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Sample records for indoor allergens endotoxin

  1. Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ka Man

    2017-01-01

    Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination. PMID:28106812

  2. Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins?

    PubMed

    Lai, Ka Man

    2017-01-18

    Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination.

  3. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Martin D.; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Recent findings Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Summary Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy. PMID:27184001

  4. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy.

  5. Indoor allergen exposure and asthma outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, William J.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to discuss updates on research regarding the relationship between indoor allergen exposure and childhood asthma with a focus on clinical effects, locations of exposure, and novel treatments. Recent findings Recent data continue to demonstrate that early life sensitization to indoor allergens is a predictor of asthma development later in life. Furthermore, avoidance of exposure to these allergens continues to be important especially given that the vast majority of children with asthma are sensitized to at least one indoor allergen. New research suggests that mouse allergen, more so than cockroach allergen, may be the most relevant urban allergen. Recent evidence reminds us that children are exposed to clinically important levels of indoor allergens in locations away from their home, such as schools and daycare centers. Exposure to increased levels of indoor mold in childhood has been associated with asthma development and exacerbation of current asthma; however, emerging evidence suggests that early exposure to higher fungal diversity may actually be protective for asthma development. Novel treatments have been developed that target TH2 pathways thus decreasing asthmatic responses to allergens. These therapies show promise for the treatment of severe allergic asthma refractory to avoidance strategies and standard therapies. Summary Understanding the relationship between indoor allergens and asthma outcomes is a constantly evolving study of timing, location, and amount of exposure. PMID:27653703

  6. Airborne allergens, endotoxins, and particulate matter in elementary schools, results from Germany (LUPE 2).

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Bischof, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Silvio; Lahrz, Thomas; Schierl, Rudolf; Schwegler, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Allergic disorders are the most common childhood-related chronic diseases in developed countries. It is essential to assess the exposure, especially in schools, where children spend a large portion of their time. We aimed to investigate allergen and endotoxin levels in the air of schools and to observe seasonal variations of these factors. We evaluated airborne concentrations of house dust mites allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat allergen (Fel d 1), and endotoxin in PM10 in 14 classrooms during the school days in the region of Munich, each over 20 consecutive days and in 1 classroom over the course of a year (at 83 days); we also tested outdoor air close to the schools. Endotoxin levels were quantified using two different analytical methods. In addition, indoor air climate parameters were measured. The median daily indoor CO2 and PM10 concentrations in the classrooms ranged from 423 to 3,135 ppm (median: 1,211 ppm) and 9 to 390 μg/m(3) (median: 127 μg/m(3)), respectively. Fel d 1 in the PM10 samples was the most frequently detected allergen, with levels from 0.02 to 1.15 ng/m(3) in a total of 301 samples (median: 0.19 ng/m(3), 95th percentile: 0.57 ng/m(3)). Der p 1 and Der f 1 were detected in only 51% and 19% of the samples, with 95th percentiles at 0.5 and 0.3 ng/m(3). Endotoxin levels in the PM10 and inhalable dust samples ranged from 0.5 to 84.1 EU/m(3) (median: 15.3 EU/m(3); 95th percentile: 58.2 EU/m(3)) and from 0.03 to 115 EU/m(3) (median: 8.4 EU/m(3); 95th percentile: 27.9 EU/m(3)). Fel d 1 and endotoxin were found in higher levels in the winter months. The results of the two different indoor sampling techniques for endotoxin were statistically significantly correlated. The results of airborne allergens indicate a generally low exposure level in classrooms. With regard to endotoxin, our study showed higher levels in schools compared with residences.

  7. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  8. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  9. Endotoxin and house dust mite allergen levels on synthetic and buckwheat pillows.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Park, Choon-Sik; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2004-08-01

    Pillows are known to contain significant levels of indoor allergens and endotoxin, that are of importance to house dust mite sensitized asthmatics. Buckwheat pillows are commonly used in Korea. We studied the levels of the house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, and endotoxin on new synthetic and buckwheat pillows and their accumulation over three months. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher on new buckwheat pillows compared to synthetic pillows; geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 60,950 EU/g (30,270-122,700) and 4,887 EU/g (2,570-9,311) respectively (p<0.001). No Der f 1 was detected on the new pillows. After three months Der f 1 levels were similar on buckwheat and synthetic pillows, geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 1.16 microg/g (0.02-8.13) and 1.08 microg/g (0.19-1.68) respectively. These results indicate that buckwheat pillows are a source of very high endotoxin levels that may be of relevance to asthma severity of atopic asthmatics.

