtveld, M; Kennedy, S; El-Dahr, J M; Chulada, P C; Cohn, R; Mitchell, H; Thornton, E; Mvula, M; Sterling, Y; Martin, W; Stephens, K; White, L

    2012-01-01

    Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4-12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) observational study. Dust (indoor) and air (indoor and outdoor) samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat). Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold), sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions. PMID:23304171

  13. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study

    PubMed Central

    Grimsley, L. F.; Wildfire, J.; Lichtveld, M.; Kennedy, S.; El-Dahr, J. M.; Chulada, P. C.; Cohn, R.; Mitchell, H.; Thornton, E.; Mvula, M.; Sterling, Y.; Martin, W.; Stephens, K.; White, L.

    2012-01-01

    Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4–12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) observational study. Dust (indoor) and air (indoor and outdoor) samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat). Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold), sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions. PMID:23304171

  14. Recombinant allergens: what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Marth, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Neubauer, Angela; Niederberger, Verena

    2011-04-01

    This year we are celebrating not only the centenary of allergen-specific immunotherapy but also the 10-year anniversary of the first administration of recombinant allergen-based vaccines to allergic patients. By using recombinant DNA technology, defined and safe allergy vaccines can be produced that allow us to overcome many, if not all, of the problems associated with the use of natural allergen extracts, such as insufficient quality, allergenic activity, and poor immunogenicity. Here we provide an update of clinical studies with recombinant allergen-based vaccines, showing that some of these vaccines have undergone successful clinical evaluation up to phase III studies. Furthermore, we introduce a strategy for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of viral carrier proteins and allergen-derived peptides without allergenic activity, which holds the promise of being free of side effects and eventually being useful for prophylactic vaccination.

  15. Applicability of bacterial endotoxins test to various blood products by the use of endotoxin-specific lysates.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Naito, Seishiro; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Masumi, Atsuko; Hamaguchi, Isao; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Yamaguchi, Kazunari

    2010-11-01

    Endotoxin contamination is a serious threat to the safety of parenteral drugs, and the rabbit pyrogen test has played a crucial role in controlling this contamination. Although the highly sensitive endotoxin test has replaced the pyrogen test for various pharmaceuticals, the pyrogen test is still implemented as the control test for most blood products in Japan. We examined the applicability of the endotoxin test to blood products for reliable detection and quantification of endotoxin. Nineteen types of blood products were tested for interfering factors based on spike/recovery of endotoxin by using 2 types of endotoxin-specific lysate reagents for photometric techniques. Interfering effects on the endotoxin test by the products could be eliminated by diluting from 1/2 to 1/16, with the exception of antithrombin III. However, conventional lysate reagents that also react with non-pyrogenic substances, such as (1-3)-β-D-glucan, produced results that were not relevant to endotoxin content or pyrogenicity. Our results showed that the endotoxin test would be applicable to most blood products if used with appropriate endotoxin-specific lysate reagents.

  16. Airborne particle sizes and sources found in indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, M. K.; Ensor, D. S.; Sparks, L. E.

    As concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, understanding indoor aerosols has become increasingly important so that control techniques may be implemented to reduce damaging health effects and soiling problems. This paper begins with a brief look at the mechanics of deposition in the lungs and the aerosol dynamics that influence particles at all times. This discussion shows that the particle diameters must be known to predict dose or soiling and to determine efficient mitigation techniques. The particle sizes produced by the various indoor sources, as well as unusual aspects of each type of source, must be known so that this process may begin. This paper summarizes the results of a literature search into the sources, sizes and concentrations of indoor particles. There are several types of indoor particles: plant and animal bioaerosols and mineral, combustion and home/personal care aerosols. These types may be produced indoors or outdoors, entering through building openings. The sources may be short term, seasonal or continuous. Particle sizes produced vary from submicrometer to larger than 10 μm. The particles may be toxic or allergenic. This information is presented in a summary table and is discussed in the text.

  17. Expression, purification and characterization of Der f 27, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianli; Li, Meng; Liu, Yulin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Anjian; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoidesfarinae (D. farina), is one of the most important indoor allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma; itscharacterization is important in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of mite allergen-relevant diseases. This study aims to characterize a novel allergen, the D. farinae-derived serpin (Der f 27). In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, and the Der f 27 gene was cloned and expressed. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 27 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western-blotting with the sera of asthma patients, and skin prick test (SPT) in allergic human subjects. A r-Der f 27 allergic asthma mouse model was established. The cloned Der f 27 gene has been presented at the Gene Bank with an accession number of KM009995. The IgE levels of r-Der f 27 in the serum from r-Der f 27 SPT positive allergic patients were 3 folds more than healthy subjects. The Der f 27 SPT positive ratewas 42.1% in 19 DM-SPT positive patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, and levels of interleukin-4 in the spleen cell culture supernatant were significantly increased in allergic asthma mice sensitized to r-Der f 27. In conclusion, Der f 27 is a new subtype of house mite allergen.

  18. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannic acid (TA) is known to bind and form insoluble complexes with proteins, including peanut allergens; however, whether such complexes would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (i.e., gastric and intestinal pH) is not clear. Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorpt...

  19. Biology of weed pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Dedic, Azra; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Frank, Susanne; Himly, Martin; Ferreira, Fatima

    2004-09-01

    Weeds represent a heterogeneous group of plants, usually defined by no commercial or aesthetic value. Important allergenic weeds belong to the plant families Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Plantaginaceae. Major allergens from ragweed, mugwort, feverfew, pellitory, goosefoot, Russian thistle, plantain, and Mercurialis pollen have been characterized to varying degrees. Four major families of proteins seem to be the major cause of allergic reactions to weed pollen: the ragweed Amb a 1 family of pectate lyases; the defensin-like Art v 1 family from mugwort, feverfew, and probably also from sunflower; the Ole e 1-like allergens Pla l 1 from plantain and Che a 1 from goosefoot; and the nonspecific lipid transfer proteins Par j 1 and Par j 2 from pellitory. As described for other pollens, weed pollen also contains the panallergens profilin and calcium-binding proteins, which are responsible for extensive cross-reactivity among pollen-sensitized patients.

  20. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1 > 0.12 µg/g and Can f 1>1.2 µg/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1 > 0.10 µg/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 µg/g (by 32%). Conclusion Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. PMID:22863552

  1. Predictors of airborne endotoxin concentrations in inner city homes.

    PubMed

    Mazique, D; Diette, G B; Breysse, P N; Matsui, E C; McCormack, M C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Peng, R D; Hansel, N N

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have assessed in home factors which contribute to airborne endotoxin concentrations. In 85 inner city Baltimore homes, we found no significant correlation between settled dust and airborne endotoxin concentrations. Certain household activities and characteristics, including frequency of dusting, air conditioner use and type of flooring, explained 36-42% of the variability of airborne concentrations. Measurements of both airborne and settled dust endotoxin concentrations may be needed to fully characterize domestic exposure in epidemiologic investigations. PMID:21429483

  2. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients. PMID:24795722

  3. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers

  4. Effect of hypertriglyceridemia on endotoxin responsiveness in humans.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Braxton, C C; Coyle, S M; Boermeester, M A; Wang, J C; Jansen, P M; Montegut, W J; Calvano, S E; Hack, C E; Lowry, S F

    1995-09-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins can inhibit endotoxin activity in vitro and in rodents. We sought to determine whether Intralipid, a triglyceride-rich fat emulsion which in contact with plasma functions similarly to endogenous lipoproteins, can alter the human response to endotoxin. Intralipid inhibited endotoxin-induced cytokine production in human whole blood in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal inhibition (up to 70%) being achieved at a concentration of 10 g/liter. In healthy men, a bolus intravenous injection of endotoxin (lot EC-5; 20 U/kg of body weight) was given midway through a 4-h infusion (125 ml/h) of either 5% glucose (n = 5) or 20% Intralipid (n = 5). The infusion of Intralipid led to an increase in triglyceride levels in serum from 95 +/- 16 to 818 +/- 135 mg/dl prior to endotoxin administration, i.e., levels that importantly reduced cytokine production in endotoxin-stimulated whole blood. However, in vivo hypertriglyceridemia did not influence inflammatory responses to endotoxin (fever, release of tumor necrosis factor and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors, and leukocytosis) or even potentiated endotoxin responses (release of interleukins 6 and 8 and neutrophil degranulation). Hypertriglyceridemia does not inhibit the in vivo responses to endotoxin in humans.

  5. Fluorescent nanodiamonds as highly stable biomarker for endotoxin verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Thorsten; Burg, Jan Michael; Lilholt, Maria; Maeder, Ulf; Beer, Sebastian; Salzig, Denise; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (ND) provide advantageous properties as a fluorescent biomarker for in vitro and in vivo studies. The maximum fluorescence occurs around 700 nm, they do not show photobleaching or blinking and seem to be nontoxic. After a pretreatment with strong acid fluorescent ND can be functionalized and coupled to endotoxin. Endotoxin is a decay product of bacteria and causes strong immune reactions. Therefore endotoxin has to be removed for most applications. An effective removal procedure is membrane filtration. The endotoxin, coupled to fluorescent ND can be visualized by using confocal microscopy which allows the investigation of the separation mechanisms of the filtration process within the membranes.

  6. Endotoxin and cancer chemo-prevention.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fadda, Emanuela; Cegolon, Luca

    2013-10-01

    Reduced rates of lung cancer have been observed in several occupational groups exposed to high levels of organic dusts contaminated by endotoxin. The underlying anti-neoplastic mechanism of endotoxin may be an increased secretion of endogenous anti-neoplastic mediators and activation of the toll-like receptors (TLR). A detoxified endotoxin derivative, Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPL(®)) is marketed in Europe since 1999 as part of the adjuvant systems in allergy vaccines for treatment of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and allergic asthma. Over 200,000 patients have used them to date (nearly 70% in Germany). Since detailed exposure (MPL(®) dose and timing of administration) and individual data are potentially available, an observational follow-up study could be conducted in Germany to investigate the protective effect of MPL(®) against cancer, comparing cancer incidence in two groups of patients with allergic rhinitis: those treated with allergoids plus MPL(®) and those treated with a vaccine including the same allergoids but not MPL(®). The protective effect of MPL(®) could be quantified in ever and never smokers. If this proposed observational study provides evidence of protective effects, MPL(®) could be immediately used as a chemo-preventive agent since it is already in use as adjuvant in human vaccines against cancer.

  7. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene. PMID:20487655

  8. [Soybean allergens and hypoallergenic germplasm enhancement].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Zhu, You-Lin; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2006-08-01

    Food allergy is a public sanitary problem which has received attention worldwide. It is becoming an increasingly interesting problem to decrease the concentration of allergens for improvement of the food security. Soybean allergens in seeds are composing of storage proteins, structure proteins, and disease-related proteins. Among them, Gly m Bd 28K, Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major allergens located in 7S conglycinin fragments. By recognizing allergens' physicochemical property, hypersensitivity and gene structure, certain progresses had been made to reduce the concentration of allergens in soybean through food processing, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. The paper reviewed the sorts and characters of soybean allergens, the physicochemical property of the three immunodominant allergens and their gene structures. Progress in developing hypoallergenic cultivars was also discussed.

  9. Exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxins in agricultural industries.

    PubMed

    Spaan, Suzanne; Wouters, Inge M; Oosting, Isabella; Doekes, Gert; Heederik, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxin is a well-known bacterial toxin that causes several health effects. Animal faeces and plant materials contaminated with bacteria have been identified as important determinants of organic dust related endotoxin exposure. Although high exposure to organic dust and endotoxins has been described regularly in agricultural industries, a detailed overview of levels of airborne exposure to endotoxins in the agricultural industry, as well as a systematic comparison between several specific branches using the same exposure assessment protocols are lacking. In this study, personal endotoxin exposure in a broad spectrum of agricultural industries was investigated and possible determinants of exposure were explored. 601 personal inhalable dust samples were taken in 46 companies of three agricultural industrial sectors: grains, seeds and legumes sector (GSL), horticulture sector (HC) and animal production sector (AP), with 350 participating employees. Dust and endotoxin levels were determined gravimetrically and by using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay, respectively. Basic descriptive analysis and elaborate analysis of variance were performed. Mean exposure levels were high, with large differences between sectors and between companies within the sectors. Highest dust and endotoxin exposures were found in companies of the GSL sector. In all three sectors exposure was higher in the primary production part compared to the (industrial) products processing part of the sector. The Dutch proposed health based occupational exposure limit (50 EU m(-3)) and temporary legal limit (200 EU m(-3)) for endotoxin were often exceeded. Differences in exposure between workers were larger than the day-to-day variability. Identified determinants increasing exposure levels were company, dustiness of the product and contact with animals/faeces. 'Wet' processes resulted in less dusty working environments and thus lowered endotoxin exposure. Overall, exposure to endotoxins over the

  10. The role of indoor pollution in the development and maintenance of chronic airway inflammation in children.

    PubMed

    Packeu, A; Chasseur, C; Bladt, S; Detandt, M

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the great problems of this century and it plays an important role in the increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory problems in the upper airway in children. Since their lungs and immune system are not fully developed when exposure begins, newborns and children appear to be more sensitive to the effects of both outdoor and indoor air pollution. Furthermore, children spend most of their time indoors and are exposed more often to pollutants in indoor air. The link between health problems, chemical products and allergens (the latter mainly from cats and mites) has been extensively studied. Other important indoor contaminants are fungi, which are often present in damp buildings and can cause severe respiratory disease by producing spores, allergens, volatile irritant compounds and toxins. A proper identification of mould contamination of this kind is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and the prevention of health problems, and improvements have been observed after the removal or cleaning of the contaminated materials and improvements to the ventilation of buildings. While a possible association between respiratory symptoms, such as rhinitis, and the presence of fungi in the indoor environment has been documented by several authors, other studies have observed no significant relationship. The development of standardised sampling, detection and diagnostic tests will be essential to understand the proper role of fungi in the indoor atmosphere and their impact on public health. PMID:23431612

  11. Der p 11 Is a Major Allergen for House Dust Mite-Allergic Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Srinita; Resch, Yvonne; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Blatt, Katharina; Novak, Natalija; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Sibanda, Elopy N.; Ndlovu, Portia; Thomas, Wayne R.; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Tacke, Sebastian; Malkus, Ursula; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) belong to the most potent indoor allergen sources worldwide and are associated with allergic manifestations in the respiratory tract and the skin. Here we studied the importance of the high-molecular-weight group 11 allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 11) in HDM allergy. Sequence analysis showed that Der p 11 has high homology to paramyosins from mites, ticks, and other invertebrates. A synthetic gene coding for Der p 11 was expressed in Escherichia coli and rDer p 11 purified to homogeneity as folded, alpha-helical protein as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using antibodies raised against rDer p 11 and immunogold electron microscopy, the allergen was localized in the muscle beneath the skin of mite bodies but not in feces. IgE reactivity of rDer p 11 was tested with sera from HDM-allergic patients from Europe and Africa in radioallergosorbent test–based dot-blot assays. Interestingly, we found that Der p 11 is a major allergen for patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas it is only a minor allergen for patients suffering from respiratory forms of HDM allergy. Thus, rDer p 11 might be a useful serological marker allergen for the identification of a subgroup of HDM-allergic patients suffering from HDM-associated AD. PMID:24999597

  12. Reactions among indoor pollutants.

    PubMed

    Weschler, C J

    2001-09-13

    This paper reviews recent studies in the field of "indoor chemistry"--reactions among indoor pollutants. Advances have occurred in a number of areas. A mouse bioassay procedure has shown that ozone/terpene reactions produce products that are more irritating than their precursors, although the agents responsible for the deleterious effects remain to be determined. Indoor ozone/terpene reactions have been demonstrated to produce hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, sub-micron particles, and ultrafine particles. New analytical techniques such as LC/MS and thermal desorption mass spectrometry have greatly improved our knowledge of the condensed-phase species associated with such particles. Indeed, the latter approach has identified a number of short-lived or thermally labile species, including organic hydroperoxides, peroxy-hemiacetals, and secondary ozonides, which would be missed by more conventional techniques. Investigators are making inroads into the poorly understood area of indoor heterogeneous chemistry. Systems studied include ozone/HVAC components, ozone/paint, and ozone/carpets. Another heterogeneous process that has been further examined is the indoor formation of nitrous acid through NO2/surface chemistry. Emissions from indoor sources that contribute to, or are altered by, indoor chemistry have also received attention. Researchers have expanded our awareness of reactive chemicals that can emanate from wood coatings and other products commonly used indoors. In a related vein, a number of recent investigations have shown that emissions from materials can be significantly altered by indoor chemistry. On the theoretical side, an outdoor atmospheric chemistry model has been modified for use as an indoor air model, the effects of ventilation rates on indoor chemistry have been simulated, and initial steps have been taken in applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to indoor chemistry.

  13. Hormone and Cytokine Responses to Repeated Endotoxin Exposures-No Evidence of Endotoxin Tolerance After 5 Weeks in Humans.

    PubMed

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Thomsen, Henrik H; Bach, Ermina; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L; Møller, Niels

    2015-07-01

    Endotoxin administrations are used in experimental models of inflammatory disease. Short-term endotoxin tolerance in response to repeated endotoxin exposure is well known, but the duration of endotoxin tolerance in humans remains unknown. The main purpose of this study was to test whether endotoxin tolerance is present in vivo when separating endotoxin exposures with more than 5 weeks, a time span often used between individual investigations in clinical experimental studies. Seventeen healthy young men were exposed twice to Escherichia coli endotoxin. The inflammatory response was calculated as area under the curve between the first and second endotoxin exposures for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, temperature, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. The median interval between exposures was 90 days (range, 37-244). The ratio between the inflammatory responses during the second and the first endotoxin exposures was 0.89 ± 0.09 (P = 0.28) for tumor necrosis factor α, 0.96 ± 0.07 (P = 0.53) for IL-1β, 0.97 ± 0.11 (P = 0.78) for IL-6, 1.30 ± 0.18 (P = 0.12) for IL-10, and 0.92 ± 0.04 (P = 0.10) for cortisol. Our data do not show evidence of in vivo tolerance to repeated endotoxin exposure when administrations are separated with at least 5 weeks. This observation is important in the planning and interpretation of future experimental endotoxin studies.

  14. Association of Roadway Proximity with Indoor Air Pollution in a Peri-Urban Community in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Lindsay J; Bose, Sonali; Williams, D'Ann L; Romero, Karina M; Malpartida, Gary; Breysse, Patrick N; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Combe, Juan M; Checkley, William; Hansel, Nadia N

    2015-10-01

    The influence of traffic-related air pollution on indoor residential exposure is not well characterized in homes with high natural ventilation in low-income countries. Additionally, domestic allergen exposure is unknown in such populations. We conducted a pilot study of 25 homes in peri-urban Lima, Peru to estimate the effects of roadway proximity and season on residential concentrations. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM₂.₅), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and black carbon (BC) were measured during two seasons, and allergens were measured in bedroom dust. Allergen levels were highest for dust mite and mouse allergens, with concentrations above clinically relevant thresholds in over a quarter and half of all homes, respectively. Mean indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations were similar (PM₂.₅: 20.0 vs. 16.9 μg/m³, BC: 7.6 vs. 8.1 μg/m³, NO₂: 7.3 vs. 7.5 ppb), and tended to be higher in the summer compared to the winter. Road proximity was significantly correlated with overall concentrations of outdoor PM₂.₅ (rs = -0.42, p = 0.01) and NO₂ (rs = -0.36, p = 0.03), and outdoor BC concentrations in the winter (rs = -0.51, p = 0.03). Our results suggest that outdoor-sourced pollutants significantly influence indoor air quality in peri-urban Peruvian communities, and homes closer to roadways are particularly vulnerable. PMID:26516875

  15. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  16. General effect of endotoxin on glucocorticoid receptors in mammalian tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Stith, R.D.; McCallum, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Considering the ubiquitous nature of glucocorticoid actions and the fact that endotoxin inhibits glucocorticoid action in the liver, we proposed to examine whether endotoxin affected extrahepatic actions of glucocorticoids. Fasted C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with endotoxin (LD50) at 0800 and were killed 6 h later. Control mice were injected with an equal volume of saline. /sup 3/H-dexamethasone binding, measured by a new cytosol exchange assay utilizing molybdate plus dithiothreitol, in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, spleen, lung, and heart tissue was significantly lower in treated than in control mice. The equilibrium dissociation constants were not significantly different, but the number of available binding sites in each tissue was reduced by endotoxin treatment. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was significantly reduced in liver but not in kidney. Endotoxin treatment lowered glycogen content in liver but not in skeletal muscle. The reduction observed in the a form of liver glycogen synthase due to endotoxin was not seen in skeletal muscle glycogen synthase a. These data support the proposal that endotoxin or a mediator of its action inhibits systemic glucocorticoid action. The results also emphasize the central role of the liver in the metabolic disturbances of the endotoxin-treated mouse.

  17. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  18. Impact of thermal processing on legume allergens.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-12-01

    Food induced allergic manifestations are reported from several parts of the world. Food proteins exert their allergenic potential by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and can even induce life threatening anaphylaxis reactions. Among all food allergens, legume allergens play an important role in induction of allergy because legumes are a major source of protein for vegetarians. Most of the legumes are cooked either by boiling, roasting or frying before consumption, which can be considered a form of thermal treatment. Thermal processing may also include autoclaving, microwave heating, blanching, pasteurization, canning, or steaming. Thermal processing of legumes may reduce, eliminate or enhance the allergenic potential of a respective legume. In most of the cases, minimization of allergenic potential on thermal treatment has generally been reported. Thus, thermal processing can be considered an important tool by indirectly prevent allergenicity in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing treatment costs and reducing industry/office/school absence in case of working population/school going children. The present review attempts to explore various possibilities of reducing or eliminating allergenicity of leguminous food using different methods of thermal processing. Further, this review summarizes different methods of food processing, major legumes and their predominant allergenic proteins, thermal treatment and its relation with antigenicity, effect of thermal processing on legume allergens; also suggests a path that may be taken for future research to reduce the allergenicity using conventional/nonconventional methods.

  19. [Exposure to endotoxins in the environment. Occurrence and health hazards].

    PubMed

    Rix, B A

    1997-04-21

    Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides from the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Exposure to endotoxins can take place in industries where organic material is handled, in agriculture, in garbage handling, and sewage treatment. Byssinosis defined as Monday chest tightness and slight dyspnoea in the work place has been related to endotoxin exposure in cotton mills, but studies indicate that similar symptoms may be found in other work places. Other symptoms are: Headache, nausea, gastrointestinal symptoms and influenza-like symptoms. Several studies have shown a decrease in FEV1 following exposure to endotoxins. The relationship between exposure to organic dust, microorganisms, endotoxins and other chemicals in the work place and disease needs further research.

  20. Hydroxyl radicals in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, Golam; Corsi, Richard; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David; Weschler, Charles J.

    Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations were estimated using a new indoor air quality model which employs the SAPRC-99 atmospheric chemistry model to simulate indoor homogenous reactions. Model results indicate that typical indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are lower than typical outdoor summertime urban hydroxyl radical levels of 5-10×10 6 molecules cm -3; however, indoor levels can be similar to or greater than typical nighttime outdoor hydroxyl radical levels of approximately 5×10 4 molecules cm -3. Effects of selected parameters on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are presented herein. Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are predicted to increase non-linearly with increasing outdoor ozone concentrations, indoor alkene emission rates, and air exchange rates. Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations decrease with increasing outdoor nitric oxide concentrations. Indoor temperature and indoor light intensity have moderate impacts on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations. Outdoor hydroxyl radical concentrations, outdoor nitrate (NO 3rad ) radical concentrations, outdoor hydroperoxy radical concentrations, and hydroxyl radical removal by indoor surfaces are predicted to have no appreciable impact on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations. Production of hydroxyl radicals in indoor environments appears to be controlled primarily by reactions of alkenes with ozone, and nitric oxide with hydroperoxy radical. Estimated indoor hydroxyl radical levels may potentially affect indoor air quality. Two examples are presented in which reactions of d-limonene and α-pinene with indoor hydroxyl radicals produce aldehydes, which may be of greater concern than the original compounds.

  1. Exposure to airborne culturable microorganisms and endotoxin in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Paba, Emilia; Chiominto, Alessandra; Marcelloni, Anna Maria; Proietto, Anna Rita; Sisto, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Even if slaughterhouses' workers handle large amounts of organic material and are potentially exposed to a wide range of biological agents, relatively little and not recent data are available. The main objective of this study was to characterize indoor concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin mod = Im (endotoxin∼Gram-negative*plant*filter) in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses. Air samples near air handling units inlets were also collected. Since there are not standardized protocols for endotoxin sampling and extraction procedures, an additional aim of the study was to compare the extraction efficiency of three different filter.. The study was also aimed at determining the correlation between concentrations of Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin. In Plant A bacterial levels ranged from 17.5 to 2.6×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentrations were observed in evisceration area of chickens, between the automatic detachment of the neck and washing offal, and near birds coupling before hair-chilling. The highest mean value of Gram-negative (266.5 CFU/m3) was found near the washing offal of turkeys. In Plant B bacterial concentration ranged from 35 to 8×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentration. with the highest value of Gram-negative (248 CFU/m3), was found after defeathering. Fungal concentrations were overall lower than those found for bacteria (range: 0-205 CFU/m3 in Plant A and 0-146.2 CFU/m3 in Plant B). The microbial flora was dominated by Gram-negative and coagulase-negative staphylococci for bacteria and by species belonging to Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera for molds. The highest endotoxin concentrations were measured in washing offal for Plant A (range: 122.7-165.9 EU/m3) and after defeathering for Plant B (range: 0.83-38.85 EU/m3). In this study airborne microorganisms concentrations were lower than those found in similar occupational settings and below the occupational limits proposed by some authors. However, these

  2. Collagenase Production by Endotoxin-Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Larry M.; Wahl, Sharon M.; Mergenhagen, Stephan E.; Martin, George R.

    1974-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate macrophages, when exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in culture, were found to produce collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3). This enzyme was not detected in extracts of the macrophages or in media from nonstimulated macrophage cultures. Lipidcontaining fractions of the lipopolysaccharide, including a glycolipid from the rough mutant of Salmonella minnesota (R595) and lipid A, were potent stimulators of collagenase production. The lipid-free polysaccharide fraction had no effect. Cycloheximide prevented the production of collagenase by endotoxin-treated macrophages, suggesting that it was newly synthesized. Images PMID:4372628

  3. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  4. Your Indoor Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the July 24, 2007 edition of "ExchangeEveryday", readers were asked to submit great indoor space elements from their early childhood programs. Readers sent photographs and brief descriptions of creative elements of their indoor environments. A sampling of ideas are shown on this article.

  5. Seafood allergy and allergens: a review.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Ayuso, R; Reese, G

    2003-01-01

    Seafoods are composed of diverse sea organisms and humans are allergic to many of them. Tropomyosin is a major allergen in many shellfish, especially crustacea and mollusks. Interestingly, tropomyosin has also been identified as an important allergen in other invertebrates including dust mites and cockroaches, and it has been proposed by some to be an invertebrate pan allergen. Different regions of shrimp tropomyosin bind IgE; 5 major IgE-binding regions have been identified in shrimp tropomyosin containing 8 epitopes. Mutations of these shrimp allergenic epitopes can reduce seafood allergenicity; methods utilizing such mutations will provide safer vaccines for more effective treatment of seafood-allergic patients, and in the future less-allergenic seafood products for consumption.

  6. Food allergens: molecular and immunological aspects, allergen databases and cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Anne-Regine; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The currently known food allergens are assigned to a relatively small number of protein families. Food allergens grouped into protein families share common functional and structural features that can be attributed to the allergenic potency and potential cross-reactivity of certain proteins. Molecular data, in terms of structural information, biochemical characteristics and clinical relevance for each known allergen, including isoforms and variants, are mainly compiled into four open-access databases. Allergens are designated according to defined criteria by the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee. Food allergies are caused by primary sensitisation to the disease-eliciting food allergens (class I food allergen), or they can be elicited as a consequence of a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens and subsequent IgE cross-reaction to homologous proteins in food (class II food allergens). Class I and class II allergens display different clinical significance in children and adults and are characterised by different molecular features. In line with this, high stability when exposed to gastrointestinal digestion and heat treatment is attributed to many class I food allergens that frequently induce severe reactions. The stability of a food allergen is determined by its molecular characteristics and can be influenced by structural (chemical) modifications due to thermal processing. Moreover, the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food allergens further depends on specific T cell and B cell epitopes. Although the T cell epitope pattern can be highly diverse for individual patients, several immuno-prominent T cell epitopes have been identified. Such conserved T cell epitopes and IgE cross-reactive B cell epitopes contribute to cross-reactivity between food allergens of the same family and to clinical cross-reactivity, similar to the birch pollen-food syndrome. PMID:26022861

  7. Detection of castor allergens in castor wax.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Müller, D J; Salvaggio, J E

    1980-01-01

    The presence of castor bean allergens in castor wax products was determined by in vivo and in vitro analysis of castor wax extracts. Allergens were detected in one extract of castor wax by the PCA reaction in mice, the RAST inhibition reaction, and skin prick test in castor bean sensitive individuals. However, these allergens in the wax were of much lower potency than those in the bean, and were not detectable in a deodorant product utilizing castor wax.

  8. Quantitative methods for food allergens: a review.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Stéphanie; Fourdrilis, Séverine; Dobson, Rowan; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; De Pauw, Edwin

    2009-09-01

    The quantitative detection of allergens in the food chain is a strategic health objective as the prevalence of allergy continues to rise. Food allergenicity is caused by proteins either in their native form or in forms resulting from food processing. Progress in mass spectrometry greatly opened up the field of proteomics. These advances are now available for the detection and the quantification of traces of allergenic proteins in complex mixtures, and complete the set of biological tests used until now, such as ELISA or PCR. We review methods classified according to their ability to simultaneously quantify and identify allergenic proteins and underline major advances in the mass-spectrometric methods.

  9. Recombinant expression systems for allergen vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2006-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy of future is likely to be based on allergy vaccines that contain engineered allergens modified to abolish or substantially reduce their IgE-binding activity in order to remove the risk of unwanted anaphylactic responses. The development of efficient systems for the production of recombinant allergens in sufficient quantities is requirement for establishing use of engineered allergens as components of allergy vaccines. This review outlines relative advantages and disadvantages of various heterologous systems for production of recombinant allergens. Microbial systems are most convenient and cost effective platforms for the production of recombinant allergens. However, lack of post-translational processing implies that some allergens have to be expressed in eukaryotic systems for proper folding and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation. Yeast systems can yield high levels of recombinant allergens but often are associated with hyper- glycosylation problems. Mammalian cell culture systems offer suitable post -translational modifications but are nearly hundred fold more expensive than microbial systems. The use of plants as bio-factories for production of recombinant allergens is emerging as a very attractive option as plants-based production system offer several advantages over other expression systems such as post translational processing of proteins, low production costs, scale up ability and enhanced safety due to absence of animal or human pathogens.

  10. Extraction and analysis of coffee bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E

    1978-05-01

    Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.

  11. Protein digestibility and relevance to allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Gary; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kimber, Ian; Hinton, Dennis M

    2003-06-01

    In January 2001 a Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Consultation Committee on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology published a report outlining in detail an approach for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins. One component of this decision tree is a determination of whether the protein of interest is resistant to proteolytic digestion. Although these (Italic)in vitro(/Italic) methodologies have been useful, the correlation between resistance to proteolysis and allergenic activity is not absolute. Two views and highlights of supporting research regarding the relationship of resistance to digestion and allergenicity are presented in this article.

  12. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma.

    PubMed

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2015-07-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-γ were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation.

  13. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma

    PubMed Central

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E

    2014-01-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-γ were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation. PMID:25504013

  14. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

  15. Endotoxin Elimination in Patients with Septic Shock: An Observation Study.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24 h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24 h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24 h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p = 0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80 mm Hg (68-88), (p = 0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1 μg/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p = 0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24 h after endotoxin elimination (p = 0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients.

  16. Adherent endotoxin on dental implant surfaces: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Cascardo, Giovanna; Bellanda, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Osteoimmunology is the crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems, suggesting a role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulation of osteoclast activity. Endotoxin or bacterial challenges to inflammatory cells are directly relevant to dental implant pathologies involving bone resorption, such as osseointegration failure and peri-implantitis. While the endotoxin amount on implant devices is regulated by standards, it is unknown whether commercially available dental implants elicit different levels of adherent-endotoxin stimulated cytokines. The objective of this work is to develop a model system and evaluate endotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes relevant to osteoclast activation on commercially available dental implants. Murine J774-A1 macrophages were cultured on Ti disks with different level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination to define the time-course of the inflammatory response to endotoxin, as evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The developed protocol was then used to measure adherent endotoxin on commercially available packaged and sterile dental implants in the "as-implanted" condition. Results show that tested dental implants induce variable expression of endotoxin-stimulated genes, sometimes above the level expected to promote bone resorption in vivo. Results are unaffected by the specific surface treatment; rather, they likely reflect care in cleaning and packaging protocols. In conclusion, expression of genes that enhance osteoclast activity through endotoxin stimulation of inflammatory cells is widely different on commercially available dental implants. A reappraisal of the clinical impact of adherent endotoxins on dental (and bone) implant devices is required in light of increasing knowledge on crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems.

  17. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of valerian roots on farms.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during various stages of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) roots processing by herb farmers and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 15 farms owned by valerian cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the air showed a marked variability and were within a range of 0.95-7,966.6 x 10(3) cfu/m (3). Though median was relatively low (10.75 x 10(3) cfu/m (3)), on 4 farms the concentrations exceeded the level of 10(5) cfu/m (3) and on 1 farm the level of 10(6) cfu/m (3). During the processing of valerian roots, distinct changes could be observed in the composition of airborne microflora. In the first stages of processing, the freshly dug and washed roots until shaking in the drying room, the most numerous were Gram-negative bacteria of the family Pseudomonadaceae (mostly Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens). After drying, the dominant organisms were thermo-resistant endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and fungi, among which prevailed Aspergillus fumigatus. Altogether, 29 species or genera of bacteria and 19 species or genera of fungi were identified in the farm air during valerian processing, of these, 10 and 12 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin on the examined farms were very large and ranged from 10.0-776.7 mg/m (3), and from 0.15-24,448.2 microg/m (3), respectively (medians 198.3 mg/m (3) and 40.48 microg/m (3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating valerian could be exposed during processing of valerian roots to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work

  18. [Biochemistry, molecular mechanism of action and biological effects of endotoxin].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, H; Breyer, S

    1995-01-01

    This review is a brief attempt at providing an overview of a subject of enormous complexity-endotoxins and the mediators associated with its biological effects. More specifically it deals with biochemistry and biology of endotoxin, detection of endotoxin with the Limulus amebocyte lysate test, the molecular mechanisms and biological effects, and in the last part with future aspects of therapeutical strategies. It seems certain that the subject will become even more complex and possibly controversial as scientific knowledge further involves. However, because of the high mortality rate of patients suffering from gram-negative sepsis all efforts have to be made to find effective therapeutical strategies.

  19. Some metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Ross, A.J.; Smith, L.

    1968-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were highly resistant to endotoxins from both Escherichia coli and Aeromonas salmonicida (a fish pathogen) at 14 and 18 C.This resistance was investigated with liver tryptophan pyrrolase, liver glycogen depletion in vitro, and the arterial blood pressure as indicators. Liver glycogen depletion was accelerated by both endotoxins, but there was no significant cardiovascular response or effect on liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity. Since the cardiovascular effects of histamine were also limited, it was concluded that the metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonids are qualitatively different from those of the higher vertebrates.

  20. Safeguarding indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, K.; Wesolowski, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    California has created and implemented the first state program devoted exclusively to the investigation of nonindustrial indoor air quality. The program is responsible for promoting and conducting research on the determining factors of healthful indoor environments and is structured to obtain information about emission sources, ventilation effects, indoor concentrations, human activity patterns, exposures, health risks, control measures and public policy options. Data are gathered by a variety of methods, including research conducted by staff members, review of the available scientific literature, participation in technical meetings, contractual agreements with outside agencies, cooperative research projects with other groups and consultation with experts. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  1. Molecular and immunological characterization of arginine kinase from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, a novel cross-reactive invertebrate pan-allergen.

    PubMed

    Binder, M; Mahler, V; Hayek, B; Sperr, W R; Schöller, M; Prozell, S; Wiedermann, G; Valent, P; Valenta, R; Duchêne, M

    2001-11-01

    IgE recognition of indoor allergens represents a major cause of allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We found that 52 of 102 patients suffering from allergic symptoms indoors contained IgE Abs against allergens from the Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella), a ubiquitous food pest. Using serum IgE from a moth-sensitized patient we screened an expression cDNA library constructed from P. interpunctella larvae. cDNAs coding for arginine kinase (EC 2.7.3.3), a 40-kDa enzyme commonly occurring in invertebrates that is involved in the storage of such high-energy phosphate bonds as phosphoarginine, were isolated. Recombinant moth arginine kinase, designated Plo i 1, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged protein with enzymatic activity, and purified to homogeneity by nickel chelate affinity chromatography. Purified recombinant arginine kinase induced specific basophil histamine release and immediate as well as late-phase skin reactions. It reacted with serum IgE from 13 of the 52 (25%) moth-allergic patients and inhibited the binding of allergic patients' IgE to an immunologically related 40-kDa allergen present in house dust mite, cockroach, king prawn, lobster, and mussel. Our results indicate that arginine kinases represent a new class of cross-reactive invertebrate pan-allergens. Recombinant arginine kinase may be used to identify a group of polysensitized indoor allergic patients and for immunotherapy of these individuals.

  2. Guilt by intimate association: what makes an allergen an allergen?

    PubMed

    Karp, Christopher L

    2010-05-01

    Why specific, ubiquitous, otherwise innocuous environmental proteins tend to provoke maladaptive, T(H)2-polarized immune responses in susceptible hosts is a fundamental mechanistic question for those interested in the pathogenesis, therapy, and prevention of allergic disease. The current renaissance in the study of innate immunity has provided important insights into this question. The theme emerging from recent studies is that direct (dys)functional interactions with pathways of innate immune activation that evolved to signal the presence of microbial infection are central to the molecular basis for allergenicity. This article reviews these data.

  3. Advances in allergen immunotherapy: aiming for complete tolerance to allergens.

    PubMed

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-03-25

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for more than 100 years as a tolerance-inducing therapy for allergic diseases and represents a potentially curative method of treatment. AIT functions through multiple mechanisms, including regulating T and B cell responses, changing antibody isotypes, and decreasing mediator release and migration of eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells to affected tissues. Despite the relative success of AIT, attempts are being made to improve this therapy in order to overcome problems in standardization, efficacy, safety, long duration of treatment, and costs. These have led to the development of biotechnological products with successful clinical results.

  4. Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenxing, Li; Hong, Lin; Limin, Cao

    2006-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  5. Evaluating variability of allergens in commodity crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops with significant food allergen issues, include legumes, peanut and soybean, cereal grains, such as wheat and maize, and tree nuts (walnut, Brazil nut, among other phylogenetically diverse species) (Teuber et al. 2006). Officially recognized allergenic proteins may include one or multiple prot...

  6. Recombinant allergen-based provocation testing☆

    PubMed Central

    Niederberger, Verena; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Pauli, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, recombinant allergens from all important allergen sources have been cloned and are now available as recombinant proteins. These molecules can be produced in practically unlimited amounts without biological or batch-to-batch variability. It has been shown in provocation tests that recombinant allergens have similar clinical effects as their natural counterparts. With the help of these tools it is possible to reveal the precise reactivity profiles of patients and to uncover and differentiate cross-reactivity from genuine sensitization to an allergen source. Although it has been shown some time ago that it would be possible to replace crude allergen extracts with recombinant allergens for skin prick testing, and even though the use of allergen components can improve routine diagnosis, these tools are still not available for clinical routine applications. The use of provocation tests is a crucial step in the development of new, hypoallergenic vaccines for therapy of allergic disease. Here we describe important provocation methods (skin prick test, intradermal test, atopy patch test, nasal provocation, colonoscopic provocation test) and give an overview of the clinical provocation studies which have been performed with recombinant allergens so far. PMID:23920475

  7. Reducing food allergenicity at the molecular level.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergens are a significant worldwide public health issue. Estimates for the prevalence of food allergies are around 1-2 % of the total population and up to 8 % of children; although, the prevalence may vary between populations and age groups. Peanuts are one of the most allergenic foods. The...

  8. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  9. QUANTIFYING INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing awareness that indoor molds/fungi may be connected to such conditions as asthma, allergies, hemorrhaging, chronic rhinosinusitis, memory loss, and a symptom complex called sick-building-syndrome. In addition, molds cause frequently fatal nosocomical infections. ...

  10. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... cover windows with blankets at night. Monitor Body Temperature Infants less than one year old should never ... infants and try to maintain a warm indoor temperature. If the temperature cannot be maintained, make temporary ...

  11. Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information.

    PubMed

    Daisey, J M; Angell, W J; Apte, M G

    2003-03-01

    We reviewed the literature on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), ventilation, and building-related health problems in schools and identified commonly reported building-related health symptoms involving schools until 1999. We collected existing data on ventilation rates, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and symptom-relevant indoor air contaminants, and evaluated information on causal relationships between pollutant exposures and health symptoms. Reported ventilation and CO2 data strongly indicate that ventilation is inadequate in many classrooms, possibly leading to health symptoms. Adequate ventilation should be a major focus of design or remediation efforts. Total volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde (HCHO) and microbiological contaminants are reported. Low HCHO concentrations were unlikely to cause acute irritant symptoms (<0.05 ppm), but possibly increased risks for allergen sensitivities, chronic irritation, and cancer. Reported microbiological contaminants included allergens in deposited dust, fungi, and bacteria. Levels of specific allergens were sufficient to cause symptoms in allergic occupants. Measurements of airborne bacteria and airborne and surface fungal spores were reported in schoolrooms. Asthma and 'sick building syndrome' symptoms are commonly reported. The few studies investigating causal relationships between health symptoms and exposures to specific pollutants suggest that such symptoms in schools are related to exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), molds and microbial VOCs, and allergens. PMID:12608926

  12. Environmental chemicals relevant for respiratory hypersensitivity: the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Becher, R; Hongslo, J K; Jantunen, M J; Dybing, E

    1996-08-01

    The allergenic constituents of non-industrial indoor environments are predominantly found in the biologic fraction. Several reports have related biological particles such as mites and their excreta, dander from pets and other furred animals, fungi and bacteria to allergic manifestations including respiratory hypersensitivity among the occupants of buildings. Also, bacterial cell-wall components and the spores of toxin-producing moulds may contribute to the induction of hypersensitivity, but the relevance for human health is not yet determined. The knowledge regarding hypersensitivity and asthmatic reactions after exposure to chemical agents is primarily based on data from occupational settings with much higher exposure levels than usually found in non-industrial indoor environments. However, there is evidence that indoor exposure to tobacco smoke, some volatile organic compounds (VOC) and various combustion products (either by using unvented stoves or from outdoor sources) can be related to asthmatic symptoms. In some susceptible individuals, the development of respiratory hypersensitivity or elicitation of asthmatic symptoms may also be related to the indiscriminate use of different household products followed by exposure to compounds such as diisocyanates, organic acid anhydrides, formaldehyde, styrene and hydroquinone. At present, the contribution of the indoor environment both to the development of respiratory hypersensitivity and for triggering asthmatic symptoms is far from elucidated.

  13. Endotoxin-Induced Structural Transformations in Liquid Crystalline Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, I.-Hsin; Miller, Daniel S.; Bertics, Paul J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2011-06-01

    The ordering of liquid crystals (LCs) is known to be influenced by surfaces and contaminants. Here, we report that picogram per milliliter concentrations of endotoxin in water trigger ordering transitions in micrometer-size LC droplets. The ordering transitions, which occur at surface concentrations of endotoxin that are less than 10-5 Langmuir, are not due to adsorbate-induced changes in the interfacial energy of the LC. The sensitivity of the LC to endotoxin was measured to change by six orders of magnitude with the geometry of the LC (droplet versus slab), supporting the hypothesis that interactions of endotoxin with topological defects in the LC mediate the response of the droplets. The LC ordering transitions depend strongly on glycophospholipid structure and provide new designs for responsive soft matter.

  14. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs.

  15. From allergen genes to allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Ferreira, Fatima; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Niederberger, Verena; Swoboda, Ines; Vrtala, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. The structures of the most common allergens have been revealed through molecular cloning technology in the past two decades. On the basis of this knowledge of the sequences and three-dimensional structures of culprit allergens, investigators can now analyze the immune recognition of allergens and the mechanisms of allergic inflammation in allergic patients. Allergy vaccines have been constructed that are able to selectively target the aberrant immune responses in allergic patients via different pathways of the immune system. Here we review various types of allergy vaccines that have been developed based on allergen structures, results from their clinical application in allergic patients, and future strategies for allergen-specific immunotherapy and allergy prophylaxis.

  16. Molecular and immunological characterization of shellfish allergens.

    PubMed

    Leung, P S; Chu, K H

    1998-03-15

    Shellfish (crustaceans and mollusks) have long been known as a common cause of allergic reactions to food. Like other food allergies, the allergic reactions to shellfish involve IgE-mediated Type I hypersensitivity. Biochemical and molecular studies have documented the major shrimp allergen is the muscle protein tropomyosin. Subsequent molecular cloning studies on lobsters and crabs have characterized this protein as the common allergen in crustaceans. There has also been strong immunological evidence that tropomyosin is a cross-reactive allergen among crustaceans and mollusks. This is further confirmed by recent studies on the identification of allergens in squid and abalone. The advances in the characterization of shellfish allergens will not only enhance our understanding on the physiological basis of shellfish allergy but also lay the groundwork for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic design in food allergies.

  17. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  18. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  19. Ultrasensitive detection of endotoxins using computationally designed nanoMIPs.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Zeynep; Abdin, Mohammed J; Tothill, Alexander M; Karim, Kal; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-09-01

    Novel molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) were designed for endotoxin from Escherichia coli 0111:B4, using computational modeling. The screening process based on binding energy between endotoxin and each monomer was performed with 21 commonly used monomers, resulting in the selection of itaconic acid, methacrylic acid and acrylamide as functional monomers due to their strong binding interaction with the endotoxin template. The nanoMIPs were successfully synthesized with functional groups on the outer surface to aid in the immobilization onto sensor surface. The solid phase photopolymerization approach used for the synthesis of nanoMIPs ranging from 200 to 235 nm in diameter. The limit of detection and KD were significantly improved when endotoxin samples were prepared using a novel triethylamine method. This improved the efficiency of gold nanoparticle functionalization by targeting the subunits of the endotoxin. Compared to the vancomycin MIP control, the endotoxin MIPs displayed outstanding affinity and selectivity towards the endotoxin with KD values in the range of 4.4-5.3 × 10(-10) M, with limits of detection of 0.44 ± 0.02 ng mL(-1) as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor when itaconic acid was used as the functional monomer. The MIP surface can be regenerated >30 times without significant loss of binding activity making this approach highly cost effective for expensive analyte templates. The combination of molecular modeling and solid phase synthesis enabled the successful synthesis of nanoMIPs capable of recognition and ultrasensitive detection of endotoxins using the highly sensitive SPR biosensor with triethylamine method. PMID:27543033

  20. Endotoxin in Size-Separated Metal Working Fluid Aerosol Particles.

    PubMed

    Dahlman-Höglund, Anna; Lindgren, Åsa; Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger

    2016-08-01

    Patients with airway symptoms working in metal working industries are increasing, despite efforts to improve the environmental air surrounding the machines. Our aim was to analyse the amount of endotoxin in size-separated airborne particles of metal working fluid (MWF) aerosol, by using the personal sampler Sioutas cascade impactor, to compare filter types, and to compare the concentration of airborne endotoxin to that of the corresponding MWFs. In a pilot field study, aerosols were collected in two separate machine halls on totally 10 occasions, using glass fibre and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters in parallel at each station. Airborne endotoxin was distributed over all size fractions. While a major part was found in the largest size fraction (72%, 2.5-10 µm), up to 8% of the airborne endotoxin was detected in the smallest size fraction (<0.25 µm). Comparing the efficiency of the filter types, a significantly higher median endotoxin level was found with glass fibres filters collecting the largest particle-size fraction (1.2-fold) and with PTFE filters collecting the smallest ones (5-fold). The levels of endotoxin in the size-separated airborne particle fractions correlated to those of the MWFs supporting the aerosol-generating machines. Our study indicates that a significant part of inhalable aerosols of MWFs consists of endotoxin-containing particles below the size of intact bacteria, and thus small enough to readily reach the deepest part of the lung. Combined with other chemical irritants of the MWF, exposure to MWF aerosols containing endotoxin pose a risk to respiratory health problems. PMID:27268595

  1. Pavlovian conditioning of endotoxin-tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, Reiner; Kromm, Alexander; Exton, Michael S; Schade, Ullrich; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2003-02-01

    The most fascinating example of the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system (CNS) and immune system is the behavioral conditioning of immune functions. We therefore investigated the behavioral conditioning of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin tolerance using the taste aversion paradigm. The conditioned stimulus (CS) saccharin was paired with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) LPS over a five (CONDl) or four (COND2) days learning trial. Controls received drinking water with (SHAM) or without (UNT) LPS. Endotoxin tolerance was tested by determination of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release. After the avoidance of the induced endotoxin-tolerance the CS saccharin was re-presented in all experimental groups. A the end of the re-exposure period a complete endotoxin tolerance was noticed in the CONDl- and COND2-group. In contrast, no effect of saccharin administration was observed in the SHAM- or UNT-group. Our data demonstrate for the first time the behavioral conditioning of endotoxin tolerance. Furthermore, these results contribute new aspects to the mechanisms underlying the development and modulation of endotoxin tolerance.

  2. Biopanning of endotoxin-specific phage displayed peptides.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Celestine J; Sharma, Shilpi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Visweswariah, Sandhya S; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2003-07-18

    Systemic bacterial infections frequently lead to a plethora of symptoms termed "endotoxic shock" or "sepsis." Characterized by hypotension, coagulation abnormalities, and multiple organ failure, treatment of sepsis still remains mostly supportive. Of the various experimental therapeutic interventional strategies, neutralization of endotoxin by peptides or proteins is becoming popular recently. Hence, design of endotoxin binding peptides is gaining currency as their structural complexity and mode of recognition of endotoxin precludes mounting of resistance against them by the susceptible bacteria by genetic recombination, mutation, etc. Earlier work from our laboratory had shown that the amphiphilic cationic peptides are good ligands for endotoxin binding. In this study, we report the results of studies with the 12 selected lipid A binding phage displayed peptides by biopanning of a repertoire of a random pentadecapeptide library displayed on the filamentous M-13 phage. A comparison of the sequences revealed no consensus sequence between the 12 selected peptides suggesting that the lipid A binding motif is not sequence specific which is in accord with the sequence variation seen with the naturally occurring anti-microbial and/or endotoxin binding peptides. Thus, the flexibility of the peptides coupled with their plasticity in recognizing the lipid A moiety, explains their tight binding to endotoxin. At a structural level, asymmetric distribution of the charged polar residues on one face of the helix and non-polar residues on the opposite face appears to correlate with their activity.

  3. Endotoxins-the invisible companion in biomaterials research.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Ramona; Petersen, Pétur Henry; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur Eysteinn

    2013-10-01

    Metal implants and polymeric devices for the application in the clinical treatment of orthopedic tissue injuries are increasingly coated with bioactive biomaterials derived from natural substances to induce desirable biological effects. Many metals and polymers used in biomaterials research show high affinity for endotoxins, which are abundant in the environment. Endotoxin contamination is indicated in the pathology of periodontitis and aseptic implant loosening, but may also affect the evaluation of a biomaterial's bioactivity by inducing strong inflammatory reactions. In this review, we discuss the high affinity of three commonly used implant biomaterials for endotoxins and how the contamination can affect the outcome of the orthopedic fixation. The chemical nature of bacterial endotoxins and some of the clinical health implications are described, as this knowledge is critically important to tackle the issues associated with the measurement and removal of endotoxins from medical devices. Commonly used methods for endotoxin testing and removal from natural substances are examined and the lack of standard guidelines for the in vitro evaluation of biomaterials is discussed.

  4. Cat allergen sampling by a new personal collector (Partrap FA 52).

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Russo, M; Barber, D; Califano, C; Parmiani, S; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies carried out by us and others have demonstrated that Fel d 1, the main cat allergen, may be passively transferred by human clothing in cat-free environments. Consequently, the monitoring of the Fel d 1 levels either in indoor environments or on allergen-contaminated clothes of sensitized cat owners should be considered an important tool in prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a personal air sampler (Partrap FA 52) in capturing cat allergen from wool fabrics. Seven identical wool webs (80 x 100 cm) were put in the baskets of seven male cats for 1 week. In our laboratory each web was divided into two parts (80 x 50 cm), the first of which was then divided in two parts (40 x 50 cm) and each was vacuumed directly by one collector. The second part was dry-cleaned at a professional cleaners, divided in two parts and then vacuumed. For the dust collection from wool webs we used a fixed high volume air sampler (CF/20 Gelaire Flow Labs, Milan, Italy) and a personal collector (Partrap FA 52, Coppa Biella, Italy). Fel d 1 content was determined using a two site ELISA (ALK-Abelló Group, Madrid, Spain). Both air samplers collected cat allergens from cat-exposed wool fabrics before and after dry cleaning. There were significant differences between the levels of Fel d 1 before and after dry cleaning by using either CF/20 or Partrap FA52 and between the levels of Fel d 1 before dry cleaning using CF/20 and Partrap FA 52. The results of our study suggest that Partrap FA 52, although its air flow is half that of the CF/20, is able to collect even residual amounts of cat allergen from wool webs after dry cleaning and consequently may constitute a simple and effective means of monitoring the levels of Fel d 1 on the clothes of cat owners.