  10. Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants in homes of asthmatic children in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Siebers, Robert; Chang, Chin-Fu; Hsieh, Shu-Wen; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chen, Chi-Ying; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian

    2009-09-01

    Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants play a significant role in asthma symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine levels of house dust mite allergens, bacterial endotoxin, and fungal beta-glucan in homes of 120 asthmatic children in central Taiwan. Dust samples from 120 mattresses (67 double-sided) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, and Blo t 5), endotoxin, and beta-glucan. Pillows (n = 118) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens only. Kitchen dust samples were analyzed for the cockroach allergen, Bla g 1. Blo t 5 was detected in 9.3% pillows and 82.2% mattresses, Der p 1 in 95.8% pillows and 93.2% mattresses, and Der f 1 in 82.2% pillows and 83.1% mattresses. Geometric mean levels (95% confidence interval) of endotoxin and beta-glucan in mattresses were 108.4 Eu/mg (81.4-144.2) and 25.2 microg/g (22.7-28.0), respectively. House dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels were significantly lower on the bamboo side of 67 mattresses, compared to the inner sprung mattress side. Geometric mean of kitchen Bla g 1 was 0.61 U/g (95% CI: 0.43-0.85). Given the presence of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in central Taiwan, it is advised to measure allergens of all three house dust mite species to obtain a true index of allergen exposure. Bamboo sides of mattresses had significantly lower house dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels.

  11. ALLERGEN PROVOCATION AUGMENTS ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED NASAL INFLAMMATION IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent epidemiologic and in vivo studies have suggested that inhaled endotoxin plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis.
    Objective: The present study examines the effect of nasal allergen provocation on subsequent endotoxin challenges in subjects with atopi...

  12. Domestic allergens and endotoxin in three hospitals offering in-patient rehabilitation for allergic diseases in the alpine mountain climate of Bavaria - The AURA study.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, B; Gulyas, A F; Schultz, K; Lecheler, J; Flögel, S; Wolfmeyer, C; Thiessen, K; Jakob, T; Schuster, T; Hollweck, R; Ring, J; Behrendt, H

    2009-01-01

    Endotoxins and allergens represent the major relevant contents of the atmospheric bioaerosol with regard to the triggering and exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, mattress concentrations of endotoxin and indoor allergens were measured in three hospitals in the alpine climate of Bavaria and in adjacent homes. Dust was collected from each of 10 mattresses according to a standardized protocol, and endotoxin was analyzed with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, indoor allergens Der p 1, Der f 1 and Fel d 1 were analyzed by ELISAs. The concentration of endotoxin in the mattresses did not differ significantly between different cities. The percentiles of endotoxin were significantly higher in hospitals than in homes. The concentrations of mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) in the dust were significantly lower in all hospitals than in homes. There was no significant difference of mite allergens between different time points. The concentrations of Fel d 1 were significantly higher in the autumn than in the summer (median: 1376 vs. 478ng/g). No significant differences of Fel d 1 were found between hospitals and homes or between different hospitals. As Fel d 1 concentrations reached levels at which cat allergic patients can experience symptoms, efforts had to be made to reduce the concentrations of Fel d 1 especially in hospitals. In contrast, mite allergens were low in hospitals, which can be clinically beneficial for patients with mite allergies.

  13. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-01-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  14. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  15. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    PubMed

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  16. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  17. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sever, Michelle L.; Sly, Peter D.; London, Stephanie J.; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning. PMID:25715241

  18. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sever, Michelle L; Sly, Peter D; London, Stephanie J; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning.

  19. Airborne endotoxin concentrations in indoor and outdoor particulate matter and their predictors in an urban city.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Y; Tamura, K; Shima, M

    2017-02-04

    Endotoxins are an important biological component of particulate matter and have been associated with adverse effects on human health. There have been some recent studies on airborne endotoxin concentrations. We collected fine (PM2.5 ) and coarse (PM10-2.5 ) particulate matter twice on weekdays and weekends each for 48 hour, inside and outside 55 homes in an urban city in Japan. Endotoxin concentrations in both fractions were measured using the kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The relationships between endotoxin concentrations and household characteristics were evaluated for each fraction. Both indoor and outdoor endotoxin concentrations were higher in PM2.5 than in PM10-2.5 . In both PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 , indoor endotoxin concentrations were higher than outdoor concentrations, and the indoor endotoxin concentrations significantly correlated with outdoor concentrations in each fraction (R(2) =0.458 and 0.198, respectively). Indoor endotoxin concentrations in PM2.5 were significantly higher in homes with tatami or carpet flooring and in homes with pets, and lower in homes that used air purifiers. Indoor endotoxin concentrations in PM10-2.5 were significantly higher in homes with two or more children and homes with tatami or carpet flooring. These results showed that the indoor endotoxin concentrations were associated with the household characteristics in addition to outdoor endotoxin concentrations.