  5. Specific IgG for cat allergens in patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Miyama, Anri; Mimura, Tatsuya; Noma, Hidetaka; Goto, Mari; Kamei, Yuko; Kondo, Aki; Saito, Yusuke; Okuma, Hiroko; Matsubara, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are involved in type II and type III hypersensitivity. We evaluated the relation between perennial allergic conjunctivitis and serum levels of specific IgG for cat allergens. A prospective study was conducted in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (seasonal group, n = 10), patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (perennial group, n = 10), and healthy control subjects (control group, n = 10). Serum levels of specific IgE and IgG for cat allergens and total tear IgE were measured, and a skin prick test was also performed. In addition, a severity score associated with allergic conjunctivitis was calculated (0-30). The positive rates and scores of for total tear IgE, serum cat-specific IgE, and serum cat-specific IgG were all higher in the seasonal and perennial groups than in the control group (all p < 0.05). Serum cat-specific IgG levels were higher in the perennial group than in the seasonal group (p = 0.0156), but there was no significant difference in the grade of cat-specific IgE between the two groups (p = 0.3008). On multivariate analysis, the mean wheal diameter for cat allergen was associated with the serum level of cat-specific IgG (not IgE) in all patients [odds ratio (OR) = 31.979, p < 0.0001]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the total objective score was strongly associated with serum cat-specific IgG (OR = 23.015, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that specific IgG antibodies may be involved in perennial allergic symptoms caused by indoor allergens such as cat allergens.

  6. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment. PMID:24467247

  7. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

  8. Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

  9. Effects of NO2 and Ozone on Pollen Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Ulrike; Ernst, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes the available data of the air pollutants NO2 and ozone on allergenic pollen from different plant species, focusing on potentially allergenic components of the pollen, such as allergen content, protein release, IgE-binding, or protein modification. Various in vivo and in vitro studies on allergenic pollen are shown and discussed. PMID:26870080

  10. New routes for allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M.; Senti, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the adverse events are caused by mast cells and basophils, the therapeutic window of SIT may be widened by targeting tissues rich in antigen presenting cells. Lymph nodes and the epidermis contain high density of dendritic cells and low numbers of mast cells and basophils. The epidermis has the added benefit of not being vascularised thereby reducing the chances of anaphylactic shock due to leakage of allergen. Hence, both these tissues represent highly promising routes for SIT and are the focus of discussion in this review. PMID:23095873

  11. Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in six single-family homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taekhee; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Adhikari, Atin; Crawford, Carlos M.; Reponen, Tiina

    In this study, the culturability of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi was determined through long-term sampling (24-h) using a Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler. The air samples were collected during three seasons in six Cincinnati area homes that were free from moisture damage or visible mold. Cultivation and total microscopic enumeration methods were employed for the sample analysis. The geometric means of indoor and outdoor culturable fungal concentrations were 88 and 102 colony-forming units (CFU) m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of the I/ O ratio equal to 0.66. Overall, 26 genera of culturable fungi were recovered from the indoor and outdoor samples. For total fungal spores, the indoor and outdoor geometric means were 211 and 605 spores m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of I/ O ratio equal to 0.32. The identification revealed 37 fungal genera from indoor and outdoor samples based on the total spore analysis. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of culturable and total fungal spores showed significant correlations ( r=0.655, p<0.0001 and r=0.633, p<0.0001, respectively). The indoor and outdoor median viabilities of fungi were 55% and 25%, respectively, which indicates that indoor environment provides more favorable survival conditions for the aerosolized fungi. Among the seasons, the highest indoor and outdoor culturability of fungi was observed in the fall. Cladosporium had a highest median value of culturability (38% and 33% for indoor and outdoor, respectively) followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium (9% and 2%) among predominant genera of fungi. Increased culturability of fungi inside the homes may have important implications because of the potential increase in the release of allergens from viable spores and pathogenicity of viable fungi on immunocompromised individuals.

  12. Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-05-01

    Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products of agricultural biotechnology should be subjected to a careful and complete safety assessment before commercialization. Because the genetic modification ultimately results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant, the safety, including the potential allergenicity, of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. Although most allergens are proteins, only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic under the typical circumstances of exposure. The potential allergenicity of the introduced proteins can be evaluated by focusing on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the expression level of the novel protein in the modified crop, the functional classification of the novel protein, the reactivity of the novel protein with IgE from the serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and various physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein, such as heat stability and digestive stability. Few products of agricultural biotechnology (and none of the current products) will involve the transfer of genes from known allergenic sources. Applying such criteria provides reasonable assurance that the newly introduced protein has limited capability to become an allergen.

  13. Allergenic tropomyosins and their cross-reactivities.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2006-01-01

    The ingestion or inhalation of some proteins may lead to adverse immune reactions. Allergens may trigger allergic reactions in genetically predisposed individuals when they are absorbed through the skin or make contact with mucous membranes. An allergic disease often deteriorates the quality of life and may sometimes be life-threatening due to anaphylactic shock. A number of allergens have been characterized from various multicellular organisms to date. It is thought to be reasonable to pay a special attention to the substance which is highly cross-reactive and which causes adverse responses in the molecules that are not sensitized but similar to the sensitized allergen. Tropomyosin has been described as an important food allergen in shrimp, lobster, crab, oysters, squid, and other invertebrates. Allergic reactions to shellfish and mollusks are often cross-reactive, which may be explained by the highly conserved amino acid sequences of tropomyosins among invertebrates, but vertebrate tropomyosins are not known to be allergenic. Several tropomyosins from domestic arthropods have been reported to be allergenic. Recently, it was suggested that an infection of helminthic parasites might lead to sensitization to tropomyosin and elicit allergic reactions to other invertebrates. Much effort has been made to characterize these allergenic tropomyosins from various sources. We will discuss the physicochemical characteristics and the potential application of tropomyosin for the diagnosis and therapeutics of allergic disorders.

  14. Endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein A-I: effect on macrophage proliferation--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xueting; Xu, Qing; Champion, Keith; Kruth, Howard S

    2015-05-01

    This technical report addresses the problem of endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein reagents. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation cell proliferation assay, we observed that human plasma ApoA-I as low as 1 μg/ml resulted in a >90% inhibition in macrophage proliferation. However, not all ApoA-I from different sources showed this effect. We considered the possibility that endotoxin contamination of the apolipoproteins contributed to the differential inhibition of macrophage cell proliferation. Endotoxin alone very potently inhibited macrophage proliferation (0.1 ng/ml inhibited macrophage proliferation>90%). Measurement of endotoxin levels in the apolipoprotein products, including an analysis of free versus total endotoxin, the latter which included endotoxin that was masked due to binding to protein, suggested that free endotoxin mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation. Despite the use of an advanced endotoxin removal procedure and agents commonly used to inhibit endotoxin action, the potency of endotoxin precluded successful elimination of endotoxin effect. Our findings show that endotoxin contamination can significantly influence apparent apolipoprotein-mediated cell effects (or effects of any other biological products), especially when these products are tested on highly endotoxin-sensitive cells, such as macrophages.

  15. Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy are very common during the course of immunotherapy. These local reactions are not bothersome to patients. Local reactions from immunotherapy also do not predict future local or systemic reactions. This review discusses the studies that show that local reactions are not predictive of future reactions and that dose adjustments for local reactions from allergen immunotherapy are unnecessary. The article also focuses on factors that lead to patient noncompliance with immunotherapy and evaluates methods to prevent local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy. PMID:24283844

  16. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  17. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  18. Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy are very common during the course of immunotherapy. These local reactions are not bothersome to patients. Local reactions from immunotherapy also do not predict future local or systemic reactions. This review discusses the studies that show that local reactions are not predictive of future reactions and that dose adjustments for local reactions from allergen immunotherapy are unnecessary. The article also focuses on factors that lead to patient noncompliance with immunotherapy and evaluates methods to prevent local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

  19. Characterization of the allergenic potential of proteins: an assessment of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin.

    PubMed

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Beresford, Lorna; Foster, Emily S; McClain, Scott; Kimber, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of the potential allergenicity (IgE-inducing properties) of novel proteins is an important challenge in the overall safety assessment of foods. Resistance to digestion with pepsin is commonly measured to characterize allergenicity, although the association is not absolute. We have previously shown that specific IgE antibody production induced by systemic [intraperitoneal (i.p.)] exposure of BALB/c strain mice to a range of proteins correlates with allergenic potential for known allergens. The purpose of the present study was to explore further the utility of these approaches using the food allergen, actinidin. Recently, kiwifruit has become an important allergenic foodstuff, coincident with its increased consumption, particularly as a weaning food. The ability of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin to stimulate antibody responses has been compared with the reference allergen ovalbumin, and with the non-allergen bovine haemoglobin. Haemoglobin was rapidly digested by pepsin whereas actinidin was resistant unless subjected to prior chemical reduction (reflecting intracellular digestion conditions). Haemoglobin stimulated detectable IgG antibody production at relatively high doses (10%), but failed to provoke detectable IgE. In contrast, actinidin was both immunogenic and allergenic at relatively low doses (0.25% to 1%). Vigorous IgG and IgG1 antibody and high titre IgE antibody responses were recorded, similar to those provoked by ovalbumin. Thus, actinidin displays a marked ability to provoke IgE, consistent with allergenic potential. These data provide further encouragement that in tandem with analysis of pepsin stability, the induction of IgE after systemic exposure of BALB/c strain mice provides a useful approach for the prospective identification of protein allergens.

  20. Allergenic fragments of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen Lol p IV.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T

    1989-01-01

    To facilitate studies on establishing the nature of structure/function relationships of allergens, ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p IV, was cleaved into smaller fragments by cyanogen bromide (CNBr) and the resulting peptides were further digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C-18 reverse phase column. The allergenic activity of the HPLC fractions was evaluated in terms of their ability to inhibit the binding of 125I-Lol p IV to serum IgE antibodies of a grass-allergic patient. Many of these fractions inhibited the binding between the native allergen and IgE antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitions were specific, i.e., the fractions did not inhibit the binding between 125I-Lol p I (a group-I ryegrass pollen allergen) and the IgE antibodies present in the allergic human serum. The possibility that the allergenic peptide fractions were contaminated by the native undegraded allergen, which might have accounted for the observed inhibition, was ruled out by the fact that the native allergen could not be detected by SDS-PAGE and the elution profiles of allergenically active peptides did not coincide with that of native allergen. One of the allergenic sites recognized by monoclonal antibody (Mab) 90, i.e., site A, was located in HPLC fractions 90-100 while another allergenic site B (recognized by Mab 12) appeared to be lost following the sequential digestion of Lol p IV with CNBr and trypsin.

  1. Stress-Derived Corticotropin Releasing Factor Breaches Epithelial Endotoxin Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Loss of the endotoxin tolerance of intestinal epithelium contributes to a number of intestinal diseases. The etiology is not clear. Psychological stress is proposed to compromise the intestinal barrier function. The present study aims to elucidate the role of the stress-derived corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in breaching the established intestinal epithelial endotoxin tolerance. Methods Epithelial cells of HT-29, T84 and MDCK were exposed to lipopolysaccharide to induce the endotoxin tolerance; the cells were then stimulated with CRF. The epithelial barrier function was determined using as indicators of the endotoxin tolerant status. A water-avoid stress mouse model was employed to test the role of CRF in breaching the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestine. Results The established endotoxin tolerance in the epithelial cell monolayers was broken down by a sequent exposure to CRF and LPS manifesting a marked drop of the transepithelial resistance (TER) and an increase in the permeability to a macromolecular tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The exposure to CRF also increased the expression of Cldn2 in the epithelial cells, which could be mimicked by over expression of TLR4 in epithelial cells. Over expression of Cldn2 resulted in low TER in epithelial monolayers and high permeability to HRP. After treating mice with the 10-day chronic stress, the intestinal epithelial barrier function was markedly compromised, which could be prevented by blocking either CRF, or TLR4, or Cldn2. Conclusions Psychological stress-derived CRF can breach the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23840363

  2. The natural immunity to evolutionary atavistic endotoxin for human cancer.

    PubMed

    Moncevičiūtė-Eringienė, Elena; Rotkevič, Kristina; Grikienis, Ruta Grikienyte

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new theory of the immunological control of cancer corresponding to the hypothesis that the specific natural immunity to evolutionary atavistic endotoxin has a potential role in human cancer prevention. The results of our studies have shown that IgMNAE, i.e. endogenous or spontaneous IgM class antibodies to enterobacterial lipopolysaccharide molecules (lipid A), control the immune mechanisms responsible for the internal medium stability not only against the damaging impact of the carcinogenic factors, but also against the malignant transformation of its own degenerated cells. Among people who in 1979 and 1982 had IgMNAE in their blood serum, after 15-30years fell ill with cancer 10%, versus 15% among people who had no IgMNAE (p<0.05). Therefore, it is possible to maintain that the stimulation of IgMNAE synthesis would help in the destruction and elimination of damaged somatic cells or prevent their mechanisms from the formation of invasiveness, metastatic and other properties of their parasitism. In the mechanism of the natural immunity to endotoxin it is possible to see the formation of the respective evolutionary protective reactions which protect the damaged cells from acquiring resistance to damaging factors and thus from becoming an independent new parasitic population. Thereby the presented theory of the immunological control of cancer has a causal connection with our evolutionary resistance theory of the origin of cancer. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of natural immunity to endotoxin and production of vaccines against evolutionary atavistic endotoxin or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin can be helpful when applied in cancer prophylaxis for persons with a low level of natural immunity to endotoxin and perhaps in creating immunotherapeutic methods for stopping the endogenous parasitism of tumour cells by binding IgMNAE to atavistic endotoxin in cancer patients.

  3. Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular protein permeability in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, C.H.; Dauber, I.M.; Weil, J.V.

    1986-10-01

    Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular permeability consistently in some species but fails to reliably cause injury in the dog. We wondered whether this phenomenon depended on the method of injury assessment, as others have relied on edema measurement; we quantified injury by monitoring the rate of extravascular protein accumulation. /sup 113m/In-labeled protein and /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes were injected into anesthetized dogs and monitored by an externally placed lung probe. A protein leak index, the rate of extravascular protein accumulation, was derived from the rate of increase in lung protein counts corrected for changes in intravascular protein activity. After administration of Salmonella enteriditis endotoxin (4 micrograms/kg), the protein leak index was elevated 2.5-fold (41.1 +/- 4.6 X 10(-4) min-1) compared with control (16.0 +/- 2.8 X 10(-4) min-1). In contrast, wet-to-dry weight ratios failed to increase after endotoxin (4.6 +/- 0.8 vs. control values of 4.2 +/- 0.5 g/g dry bloodless lung). However, we observed that endotoxin increased lung dry weight (per unit body weight), which may have attenuated the change in wet-to-dry weight ratios. To determine whether low microvascular pressures following endotoxin attenuated edema formation, we increased pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in five dogs by saline infusion, which caused an increase in wet-to-dry weight ratios following endotoxin but no change in the five controls. We conclude that low dose endotoxin causes pulmonary vascular protein leak in the dog while edema formation is minimal or absent.

  4. Field evaluation of endotoxin air sampling assay methods.

    PubMed

    Thorne, P S; Reynolds, S J; Milton, D K; Bloebaum, P D; Zhang, X; Whitten, P; Burmeister, L F

    1997-11-01

    This study tested the importance of filter media, extraction and assay protocol, and bioaerosol source on the determination of endotoxin under field conditions in swine and poultry confinement buildings. Multiple simultaneous air samples were collected using glass fiber (GF) and polycarbonate (PC) filters, and these were assayed using two methods in two separate laboratories: an endpoint chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay (QCL) performed in water and a kinetic chromogenic LAL assay (KQCL) performed in buffer with resistant-parallel line estimation analysis (KLARE). In addition, two aqueous filter extraction methods were compared in the QCL assay: 120 min extraction at 22 degrees C with vigorous shaking and 30 min extraction at 68 degrees C with gentle rocking. These extraction methods yielded endotoxin activities that were not significantly different and were very highly correlated. Reproducibility of endotoxin determinations from duplicate air sampling filters was very high (Cronbach alpha all > 0.94). When analyzed by the QCL method GF filters yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity than PC filters. QCL and KLARE methods gave similar estimates for endotoxin activity from PC filters; however, GF filters analyzed by the QCL method yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity estimates, suggesting enhancement of the QCL assay or inhibition of the KLARE asay with GF filters. Correlation between QCL-GF and QCL-PC was high (r = 0.98) while that between KLARE-GF and KLARE-PC was moderate (r = 0.68). Analysis of variance demonstrated that assay methodology, filter-type, barn-type, and interactions between assay and filter-type and between assay and barn-type were important factors influencing endotoxin exposure assessment.

  5. Indoor Environmental Exposures and Exacerbation of Asthma: An Update to the 2000 Review by the Institute of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Wang, Grace; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has found relationships between specific indoor environmental exposures and exacerbation of asthma. Objectives: In this review we provide an updated summary of knowledge from the scientific literature on indoor exposures and exacerbation of asthma. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2013 on indoor exposures and exacerbation of asthma were identified through PubMed, from reference lists, and from authors’ files. Articles that focused on modifiable indoor exposures in relation to frequency or severity of exacerbation of asthma were selected for review. Research findings were reviewed and summarized with consideration of the strength of the evidence. Results: Sixty-nine eligible articles were included. Major changed conclusions include a causal relationship with exacerbation for indoor dampness or dampness-related agents (in children); associations with exacerbation for dampness or dampness-related agents (in adults), endotoxin, and environmental tobacco smoke (in preschool children); and limited or suggestive evidence for association with exacerbation for indoor culturable Penicillium or total fungi, nitrogen dioxide, rodents (nonoccupational), feather/down pillows (protective relative to synthetic bedding), and (regardless of specific sensitization) dust mite, cockroach, dog, and dampness-related agents. Discussion: This review, incorporating evidence reported since 2000, increases the strength of evidence linking many indoor factors to the exacerbation of asthma. Conclusions should be considered provisional until all available evidence is examined more thoroughly. Conclusion: Multiple indoor exposures, especially dampness-related agents, merit increased attention to prevent exacerbation of asthma, possibly even in nonsensitized individuals. Additional research to establish causality and evaluate interventions is needed for these and other indoor exposures. Citation: Kanchongkittiphon W, Mendell MJ, Gaffin JM, Wang

  6. Inactivation of allergens and toxins.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Piero

    2010-11-30

    Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate many toxic components in food plants, but there is still room for ameliorating food crops (and plants in general) in terms of their allergens and toxins content, especially in their edible parts. Inactivation at the genetic rather than physical or chemical level has many advantages and classical genetic approaches have resulted in significant reduction of toxin content. The capacity, offered by genetic engineering, of turning off (inactivating) specific genes has opened up the possibility of altering the plant content in a far more precise manner than previously available. Different levels of intervention (genes coding for toxins/allergens or for enzymes, transporters or regulators involved in their metabolism) are possible and there are several tools for inactivating genes, both direct (using chemical and physical mutagens, insertion of transposons and other genetic elements) and indirect (antisense RNA, RNA interference, microRNA, eventually leading to gene silencing). Each level/strategy has specific advantages and disadvantages (speed, costs, selectivity, stability, reversibility, frequency of desired genotype and regulatory regime). Paradigmatic examples from classical and transgenic approaches are discussed to emphasize the need to revise the present regulatory process. Reducing the content of natural toxins is a trade-off process: the lesser the content of natural toxins, the higher the susceptibility of a plant to pests and therefore the stronger the need to protect plants. As a consequence, more specific pesticides like Bt are needed to substitute for general pesticides.

  7. Indoor racquet sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Silko, G J; Cullen, P T

    1994-08-01

    Family physicians can care for most patients injured while participating in indoor racquet sports. However, patients with injuries to the eye usually require ophthalmologic referral. The most common injuries that occur in persons participating in indoor racquet sports include contusions, sprains and strains, lacerations, eye injuries, bursitis and tendinitis. Musculoskeletal injuries that merit special consideration include lateral epicondylitis, DeQuervain's tenosynovitis, wrist intersection syndrome, patellar pain syndrome, meniscal injuries, Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis. The family physician plays a critical role in providing patients with information about preventive measures.

  8. Endotoxin inactivation in water by using medium-pressure UV lamps.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W B; Huck, P M; Dixon, D G; Mayfield, C I

    2003-05-01

    Deionized water was spiked with various concentrations of endotoxin and exposed to UV irradiation from medium-pressure UV lamps to assess endotoxin inactivation. It was found that endotoxin inactivation was proportional to the UV dose under the conditions examined. The inactivation rate was determined to be approximately 0.55 endotoxin unit/ml per mJ/cm(2) of irradiation delivered. PMID:12732578

  9. Puerarin ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver injury by inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Yu; Xu, Lin; Xu, Li-Li; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2013-03-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone component extracted from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata), has been demonstrated to alleviate alcohol-related disorders. Our study examined whether puerarin ameliorates chronic alcoholic liver injury through inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, the subsequent Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression. Rats were provided with the Liber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks. Puerarin (90 mg/kg or 180 mg/kg daily) was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. Chronic alcohol intake caused increased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and triglyceride levels as well as fatty liver and neutrophil infiltration in hepatic lobules as determined by biochemical and histologic assays. A significant increase of liver tumor necrosis factor α was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These pathologic effects correlated with increased endotoxin level in portal vein and upregulated protein expression of hepatic CD68, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, CD14, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4. Meanwhile, the intestinal microvilli were observed to be sparse, shortened, and irregularity in distribution under the transmission electron microscope in conjunction with the downregulated intestinal zonula occludens-1 protein expression. These hepatic pathologic changes were significantly inhibited in puerarin-treated animals as were the endotoxin levels and hepatic CD68 and endotoxin receptors. Moreover, the pathologic changes in intestinal microvillus and the decreased intestinal zonula occludens-1 were also ameliorated with puerarin treatment. These results thus demonstrate that puerarin inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression is involved in the alleviation of chronic alcoholic liver injury in rats.

  10. [Governmental batch sample testing of allergen products].

    PubMed

    Bartel, D; Führer, F; Vieths, S

    2012-03-01

    Allergen products for specific immunotherapy of type I allergies were first authorized for the German market in the 1970s. In addition to finished products manufactured in advance and in batches, so-called named patient products have recently been defined as Medicinal Products by the German Medicinal Products Act ("Arzneimittelgesetz", AMG 14th Revision 2005). Some allergen products previously marketed as named patient products are now required to obtain marketing authorization according to the German ordinance for therapy allergens. Products have to be batch released by the competent German Federal Agency, the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI). Samples of product batches are delivered to the PEI in order to perform experimental quality controls. With regard to named patient products, PEI tests batch samples of the bulk extract preparations used for manufacturing of the respective, named patient products. The institute releases approximately 2,800 allergen product batches annually.

  11. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  12. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  13. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  14. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  15. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  16. Identification of crustacea allergens by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; McCants, M L; Salvaggio, J E

    1985-01-01

    Crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) detected 18 precipitating antigens in extracts of shrimp. Of these antigens, crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis (CLIE) of shrimp extract demonstrated that 5 cross-reacted with crayfish, 3 with lobster and 1 with crab extract. Allergens present in the shrimp CIE plates were identified by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) using sera from 6 study subjects who were skin-test and RAST positive to shrimp extract. Of the 7 allergens detected, 3 (precipitins 1, 3 and 6) reacted with most of the 6 sera tested from shrimp-sensitive subjects. Precipitins 1 and 6 appear to be common crustacea allergens (present in shrimp, crayfish, lobster and crab) whereas precipitin 3 may be a specific allergen since it is present only in shrimp.

  17. Toxicologic interactions between ozone and bacterial endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Peavy, D.L.; Fairchild, E.J. II

    1987-02-01

    The effects of acute exposure of mice to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of gram negative microorganisms, and ozone (O3) have been investigated. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 5 mg/kg LPS to CD-1 mice followed by exposure to 15 ppm O3 for 1.5 hr produced synergistic effects as measured by pulmonary edemagenesis and lethality assays. In contrast, ip administration of 0.1-1.6 mg/kg LPS to CD-1 mice over 5 consecutive days, a dose regimen resulting in LPS tolerance, protected against a lethal challenge of 20 ppm O3 for 3 hr. A statistically significant increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in homogenates of lungs obtained from CD-1 mice receiving a tolerance-inducing regimen of LPS. These results demonstrate that two, distinct toxicologic interactions can occur between O3 and bacterial LPS. Synergism between these agents could explain, in part, the increased susceptibility of O3-exposed animals to respiratory infection with gram negative microorganisms. Protection resulting from LPS-induced increases in pulmonary antioxidant activity provides additional evidence that O3 and, possibly, LPS mediate their toxicity through oxidative mechanisms.

  18. Harnessing aptamers for electrochemical detection of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Su, Wenqiong; Cho, MiSuk; Lee, Youngkwan; Choe, Woo-Seok

    2012-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, triggers a fatal septic shock; therefore, fast and accurate detection of LPS from a complex milieu is of primary importance. Several LPS affinity binders have been reported so far but few of them have proved their efficacy in developing electrochemical sensors capable of selectively detecting LPS from crude biological liquors. In this study, we identified 10 different single-stranded DNA aptamers showing specific affinity to LPS with dissociation constants (K(d)) in the nanomolar range using a NECEEM-based non-SELEX method. Based on the sequence and secondary structure analysis of the LPS binding aptamers, an aptamer exhibiting the highest affinity to LPS (i.e., B2) was selected to construct an impedance biosensor on a gold surface. The developed electrochemical aptasensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in the linear detection range from 0.01 to 1 ng/mL of LPS with significantly reduced detection time compared with the traditional Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. PMID:22370280

  19. The macrophage mediates the renoprotective effects of endotoxin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Hato, Takashi; Winfree, Seth; Kalakeche, Rabih; Dube, Shataakshi; Kumar, Rakesh; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Plotkin, Zoya; Dagher, Pierre C

    2015-06-01

    Preconditioning is a preventative approach, whereby minimized insults generate protection against subsequent larger exposures to the same or even different insults. In immune cells, endotoxin preconditioning downregulates the inflammatory response and yet, preserves the ability to contain infections. However, the protective mechanisms of preconditioning at the tissue level in organs such as the kidney remain poorly understood. Here, we show that endotoxin preconditioning confers renal epithelial protection in various models of sepsis in vivo. We also tested the hypothesis that this protection results from direct interactions between the preconditioning dose of endotoxin and the renal tubules. This hypothesis is on the basis of our previous findings that endotoxin toxicity to nonpreconditioned renal tubules was direct and independent of immune cells. Notably, we found that tubular protection after preconditioning has an absolute requirement for CD14-expressing myeloid cells and particularly, macrophages. Additionally, an intact macrophage CD14-TRIF signaling pathway was essential for tubular protection. The preconditioned state was characterized by increased macrophage number and trafficking within the kidney as well as clustering of macrophages around S1 proximal tubules. These macrophages exhibited increased M2 polarization and upregulation of redox and iron-handling molecules. In renal tubules, preconditioning prevented peroxisomal damage and abolished oxidative stress and injury to S2 and S3 tubules. In summary, these data suggest that macrophages are essential mediators of endotoxin preconditioning and required for renal tissue protection. Preconditioning is, therefore, an attractive model to investigate novel protective pathways for the prevention and treatment of sepsis.

  20. Exposure to airborne endotoxins among sewer workers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Ambroise, Denis; Görner, Pierre; Clerc, Frédéric; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine

    2014-04-01

    Exploratory bioaerosol sampling was performed in order to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins during sewer work. Personal samples were collected in underground sewer pipes using 37-mm closed-face cassettes containing fibreglass filters (CFC-FG method) or polycarbonate filters (CFC-PC method). Endotoxins were quantified using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins at sewer workplaces (16-420 EU m(-3)) were higher than those measured outside the sewer network (0.6-122 EU m(-3)). Sewer worker exposure to airborne endotoxins depended on the workplace and on the tasks. Exposure levels were the highest for tasks involving agitation of water and matter, especially for 'chamber cleanup' and 'pipes cleanup' with a high-pressure water jet. Airborne endotoxin levels at the workplace tended to be higher when CFC-FG was used as the sampling method rather than CFC-PC. The adjusted mean of the measured concentrations for CFC-PC represents 57% of the mean observed with CFC-FG. The number of samples collected in the descriptive study was too low for drawing definitive conclusions and further exposure investigations are needed. Therefore, our exploratory study provides new exposure data for the insufficiently documented sewer working environment and it would be useful for designing larger exposures studies.

  1. Endotoxin neutralization as a biomonitor for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Champion, Keith; Chiu, Laura; Ferbas, John; Pepe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin is a potent immunostimulant implicated in the development and/or progression of a variety of diseases. The mammalian immune system has both innate and adaptive immune responses to neutralize endotoxin. In this study, a system was developed to monitor bacterial exposure by measuring the extent and nature of endotoxin neutralization in plasma. In control patients, females had higher levels of endotoxin neutralization than males, mirroring clinical outcomes from bacterial infection and sepsis. In addition to the total amount of neutralization, we used inactivation techniques to elucidate the nature of this activity and develop a system to compare early and late immune responses. Using this method to monitor patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we found a more robust total response that relies more on long-term, adaptive components of the immune system and less on early, innate components. Our results indicate that endotoxin neutralization is a valuable method to discern inflammatory bowel disease patients from a control population. Additionally, the nature of neutralization may be valuable in monitoring disease severity and/or the role of medication.

  2. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Darsow, Ulf; Forer, Ingeborg; Ring, Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Aeroallergens are relevant eliciting factors of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma but also of atopic eczema. The use of allergen-specific immunotherapy as in respiratory atopic diseases is controversial in patients with atopic eczema, but refined diagnostic methods to characterize subgroups of patients with relevant allergies and the results of smaller controlled studies give rise to new approaches in this field. This article reviews the theoretical problems and practical results associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in atopic eczema. PMID:21461718

  3. The effect of bacterial endotoxin of phagocytosis of Tetrahymena and serotonin induced imprinting.

    PubMed

    Kovács, G; Nagy, S U; Csaba, G

    1986-01-01

    Endotoxin inhibited the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena pyriformis after a short exposure and, to a lesser degree, after repeated treatments during one week (about 35 generations). Endotoxin also prevented the development of serotonin imprinting. Detoxified endotoxin (Tolerin) affected the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena much less, indicating that the lipid-A part of the molecule may account for the membrane-toxic effect.

  4. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin...

  7. Direct analysis of airborne mite allergen (Der f1) in the residential atmosphere by chemifluorescent immunoassay using bioaerosol sampler.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Kumiko; Suzuki, Yurika; Miki, Daisuke; Arai, Moeka; Arakawa, Takahiro; Shimomura, Hiroji; Shiba, Kiyoko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Der f1) is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans. Mite allergen Der f1 is usually associated with particles of high molecular weight; thus, Der f1 is generally present in settled dust. However, a small quantity of Der f1 can be aerosolized and become an airborne component. Until now, a reliable method of detecting airborne Der f1 has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a fiber-optic chemifluorescent immunoassay for the detection of airborne Der f1. In this method, the Der f1 concentration measured on the basis of the intensity of fluorescence amplified by an enzymatic reaction between the labeled enzyme by a detection antibody and a fluorescent substrate. The measured Der f1 concentration was in the range from 0.49 to 250 ng/ml and a similar range was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This method was proved to be highly sensitive to Der f1 compared with other airborne allergens. For the implementation of airborne allergen measurement in a residential environment, a bioaerosol sampler was constructed. The airborne allergen generated by a nebulizer was conveyed to a newly sampler we developed for collecting airborne Der f1. The sampler was composed of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cells for gas/liquid phases and some porous membranes which were sandwiched in between the two phases. Der f1 in air was collected by the sampler and measured using the fiber-optic immunoassay system. The concentration of Der f1 in aerosolized standards was in the range from 0.125 to 2.0 mg/m(3) and the collection rate of the device was approximately 0.2%.

  8. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question.

  9. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2012-10-01

    Tannic acid (TA) forms insoluble complexes with proteins. The aims here were to remove major peanut allergens as insoluble TA complexes and determine if they would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (gut pH). Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorption and consequently an allergic reaction. TA (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml) was added to a peanut butter extract (5 mg/ml; pH 7.2), stirred, and centrifuged. The precipitates were then suspended in buffer at pH 2, centrifuged, re-suspended at pH 8, and centrifuged. Supernatants from each step were analysed by SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and Western blots. The effect of NaCl (1M) on complexes was also determined. Results showed that complexes formed at a TA concentration >0.5 mg/ml did not release major peanut allergens at pH 2 and 8, regardless of 1M NaCl being present or not. IgE binding of the extracts was reduced substantially, especially at a TA concentration of 1-2 mg/ml. Animal or clinical studies are still needed before TA can find an application in the development of low-allergen peanut products/beverages or the removal of peanut allergens due to accidental ingestion. PMID:25005968

  10. [Occurrence of allergens on hospital premises].

    PubMed

    Andersen, U M; Osterballe, O

    2000-01-24

    The occurrence of allergens from the house-dust mites Der p 1, Der f 1 and Der m, and from dogs (Can f 1) and cats (Fel d 1) was assessed in Viborg Hospital. Three hundred samples collected in a standardized manner were analysed for allergens by ELISA technique. In only one dust sample was the total occurrence of mite allergens marginally above the sensitization threshold level of 2,000 ng mite allergens/g dust. For Fel d 1 a threshold level for sensitization or symptoms of 8,000 ng Fel d 1/g dust has been proposed; none of the dust samples contained this concentration. A low occurrence of Can f 1 was found. One dust sample contained 8,902 ng Can f 1, while the remainder exhibited lower concentrations. Efficient cleaning and adequate ventilation can reduce allergens in public buildings, but it is impossible to remove all allergens from upholstered furniture. Avoidance of such furniture in wards and outpatient departments which receive allergic patients might be considered.

  11. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question. PMID:26921497

  12. Cross-reactivity of peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Peanut seeds are currently widely used as source of human food ingredients in the United States of America and in European countries due to their high quality protein and oil content. This article describes the classification and molecular biology of peanut seed allergens with particular reference to their cross-reactivities. Currently, the IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee accepts 12 peanut allergens. Two allergens belong to the cupin and four to the prolamin superfamily, and six are distributed among profilins, Bet v 1-like proteins, oleosins, and defensins. Clinical observations frequently report an association of peanut allergy with allergies to legumes, tree nuts, seeds, fruits and pollen. Molecular cross-reactivity has been described between members of the Bet v 1-like proteins, the non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and the profilins. This review also addresses the less well-studied cross-reactivity between cupin and prolamin allergens of peanuts and of other plant food sources and the recently discovered cross-reactivity between peanut allergens of unrelated protein families. PMID:24554241

  13. High pressure effects on allergen food proteins.

    PubMed

    Somkuti, Judit; Smeller, László

    2013-12-15

    There are several proteins, which can cause allergic reaction if they are inhaled or ingested. Our everyday food can also contain such proteins. Food allergy is an IgE-mediated immune disorder, a growing health problem of great public concern. High pressure is known to affect the structure of proteins; typically few hundred MPa pressure can lead to denaturation. That is why several trials have been performed to alter the structure of the allergen proteins by high pressure, in order to reduce its allergenicity. Studies have been performed both on simple protein solutions and on complex food systems. Here we review those allergens which have been investigated under or after high pressure treatment by methods capable of detecting changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of the proteins. We focus on those allergenic proteins, whose structural changes were investigated by spectroscopic methods under pressure in correlation with the observed allergenicity (IgE binding) changes. According to this criterion we selected the following allergen proteins: Mal d 1 and Mal d 3 (apple), Bos d 5 (milk), Dau c 1 (carrot), Gal d 2 (egg), Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 (peanut), and Gad m 1 (cod).

  14. Indoor Confined Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Daniel L; Kroll, Lee Anne K

    2015-07-01

    Indoor confined feedlots offer advantages that make them desirable in northern climates where high rainfall and snowfall occur. These facilities increase the risk of certain health risks, including lameness and tail injuries. Closed confinement can also facilitate the rapid spread of infectious disease. Veterinarians can help to manage these health risks by implementing management practices to reduce their occurrence.

  15. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  16. Asthma and indoor environment in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, T; Brinch, L; Hessen, J; Schei, M; Kolstrup, N; Jacobsen, B; Svanes, C; Pandey, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of asthma seems to be influenced by the adoption of a Western lifestyle. A study was undertaken to assess the importance of indoor environmental factors in Nepal where the lifestyle and home environment differ from that in the West.
METHODS—The home environment of 121 schoolchildren with asthma and 126 controls aged 11-17 years was studied. The homes of all participants were investigated and the children and their mothers were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. Cases and controls were identified from an ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) based population study of 2330 schoolchildren in Kathmandu, Nepal.
RESULTS—Keeping cattle inside the house during the night was related to a lower risk for having asthma (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.2(95% CI 0.1 to 0.5)) while there was no association between asthma and cattle kept outside. Asthma was associated with cigarette smoking by two or more family members (OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.9)) and with the domestic use of smoky fuels (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.5)). In analyses stratified by sex, passive smoking and the use of smoky fuels were significantly associated with asthma only in boys.
CONCLUSIONS—The risk of asthma in Nepalese children was lower in subjects exposed to cattle kept inside the house and higher in subjects exposed to passive smoking and indoor use of smoky fuels. Childhood exposure to microorganisms or allergens from cattle may protect against the development of atopic disease.

 PMID:11359965

  17. Effects of phytic acid on peanut allergens and allergenic properties of extracts.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Champagne, Elaine T

    2007-10-31

    Phytic acid would form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. Our objective was to determine if phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with major peanut allergens, and if such reaction results in a peanut extract with a lower level of soluble allergens and allergenic property. Extracts from raw and roasted peanuts were treated with and without phytic acid at various pH values and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA). The ciELISA measured IgE binding using a pooled serum from peanut-allergic individuals. Results showed that phytic acid formed complexes with the major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2), which were insoluble in acidic and neutral conditions. Succinylation of the allergens inhibited complex formation, indicating that lysine residues were involved. A 6-fold reduction in IgE binding or allergenic potency of the extract was observed after treatment with phytic acid. It was concluded that phytic acid formed insoluble complexes with the major peanut allergens, and resulted in a peanut extract with reduced allergenic potency. Application of phytic acid to a peanut butter slurry presented a similar result, indicating that phytic acid may find use in the development of hypoallergenic peanut-based products.

  18. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  19. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. PMID:25770744

  20. Antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin in chronically bacteriuric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, J C; Louis, W J; Tosolini, F A; Carlin, J B

    1991-01-01

    A novel in vivo model for the study of antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria is described. The model uses the chronically colonized urinary tracts of patients whose spinal cords have been injured. At baseline, the organisms were present in the range of 1 x 10(3) to 2 x 10(7) CFU/ml, and the concentration of endotoxin ranged from 2 x 10(-1) to 1 x 10(3) ng/ml in 44 studies. In 10 control studies, the concentration of endotoxin and the numbers of viable gram-negative bacteria over time changed by an average of less than 0.15 log10 units from the baseline values. At 2 h after antibiotic administration, the average decrease in CFU was 0.93 log10 units, and because antibiotics cause the release of endotoxin, an average increase in endotoxin concentration of 0.59 log10 units was noted in 21 studies with susceptible bacteria. Similar changes in response to antibiotic exposure were seen in studies with susceptible Pseudomonas bacteria in comparison with those seen in studies with susceptible members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These results provide evidence that this novel model may be useful for comparing the effects of antibiotics with different modes of action, both as single agents and in combination, on the concentration of endotoxin in relation to changes in the numbers of bacteria, under conditions of bacterial replication and antibiotic exposure more closely resembling those found in vivo than is possible in other models. PMID:1804012

  1. Is high pressure treatment able to modify the allergenicity of the largemouth bass allergens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Tao, Sha; Liu, Rong; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Xue, Wen-Tong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of high pressure treatment on the structural changes and allergenicity of largemouth bass. We treated the allergens at 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa for 15 min and at 300 MPa for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min at 20 °C. The treated samples from largemouth bass were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining Sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. In summary, we can determine that the greatest structure changes were found for samples treated by 400 MPa for 15 min. High pressure treatment did change the structure, subunit composition and molecular weight of largemouth bass allergens, but it did not change the allergenicity of the allergens.

  2. Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

    2013-12-01

    Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured.

  3. Bioanalytical methods for food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection and new allergen discovery.

    PubMed

    Gasilova, Natalia; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    For effective monitoring and prevention of the food allergy, one of the emerging health problems nowadays, existing diagnostic procedures and allergen detection techniques are constantly improved. Meanwhile, new methods are also developed, and more and more putative allergens are discovered. This review describes traditional methods and summarizes recent advances in the fast evolving field of the in vitro food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection in food products and discovery of the new allergenic molecules. A special attention is paid to the new diagnostic methods under laboratory development like various immuno- and aptamer-based assays, including immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis. The latter technique shows the importance of MS application not only for the allergen detection but also for the allergy diagnosis.

  4. Imaging Phenotype of Occupational Endotoxin-Related Lung Function Decline

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Peggy S.; Hang, Jing-qing; Zhang, Feng-ying; Sun, J.; Zheng, Bu-Yong; Su, Li; Washko, George R.; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although occupational exposures contribute to a significant proportion of obstructive lung disease, the phenotype of obstructive lung disease associated with work-related organic dust exposure independent of smoking remains poorly defined. Objective: We identified the relative contributions of smoking and occupational endotoxin exposure to parenchymal and airway remodeling as defined by quantitative computed tomography (CT). Methods: The Shanghai Textile Worker Study is a longitudinal study of endotoxin-exposed cotton workers and endotoxin-unexposed silk workers that was initiated in 1981. Spirometry, occupational endotoxin exposure, and smoking habits were assessed at 5-year intervals. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 464 retired workers in 2011, along with quantitative lung densitometric and airway analysis. Results: Significant differences in all CT measures were noted across exposure groups. Occupational endotoxin exposure was associated with a decrease (–1.3%) in percent emphysema (LAAI-950), a 3.3-Hounsfield unit increase in 15th percentile density, an 18.1-g increase in lung mass, and a 2.3% increase in wall area percent. Current but not former smoking was associated with a similar CT phenotype. Changes in LAAI-950 were highly correlated with 15th percentile density (correlation –1.0). Lung mass was the only measure associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) decline, with each 10-g increase in lung mass associated with an additional loss (–6.1 mL) of FEV1 (p = 0.001) between 1981 and 2011. Conclusions: There are many similarities between the effects of occupational endotoxin exposure and those of tobacco smoke exposure on lung parenchyma and airway remodeling. The effects of occupational endotoxin exposure appear to persist even after the cessation of exposure. LAAI-950 may not be a reliable indicator of emphysema in subjects without spirometric impairment. Lung mass is a CT-based biomarker of

  5. Endotoxin impairs the human pacemaker current If.

    PubMed

    Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Pelzmann, Brigitte; Lang, Petra; Mächler, Heinrich; Schmidt, Hendrik; Ebelt, Henning; Werdan, Karl; Koidl, Bernd; Müller-Werdan, Ursula

    2007-12-01

    LPSs trigger the development of sepsis by gram-negative bacteria and cause a variety of biological effects on host cells, including alterations on ionic channels. Because heart rate variability is reduced in human sepsis and endotoxemia, we hypothesized that LPS affects the pacemaker current I(f) in human heart, which might--at least in part--explain this phenomenon. Isolated human myocytes from right atrial appendages were incubated for 6 to 10 h with LPS (1 and 10 microg/mL) and afterwards used to investigate the pacemaker current I(f). I(f) was measured with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique (at 37 degrees C). Incubation of atrial myocytes with 10 microg/mL LPS was found to significantly impair I(f) by suppressing the current at membrane potentials positive to -80 mV and slowing down current activation, but without effecting maximal current conductance. Furthermore, in incubated cells (10 microg/mL), the response of I(f) to [beta]-adrenergic stimulation (1 microM isoproterenol) was significantly larger compared with control cells (shift of half-maximal activation voltage to more positive potentials amounted to -10 and -14 mV in untreated and treated cells, respectively). Simulations using a spontaneously active sinoatrial cell model demonstrated that LPS-induced I(f) impairment reduced the responsiveness of the model cell to fluctuations of autonomic input. This study showed a direct impact of LPS on the cardiac pacemaker current I(f). The LPS-induced I(f) impairment may contribute to the clinically observed reduction in heart rate variability under septic conditions and in cardiac diseases such as heart failure, where endotoxin can be of pathophysiological relevance.

  6. Metal ions potentiate microglia responsiveness to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Peferoen, Laura A N; Vogel, Daphne Y S; Alsalem, Inás W A; Amor, Sandra; Bontkes, Hetty J; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2016-02-15

    Oral metal exposure has been associated with diverse adverse reactions, including neurotoxicity. We showed previously that dentally applied metals activate dendritic cells (MoDC) via TLR4 (Ni, Co, Pd) and TLR3 (Au). It is still unknown whether the low levels of dental metals reaching the brain can trigger local innate cells or prime them to become more responsive. Here we tested whether dentally applied metals (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Au, Hg) activate primary human microglia in vitro and, as a model, monocytic THP-1-cells, in high non-toxic as well as near-physiological concentrations. In addition the effects of 'near-physiological' metal exposure on endotoxin (LPS) responsiveness of these cells were evaluated. IL-8 and IL-6 production after 24h was used as read out. In high, non-toxic concentrations all transition metals except Cr induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in microglia, with Ni and Co providing the strongest stimulation. When using near-physiological doses (up to 10× the normal plasma concentration), only Zn and Cu induced significant IL-8 production. Of note, the latter metals also markedly potentiated LPS responsiveness of microglia and THP-1 cells. In conclusion, transition metals activate microglia similar to MoDCs. In near-physiological concentrations Zn and Cu are the most effective mediators of innate immune activation. A clear synergism between innate responses to Zn/Cu and LPS was observed, shedding new light on the possible relation between oral metal exposure and neurotoxicity.

  7. Expression, purification, and characterization of almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen Pru du 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical characterizations of food allergens are required for understanding the allergenicity of food allergens. Such studies require a relatively large amount of highly purified allergens. Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as almond (Prunus...

  8. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-Xing; Lin, Hong; Cao, Li-Min; Jameel, Khalid

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound’s effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp. PMID:16532525

  9. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Greg S; Huang, Shih-Wen; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase) treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa) was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana. PMID:15644142

  10. [Allergen management in the food industry].

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Due to the lack of causative immunotherapies, individuals with food allergies have to rely on correct labelling for even minute amounts of allergenic constituents. It is not relevant to the allergic whether the source of the culprit food is an ingredient or an allergen that entered the food unintentionally, as is the case with so-called cross-contacts or hidden allergens.Efficient allergen management is the manufacturer's prerequisite for coping with allergenic foods in the food production environment and handling them in a way that avoids cross-contact. If it is technically not feasible to eliminate cross-contacts entirely, it must be ensured that these cross-contacts do not enter the final product without being detected.This article discusses measures that should be considered in allergen management. Examples include recording all relevant allergens in the production facility, staff sensitization and training, and taking into account all areas of production from incoming raw materials to outgoing goods.For the evaluation of unavoidable cross-contacts, it is possible today to draw on data from clinical trials for many of the substances that are subject to labelling. This data can be used to assess the risk of the final product.However, the data from threshold studies is not legally binding, so it is left to the manufacturer to assess the level up to which the food is safe for the allergic. In particular the non-harmonized approach of the EU member countries' food safety authorities currently represents a major obstacle, as this can lead to food recalls even though existing levels were evaluated as being safe according to the risk assessments performed. PMID:27299344

  11. Effect of endotoxin and radio-detoxified endotoxin on the serum T4 level of rats and response of their thyroid gland to exogenous TSH

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Nagy, S.U.

    1984-12-01

    Experiments were performed to demonstrate that, while the shock-inducing dose of parent (toxic) endotoxin significantly decreases the serum T4 level of rats and inhibits the T4 response given to exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), the radio-detoxified (/sup 60/Co-gamma, 150 kGy) endotoxin preparation does not inhibit the response to exogenous TSH. It also decreases serum T4 level to a lesser extent than untreated endotoxin.

  12. Association of Roadway Proximity with Indoor Air Pollution in a Peri-Urban Community in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Lindsay J.; Bose, Sonali; Williams, D’Ann L.; Romero, Karina M.; Malpartida, Gary; Breysse, Patrick N.; Klasen, Elizabeth M.; Combe, Juan M.; Checkley, William; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of traffic-related air pollution on indoor residential exposure is not well characterized in homes with high natural ventilation in low-income countries. Additionally, domestic allergen exposure is unknown in such populations. We conducted a pilot study of 25 homes in peri-urban Lima, Peru to estimate the effects of roadway proximity and season on residential concentrations. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon (BC) were measured during two seasons, and allergens were measured in bedroom dust. Allergen levels were highest for dust mite and mouse allergens, with concentrations above clinically relevant thresholds in over a quarter and half of all homes, respectively. Mean indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations were similar (PM2.5: 20.0 vs. 16.9 μg/m3, BC: 7.6 vs. 8.1 μg/m3, NO2: 7.3 vs. 7.5 ppb), and tended to be higher in the summer compared to the winter. Road proximity was significantly correlated with overall concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 (rs = −0.42, p = 0.01) and NO2 (rs = −0.36, p = 0.03), and outdoor BC concentrations in the winter (rs = −0.51, p = 0.03). Our results suggest that outdoor-sourced pollutants significantly influence indoor air quality in peri-urban Peruvian communities, and homes closer to roadways are particularly vulnerable. PMID:26516875

  13. Allergen Sensitization Profiles in a Population-Based Cohort of Children Hospitalized for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; McLinden, Daniel J.; Lierl, Michelle B.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    with dog and cat sensitization (all P < 0.01). Atopic history was associated with sensitization to three or more allergens (P < 0.01). Although 42% reported exposure to at least one adverse in-home exposure (and 72% to carpet, 51% to furry pets), only weak relationships were seen between reported exposures and sensitizations. Conclusions: Most children admitted to the hospital for asthma exacerbations are sensitized to multiple indoor allergens. Atopy on the inpatient unit serves as a potential target for improvement in chronic asthma management. PMID:25594255

  14. [Review on characteristics and detecting assay of bacterial endotoxin contamination in water environment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Tian, Fang; Yang, Yi; An, Dai-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharide complexes, are anchored in the outer membrane cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and some cyanobacteria. They are continuously released to environment during cell decay. Being common pyrogens and highly immunogenic molecules, endotoxins are related to many human diseases. Due to the tolerances and thermo-stability of endotoxin molecules, they were hard to be removed by common methods. The health risk caused by the endotoxin contamination in drinking water and water environment by various exposure pathways have attracted more and more attention in recent years. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties, biological activities and detection assay of the endotoxin contamination were reviewed, and interfere factors of the main assay, the LAL/TAL (Limulus amebocyte lysate/Tachypleus amebocyte lysate) assay, for detecting endotoxin in water sample were investigated, and the development tendency of the endotoxin detection assay was analyzed.

  15. Distribution of radiolabeled endotoxin with particular reference to the eye: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, J.T.; Hendricks, P.A.; Shively, J.E.; McDougall, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    A single systemic injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or LPS) reproducibly induces a cellular infiltrate in the uveal tract of the rat eye within 24 hr. Other organs are not comparably sensitive to systemic endotoxin. One hypothesis to explain this unique sensitivity is that endotoxin is preferentially bound by ocular tissue. Researchers tested this hypothesis by studying the distribution in the rat of intravenously injected endotoxin that had been radiolabeled with /sup 99m/Tc or /sup 32/P. With either radionuclide the concentration of endotoxin per gram of tissue at a variety of times after injection ranging from 5 min to 3 hr and 45 min, was markedly less in the eye than in liver, kidney, or spleen. A study with radiolabeled albumin indicated that these differences could not be ascribed solely to the organ's blood volume. They demonstrate, therefore, that the eye does not preferentially bind endotoxin, and they are compatible with the hypothesis that endotoxin's ocular effects are indirectly mediated.

  16. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled endotoxin to bovine, canine, and equine platelets and endotoxin-induced agglutination of canine platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.M.; Boehme, M.; Inbar, O.

    1982-10-01

    Endotoxin from Escherichia coli O127:B8, Salmonella abortus-equi and S minnesota induced clumping of some canine platelets (PLT) at a final endotoxin concentration of 1 microgram/ml. Endotoxin-induced clumping of canine PLT was independent of PLT energy-requiring processes, because clumping was observed with canine PLT incubated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose and antimycin A. The PLT responded to adenosine diphosphate before, but not after, incubation with the metabolic inhibitors. Endotoxin induced a slight and inconsistant clumping of bovine and equine PLT at high (mg/ml) endotoxin concentration. High-affinity binding sites could not be demonstrated on canine, bovine, and equine PLT, using /sup 125/I-labeled E coli O127:B8 endotoxin. Nonspecific binding was observed and appeared to be due primarily to an extraneous coat on the PLT surface that was removed by gel filtration. The endotoxin that was bound to PLT did not appear to modify PLT function. An attempt to identify plasma proteins that bound physiologically relevant amounts of endotoxin was not successful. The significance of the endotoxin-induced clumping or lack of it on the pathophysiology of endotoxemia is discussed.

  17. Endotoxin contamination and control in surface water sources and a drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Can, Zhang; Wenjun, Liu; Wen, Sun; Minglu, Zhang; Lingjia, Qian; Cuiping, Li; Fang, Tian

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, endotoxin contamination was determined in treated water following each unit of a drinking water treatment plant (WTP) in Beijing, China and its source water (SW) from a long water diversion channel (Shijiazhuang-Beijing) originating from four reservoirs in Hebei province, China. The total-endotoxin activities in SW ranged from 21 to 41 EU/ml at five selected cross sections of the diversion channel. The total-endotoxin in raw water of the WTP ranged from 11 to 16 EU/ml due to dilution and pretreatment during water transportation from Tuancheng Lake to the WTP, and finished water of the WTP ranged from 4 to 10 EU/ml, showing a 49% decrease following the full-scale treatment process at the WTP. Compared with the 31% removal of free-endotoxin, the WTP removed up to 71% of bound-endotoxin in raw water. The traditional treatment processes (coagulation, sedimentation and filtration) in the WTP removed substantial amounts of total-endotoxin (up to 63%), while endotoxin activities increased after granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and chlorination. The total-endotoxin in the actual water was composed of free-endotoxin and bound-endotoxin (endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins). The endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins co-exist as suspended particles in water, and only the bacteria-bound endotoxins were correlated with bacterial cells suspended in water. The particle distribution of endotoxin aggregates in ultrapure water was also tested and the results showed that the majority (64-89%) of endotoxin aggregates had diameters <2 μm. The endotoxin contamination and control in treated water following each unit of the WTP processes and its SW from reservoirs are discussed and compared with regard to bacterial cell counts and particle characteristics, which were dependent, to a certain extent, on different flow rates and turbulence of the water environments.

  18. 78 FR 66011 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ..., perennial rye, Timothy, and Kentucky bluegrass mixed pollens allergen extract tablet for sublingual use... recommendations on the safety and efficacy of Grastek, a Timothy grass pollen allergen extract tablet...

  19. Update in the Mechanisms of Allergen-Specific Immunotheraphy

    PubMed Central

    Akkoc, Tunc; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a complex innate and adoptive immune response to natural environmental allergens with Th2-type T cells and allergen-specific IgE predominance. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the most effective therapeutic approach for disregulated immune response towards allergens by enhancing immune tolerance mechanisms. The main aim of immunotherapy is the generation of allergen nonresponsive or tolerant T cells in sensitized patients and downregulation of predominant T cell- and IgE-mediated immune responses. During allergen-specific immunotherapy, T regulatory cells are generated, which secrete IL-10 and induce allergen-specific B cells for the production of IgG4 antibodies. These mechanisms induce tolerance to antigens that reduces allergic symptoms. Although current knowledge highlights the role of T regulatory cell-mediated immunetolerance, definite mechanisms that lead to a successful clinical outcomes of allergen-specific immunotherapy still remains an open area of research. PMID:21217920

  20. [Different threshold concentrations for sensitization by cattle hair allergen Bos d 2 in atopic and non-atopic farmers].

    PubMed

    Hinze, S; Bergmann, K C; Løwenstein, H; Hansen, G N

    1996-02-01

    Several threshold values for indoor allergens leading to IgE sensitization were proposed. Currently such values exists for allergens of house dust mite, cat, dog, and cockroach and cattle. A high sensitization is known as an important risk factor in the development of asthma. This study was undertaken to examine threshold values of major cow hair allergen Bos d 2 in the house dust of atopic and nonatopic cow hair asthmatic farmers. 45 patients with cow hair asthma were visited at their homes. House dust samples were taken from corridor, living room, and bedroom. The concentration of Bos d 2 was determined by means of rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Additionally, samples of venous blood were taken to demonstrate specific IgE towards cow epithelia by CAP-RAST. Five patients were excluded from further investigations because they have given up their cattle for less than 6 months. In 21 patients occurred typical atopic stigmata like infantil history of atopic eczema, hay fever or milk crust, while the other 19 subjects did not show an atopic diathesis. High sensitization towards cow epithelia (specific IgE > 0.7 kU/l in CAP-RAST) occurred significantly more often in atopics than in nonatopics. In atopic subjects the allergen concentrations leading to IgE sensitization amounted to 1-20 micrograms Bos d 2/g dust, whereas in nonatopics were found higher Bos d 2 threshold values (25-50 micrograms/g dust). The present study suggests that in nonatopic cow hair asthmatics high indoor Bos d 2 levels lead to IgE sensitization as well as the close contact to cattle. PMID:8868592

  1. Targeting dendritic cells in allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Novak, Natalija

    2006-05-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a well-established strategy for treating allergic diseases with the goal of inducing allergen-specific tolerance. Identified mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic effect of immunotherapy include a shift of T helper 2 (Th2)-type immune responses to a modified Th2 immune response, a change of the balance of IgE-producing B cells to the production of IgG subtypes, in addition to increased IL-10 and TGF-beta secretion and activation of the suppressive functions of regulatory T-cells. Dendritic cells (DCs), which as outposts of the immune system are capable of T-cell priming through efficient allergen uptake by IgE receptors expressed on their cell surface. Most of the hypotheses concerning the function of DCs as facilitators of allergen-specific tolerance in allergen immunotherapy remain speculative. Therefore, studies must focus on the functional changes of DCs under immunotherapy to close the gap of knowledge about their exact role. These experimental data should help confirm the hypothesis of DCs as efficient silencers and potential target cells and take advantage of the bivalent character and tolerogenic properties of DCs. PMID:16701146

  2. Pollensomes as Natural Vehicles for Pollen Allergens.

    PubMed

    Prado, Noela; De Linares, Concepción; Sanz, María L; Gamboa, Pedro; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Olive (Olea europaea) pollen constitutes one of the most important allergen sources in the Mediterranean countries and some areas of the United States, South Africa, and Australia. Recently, we provided evidence that olive pollen releases nanovesicles of respirable size, named generically pollensomes, during in vitro germination. Olive pollensomes contain allergens, such as Ole e 1, Ole e 11, and Ole e 12, suggesting a possible role in allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of pollensomes to the allergic reaction. We show that pollensomes exhibit allergenic activity in terms of patients' IgE-binding capacity, human basophil activation, and positive skin reaction in sensitized patients. Furthermore, allergen-containing pollensomes have been isolated from three clinically relevant nonphylogenetically related species: birch (Betula verrucosa), pine (Pinus sylvestris), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Most interesting, pollensomes were isolated from aerobiological samples collected with an eight-stage cascade impactor collector, indicating that pollensomes secretion is a naturally occurring phenomenon. Our findings indicate that pollensomes may represent widespread vehicles for pollen allergens, with potential implications in the allergic reaction.

  3. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT) is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases. PMID:22409879

  4. Relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Matsuki, Yuuki; Yokoyama, Hiromichi; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples) were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89) than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71), suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation), in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy.

  5. Indoor air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A major contribution of the pediatrician is to help families rank the multitude of pollutants according to their known risk for child health. Elimination of household smoking and completely effective venting of indoor heating devices are beneficial to all and mandatory in homes of allergic children. Acute releases of NO/sub 2/ by gas ranges and ovens may be a significant factor in an increased incidence of respiratory infection, especially in children under two years. Despite intensive investigation, immunosuppressive and other health effects have not been defined for indoor levels of PBBs, PCBs, and related halogenated hydrocarbons. The analytic ability to determine nanomolar concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals opens a Pandora's box of inquiry. New methods, particularly immunologic, are urgently needed to quantitate the dose response to multiple combinations of chemicals and determine their significance for the health of the tight-box generation of children. 136 references.

  6. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Adolescent Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Gery P.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Jones, Sherry Everett; O’Malley Olsen, Emily; Miyamoto, Justin N.; Michael, Shannon L.; Saraiya, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recently, several state indoor tanning laws, including age restrictions, were promulgated to reduce indoor tanning among minors. We examined the effects of these laws on adolescent indoor tanning. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 31 835). Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning among US high school students. Results. Female students in states with indoor tanning laws were less likely to engage in indoor tanning than those in states without any laws. We observed a stronger association among female students in states with systems access, parental permission, and age restriction laws than among those in states without any laws. We found no significant association among female students in states with only systems access and parental permission laws or among male students. Conclusions. Indoor tanning laws, particularly those including age restrictions, may be effective in reducing indoor tanning among female high school students, for whom rates are the highest. Such reductions have the potential to reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:24524515

  7. Origin and Functional Prediction of Pollen Allergens in Plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miaolin; Xu, Jie; Devis, Deborah; Shi, Jianxin; Ren, Kang; Searle, Iain; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-09-01

    Pollen allergies have long been a major pandemic health problem for human. However, the evolutionary events and biological function of pollen allergens in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the genome-wide prediction of pollen allergens and their biological function in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa). In total, 145 and 107 pollen allergens were predicted from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. These pollen allergens are putatively involved in stress responses and metabolic processes such as cell wall metabolism during pollen development. Interestingly, these putative pollen allergen genes were derived from large gene families and became diversified during evolution. Sequence analysis across 25 plant species from green alga to angiosperms suggest that about 40% of putative pollen allergenic proteins existed in both lower and higher plants, while other allergens emerged during evolution. Although a high proportion of gene duplication has been observed among allergen-coding genes, our data show that these genes might have undergone purifying selection during evolution. We also observed that epitopes of an allergen might have a biological function, as revealed by comprehensive analysis of two known allergens, expansin and profilin. This implies a crucial role of conserved amino acid residues in both in planta biological function and allergenicity. Finally, a model explaining how pollen allergens were generated and maintained in plants is proposed. Prediction and systematic analysis of pollen allergens in model plants suggest that pollen allergens were evolved by gene duplication and then functional specification. This study provides insight into the phylogenetic and evolutionary scenario of pollen allergens that will be helpful to future characterization and epitope screening of pollen allergens. PMID:27436829

  8. Shelter and indoor air.

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, J A

    1990-01-01

    Improvements in outdoor air quality that were achieved through the implementation of the Clean Air Act accentuate the quality of the indoor air as an important, if not dominant, factor in the determination of the total population exposure to air contaminants. A number of developments are adding important new determinants of indoor air quality. Energy conservation strategies require reductions in infiltration of outdoor air into buildings. New materials introduced in the construction and in the maintenance of buildings are contributing new air contaminants into the building atmosphere. Larger buildings require more and more complex ventilation systems that are less and less under the individual control of the occupants. All of these factors contribute to the current reality that indoor air contains more pollutants, and often at higher concentrations, than outdoor air. Especially in the larger buildings, it will be necessary to assure that an adequate quantity of fresh air of acceptable quality is provided to each individual space, and that no new sources of pollutants are added to a space or a whole building without appropriate adjustments in the supply of fresh air. PMID:2401264

  9. Optimizing the extraction, storage, and analysis of airborne endotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay is part of most procedures to assess airborne endotoxin exposure, there is no universally agreed upon standard procedure. The purpose of this study was to fill in additional knowledge gaps with respect to the extraction, storage, and analysis of endotox...

  10. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikova, Lyudmila V.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Zhang, Minghuang; Yang, Huan; Botchkina, Galina I.; Watkins, Linda R.; Wang, Haichao; Abumrad, Naji; Eaton, John W.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2000-05-01

    Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin through humoral mechanisms. Activation of afferent vagus nerve fibres by endotoxin or cytokines stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses. However, comparatively little is known about the role of efferent vagus nerve signalling in modulating inflammation. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized, parasympathetic anti-inflammatory pathway by which the brain modulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin. Acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuated the release of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-18), but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophage cultures. Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock.

  11. Resistance of MMP9 and TIMP1 to endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Muthukuru, Manoj; Cutler, Christopher W

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory cytokines activate tissue collagenases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are antagonized by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) that attempt to regulate excessive collagenase activity during inflammatory conditions. During chronic inflammatory conditions, induction of endotoxin tolerance negatively regulates the cytokine response in an attempt to curtail excessive host tissue damage. However, little is known about how downregulation of inflammatory cytokines during endotoxin tolerance regulates MMP activities. In this study, human monocyte-derived macrophages were either sensitized or further challenged to induce tolerance with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgLPS) or Escherichia coli (EcLPS). Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, and levels of MMP9 and TIMP1 were analyzed by a combination of cytometric bead array, western blot/gelatin zymography and real-time RT-PCR. Functional blocking with anti-TLR4 but not with anti-TLR2 significantly downregulated TNF-α and IL-1β. However, MMP9 levels were not inhibited by toll-like receptor (TLR) blocking. Interestingly, endotoxin tolerance significantly upregulated TIMP1 relative to MMP9 and downmodulated MMP9 secretion and its enzymatic activity. These results suggest that regulatory mechanisms such as induction of endotoxin tolerance could inhibit MMP activities and could facilitate restoring host tissue homeostasis.

  12. [The importance of endotoxin producing bacterias for practical purposes

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Dietrich

    1994-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) cause according to resorption out of the intestinal tract or aerogenic inhalation or by a septic infection clinical signs. The clinical reactions are praeshock symptoms, acute forms of shock and death. The experimental intratracheally administration of lipopolysaccharides into calves caused pneumonic lesions without bacterial experimental infection.

  13. Endotoxin-induced mortality in rats is reduced by nitrones

    SciTech Connect

    Hamburger, S.A.; McCay, P.B. )

    1989-12-01

    The goal of these investigations was to determine if nitrone spin-trapping agents can alter mortality associated with endotoxemia in the rat. Reactive free radicals attack nitrone spin-trapping agents forming relatively reactive, persistent free radical spin adducts. We administered 85 mM (10 ml/kg) of alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), alpha-4-pyridyl-N-oxide N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-POBN), 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), or vehicle (saline i.p.) 30 min before endotoxin (25 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle to Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Holtzman virus-free (HVF) rats (n = 10-17/group). All vehicle-treated rats receiving endotoxin were dead by 1 day. At 7 days, 83% of PBN-treated SD, 42% of PBN- or POBN-treated HVF, and 25% of DMPO-treated HVF rats were alive. The difference in survival of PBN-treated animals between strains may reflect the higher susceptibility of HVF rats to endotoxin. The observed reduction in mortality may be related to the well-established capacity of spin-trapping agents to capture reactive free radicals that may be generated in target tissues in response to endotoxin, and that would otherwise react with cell components and produce tissue injury.

  14. [Endotoxin Is a Companent in Pathogenesis of Chronic Viral Diseases].

    PubMed

    Anikhovskaya, I; Kubatiev, A; Khasanova, G; Yakovlev, M

    2015-01-01

    The level of endotoxin and indicators of activity of antiendotoxin immunity (antibody concentration to glycolipid Re-chemotype and general antigen of enterobacteria) were estimated in serum of 174 patients with persistent viral infections (viruses: herpes simplex, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency). The presence of markers of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (interleukin IL-1β) and acquired immunodeficiency (CD4+) in HIV-infected patients were also determined. Persistent viral infections are accompanied by endotoxin aggression intestinal origin (caused by them), which is able to induce the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In HIV-infected patients with this syndrome is cyclical, when the phase of hyperactivity replaced immunodeficiency. Schematically, this process can be represented as the following sequence of events: HIV-mediated damage to the intestinal barrier--the development of endotoxin aggression--induction ofsystemic inflammatory response syndrome--the depletion of the immune system, which is transient and is related to the duration of activity of the virus replication cycle, i.e., with damage to enterocytes. Using antiendotoxin component (means of reducing levels of endotoxin in the blood) in the scheme of treatment of persistent viral infections can serve as an element of a successful prevention of complications. PMID:26237956

  15. Cardiac urticaria caused by eucleid allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Wu, Qianwen

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a common allergic diseases, which involve respiratory and digestive system being suffered in some population. Yet, relatively little research has been done on the adverse effect on the heart. We did this research to examine the correlation between the abnormality of ECG in the patients with acute allergic urticaria and the antigen of eucleid. The antigen (allergen of eucleid and other allergens) was used to test the patients with acute allergic urticaria by skin prick test and electrocardiogram was employed to examine the patients with strong positive (moth & caterpillar) eucleid antigen. Strong positive eucleid antigen was identified in 84 cases with abnormal electrocardiographic pattern of diversity. So, the acute allergic skin urticaria caused by eucleid allergen may impose strong effect on the heart and thus lead to allergic cardiac urticaria. PMID:26885121

  16. Cardiac urticaria caused by eucleid allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Wu, Qianwen

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a common allergic diseases, which involve respiratory and digestive system being suffered in some population. Yet, relatively little research has been done on the adverse effect on the heart. We did this research to examine the correlation between the abnormality of ECG in the patients with acute allergic urticaria and the antigen of eucleid. The antigen (allergen of eucleid and other allergens) was used to test the patients with acute allergic urticaria by skin prick test and electrocardiogram was employed to examine the patients with strong positive (moth & caterpillar) eucleid antigen. Strong positive eucleid antigen was identified in 84 cases with abnormal electrocardiographic pattern of diversity. So, the acute allergic skin urticaria caused by eucleid allergen may impose strong effect on the heart and thus lead to allergic cardiac urticaria. PMID:26885121

  17. Do questions reflecting indoor air pollutant exposure from a questionnaire predict direct measure of exposure in owner-occupied houses?

    PubMed

    Loo, C K Jennifer; Foty, Richard G; Wheeler, Amanda J; Miller, J David; Evans, Greg; Stieb, David M; Dell, Sharon D

    2010-08-01

    Home characteristic questions are used in epidemiological studies and clinical settings to assess potentially harmful exposures in the home. The objective of this study was to determine whether questionnaire-reported home characteristics can predict directly measured pollutants. Sixty home inspections were conducted on a subsample of the 2006 population-based Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire. Indoor/outdoor air and settled dust samples were analyzed. Mean Fel d 1 was higher (p < 0.0001) in homes with a cat (450.58 μg/g) versus without (22.28 μg/g). Mean indoor NO(2) was higher (p = 0.003) in homes with gas stoves (14.98 ppb) versus without (8.31 ppb). Self-reported musty odours predicted higher glucan levels (10554.37 μg/g versus 6308.58 μg/g, p = 0.0077). Der f 1 was predicted by the home's age, but not by reports of carpets, and was higher in homes with mean relative humidity > 50% (61.30 μg/g, versus 6.24 μg/g, p = 0.002). Self-reported presence of a cat, a gas stove, musty odours, mice, and the home's age and indoor relative humidity over 50% predicted measured indoor levels of cat allergens, NO(2), fungal glucan, mouse allergens and dust mite allergens, respectively. These results are helpful for understanding the significance of indoor exposures ascertained by self-reporting in large epidemiological studies and also in the clinical setting.

  18. Do Questions Reflecting Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure from a Questionnaire Predict Direct Measure of Exposure in Owner-Occupied Houses?

    PubMed Central

    Loo, C.K. Jennifer; Foty, Richard G.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Miller, J. David; Evans, Greg; Stieb, David M.; Dell, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    Home characteristic questions are used in epidemiological studies and clinical settings to assess potentially harmful exposures in the home. The objective of this study was to determine whether questionnaire-reported home characteristics can predict directly measured pollutants. Sixty home inspections were conducted on a subsample of the 2006 population-based Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire. Indoor/outdoor air and settled dust samples were analyzed. Mean Fel d 1 was higher (p < 0.0001) in homes with a cat (450.58 μg/g) versus without (22.28 μg/g). Mean indoor NO2 was higher (p = 0.003) in homes with gas stoves (14.98 ppb) versus without (8.31 ppb). Self-reported musty odours predicted higher glucan levels (10554.37 μg/g versus 6308.58 μg/g, p = 0.0077). Der f 1 was predicted by the home’s age, but not by reports of carpets, and was higher in homes with mean relative humidity > 50% (61.30 μg/g, versus 6.24 μg/g, p = 0.002). Self-reported presence of a cat, a gas stove, musty odours, mice, and the home’s age and indoor relative humidity over 50% predicted measured indoor levels of cat allergens, NO2, fungal glucan, mouse allergens and dust mite allergens, respectively. These results are helpful for understanding the significance of indoor exposures ascertained by self-reporting in large epidemiological studies and also in the clinical setting. PMID:20948960

  19. Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Madsen, Anne Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Massling, Andreas; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Lund, Rikke; Sigsgaard, Torben; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between exposure to airborne indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular and respiratory health in a population-based sample of 58 residences in Copenhagen, Denmark. Over a 2-day period indoor particle number concentrations (PNC, 10-300 nm) and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 μm) were monitored for each of the residences in the living room, and outdoor PNC (10-280 nm), PM2.5 and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter<10 μm) were monitored at an urban background station in Copenhagen. In the morning, after the 2-day monitoring period, we measured microvascular function (MVF) and lung function and collected blood samples for biomarkers related to inflammation, in 78 middle-aged residents. Bacteria, endotoxin and fungi were analyzed in material from electrostatic dust fall collectors placed in the residences for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear regression with the generalized estimating equation approach. Statistically significant associations were found between indoor PNC, dominated by indoor use of candles, and lower lung function, the prediabetic marker HbA1c and systemic inflammatory markers observed as changes in leukocyte differential count and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes, whereas C-reactive protein was significantly associated with indoor PM2.5. The presence of indoor endotoxin was associated with lower lung function and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes. An inverse association between outdoor PNC and MVF was also statistically significant. The study suggests that PNC in the outdoor environment may be associated with decreased MVF, while PNC, mainly driven by candle burning, and bioaerosols in the indoor environment may have a negative effect on lung function and markers of systemic inflammation and diabetes.

  20. Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Madsen, Anne Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Massling, Andreas; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Lund, Rikke; Sigsgaard, Torben; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between exposure to airborne indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular and respiratory health in a population-based sample of 58 residences in Copenhagen, Denmark. Over a 2-day period indoor particle number concentrations (PNC, 10-300 nm) and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 μm) were monitored for each of the residences in the living room, and outdoor PNC (10-280 nm), PM2.5 and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter<10 μm) were monitored at an urban background station in Copenhagen. In the morning, after the 2-day monitoring period, we measured microvascular function (MVF) and lung function and collected blood samples for biomarkers related to inflammation, in 78 middle-aged residents. Bacteria, endotoxin and fungi were analyzed in material from electrostatic dust fall collectors placed in the residences for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear regression with the generalized estimating equation approach. Statistically significant associations were found between indoor PNC, dominated by indoor use of candles, and lower lung function, the prediabetic marker HbA1c and systemic inflammatory markers observed as changes in leukocyte differential count and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes, whereas C-reactive protein was significantly associated with indoor PM2.5. The presence of indoor endotoxin was associated with lower lung function and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes. An inverse association between outdoor PNC and MVF was also statistically significant. The study suggests that PNC in the outdoor environment may be associated with decreased MVF, while PNC, mainly driven by candle burning, and bioaerosols in the indoor environment may have a negative effect on lung function and markers of systemic inflammation and diabetes. PMID:25233101

  1. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available.

  2. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  3. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available. PMID

  4. Endotoxin recovery using limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay.

    PubMed

    Bolden, Jay S; Warburton, Rob E; Phelan, Robert; Murphy, Marie; Smith, Kelly R; De Felippis, Michael R; Chen, Dayue

    2016-09-01

    A phenomenon initially reported by Chen and Vinther in 2013 [1], and now commonly referred to as low endotoxin recovery (LER), has prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to request specific data demonstrating the capability of the LAL BET method (i.e., USP <85>) to recover endotoxin from spiked samples over time. The results of these spike/hold recovery studies are expected to be included in the Biologics License Applications (BLA) for review by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Hughes (2014) and Hughes et al. (2015) [2,3]. Such studies involve spiking a known amount of a surrogate endotoxin, such as purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS), into undiluted biological products and then testing at different time points to determine the recovery over time. We report here the experience and learning gained from conducting spike/hold recovery studies for a monoclonal antibody (Mab) product. Results from initial hold studies spiked with purified LPS showed rapid loss of endotoxin activity in the drug substance (DS) and significant batch-to-batch variation in the drug product (DP). After careful review and examination of the experimental details, it was determined that the study design and execution differed from the routine batch release USP <85> BET method with regard to mixing time and sampling scheme. The hold study design was subsequently revised so that the mixing time and sampling were the same as the verified USP <85> BET method used for routine batch release testing. The spike/hold recovery studies were repeated and the results demonstrated that LPS could be consistently recovered over time. These findings highlight the importance of carefully controlling sample preparation procedures in a spike/hold recovery study in order to demonstrate the suitability of using the LAL BET method for endotoxin detection. PMID:27470947

  5. Characterization of an aerosol chamber for human exposures to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L; Reist, P C; Boehlecke, B A; Jacobs, R R

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize an exposure chamber in which human subjects could be exposed to low dust concentrations carrying an endotoxin coating. An exposure chamber, dust dispersion method, and endotoxin characterization technique were developed for inhalation exposures. A 6.27 m3 exposure chamber was designed and constructed from cinder block, glass windows, and Plexiglas. Using an acetone adhesion process, Enterobacter agglomerans were adsorbed onto respirable cellulose particles to create the endotoxin aerosol. The size distribution of the endotoxin-treated particles was verified using light microscopy and cascade impactors. A dry powder dust generator was refined to consistently disperse small quantities of the aerosol into the chamber to maintain dust concentrations at approximately 250 micrograms/m3. Dust levels during the chamber exposures were monitored using a portable continuous aerosol monitor (PCAM). During initial exposure runs, PCAM monitoring stations were positioned at different locations within a 0.5-meter matrix to document mixing patterns. Total dust and cascade impactor samples were collected throughout each exposure period to characterize the chamber operating system and insure the mean airborne dust concentration fulfilled target levels. A one-factor analysis of variance at the 95 percent confidence interval illustrated that there was not a statistically significant difference in the mean dust concentration throughout the exposure runs compared to the individual runs. Together the consistency of the total dust filters, endotoxin concentrations, and aerosol-monitoring instrument were adequate to allow use of the chamber for experimental studies involving human volunteers.

  6. Indoor Radon Measurement in Van

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Dogan, I.; Celebi, N.

    2007-04-01

    In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

  7. Indoor Radon Measurement in Van

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Celebi, N.; Dogan, I.

    2007-04-23

    In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

  8. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice. PMID:18684328

  9. Common environmental contact allergens in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, S K

    1990-12-01

    Contact allergens produce three types of reactions. The commonest reaction is allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The commonest contactants in Singapore causing ACD are, in decreasing order of importance, nickel, fragrances, neomycin, lanolin, colophony, flavine, rubber chemicals, paraphenylenediamine, clioquinol and chromates. Another type of allergic contact reaction is immunologic contact urticaria (ICU). ICU is an IgE mediated mechanisms. Contact allergens causing ICU in Singapore are proteinaceous foodstuffs and rubber latex products. Photoallergic contact dermatitis is occasionally seen in Singapore. The commonest agent is Musk Ambrette, a perfume fixature found in male colognes.

  10. Advances in allergen-microarray technology for diagnosis and monitoring of allergy: the MeDALL allergen-chip.

    PubMed

    Lupinek, Christian; Wollmann, Eva; Baar, Alexandra; Banerjee, Srinita; Breiteneder, Heimo; Broecker, Barbara M; Bublin, Merima; Curin, Mirela; Flicker, Sabine; Garmatiuk, Tetiana; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Mittermann, Irene; Pahr, Sandra; Resch, Yvonne; Roux, Kenneth H; Srinivasan, Bharani; Stentzel, Sebastian; Vrtala, Susanne; Willison, Leanna N; Wickman, Magnus; Lødrup-Carlsen, Karin C; Antó, Josep Maria; Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Ebner, Daniel; Schlederer, Thomas; Harwanegg, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Allergy diagnosis based on purified allergen molecules provides detailed information regarding the individual sensitization profile of allergic patients, allows monitoring of the development of allergic disease and of the effect of therapies on the immune response to individual allergen molecules. Allergen microarrays contain a large variety of allergen molecules and thus allow the simultaneous detection of allergic patients' antibody reactivity profiles towards each of the allergen molecules with only minute amounts of serum. In this article we summarize recent progress in the field of allergen microarray technology and introduce the MeDALL allergen-chip which has been developed for the specific and sensitive monitoring of IgE and IgG reactivity profiles towards more than 170 allergen molecules in sera collected in European birth cohorts. MeDALL is a European research program in which allergen microarray technology is used for the monitoring of the development of allergic disease in childhood, to draw a geographic map of the recognition of clinically relevant allergens in different populations and to establish reactivity profiles which are associated with and predict certain disease manifestations. We describe technical advances of the MeDALL allergen-chip regarding specificity, sensitivity and its ability to deliver test results which are close to in vivo reactivity. In addition, the usefulness and numerous advantages of allergen microarrays for allergy research, refined allergy diagnosis, monitoring of disease, of the effects of therapies, for improving the prescription of specific immunotherapy and for prevention are discussed.

  11. Dust Mites Population in Indoor Houses of Suspected Allergic Patients of South Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhruba; Dutta, B. K.; Singh, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In the present study, quality and quantity of indoor dust mites was evaluated at the residence of 150 atopic allergic patients from four different districts of South Assam. Methods. Suspected patients with case history of allergic disease were selected for indoor survey. Dust samples (500 mg) were collected from the selected patient's house and were analyzed using standard methods. Results. About 60% of the selected patients were found suffering from respiratory disorders and rest 40% from skin allergy. The dominant mites recorded from indoor dust samples were Dermatophagoides followed by Blomia, Acarus, and Cheyletus while Caloglyphus was recorded in least number. The distribution of mites on the basis of housing pattern indicates that RCC type of buildings supports maximum dust mite's population followed by Assam type (semi-RCC) buildings, and the lowest count was observed in wooden houses. Environmental factors like temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity are found to determine the indoor mite's population. Severity of allergic attack in some of the typical cases was found to be proportional to the allergen load of mites in the dust samples. Conclusions. The economic status, housing pattern, and local environmental factors determine the diversity and abundance of dust mites in indoor environment. PMID:23724231

  12. Endotoxin depletion of recombinant protein preparations through their preferential binding to histidine tags.

    PubMed

    Mack, Laura; Brill, Boris; Delis, Natalia; Groner, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    The presence of endotoxins in preparations of recombinantly produced therapeutic proteins poses serious problems for patients. Endotoxins can cause fever, respiratory distress syndromes, intravascular coagulation, or endotoxic shock. A number of methods have been devised to remove endotoxins from protein preparations using separation procedures based on molecular mass or charge properties. Most of the methods are limited in their endotoxin removal capacities and lack general applicability. We are describing a biotechnological approach for endotoxin removal. This strategy exploits the observation that endotoxins form micelles that expose negative charges on their surface, leading to preferential binding of endotoxins to cationic surfaces, allowing the separation from their resident protein. Endotoxins exhibit high affinity to stretches of histidines, which are widely used tools to facilitate the purification of recombinant proteins. They bind to nickel ions and are the basis for protein purification from cellular extracts by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We show that the thrombin-mediated cleavage of two histidine tags from the purified recombinant protein and the adsorption of these histidine tags and their associated endotoxins to a nickel affinity column result in an appreciable depletion of the endotoxins in the purified protein fraction.

  13. Endotoxin inactivation via steam-heat treatment in dilute simethicone emulsions used in biopharmaceutical processes.

    PubMed

    Britt, Keith A; Galvin, Jeffrey; Gammell, Patrick; Nti-Gyabaah, Joseph; Boras, George; Kolwyck, David; Ramirez, José G; Presente, Esther; Naugle, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Simethicone emulsion is used to regulate foaming in cell culture operations in biopharmaceutical processes. It is also a potential source of endotoxin contamination. The inactivation of endotoxins in dilute simethicone emulsions was assessed as a function of time at different steam temperatures using a Limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic chromogenic technique. Endotoxin inactivation from steam-heat treatment was fit to a four-parameter double exponential decay model, which indicated that endotoxin inactivation was biphasic, consisting of fast and slow regimes. In the fast regime, temperature-related effects were dominant. Transitioning into the slow regime, the observed temperature dependence diminished, and concentration-related effects became increasingly significant. The change in the Gibbs free energy moving through the transition state indicated that a large energy barrier must be overcome for endotoxin inactivation to occur. The corresponding Arrhenius pre-exponential factor was >10(12) s(-1) suggesting that endotoxins in aqueous solution exist as aggregates. The disorder associated with the endotoxin inactivation reaction pathway was assessed via the change in entropy moving through the transition state. This quantity was positive indicating that endotoxin inactivation may result from hydrolysis of individual endotoxin molecules, which perturbs the conformation of endotoxin aggregates, thereby modulating the biological activity observed. Steam-heat treatment decreased endotoxin levels by 1-2 logarithm (log) reduction (LRV), which may be practically relevant depending on incoming raw material endotoxin levels. Antifoam efficiency and cell culture performance were negligibly impacted following steam-heat treatment. The results from this study show that steam-heat treatment is a viable endotoxin control strategy that can be implemented to support large-scale biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

  14. In vivo quantitation of the rat liver's ability to eliminate endotoxin from portal vein blood

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Babb, J.L.; Gans, H.

    1982-12-01

    The in vivo uptake of endotoxin by the liver from portal vein blood was assessed during a single passage through the liver. /sup 51/Cr labeled and unlabeled endotoxin were infused in different amounts into the femoral vein of three groups of lead-sensitized rats: a nonoperated, a sham-operated, and a surgically created reversed Eck fistula (REF) group. Whereas in the former two the infused endotoxin encounters the lung as the first filter organ, the liver performs this function in the latter experimental model. The mortality rates observed in control and sham-operated, lead-sensitized rats were found to correlate closely and reproducibly to the degree of endotoxemia. This assay was then applied to determine the amount of endotoxin eliminated by the liver by establishing, in the REF rat, the amounts of endotoxin that escaped hepatic clearance. The capacity of the liver to eliminate endotoxin from portal vein blood during a single passage increases as the portal vein endotoxin level rises; it approaches a maximum, suggesting that endotoxin's interaction with the Kupffer cells conforms to classical saturation kinetics. A Lineweaver-Burk plot prepared from these data indicates that the maximal in vivo capacity of the liver to remove endotoxin from portal vein blood approximates 1.5 micrograms/gm liver/hr. Data obtained with the use of radiolabeled endotoxin corroborate the information obtained with the bioassay technique. Endotoxin eliminated by the Kupffer cells in these quantities is slowly disintegrated; 4 hr after termination of the endotoxin infusion, less than 4% of the radiolabel is found in the urine and none in the bile. These observations indicate that the Kupffer cell's functional capacity to sequester and detoxify endotoxin is extensive and far exceeds the requirements imposed by physiological and most pathological conditions.

  15. Indoor Air vs. Indoor Construction: A New Beginning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicone, Santo

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the steps that can be taken to lessen the impact of indoor air pollution created from indoor renovation projects, including project management tips to help contractors avoid creating unnecessary air pollution. Final comments address air pollution control when installing new furniture, smoking restrictions, occupant relations, and the…

  16. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy and immune tolerance to allergens.

    PubMed

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, organ transplantation and chronic infections has led to a variety of targeted therapeutic approaches. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years as a desensitizing therapy for allergic diseases and represents the potentially curative and specific way of treatment. The mechanisms by which allergen-AIT has its mechanisms of action include the very early desensitization effects, modulation of T- and B-cell responses and related antibody isotypes as well as inhibition of migration of eosinophils, basophils and mast cells to tissues and release of their mediators. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been identified as key regulators of immunological processes in peripheral tolerance to allergens. Skewing of allergen-specific effector T cells to a regulatory phenotype appears as a key event in the development of healthy immune response to allergens and successful outcome in AIT. Naturally occurring FoxP3(+) CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and inducible type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells contribute to the control of allergen-specific immune responses in several major ways, which can be summarized as suppression of dendritic cells that support the generation of effector T cells; suppression of effector Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells; suppression of allergen-specific IgE, and induction of IgG4; suppression of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and suppression of effector T cell migration to tissues. New strategies for immune intervention will likely include targeting of the molecular mechanisms of allergen tolerance and reciprocal regulation of effector and regulatory T cell subsets.

  17. Multiple independent IgE epitopes on the highly allergenic grass pollen allergen Phl p 5

    PubMed Central

    Levin, M; Rotthus, S; Wendel, S; Najafi, N; Källström, E; Focke-Tejkl, M; Valenta, R; Flicker, S; Ohlin, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Group 5 allergens are small proteins that consist of two domains. They belong to the most potent respiratory allergens. Objective To determine the binding sites and to study allergic patients' IgE recognition of the group 5 allergen (Phl p 5) from timothy grass pollen using human monoclonal IgE antibodies that have been isolated from grass pollen allergic patients. Methods Using recombinant isoallergens, fragments, mutants and synthetic peptides of Phl p 5, as well as peptide-specific antibodies, the interaction of recombinant human monoclonal IgE and Phl p 5 was studied using direct binding and blocking assays. Cross-reactivity of monoclonal IgE with group 5 allergens in several grasses was studied and inhibition experiments with patients' polyclonal IgE were performed. Results Monoclonal human IgE showed extensive cross-reactivity with group 5 allergens in several grasses. Despite its small size of 29 kDa, four independent epitope clusters on isoallergen Phl p 5.0101, two in each domain, were recognized by human IgE. Isoallergen Phl p 5.0201 carried two of these epitopes. Inhibition studies with allergic patients' polyclonal IgE suggest the presence of additional IgE epitopes on Phl p 5. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance Our results reveal the presence of a large number of independent IgE epitopes on the Phl p 5 allergen explaining the high allergenic activity of this protein and its ability to induce severe allergic symptoms. High-density IgE recognition may be a general feature of many potent allergens and form a basis for the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic disease. PMID:25262820

  18. Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Bonini, S; Nunes, C; Annesi-Maesano, I; Behrendt, H; Liccardi, G; Popov, T; van Cauwenberge, P

    2007-09-01

    The allergenic content of the atmosphere varies according to climate, geography and vegetation. Data on the presence and prevalence of allergenic airborne pollens, obtained from both aerobiological studies and allergological investigations, make it possible to design pollen calendars with the approximate flowering period of the plants in the sampling area. In this way, even though pollen production and dispersal from year to year depend on the patterns of preseason weather and on the conditions prevailing at the time of anthesis, it is usually possible to forecast the chances of encountering high atmospheric allergenic pollen concentrations in different areas. Aerobiological and allergological studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (for example, importation of plants such as birch and cypress for urban parklands), greater international travel (e.g. colonization by ragweed in France, northern Italy, Austria, Hungary etc.) and climate change. In this regard, the higher frequency of weather extremes, like thunderstorms, and increasing episodes of long range transport of allergenic pollen represent new challenges for researchers. Furthermore, in the last few years, experimental data on pollen and subpollen-particles structure, the pathogenetic role of pollen and the interaction between pollen and air pollutants, gave new insights into the mechanisms of respiratory allergic diseases. PMID:17521313

  19. Developments in allergen-specific immunotherapy: from allergen extracts to allergy vaccines bypassing allergen-specific immunoglobulin E and T cell reactivity.

    PubMed

    Focke, M; Swoboda, I; Marth, K; Valenta, R

    2010-03-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only specific and disease-modifying approach for the treatment of allergy but several disadvantages have limited its broad applicability. We argue that the majority of the possible disadvantages of SIT such as unwanted effects, poor efficacy and specificity as well as inconvenient application are related to the poor quality of natural allergen extracts, which are the active ingredients of all currently available allergy vaccines. Because of the progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization, new allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergens, recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and allergen-derived T cell peptides have entered clinical testing and hold promise to reduce the side-effects and to increase the specificity as well as the efficacy of SIT. Here, we present a refined immunotherapy concept, which is based on the use of peptides derived from allergen surfaces that exhibit reduced, allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell reactivity. These peptides when fused to non-allergenic carriers give rise to allergen-specific protective IgG responses with T cell help from a non-allergenic carrier molecule. We summarize the experimental data demonstrating that such peptide vaccines can bypass allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell activation and may be administered at high doses without IgE- and T cell-mediated side-effects. Should these peptide vaccines prove efficacious and safe in clinical trials, it may become possible to develop convenient, safe and broadly applicable forms of SIT as true alternatives to symptomatic, drug-based allergy treatment.

  20. Removing Endotoxin from Metallic Biomaterials with Compressed Carbon Dioxide-Based Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Tarafa, Pedro J.; Williams, Eve; Panvelker, Samir; Zhang, Jian; Matthews, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins have strong affinity for metallic biomaterials because of surface energy effects. Conventional depyrogenation methods may not eradicate endotoxins and may compromise biological properties and functionality of metallic instruments and implants. We evaluated the solubilization and removal of E. coli endotoxin from smooth and porous titanium (Ti) surfaces and stainless steel lumens using compressed CO2-based mixtures having water and/or surfactant Ls-54. The CO2/water/Ls-54 ternary mixture in the liquid CO2 region (25 °C and 27.6 MPa) with strong mixing removed endotoxin below detection levels. This suggests that the ternary mixture penetrates and dissolves endotoxins from all the tested substrates. The successful removal of endotoxins from metallic biomaterials with compressed CO2 is a promising cleaning technology for biomaterials and reusable medical devices. PMID:21499532

  1. Removal of endotoxin from protein solutions by phase separation using Triton X-114.

    PubMed

    Aida, Y; Pabst, M J

    1990-09-14

    Endotoxin contamination of protein solutions was reduced by a phase separation technique using the detergent, Triton X-114. Protein solutions containing endotoxin were treated with Triton X-114 on ice. The solution was then warmed to 37 degrees C, whereupon two phases formed. The Triton X-114 phase, containing the endotoxin, was precipitated by centrifugation. The first cycle of phase separation produced a 1000-fold reduction of endotoxin from contaminated preparations of cytochrome c, catalase and albumin. Complete removal of endotoxin could be achieved by further cycles of phase separation. Each cycle of phase separation resulted in only a 2% loss of protein, and could be completed within 15 min. The small amount of detergent (0.018%) that persisted in protein solution could be removed by gel filtration or absorption. Proteins treated by this procedure retained normal functions. This phase separation technique provides a rapid and gentle method for removing endotoxin from protein solutions.

  2. Heat pretreatment eliminates spurious butyrylcholinesterase enhancement of endotoxin levels in the kinetic chromogenic assay.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Andrew; Hinrichs, Steven H; Larson, Marilynn A; Lockridge, Oksana

    2016-04-01

    The kinetic chromogenic endotoxin assay measures the release of p-nitroaniline from the chromogenic peptide substrate Ac-IEAR-pNA. As part of our project to purify large quantities of human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE), we evaluated pure HuBChE for endotoxin levels. We found that HuBChE contributed up to 90% of the yellow p-nitroaniline product in a standard endotoxin assay through the catalytic hydrolysis of Ac-IEAR-pNA with a rate constant of 0.016 min(-1) and a Km of 2.9 mM in potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 at 24 °C. Thus, endotoxin concentrations for native BChE are artificially high in the kinetic chromogenic assay. Destruction of HuBChE catalytic activity by boiling yields endotoxin concentrations that more accurately reflect the endotoxin concentration in purified HuBChE preparations.

  3. Concentration, physical state, and purity of bacterial endotoxin affect its detoxification by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Tsai, C.M.; Hochstein, H.D.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    Increasing concentrations of a highly purified bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation, the U.S. Reference Standard Endotoxin, were exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation from a 60Co source. At identical radiation doses both the structural change and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) reactivity were progressively smaller with increasing concentrations of the lipopolysaccharide in an aqueous medium. Under the experimental conditions used, there was a linear relationship between the endotoxin concentration and radiation dose for the structural changes. In contrast to endotoxin in aqueous medium, endotoxin irradiated in its dry state showed no decrease in LAL reactivity and rabbit pyrogenicity. Endotoxin exposed to radiation in water in the presence of albumin showed a much smaller decrease in LAL and pyrogenic activities than expected. The results show that the concentration, physical state, and purity of endotoxin influence its structural and functional alteration by ionizing radiation.

  4. The biocontaminants and complexity of damp indoor spaces: more than what meets the eyes.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, Jack D; Crawley, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Nine types of biocontaminants in damp indoor environments from microbial growth are discussed: (1) indicator molds; (2) Gram negative and positive bacteria; (3) microbial particulates; (4) mycotoxins; (5) volatile organic compounds, both microbial (MVOCs) and non-microbial (VOCs); (6) proteins; (7) galactomannans; (8) 1-3-beta-D-glucans (glucans) and (9) lipopolysaccharides (LPS--endotoxins). When mold species exceed those outdoors contamination is deduced. Gram negative bacterial endotoxins, LPS in indoor environments, synergize with mycotoxins. The gram positive Bacillus species, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces, Nocardia and Mycobacterium), produce exotoxins. The Actinomycetes are associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung and invasive infections. Mycobacterial mycobacterium infections not from M. tuberculosis are increasing in immunocompetent individuals. In animal models, LPS enhance the toxicity of roridin A, satratoxins G and aflatoxin B1 to damage the olfactory epithelium, tract and bulbs (roridin A, satratoxin G) and liver (aflatoxin B1). Aflatoxin B1 and probably trichothecenes are transported along the olfactory tract to the temporal lobe. Co-cultured Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum produce a cytotoxin similar to doxorubicin and actinomycin D (chemotherapeutic agents). Trichothecenes, aflatoxins, gliotoxin and other mycotoxins are found in dust, bulk samples, air and ventilation systems of infested buildings. Macrocyclic trichothecenes are present in airborne particles <2 microm. Trichothecenes and stachylysin are present in the sera of individuals exposed to S. chartarum in contaminated indoor environments. Haemolysins are produced by S. chartarum, Memnoniella echinata and several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Galactomannans, glucans and LPS are upper and lower respiratory tract irritants. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was identified in the lung secretions and sera of cancer patients with aspergillosis

  5. Specific B-cell Epitope of Per a 1: A Major Allergen of American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and Anatomical Localization

    PubMed Central

    Sookrung, Nitat; Khetsuphan, Thanyathon; Chaisri, Urai; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Reamtong, Onrapak; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cockroach (CR) is a common source of indoor allergens, and Per a 1 is a major American CR (Periplaneta americana) allergen; however, several attributes of this protein remain unknown. This study identifies a novel specific B cell epitope and anatomical locations of Per a 1.0105. Methods Recombinant Per a 1.0105 (rPer a 1.0105) was used as BALB/c mouse immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The MAb specific B cell epitope was identified by determining phage mimotopic peptides and pair-wise alignment of the peptides with the rPer a 1.0105 amino acid sequence. Locations of the Per a 1.0105 in P. americana were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. Results The rPer a 1.0105 (~13 kDa) had 100%, 98% and ≥90% identity to Per a 1.0105, Per a 1.0101, and Cr-PII, respectively. The B-cell epitope of the Per a 1.0105 specific-MAb was located at residues99 QDLLLQLRDKGV110 contained in all 5 Per a 1.01 isoforms and Per a 1.02. The epitope was analogous to the Bla g 1.02 epitope; however, this B-cell epitope was not an IgE inducer. Per a 1.0105 was found in the midgut and intestinal content of American CR but not in the other organs. The amount of the Per a 1 was ~544 ℃g per gram of feces. Conclusions The novel Per a 1 B-cell epitope described in this study is a useful target for allergen quantification in samples; however, the specific MAb can be used as an allergen detection reagent. The MAb based-affinity resin can be made for allergen purification, and the so-purified protein can serve as a standard and diagnostic allergen as well as a therapeutic vaccine component. The finding that the Per a 1 is contained in the midgut and feces is useful to increase yield and purity when preparing this allergen. PMID:24991456

  6. Endotoxins in baled cottons and airborne dusts in textile mills in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed Central

    Olenchock, S A; Christiani, D C; Mull, J C; Ye, T T; Lu, P L

    1983-01-01

    Bulk cotton samples and airborne vertical elutriated cotton dusts were obtained from textile mills in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Analysis of endotoxin contents revealed that baled cottons which were grown in different countries varied in endotoxin contamination. The two textile mills, which operated at similar overall airborne dust levels, differed markedly in the levels of airborne endotoxins. The data suggest that the biological activity or "toxicity" of airborne cotton dusts may not be correlated directly with gravimetric dust levels. PMID:6639029

  7. School Endotoxin Exposure and Asthma Morbidity in Inner-city Children

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Peggy S.; Sheehan, William J.; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Petty, Carter R.; Coull, Brent A.; Gold, Diane R.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endotoxin exposure is associated with airway inflammation. Children spend 6 to 8 h/d in school, yet the effect of school-specific endotoxin exposure on asthma morbidity is not well understood. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study, 248 students with asthma, from 38 inner-city schools, underwent baseline phenotyping and follow-up. Clinical outcomes were evaluated throughout the academic school year and linked to classroom-specific dust and air endotoxin levels as well as home dust endotoxin levels. The primary outcome was maximum asthma symptom-days per 2-week period. RESULTS: Classrooms had higher settled dust endotoxin levels compared with homes (14.3 endotoxin unit/mg vs 11.3 endotoxin unit/mg; P = .02). Airborne endotoxin levels exceeding recommended occupational exposure limits for adults were recorded in 22.0% of classrooms. Classroom air endotoxin levels were independently associated with increased maximum symptom-days in children with nonatopic asthma, but not in those with atopic asthma (interaction P = .03). Adjusting for home exposures, classroom endotoxin exposure was independently associated with a dose-dependent increase in asthma symptom-days for children with nonatopic asthma (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.03-1.31]; P = .02). In these subjects, maximum symptom-days increased by 1.3 days for each 14-day period when comparing students in classrooms with the lowest endotoxin levels compared with average measured levels. CONCLUSIONS: Inner-city children with asthma are exposed to high levels of airborne endotoxin at school, resulting in increased asthma symptoms in children with nonatopic asthma. Mitigation of school-related exposures may represent a strategy to decrease asthma morbidity in this population. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01756391; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:26087201

  8. Bioactive and total endotoxins in atmospheric aerosols in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jessica Y. W.; Hui, Esther L. C.; Lau, Arthur P. S.

    2012-02-01

    Endotoxin, a toxic and pyrogenic substance in gram-negative bacteria in atmospheric aerosols was measured over a period of one year at Nansha, Guangzhou and Hong Kong in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Atmospheric aerosols were collected by high-volume samplers. The bioactive endotoxin levels in the samples were determined using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay after extraction with pyrogen-free water while the total endotoxin levels were measured by quantifying the biomarker, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) with GC-MS. Results showed that there was no significant difference (0.19 < p < 0.81) in the bioactive endotoxin level in PM 10 among sites (average concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 0.39 EU m -3). However, Hong Kong showed a significantly lower ( p < 0.05) total endotoxin level in PM 10 (average of 17.4 ng m -3) compared with Nansha's 29.4 ng m -3 and Guangzhou's 32.7 ng m -3. The bioactive endotoxins were found to be associated with the coarse mode (PM 2.5-10) of the particulates of natural origins while the total endotoxins were associated more with the fine mode (PM 2.5) of the particulates of anthropogenic origins. When normalized with particulate mass, the endotoxin loading is much higher in summer as a result of the increased growth of the bacteria when climatic conditions are favorable. The chemically determined total endotoxins were 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the bioactive endotoxins quantified using the LAL assay. Correlation analyses between the bioactive endotoxins and 3-OHFAs with different carbon length were analyzed. Results showed that the correlations detected vary among sites and particulate sizes. Although no generalization between the total and bioactive endotoxins can be drawn from the study, the levels reported in this study suggests that the discrepancies between the two measurement approaches, and the bioactive potential of 3-OHFAs with individual carbon chains deserve further investigation.

  9. Treatment Characteristics of Polysaccharides and Endotoxin Using Oxygen Plasma Produced by RF Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Hayashi, Nobuya; Goto, Masaaki

    2010-10-01

    Treatment of polysaccharides and endotoxin were attempted using oxygen plasma produced by RF discharge. Oxygen radicals observed by optical light emission spectra are factors of decomposition of polysaccharides and endotoxin. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicate that most of chemical bonds in the polysaccharides are dissociated after irradiation of the oxygen plasma. Also, the decomposition rate of endotoxin was approximately 90% after irradiation of the oxygen plasma for 180 min.

  10. Treatment Characteristics of Polysaccharides and Endotoxin Using Oxygen Plasma Produced by RF Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Hayashi, Nobuya; Goto, Masaaki

    2010-10-13

    Treatment of polysaccharides and endotoxin were attempted using oxygen plasma produced by RF discharge. Oxygen radicals observed by optical light emission spectra are factors of decomposition of polysaccharides and endotoxin. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicate that most of chemical bonds in the polysaccharides are dissociated after irradiation of the oxygen plasma. Also, the decomposition rate of endotoxin was approximately 90% after irradiation of the oxygen plasma for 180 min.

  11. Endotoxin removal by radio frequency gas plasma (glow discharge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Angela

    2011-12-01

    Contaminants remaining on implantable medical devices, even following sterilization, include dangerous fever-causing residues of the outer lipopolysaccharide-rich membranes of Gram-negative bacteria such as the common gut microorganism E. coli. The conventional method for endotoxin removal is by Food & Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended dry-heat depyrogenation at 250°C for at least 45 minutes, an excessively time-consuming high-temperature technique not suitable for low-melting or heat-distortable biomaterials. This investigation evaluated the mechanism by which E. coli endotoxin contamination can be eliminated from surfaces during ambient temperature single 3-minute to cumulative 15-minute exposures to radio-frequency glow discharge (RFGD)-generated residual room air plasmas activated at 0.1-0.2 torr in a 35MHz electrodeless chamber. The main analytical technique for retained pyrogenic bio-activity was the Kinetic Chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) Assay, sufficiently sensitive to document compliance with FDA-required Endotoxin Unit (EU) titers less than 20 EU per medical device by optical detection of enzymatic color development corresponding to < 0.5 EU/ml in sterile water extracts of each device. The main analytical technique for identification of chemical compositions, amounts, and changes during sequential reference Endotoxin additions and subsequent RFGD-treatment removals from infrared (IR)-transparent germanium (Ge) prisms was Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection (MAIR) infrared spectroscopy sensitive to even monolayer amounts of retained bio-contaminant. KimaxRTM 60 mm x 15 mm and 50mm x 15mm laboratory glass dishes and germanium internal reflection prisms were inoculated with E. coli bacterial endotoxin water suspensions at increments of 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 EU, and characterized by MAIR-IR spectroscopy of the dried residues on the Ge prisms and LAL Assay of sterile water extracts from both glass and Ge specimens. The Ge prism MAIR

  12. Endotoxin suppresses surfactant synthesis in cultured rat lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.J.; Sanders, R.L.; McAdam, K.P.; Gelfand, J.A.; Burke, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    Pulmonary complications secondary to postburn sepsis are a major cause of death in burned patients. Using an in vitro organotypic culture system, we examined the effect of E. coli endotoxin (LPS) on lung cell surfactant synthesis. Our results showed that E. coli endotoxin (1.0, 2.5, 10 micrograms LPS/ml) was capable of suppressing the incorporation of /sup 3/H-choline into de novo synthesized surfactant, lamellar bodies (LB), and common myelin figures (CMF) at 50%, 68%, and 64%, respectively. In a similar study, we were able to show that LPS also inhibited /sup 3/H-palmitate incorporation by cultured lung cells. LPS-induced suppression of surfactant synthesis was reversed by hydrocortisone. Our results suggest that LPS may play a significant role in reducing surfactant synthesis by rat lung cells, and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis-related respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in burn injury.

  13. Masking of endotoxin in surfactant samples: Effects on Limulus-based detection systems.

    PubMed

    Reich, Johannes; Lang, Pierre; Grallert, Holger; Motschmann, Hubert

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few decades Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) has been the most sensitive method for the detection of endotoxins (Lipopolysaccharides) and is well accepted in a broad field of applications. Recently, Low Endotoxin Recovery (LER) in biopharmaceutical drug products has been noticed, whereby the detection of potential endotoxin contaminations is not ensured. Notably, most of these drug products contain surfactants, which can have crucial effects on the detectability of endotoxin. In order to analyze the driving forces of LER, endotoxin detection in samples containing nonionic surfactants in various buffer systems was investigated. The results show that the process of LER is kinetically controlled and temperature-dependent. Furthermore, only the simultaneous presence of nonionic surfactants and components capable of forming metal complexes resulted in LER. In addition, capacity experiments show that even hazardous amounts of endotoxin can remain undetectable within such formulation compositions. In conclusion, the LER phenomenon is caused by endotoxin masking and not by test interference. In this process, the supramolecular structure of endotoxin is altered and exhibits only a limited susceptibility in binding to the Factor C of Limulus-based detection systems. We propose a two-step mechanism of endotoxin masking by complex forming agents and nonionic surfactants. PMID:27464990

  14. Human very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons can protect against endotoxin-induced death in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, H W; Grunfeld, C; Feingold, K R; Rapp, J H

    1990-01-01

    Endotoxemia stimulates many physiologic responses including disturbances in lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that this lipemia may be part of a defensive mechanism by which the body combats the toxic effects of circulating endotoxin. We tested the effects of mixtures of endotoxin, lipoproteins, and lipoprotein-free plasma and determined the ability of varying concentrations of human very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons, as well as low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL), and of the synthetic lipid emulsion SOYACAL to prevent endotoxin-induced death in mice. This study demonstrates that the triglyceride-rich VLDL and chylomicrons, as well as cholesterol-rich LDL and HDL, and cholesterol-free SOYACAL can protect against endotoxin-induced death. Protection required small amounts of lipoprotein-free plasma, and depended on the incubation time and the concentration of lipoprotein lipid. Despite stringent techniques to prevent exogenous endotoxin contamination eight of ten duplicate VLDL preparations contained endotoxin (5,755 +/- 3,514 ng endotoxin/mg triglyceride, mean +/- SEM) making the isolation of endotoxin-free VLDL difficult. In contrast, simultaneous preparations of LDL and HDL were relatively free of endotoxin contamination (3 +/- 3 and 320 +/- 319 ng/mg total cholesterol, respectively), suggesting that the contamination of VLDL occurs in vivo and not during the isolation procedure. These observations suggest a possible role for increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the host's defense against endotoxemia and infection. Images PMID:2394827

  15. Detection of bacterial endotoxin in drinking tap and bottled water in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Abdulraheem, Abdulkareem; Mustafa, Seham; Al-Saffar, Nabeel; Shahjahan, Muhammed

    2012-12-01

    This study was carried out to measure and compare the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in a variety of samples from drinking tap and bottled water available in Kuwait by using the Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test. A total of 29 samples were tested. Samples were collected from a variety of locations throughout the six governorates of Kuwait and 23 brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market. The concentration of bacterial endotoxin was measured by using the standard Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test, gel clot method. This study showed that measured endotoxin concentrations in tap drinking water varied from 2.4 to 33.8 EU/ml with the average endotoxin concentration of 14.2 EU/ml. While the results of endotoxin concentrations in the bottled water were <0.03 to 20.1 EU/ml with an average of 1.96 EU/ml. The average concentration of endotoxin in bottled water is 13.5 % of the average concentration of endotoxin in tap drinking water. This experimental investigation has proved that drinking bottled water has less endotoxin as compared to tap water in Kuwait. It is also demonstrated that the endotoxin concentration did not exceed the acceptable level in drinking tap water.

  16. Protection against hyperoxia by serum from endotoxin treated rats: absence of superoxide dismutase induction

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.T.; Smith, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Endotoxin greatly reduces lung injury and pleural effusions in adult rats exposed to normobaric hyperoxia (> 98% oxygen for 60 hours). This study reports that serum from endotoxin treated donor rats protects serum recipients against hyperoxic lung injury without altering lung superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Rats pretreated with endotoxin alone were protected and exhibited an increase in lung SOD activity as previously reported by others. Protection by serum was not due to the transfer of residual endotoxin or SOD. These results show, that protection from oxygen toxicity can occur in rats without an increase in lung SOD and suggest that a serum factor may be involved.

  17. Comparison of endotoxin levels in cow's milk samples derived from farms and shops.

    PubMed

    Sipka, Sándor; Béres, Andrea; Bertók, Lóránd; Varga, Tamara; Bruckner, Geza

    2015-07-01

    The observations on the protective effect of bacterial endotoxin in farm-derived cow's milk on childhood asthma and allergy are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the endotoxin levels in 'farm-derived whole raw' and 'processed shop' sources of cow's milk, and to test how the temperature and storing conditions might alter their endotoxin concentrations. Milk was collected from farms and shops. The level of endotoxin was measured by micro (gel-clot) Limulus amebocyte lysate test expressed as EU/ml. The concentration ranges of endotoxin were much higher and more widely scattered in the samples of whole raw farm milk than in the processed shop milk. Cold storage or heating increased the endotoxin concentrations in all samples of farm milk, but not in the processed shop milk. These results show that elevated levels of endotoxin in raw farm milk samples can occur from the cowshed or be formed during storage. In processed shop milk, storage does not cause any changes in the amount of endotoxin. Therefore, it is consistent that the handling and storage of raw milk alters the endotoxin concentrations, which may explain previous contradictory findings regarding the beneficial modulating effects on innate immunity toward allergy prevention in early childhood.

  18. Removal of endotoxin from water by microfiltration through a microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Y.; Fujii, R.; Igami, I.; Kawai, A.; Kamiki, T.; Niwa, M.

    1986-04-01

    The microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane has a unique microfibrile structure throughout its depth and has been found to possess the functions of filtration and adsorption of endotoxin in water. The membrane has a maximum pore diameter of approximately 0.04 micron, a diameter which is within the range of microfiltration. Approximately 10 and 20% of the endotoxin in tap water and subterranean water, respectively, was smaller than 0.025 micron. Endotoxin in these water sources was efficiently removed by the microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane. Escherichia coli O113 culture broth contained 26.4% of endotoxin smaller than 0.025 micron which was also removed. Endotoxin was leaked into the filtrate only when endotoxin samples were successively passed through the membrane. These results indicate that endotoxin smaller than the pore size of the membrane was adsorbed and then leaked into the filtrate because of a reduction in binding sites. Dissociation of /sup 3/H-labeled endotoxin from the membrane was performed, resulting in the removal of endotoxin associated with the membrane by alcoholic alkali at 78% efficiency.

  19. Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Bryan D; Kelman, Bruce J; Saxon, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    Molds are common and important allergens. About 5% of individuals are predicted to have some allergic airway symptoms from molds over their lifetime. However, it should be remembered that molds are not dominant allergens and that the outdoor molds, rather than indoor ones, are the most important. For almost all allergic individuals, the reactions will be limited to rhinitis or asthma; sinusitis may occur secondarily due to obstruction. Rarely do sensitized individuals develop uncommon conditions such as ABPA or AFS. To reduce the risk of developing or exacerbating allergies, mold should not be allowed to grow unchecked indoors. When mold colonization is discovered in the home, school, or office, it should be remediated after the source of the moisture that supports its growth is identified and eliminated. Authoritative guidelines for mold remediation are available. Fungi are rarely significant pathogens for humans. Superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails are relatively common in normal individuals, but those infections are readily treated and generally resolve without complication. Fungal infections of deeper tissues are rare and in general are limited to persons with severely impaired immune systems. The leading pathogenic fungi for persons with nonimpaired immune function, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma, may find their way indoors with outdoor air but normally do not grow or propagate indoors. Due to the ubiquity of fungi in the environment, it is not possible to prevent immunecompromised individuals from being exposed to molds and fungi outside the confines of hospital isolation units. Some molds that propagate indoors may under some conditions produce mycotoxins that can adversely affect living cells and organisms by a variety of mechanisms. Adverse effects of molds and mycotoxins have been recognized for centuries following ingestion of contaminated foods. Occupational diseases are also recognized in association with

  20. Protection of the vehicle cab environment against bacteria, fungi and endotoxins in composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, O; Huyard, A; Rybacki, D; Do Quang, Z

    2012-06-01

    exceeded the benchmark value for short-term respiratory effects suggests that front-end loaders and mobile mixers in composting facilities should be fitted with a pressurisation and HEPA filtration system, regardless of whether or not the facility is indoors or outdoors. Regarding the tractors, exposure inside the cabs was not significantly reduced. However, in this study, there was a less than 0.01% risk of exceeding the bench mark value associated with fungi related short-term respiratory effects during an 1-h per day windrow turning operation. Pressurisation and a HEPA filtration system can provide safe working conditions inside loaders and mobile mixer with regard to airborne bacteria, fungi and endotoxins in composting facilities. However, regular thorough cleaning of the vehicle cab, as well as overalls and shoes cleaning, and mitigation of leakage in the filter-sealing system are necessary to achieve high levels of protection efficiency. PMID:22330264

  1. Tree pollen allergens-an update from a molecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Asam, C; Hofer, H; Wolf, M; Aglas, L; Wallner, M

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that pollen allergies affect approximately 40% of allergic individuals. In general, tree pollen allergies are mainly elicited by allergenic trees belonging to the orders Fagales, Lamiales, Proteales, and Pinales. Over 25 years ago, the gene encoding the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was the first such gene to be cloned and its product characterized. Since that time, 53 tree pollen allergens have been identified and acknowledged by the WHO/IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee. Molecule-based profiling of allergic sensitization has helped to elucidate the immunological connections of allergen cross-reactivity, whereas advances in biochemistry have revealed structural and functional aspects of allergenic proteins. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge of the molecular aspects of tree pollen allergens. We analyze the geographic distribution of allergenic trees, discuss factors pivotal for allergic sensitization, and describe the role of tree pollen panallergens. Novel allergenic tree species as well as tree pollen allergens are continually being identified, making research in this field highly competitive and instrumental for clinical applications.

  2. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  3. [Cytokine release after administration of endotoxin containing vaccines

    PubMed

    Ecker, Martina; Müller, Günter

    1998-01-01

    Endotoxins from gram negative bacteria are known to be potent inducers for the synthesis and the release of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The amount of these proinflammatory mediators in plasma from animals and human patients suffering of an acute infection or sepsis, however, is well correlated with the outcome and the prognosis of such diseases (Hack et al., 1989; Ostermann et al., 1997; Rigato, 1996). In connection with regular testing of vaccine lots we determine the release and the kinetic of TNF and IL-6 in piglets after immunisation with different vaccines containing endotoxin. The current results suggest that the amounts of both cytokines increased with elevated endotoxin concentration given with the doses. TNF peaked in plasma after one hour, IL-6 peaked between two and four hours p.appl. We did not find any influence of the gender of the animals. In contrast, the body weight seems to affect the cytokine release in different ways. Determination of cytokine changes in plasma is a sensitive tool for the evaluation of systemic reactions and supports data about the clinical and haematological signs.

  4. Changes in regional plasma extravasation in rats following endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    van Lambalgen, A.A.; van den Bos, G.C.; Thijs, L.G.

    1987-07-01

    Regional differences in plasma extravasation during endotoxin shock in rats and a possible relationship with changes in regional blood flow were studied with radioactive isotopes (/sup 125/I-HSA, 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, microspheres) in anesthetized rats (pentobarbital). Shock was induced by intravenous infusion of endotoxin (Eschericia coli; 10 mg X kg-1) for 60 min (starting at t = 0); at t = 120 min, the experiments were terminated. These rats (n = 8) were compared with time-matched control rats (n = 8). A third group (rats killed 7.5 min after injection of /sup 125/I-HSA, i.e., no extravasation; n = 8) served as baseline. The amount of plasma extravasated in 2 hr of endotoxin shock was significantly increased over control values in skin (by 67%), colon (88%), skeletal muscle (105%), stomach (230%), pancreas (300%), and diaphragm (1300%). Losses of /sup 125/I-HSA into intestinal lumen and peritoneal cavity had also increased over control values by 146 and 380%, respectively. Blood flow was compromised in most organs except heart and diaphragm. Extravasation when normalized for total plasma supply was correlated with total blood supply; the more the blood supply decreased, the higher the normalized extravasation. In the diaphragm, however, blood supply and plasma leakage increased together. Decreased blood supply and plasma extravasation may be related but they could also be simultaneously occurring independent phenomena with a common origin.

  5. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  6. Does Spore Count Matter in Fungal Allergy?: The Role of Allergenic Fungal Species

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Rou; Lee, Mey-Fann; Hsu, Ling-Yi; Tien, Chih-Jen; Shih, Feng-Ming; Hsiao, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fungi have been known to be important aeroallergens for hundreds of years. Most studies have focused on total fungal concentration; however, the concentration of specific allergenic fungi may be more important on an individual basis. Methods Ten fungal allergic patients and 2 non-fungal allergic patients were enrolled. The patients with a decrease in physician or patient global assessment by more than 50% of their personal best were considered to have an exacerbation of allergic symptoms and to be in the active stage. Those who maintained their physician and patient global assessment scores at their personal best for more than 3 months were considered to be in the inactive stage. The concentrations of dominant fungi in the patients' houses and outdoors were measured by direct and viable counts at active and inactive stages. Results The exacerbation of allergic symptoms was not correlated with total fungal spore concentration or the indoor/outdoor ratio (I/O). Specific fungi, such as Cladosporium oxysporum (C. oxyspurum), C. cladosporioides, and Aspergillus niger (A. niger), were found to be significantly higher concentrations in the active stage than in the inactive stage. Presumed allergenic spore concentration threshold levels were 100 CFU/m3 for C. oxysporum, and 10 CFU/m3 for A. niger, Penicillium brevicompactum and Penicillium oxalicum. Conclusions The major factor causing exacerbation of allergic symptoms in established fungal allergic patients may be the spore concentration of specific allergenic fungi rather than the total fungal concentration. These results may be useful in making recommendations as regards environmental control for fungal allergic patients. PMID:27334778

  7. Physiologic responses during indoor cycling.

    PubMed

    Battista, Rebecca A; Foster, Carl; Andrew, Jessica; Wright, Glenn; Lucia, Alejandro; Porcari, John P

    2008-07-01

    During the last decade, there has been active interest in indoor cycling (e.g., spinning) as a method of choreographed group exercise. Recent studies have suggested that exercise intensity during indoor cycling may be quite high and may transiently exceed Vo2max. This study sought to confirm these findings, as the apparent high intensity of indoor cycling has implications for both the efficacy and the risk of indoor cycling as an exercise method. Twenty healthy female students performed an incremental exercise test to define Vo2max and performed 2 videotaped indoor exercise classes lasting 45 minutes and 35 minutes. Vo2, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the indoor cycling classes, with Vo2 data integrated in 30-second intervals. The mean %Vo2max during the indoor cycling classes was modest (74 +/- 14% Vo2max and 66 +/- 14%Vo2max, respectively). However, 52% and 35% of the time during the 45- and 35-minute classes was spent at intensities greater than the ventilatory threshold (VT). The HR response indicated that 35% and 38% of the session time was above the HR associated with VT. In 10 of the 40 exercise sessions, there were segments in which the momentary Vo2 exceeded Vo2max observed during incremental testing, and the cumulative time with exercise intensity greater than Vo2max ranged from 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. It can be concluded that although the intensity of indoor cycling in healthy, physically active women is moderate, there are frequent observations of transient values of Vo2 exceeding Vo2max, and a substantial portion of the exercise bouts at intensities greater than VT. As such, the data suggest that indoor cycling must be considered a high-intensity exercise mode of exercise training, which has implications for both efficacy and risk. PMID:18545183

  8. Expression and refolding of mite allergen pro-Der f1 from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chunfang; Zhang, Junyan; Chen, Huifang; Zou, Zehong; Lai, He; Zhang, Jianguo; Lin, Deqiu; Tao, Ailin

    2015-05-01

    House dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) allergen Der f1 is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis in humans. Therefore, sufficient quantities of Der f1 cysteine protease to be used for both experimental and therapeutic purposes are very much needed. Using recombinant DNA technology, high expression rates of cysteine proteases were obtained. The cDNA sequence encoding pro-Der f1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the T7 based expression vector pET-44a and induced by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside at a final concentration of 0.2mM. Recombinant pro-Der f1 (pro-rDer f1) was expressed as an inclusion body and the isolated protease was solubilized, refolded and purified. The protease activities and IgE reactivities of pro-rDer f1 that were refolded by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) were higher than those obtained by dilution. The pair of pro-rDer f1 polypeptides produced by this method could be used for more effective and safer allergen-specific immunotherapy or to produce enzymatically and immunologically active Der f1 for diagnostic testing and deciphering of immunotherapy mechanisms.

  9. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  10. Indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    Possible indoor air contaminants include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates, bacteria, fungi, and VOCs (volatile organic compounds). Sources comprise paints, pesticides, solvents, sealants, smoke, soils, adhesives, aerosols, dusts, cleansers, and moisture. Health effects can range from simple discomfort, tight-building syndrome symptoms, and dermatitis to much more serious maladies, such as Legionnaire's disease and cancer. Difficulties abound in dealing with IAQ problems. Government standards used in industrial settings-such as the OSHA permissible exposure limits or threshold limit values of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists-are typically designed for heavy, short-term exposures to specific hazardous substances. These frequently prove inadequate in determining the deleterious nature of an IAQ complaint in a home, office, or school where pollutant concentrations may be quite low, exposures long-term, contaminants mixed, and, with some substances, interactions and health effects unknown. Also, government authority and responsibilities in nonindustrial settings are ill-defined.

  11. Seasonal evaluation of bioaerosols from indoor air of residential apartments within the metropolitan area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kyong Whan; Huh, Eun Hae; Jeong, Ho Chul

    2014-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the levels of bioaerosols including airborne culturable bacteria (total suspended bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram-negative bacteria), fungi, endotoxin, and viruses (influenza A, influenza B, respiratory syncytial virus types A/B, parainfluenza virus types 1/2/3, metapnemovirus, and adenovirus) and their seasonal variations in indoor air of residential apartments. Of the total suspended bacteria cultured in an indoor environment, Staphylococcus was dominant and occupied 49.0 to 61.3% of indoor air. Among Staphylococcus, S. aureus were detected in 100% of households' indoor air ranging from 4 to 140 CFU/m(3), and 66% of households were positive for MRSA ranging from 2 to 80 CFU/m(3). Staphylococcus and S. aureus concentrations correlated with indoor temperature (adjusted β: 0.4440 and 0.403, p < 0.0001). Among respiratory viruses, adenovirus was detected in 14 (14%) samples and influenza A virus was detected in 3 (3%) samples regarding the indoor air of apartments. Adenovirus concentrations were generally higher in winter (mean concentration was 2,106 copies/m(3)) than in spring (mean concentration was 173 copies/m(3)), with concentrations ranging between 12 and 560 copies/m(3). Also, a strong negative correlation between adenovirus concentrations and relative humidity in indoor air was observed (r = -0.808, p < 0.01). Furthermore, temperature also negatively correlated with adenovirus concentrations (r = -0.559, p < 0.05).

  12. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    PubMed

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  13. Myocardial failure with altered response to adrenaline in endotoxin shock

    PubMed Central

    Archer, L.T.; Black, M.R.; Hinshaw, L.B.

    1975-01-01

    1 There is a growing concensus that myocardial performance in the early stages of experimental endotoxic and septic shock is relatively normal; however, recent reports have identified an intermediate phase of shock when myocardial dysfunction is clearly apparent. 2 The mechanism of dysfunction has become a subject of intense investigation. A current view is that altered myocardial responsiveness to circulating catecholamines may play an important role in the dysfunction observed after endotoxin administration. The present studies, in which an isolated working heart preparation of the dog was used, were designed to test this hypothesis. This particular experimental preparation was selected to provide an adequate interpretation of results; cardiac output, afterload, and concentrations of adrenaline reaching the coronary vascular bed were controlled in all experiments. Responses to infusions of adrenaline were recorded in the `steady-state' condition. Control (non-shocked) heart responses to adrenaline were highly reproducible in terms of inotropic, chronotropic and coronary vascular behaviour. 3 Results from the study document myocardial dysfunction within 4-6 h following an LD70 endotoxin administration on the basis of increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), decreased cardiac power and myocardial efficiency, and depressed negative and positive dP/dt parameters. 4 Findings suggest significantly altered responsiveness of the myocardium to infused adrenaline at rates of 1, 2, and 5 μg/min with concentrations between 10 and 1 ng/ml blood. LVEDP was elevated while calculated power and efficiency parameters remained significantly below control values during infusion of adrenaline in endotoxin-treated hearts. Depressions of responsiveness were interpreted to occur on the basis of failure to restore positive and negative dP/dt to normal values and depressed coronary blood flow responses during adrenaline administration. Increases in coronary flow were

  14. Indoor Environment Program. 1992 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides.

  15. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-09-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials.

  16. The Effect of Residual Endotoxin Contamination on the Neuroinflammatory Response to Sterilized Intracortical Microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Hageman, Daniel J; Tomaszewski, William H; Chandra, Gabriella M; Skousen, John L; Capadona, Jeffrey R

    2014-05-01

    A major limitation to the use of microelectrode technologies in both research and clinical applications is our inability to consistently record high quality neural signals. There is increasing evidence that recording instability is linked, in part, to neuroinflammation. A number of factors including extravasated blood products and macrophage released soluble factors are believed to mediate neuroinflammation and the resulting recording instability. However, the roles of other inflammatory stimuli, such as residual endotoxin contamination, are poorly understood. Therefore, to determine the effect of endotoxin contamination we examined the brain tissue response of C57/BL6 mice to non-functional microelectrodes with a range of endotoxin levels. Endotoxin contamination on the sterilized microelectrodes was measured using a limulus amebocyte lysate test following FDA guidelines. Microelectrodes sterilized by autoclave, dry heat, or ethylene oxide gas, resulted in variable levels of residual endotoxins of 0.55 EU/mL, 0.22 EU/mL, and 0.11 EU/mL, respectively. Histological evaluation at two weeks showed a direct correlation between microglia/macrophage activation and endotoxin levels. Interestingly, astrogliosis, neuronal loss, and blood brain barrier dysfunction demonstrated a threshold-dependent response to bacterial endotoxins. However, at sixteen weeks, no histological differences were detected, regardless of initial endotoxin levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate that endotoxin contamination, within the range examined, contributes to initial but not chronic microelectrode associated neuroinflammation. Our results suggest that minimizing residual endotoxins may impact early recording quality. To this end, endotoxins should be considered as a potent stimulant to the neuroinflammatory response to implanted intracortical microelectrodes.

  17. Allergenicity of Maillard reaction products from peanut proteins.

    PubMed

    Chung, S Y; Champagne, E T

    1999-12-01

    It is known that peanut allergy is caused by peanut proteins. However, little is known about the impact of roasting on the allergenicity of peanuts. During roasting, proteins react with sugars to form Maillard reaction products, which could affect allergenicity. To determine if the Maillard reaction could convert a nonallergenic peanut protein into a potentially allergenic product, nonallergenic lectin was reacted with glucose or fructose at 50 degrees C for 28 days. Browning products from heat-treated peanuts were also examined. The products were analyzed in immunoblot and competitive assays, using a pooled serum (i.e., IgE antibodies) from patients with peanut anaphylaxis. Results showed that the products were recognized by IgE and had an inhibitory effect on IgE binding to a peanut allergen. Thus, the findings suggest that these Maillard reaction products are potentially allergenic and indicate the need to verify whether the Maillard reaction products formed in peanuts during roasting increase their allergenicity.

  18. New Trends in Food Allergens Detection: Toward Biosensing Strategies.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rita C; Barroso, M Fátima; González-García, María Begoña; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-25

    Food allergens are a real threat to sensitized individuals. Although food labeling is crucial to provide information to consumers with food allergies, accidental exposure to allergenic proteins may result from undeclared allergenic substances by means of food adulteration, fraud or uncontrolled cross-contamination. Allergens detection in foodstuffs can be a very hard task, due to their presence usually in trace amounts, together with the natural interference of the matrix. Methods for allergens analysis can be mainly divided in two large groups: the immunological assays and the DNA-based ones. Mass spectrometry has also been used as a confirmatory tool. Recently, biosensors appeared as innovative, sensitive, selective, environmentally friendly, cheaper and fast techniques (especially when automated and/or miniaturized), able to effectively replace the classical methodologies. In this review, we present the advances in the field of food allergens detection toward the biosensing strategies and discuss the challenges and future perspectives of this technology.

  19. Mechanisms underlying allergy vaccination with recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-19

    Hundred years ago therapeutic vaccination with allergen-containing extracts has been introduced as a clinically effective, disease-modifying, allergen-specific and long-lasting form of therapy for allergy, a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. Today, the structures of most of the disease-causing allergens have been elucidated and recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives with reduced allergenic activity have been engineered to reduce side effects during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). These recombinant hypoallergens have been characterized in vitro, in experimental animal models and in clinical trials in allergic patients. This review provides a summary of the molecular, immunological and preclinical evaluation criteria applied for this new generation of allergy vaccines. Furthermore, we summarize the mechanisms underlying SIT with recombinant hypoallergens which are thought to be responsible for their therapeutic effect.

  20. Interfaces Between Allergen Structure and Diagnosis: Know Your Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Pomés, Anna; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Allergy diagnosis is based on the patient’s clinical history and can be strengthened by tests that confirm the origin of sensitization. In the past 25 years, these tests have evolved from the exclusive in vivo or in vitro use of allergen extracts, to complementary molecular-based diagnostics that rely on in vitro measurements of IgE reactivity to individual allergens. For this to occur, an increase in our understanding of the molecular structure of allergens, largely due to the development of technologies such as molecular cloning and expression of recombinant allergens, X-ray crystallography, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), has been essential. New in vitro microarray or multiplex systems are now available to measure IgE against a selected panel of purified natural or recombinant allergens. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of allergens has facilitated detailed molecular studies, including the analysis of antigenic determinants for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25750181

  1. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: from therapeutic vaccines to prophylactic approaches.

    PubMed

    Valenta, R; Campana, R; Marth, K; van Hage, M

    2012-08-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen exposure induces a variety of symptoms in allergic patients, which include rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, dermatitis, food allergy and life-threatening systemic anaphylaxis. At present, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), which is based on the administration of the disease-causing allergens, is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. Current therapeutic allergy vaccines are still prepared from relatively poorly defined allergen extracts. However, with the availability of the structures of the most common allergen molecules, it has become possible to produce well-defined recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that allow specific targeting of the mechanisms of allergic disease. Here we provide a summary of the development and mechanisms of SIT, and then review new forms of therapeutic vaccines that are based on recombinant and synthetic molecules. Finally, we discuss possible allergen-specific strategies for prevention of allergic disease.

  2. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hiroaki; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Taogoshi, Takanori

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to certain kinds of food. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, fruit, and buckwheat account for 75% of food allergies in Japan. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies play a pivotal role in the development of food allergy. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have enabled the efficient analysis of food allergens. As a result, many food allergens have been identified, and their molecular structure and IgE-binding epitopes have also been identified. Studies of allergens have demonstrated that IgE antibodies specific to allergen components and/or the peptide epitopes are good indicators for the identification of patients with food allergy, prediction of clinical severity and development of tolerance. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding the allergens and IgE epitopes in the well-researched allergies to chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shrimp, and peanut.

  3. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant.

    PubMed

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Svedman, C; White, I R; Basketter, D A

    2003-07-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petrolatum and the European standard series. 28 of the patients showed a positive patch test reaction (+ to +++) to citral and 82 at least 1 IR patch test reaction and no positive patch test reaction to citral. A statistically significant association between a positive patch test reaction to citral and positive patch test reactions to other fragrances compared with IR reactions (n = 82) was established. The difference regarding fragrance history found between those with IR and positive reactions to citral was not significant. Citral could be an allergen and/or irritant, worthy of further more extensive studies.

  4. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  5. Tyrophagus putrescentiae: an allergenically important mite.

    PubMed

    Green, W F; Woolcock, A J

    1978-03-01

    The incidence of positive skin tests to the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae was measured and compared with skin reactions to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and other allergens in Australian and New Guinean populations, and mite counts were determined in Sydney and New Guinea houses. Positive reactions to T. putrescentiae were as frequent as those for D. pteronyssinus in asthmatics in Sydney and were the commonest positive reactions in the normal New Guinea population. T. putrescentiae-specific serum IgE levels were determined and some IgG cross-reactions of D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae antigens were demonstrated. It is suggested that T. putrescentiae is an important source of allergen and should be considered whenever D. pteronyssinus is thought to be a problem. A convenient method for culturing and isolating T. putrescentiae is described. PMID:647897

  6. Living with food allergy: allergen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-04-01

    The primary treatment of food allergy is to avoid the culprit foods. This is a complex undertaking that requires education about reading the labels of manufactured products, understanding how to avoid cross-contact with allergens during food preparation, and communicating effectively with persons who are providing allergen-safe meals including relatives and restaurant personnel. Successful avoidance also requires a knowledge of nuances such as appropriate cleaning practices, an understanding of the risks of ingestion compared to skin contact or inhalation, that exposure could occur through unanticipated means such as through sharing utensils or passionate kissing, and that food may be a component of substances that are not ingested such as cosmetics, bath products, vaccines and medications. The authors review the necessary tools of avoidance that physicians and medical practitioners can use to guide their patients through the complexities of food avoidance.

  7. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track.

  8. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  9. [Allergens responsible for occupational eczemas in hairdressers].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, E

    1982-01-01

    Allergens responsible for occupational contact dermatitis occurring in hairdressers are reviewed. The subject is of topical interest as far as the number of reports on occupational skin diseases shows a considerable increase in the last years. Only a--not yet available--careful analysis of the expertises in the possession of the competent Employers Liability Insurance Association can disclose the relevance of individual sensitizers contained in hair care products to occupational contact eczemas of hairdressers. PMID:6217966

  10. Allerdictor: fast allergen prediction using text classification techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Ha X.; Lawrence, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Accurately identifying and eliminating allergens from biotechnology-derived products are important for human health. From a biomedical research perspective, it is also important to identify allergens in sequenced genomes. Many allergen prediction tools have been developed during the past years. Although these tools have achieved certain levels of specificity, when applied to large-scale allergen discovery (e.g. at a whole-genome scale), they still yield many false positives and thus low precision (even at low recall) due to the extreme skewness of the data (allergens are rare). Moreover, the most accurate tools are relatively slow because they use protein sequence alignment to build feature vectors for allergen classifiers. Additionally, only web server implementations of the current allergen prediction tools are publicly available and are without the capability of large batch submission. These weaknesses make large-scale allergen discovery ineffective and inefficient in the public domain. Results: We developed Allerdictor, a fast and accurate sequence-based allergen prediction tool that models protein sequences as text documents and uses support vector machine in text classification for allergen prediction. Test results on multiple highly skewed datasets demonstrated that Allerdictor predicted allergens with high precision over high recall at fast speed. For example, Allerdictor only took ∼6 min on a single core PC to scan a whole Swiss-Prot database of ∼540 000 sequences and identified <1% of them as allergens. Availability and implementation: Allerdictor is implemented in Python and available as standalone and web server versions at http://allerdictor.vbi.vt.edu. Contact: lawrence@vbi.vt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24403538

  11. Pediatricians' perspectives on indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Hession, Meghan T; Campbell, Shannon M; Balk, Sophie J; Cummins, Deborah L

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results from an online survey of New York State pediatricians regarding their counseling habits and attitudes toward indoor tanning among adolescents, as well as their awareness of current legislation that restricts youth access to tanning beds.

  12. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... devices operate on a timer, the exposure to UV rays can vary based on the age and type of light bulbs. Indoor tanning is designed to give you high levels of UV radiation in a short time. You can get ...

  13. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... as conditions caused by outdoor impacts (such as climate change). Many reports and studies indicate that the following ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup Home Remodel Indoor airPLUS Mold Radon ...

  14. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Indoor Environmental Quality Health Hazard Evaluation ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  15. Markers of tolerance development to food allergens.

    PubMed

    Ponce, M; Diesner, S C; Szépfalusi, Z; Eiwegger, T

    2016-10-01

    IgE-mediated reactions to food allergens are the most common cause of anaphylaxis in childhood. Although allergies to cow's milk, egg, or soy proteins, in contrast to peanut and tree nut allergens, resolve within the first 6 years of life in up to 60% due to natural tolerance development, this process is not well understood. At present, there is no cure or treatment for food allergy that would result in an induction of tolerance to the symptom-eliciting food. Avoidance, providing an emergency plan and education, is the standard of treatment. Oral immunotherapeutic approaches have been proven reasonable efficacy; however, they are associated with high rates of side-effects and low numbers of patients achieving tolerance. Nevertheless, mechanisms that take place during oral immunotherapy may help to understand tolerance development. On the basis of these therapeutic interventions, events like loss of basophil activation and induction of regulatory lymphocyte subsets and of blocking antibodies have been described. Their functional importance at a clinical level, however, remains to be investigated in detail. Consequently, there is eminent need to understand the process of tolerance development to food allergens and define biomarkers to develop and monitor new treatment strategies for food allergy. PMID:27286276

  16. Buckwheat anaphylaxis: an unusual allergen in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsung-Chi; Shyur, Shyh-Dar; Wen, Da-Chin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Li-Hsin

    2006-01-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to buckwheat is common in Korea, Japan, and some other Asian countries. However, buckwheat is not a common allergen in Taiwan. We report a woman with asthma who had anaphylactic shock, generalized urticaria, and an acute exacerbation of asthma five minutes after ingesting buckwheat. The patient underwent skin prick and Pharmacia CAP testing (Uppsala, Sweden) for specific IgE to buckwheat, white sesame and soybean as well as other common allergens in Taiwan including Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), D. farinae (Df), cat and dog dander, cockroach, egg white, cow milk and codfish. The patient had a strongly positive skin prick test response to buckwheat and positive reactions to Dp and latex. Specific IgE results were class 6 for buckwheat, class 4 for Dp and Df, and class 2 for dog dander, wheat, sesame and soybean. Results of an open food challenge with white sesame and soybean were negative. Although buckwheat is a rare allergen in Taiwan, it can cause extremely serious reactions and should be considered in patients presenting with anaphylaxis after exposure to buckwheat. PMID:17136883

  17. Biotransformation Strategy To Reduce Allergens in Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Gardana, Claudio; Barbieri, Andrea; Simonetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous, sticky, dark-colored material produced by honeybees. Propolis today, due to its medicinal properties, is increasingly popular and is extensively used in food, beverages, and cosmetic products. Besides its numerous positive properties, propolis may also have adverse effects, such as, principally, allergic eczematous contact dermatitis in apiarists and in consumers with an allergic predisposition. In this study, we found appropriate conditions for removing caffeate esters, which are the main allergenic components, from raw propolis. The proposed method consists of the resuspension of propolis in a food grade solvent, followed by a biotransformation based on the cinnamoyl esterase activity of Lactobacillus helveticus. We showed that the reduction of caffeate esters by L. helveticus did not affect the content of flavonoids, which are the main bioactive molecules of propolis. Furthermore, we verified that the biotransformation of propolis did not cause a loss of antimicrobial activity. Finally, we demonstrated that the ability of L. helveticus to hydrolyze caffeate esters in propolis is strain specific. In conclusion, the proposed strategy is simple, employs food grade materials, and is effective in selectively removing allergenic molecules without affecting the bioactive fraction of propolis. This is the first study demonstrating that the allergenic caffeate esters of propolis can be eliminated by means of a bacterial biotransformation procedure. PMID:22522681

  18. Assessment of the allergenic potential of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Betts, Catherine J; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2003-04-11

    The development of novel foods, including foods derived from genetically modified plants, has generated considerable interest in the design and application of appropriate safety assurance measures. A specific focus of attention has been on allergenicity, and in particular the need to determine whether the products of novel genes introduced into food plants have the potential to cause allergic sensitisation. Among the approaches applied currently are considerations of whether a new protein has structural, sequence and/or antigenic similarities with known food allergens, and whether or not it displays resistance to digestion within a simulated gastric fluid, or by pepsin. Although such data are useful in an overall hazard assessment, they are neither individually, nor collectively, able to provide a direct evaluation of inherent sensitising potential. For this reason there is a need to develop and apply appropriate animal models that will offer a more holistic view of sensitising activity. Several methods have been suggested, but as yet none has been evaluated fully or validated. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made and in this article an experimental approach using BALB/c strain mice in which animals are exposed to the test protein via systemic (intraperitoneal, or in certain circumstances, intradermal) administration is described. Inherent sensitising potential is measured as a function of induced IgE antibody responses. Experience to date is encouraging and the data available reveal that this method is able to distinguish between proteins of different allergenic potential.

  19. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects.

  20. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects. PMID:21889403

  1. Enhancement of systemic and sputum granulocyte response to inhaled endotoxin in people with the GSTM1 null genotype

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine if the GSTM1 null genotype is a risk factor for increased inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin. Methods 35 volunteers who had undergone inhalation challenge with a 20 000 endotoxin unit dose of Clinical Center Reference Endotoxin (CCRE) were genotyped for the G...

  2. Wind-pollination and the roles of pollen allergenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Songnuan, Wisuwat

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an explosion of understanding of the molecular nature of major allergens contained within pollens from the most important allergenic plant species. Most major allergens belong to only a few protein families. Protein characteristics, cross-reactivity, structures, and IgE binding epitopes have been determined for several allergens. These efforts have led to significant improvements in specific immunotherapy, yet there has been little discussion about the physiological functions of these proteins. Even with large amounts of available information about allergenic proteins from pollens, the incidence of pollen allergy continuously increases worldwide. The reason for this increase is unclear and is most likely due to a combination of factors. One important culprit might be a change in the pollen itself. Knowledge about pollen biology and how pollen is changing as a result of more extreme environmental conditions might improve our understanding of the disease. This review focuses on the characteristics of plants producing allergenic pollens that are relevant to pollen allergy, including the phylogenetic relationships, pollen dispersal distances, amounts of pollen produced, amounts of protein in each type of pollen, and how allergenic proteins are released from pollens. In addition, the physiological roles of major allergenic protein families will be discussed to help us understand why some of these proteins become allergens and why GMO plants with hypoallergenic pollens may not be successful.

  3. 76 FR 14414 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to the Agency on FDA's regulatory issues..., Parasitic, and Allergenic Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA; (2)...

  4. Endogenous allergen upregulation: transgenic vs. traditionally bred crops.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Ladics, Gregory S

    2011-10-01

    The safety assessment for transgenic food crops currently includes an evaluation of the endogenous allergy potential (via serum IgE screening) when the non-transgenic counterpart is a commonly allergenic food. The value of this analysis in the safety assessment of transgenic crops, especially with reference to recent requests to quantify individual allergen concentrations in raw commodities, is examined. We conclude that the likelihood of upregulating an endogenous allergen due to transgenesis is no greater than from traditional breeding which has a history of safety and is largely unregulated. The potential consequences of upregulating an endogenous allergen are also unclear.

  5. Strategies to Reduce Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Glenn, Jeffrey D.; Guy, Gery P.; Watson, Meg; Baker, Katie; Cokkinides, Vilma; Gottlieb, Mark; Lazovich, DeAnn; Perna, Frank M.; Sampson, Blake P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning device use is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, including risk of malignant melanoma, and is an urgent public health problem. By reducing indoor tanning, future cases of skin cancer could be prevented, along with the associated morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. On August 20, 2012, the CDC hosted a meeting to discuss the current body of evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning as well as research gaps. Using the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Overarching Goals as a framework, the current paper provides highlights on the topics that were discussed, including (1) the state of the evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning; (2) the tools necessary to effectively assess, monitor, and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of interventions designed to reduce indoor tanning; and (3) strategies to align efforts at the national, state, and local levels through transdisciplinary collaboration and coordination across multiple sectors. Although many challenges and barriers exist, a coordinated, multilevel, transdisciplinary approach has the potential to reduce indoor tanning and prevent future cases of skin cancer. PMID:23683986

  6. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy: multiple suppressor factors at work in immune tolerance to allergens.

    PubMed

    Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2014-03-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for more than 100 years as a desensitizing therapy for IgE-mediated allergic diseases and represents a potentially curative way of treatment. The mechanisms of action of AIT include the induction of very early desensitization of mast cells and basophils; generation of regulatory T and regulatory B (Breg) cell responses; regulation of IgE and IgG4; decreases in numbers and activity of eosinophils and mast cells in mucosal allergic tissues; and decreases in the activity of basophils in circulation. Skewing of allergen-specific effector T and effector B cells to a regulatory phenotype appears as a key event in the course of AIT and normal immune response to allergens. Recently, inducible IL-10-secreting Breg cells were also demonstrated to contribute to allergen tolerance through suppression of effector T cells and selective induction of IgG4 isotype antibodies. Allergen-specific regulatory T and Breg cells orchestrate a general immunoregulatory activity, which can be summarized as suppression of cytokines from inflammatory dendritic cells; suppression of effector TH1, TH2, and TH17 cells; suppression of allergen-specific IgE and induction of IgG4; and suppression of migration of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and effector T cells to tissues. A detailed knowledge of the mechanisms of AIT is not only important in designing the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases but might also find applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, organ transplantation, chronic infection, and cancer.

  7. Relative immunogenicity of commonly allergenic foods versus rarely allergenic and nonallergenic foods in mice.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Neil; Thanesvorakul, Sirinart; Gangur, Venu

    2002-12-01

    Food allergies affect 6 to 8% of children and 2% of adults in the United States. For reasons that are not clear, eight types of food account for a vast majority (approximately 90%) of food-induced hypersensitivity reactions. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were used to test the hypothesis that commonly allergenic foods are intrinsically more immunogenic than rarely allergenic or nonallergenic foods in allergy-susceptible hosts. Groups of mice (n = 4 to 5) were injected intraperitoneally with the protein extracts (plus alum as an adjuvant) from chicken eggs, peanuts, almonds, filberts-hazelnuts, walnuts, soybeans, and wheat (commonly allergenic foods) and coffee, sweet potatoes, carrots, white potatoes, cherries, lettuce, and spinach (rarely allergenic and nonallergenic foods). Primary and secondary immune responses (as measured by specific IgG1 antibody serum levels) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proteins from peanuts, almonds, filberts, sweet potatoes, cherries, and spinach elicited robust primary and/or secondary immune responses. Proteins from eggs, walnuts, and lettuce elicited poor primary responses but significant secondary responses. In contrast, wheat, soybeans, coffee, carrots, and white potatoes elicited barely detectable to poor primary and secondary immune responses. The order of the immunogenicity levels of these foods in mice is as follows: almonds = filberts > spinach (Rubisco) > peanuts > or = sweet potatoes > cherries > lettuce > walnuts > chicken eggs > carrots > or = white potatoes > wheat = coffee = soybeans. In summary, these data demonstrate for the first time that: (i) foods vary widely with regard to their relative immunogenicity in allergy-susceptible hosts and (ii) intrinsic immunogenicity in mice does not distinguish commonly allergenic foods from rarely allergenic or nonallergenic foods.

  8. REDUCING INDOOR HUMIDITY SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCES DUST MITES AND ALLERGEN IN HOMES. (R825250)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into... Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into... Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of...

  12. Electrochemical endotoxin sensors based on TLR4/MD-2 complexes immobilized on gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tae Yun; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Byung Kook; Kim, Beob Soo; Yoon, Hwa In; Lee, Hyeong Yun; Cho, Yong Woo

    2011-10-15

    Even low concentrations of endotoxins can be life-threatening. As such, continuous effort has been directed toward the development of sensitive and specific endotoxin detection systems. In this paper, we report the design and fabrication of a new electrochemical endotoxin sensor based on a human recombinant toll-like receptor 4 (rhTLR4) and myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) complex. The rhTLR4/MD-2 complex, which specifically binds to endotoxin, was immobilized on gold electrodes through a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) technique involving the use of dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU). The surface topography of the electrodes at each fabrication stage was characterized with a nanosurface profiler and atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrochemical signals generated from interactions between the rhTLR4/MD-2 complex and the endotoxin were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A linear relationship between the peak current and endotoxin concentration was obtained in the range of 0.0005 to 5 EU/mL with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.978. The estimated limit of detection (LOD) was fairly low, 0.0002 EU/mL. The rhTLR4/MD-2 based sensors exhibited no current responses to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bearing two lipid chains, which is structurally similar to endotoxin, indicating the high specificity of the sensors to endotoxin. PMID:21816600

  13. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation. PMID:26689874

  14. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin.

    PubMed

    Archilla, José R F; Moreira, Maria S N A; Miyagi, Sueli P H; Bombana, Antônio C; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124  J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  15. New generation ceramic membranes have the potential of removing endotoxins from dialysis water and dialysate.

    PubMed

    Czermak, P; Ebrahimi, M; Catapano, G

    2005-07-01

    Poor water properties, use of concentrated bicarbonate, and biofilm growth in pipes and storage tanks often cause dialysis water and dialysate contamination with bacteria and endotoxins. High-flux dialysis with bicarbonate may favor endotoxin transfer from the dialysate into the blood exposing patients to serious short-and long-term side effects. Ultrafiltration across hydrophobic synthetic membranes effectively removes endotoxins from dialysis water by combined filtration and adsorption. However, repeated sterilization worsens the membrane separation properties,and limits their use. Ceramic membranes are generally more resistant to harsh operating conditions than polymeric membranes, and may represent an alternative for endotoxin removal. Previously, we proved that the ceramic membranes commercially available at that time were not retentive enough to ensure production of endotoxin-free dialysis water. In this paper, we investigated the endotoxin removal capacity of new generation commercial ceramic membranes with nominal molecular weight cut-off down to 1,000. In dead-end filtration, all investigated membranes produced water meeting, the European standards, or close to,when challenged with low endotoxin concentrations, but only one membrane type succeeded at high endotoxin concentrations. In cross-flow filtration, none produced water meeting the European standard. Moreover, sterilization and rinsing procedures altered the separation properties of two out of three membrane types. PMID:16049903

  16. Marine aerosol as a possible source for endotoxins in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Lehahn, Yoav; Herut, Barak; Burshtein, Noa; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-11-15

    Marine aerosols, that are very common in the highly populated coastal cities and communities, may contain biological constituents. Some of this biological fraction of marine aerosols, such as cyanobacteria and plankton debris, may influence human health by inflammation and allergic reactions when inhaled. In this study we identify and compare sources for endotoxins sampled on filters in an on-shore and more-inland site. Filter analysis included endotoxin content, total bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria genome concentrations as well as ion content in order to identify possible sources for the endotoxins. Satellite images of chlorophyll-a levels and back trajectory analysis were used to further study the cyanobacteria blooms in the sea, close to the trajectory of the sampled air. The highest endotoxin concentrations found in the shoreline site were during winter (3.23±0.17 EU/m(3)), together with the highest cyanobacteria genome (1065.5 genome/m(3)). The elevated endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated with cyanobacterial levels scaled to the presence of marine aerosol (r=0.90), as well as to chlorophyll-a (r=0.96). Filters sampled further inland showed lower and non-significant correlation between endotoxin and cyanobacteria (r=0.70, P value=0.19), suggesting decrease in marine-originated endotoxin, with possible contributions from other sources of gram-negative non-cyanobacteria. We conclude that marine cyanobacteria may be a dominant contributor to elevated endotoxin levels in coastal areas.

  17. Physical and biological properties of U. S. standard endotoxin EC after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Elin, R.J.; Hochstein, H.D.; Tsai, C.M.

    1983-07-01

    Techniques that reduce the toxicity of bacterial endotoxins are useful for studying the relationship between structure and biological activity. We used ionizing radiation to detoxify a highly refined endotoxin preparation. U.S. standard endotoxin EC. Dose-dependent changes occurred by exposure to /sup 60/Co-radiation in the physical properties and biological activities of the endotoxin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis showed gradual loss of the polysaccharide components (O-side chain and R-core) from the endotoxin molecules. In contrast, although endotoxin revealed a complex absorption pattern in the UV range, radiation treatment failed to modify that pattern. Dose-related destruction of the primary toxic component, lipid A, was suggested by the results of activity tests: both the pyrogenicity and limulus reactivity of the endotoxin were destroyed by increasing doses of radiation. The results indicate that the detoxification is probably due to multiple effects of the ionizing radiation on bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and the action involves (i) the destruction of polysaccharide moieties and possibly (ii) the alteration of lipid A component of the endotoxin molecule.

  18. Growth inhibitory effects of endotoxins from Bacteroides gingivalis and intermedius on human gingival fibroblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, D.L.; Diedrich, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    Purified endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide from Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius caused a similar dose-dependent inhibition of growth of cultured human gingival fibroblasts as determined by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and direct cell count. Approximately 200 micrograms/ml endotoxin caused a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake of logarithmically growing cells. Inhibition of growth was similar in cultures of fibroblasts derived from either healthy or diseased human gingiva. When examining the change in cell number with time of exposure in culture, the rate of proliferation was significantly suppressed during the logarithmic phase of growth. However, the cells recovered so that the rate of proliferation, although reduced, was sufficient to produce a cell density similar to the control cells with prolonged culture. The endotoxins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The profiles of the Bacteroides endotoxins were different. B. gingivalis endotoxin showed a wide range of distinct bands indicating a heterogeneous distribution of molecular species. Endotoxin from B. intermedius exhibited a few discrete low molecular weight bands, but the majority of the lipopolysaccharides electrophoresed as a diffuse band of high molecular weight material. The apparent heterogeneity of the two Bacteroides endotoxins and the similarity in growth inhibitory capacity suggest that growth inhibitory effects of these substances cannot be attributed to any polysaccharide species of endotoxin.

  19. The involvement of an LPS inducible I kappa B kinase in endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kohler, N G; Joly, A

    1997-03-27

    When human ovarian carcinoma cells are challenged with endotoxin, an I kappa B kinase is transiently induced within 3 to 5 min. This enzyme activity causes the hyperphosphorylation and subsequent degradation of I kappa B which allows NF-kappa B to translocate to the nucleus where it activates transcription. When endotoxin treated cells are rechallenged with a second dose of LPS, I kappa B kinase is not detected and I kappa B remains in the cytoplasm where it sequesters NF-kappa B. We report here the absence of endotoxin inducible I kappa B kinase activity in endotoxin tolerant cells suggesting that I kappa B kinase may play an important role in endotoxin tolerance. When cells tolerant to endotoxin are treated with TNF, I kappa B kinase activity is induced. Thus cells that are endotoxin tolerant are not cross tolerant to TNF. Dexamethasone, a known inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation does not inhibit endotoxin dependent induction of I kappa B kinase suggesting that the mechanism of action of dexamethasone is different from the tolerance mechanism reported here.

  20. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archilla, José R. F.; Moreira, Maria S. N. A.; Miyagi, Sueli P. H.; Bombana, Antônio C.; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M.

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124 J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.