  20. [Outdoor and indoor allergens and the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Kanceljak-Macán, B; Macan, J; Plavec, D

    2000-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of common outdoor and indoor allergens which cause sensitisation of the respiratory tract and considers relevant biological and ecological hallmarks and symptoms of allergies. Grass, tree, and weed pollens as well as moulds (Cladosporium and Alternaria species) are a major source of allergens in the outdoor environment whereas mites (Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, and Glycyphagidae), animals (pets, rodents, and insects), and moulds (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor species) are a major source in the indoor environment. The paper pays attention to the seasonal, geographical, and climatic influence on the concentration of allergen in the environment. The authors discuss differences between exposure to outdoor and indoor allergens, as well as the impact of pollutants on sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The paper proceeds with a short description of the primary prevention measures such as avoidance of the allergens and the secondary measures which are intended to prevent the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory symptoms in sensitised persons.

  1. Household characteristics and allergen and endotoxin levels in Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Al Ali, W; Custovic, A; Simpson, A; Khoury, A; Woodcock, A

    2010-07-01

    Few data are available from Eastern Mediterranean countries about levels of domestic allergens and endotoxins. Dust samples were collected from mattresses and floors of 457 homes in the Syrian city of Aleppo and analysed for antigens and endotoxins. The most important predictors for detectable levels of house-dust mite allergen Der p 1 were Arabic-style houses (OR 3.21) and newer houses (OR 1.56). In homes without cats, rubber mattresses were associated with detectable cat allergen Fel d 1 in mattress dust (OR 1.6). Cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was significantly more likely to be detected in houses over 20 years old than newer houses. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in wool/cotton mattresses and older houses.

  2. Residential indoor and outdoor coarse particles and associated endotoxin exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Amanda J.; Dobbin, Nina A.; Lyrette, Ninon; Wallace, Lance; Foto, Mark; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Kearney, Jill; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Harrison, Ian; Rispler, Kathleen; Héroux, Marie-Eve

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that coarse particles (PM 10-2.5) have detrimental impacts upon health, especially for respiratory effects. There are limited data available for indoor residential exposures. Some data exist regarding the composition of this PM size fraction with emphasis on crustal elements and biological components. This study includes data from 146 homes sampled in Regina, Saskatchewan (SK) where 5-day integrated concurrent monitoring of indoor and outdoor coarse particles was conducted during the winter and summer of 2007. The coarse particle filters were subsequently analysed for endotoxin content to determine the contribution of this compound. Winter indoor geometric mean concentrations of coarse particles exceeded outdoor concentrations (3.73 μg m -3 vs 2.49 μg m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001); however the reverse was found in summer (4.34 μg m -3 vs 8.82 μg m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001). Linear regression indicated that winter predictors of indoor coarse particles were outdoor coarse particles, ventilation and presence of at least two or more occupants. During the summer, increased use of central air conditioning was associated with reduced coarse particles, while smoking and the presence of two or more occupants resulted in increased coarse particles. Endotoxin concentrations (EU μg -1) were lower indoors than outdoors in both seasons. Spatial variability of ambient coarse particles was assessed to determine the suitability of using a single monitoring station within a city to estimate exposure. The coefficients of variation between homes sampled simultaneously and the central monitoring station were calculated (median COV in summer = 15% and winter = 24%) and showed significant variability by week, especially during the summer months, suggesting a single site may be insufficient for characterizing exposure. Future studies should consider daily measurements per home to understand shorter term exposures and day to day

  3. [Exposition and sensitisation to indoor allergens, house dust mite allergen and cat allergens].

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, S; Felder-Kennel, A; Gabrio, T; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Piechotowski, I; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schwenk, M; Weidner, U; Zöllner, I

    2003-07-01

    The study examined the exposure to biological indoor air agents and their possible role for allergies and respiratory tract illnesses of children. It was conducted as a case control study (atopic vs non-atopic children) at the four surveillance public health departments in Baden-Württemberg in the winter season 1999/2000 and included 379 children of the fourth class. The concentrations of the house dust mite antigens Der F1, Der p1, and Der Gr2 as well as cat allergen Fel d1 were determined in the children's bedrooms on the ground and in the mattress. Specific IgE-antibodies against allergens from house dust, mites and cat were determined in the serum of the children. For mite allergens the following medians ( micro g/g) were estimated in floor dust: Der p1 = 0.6, Der f1 = 2.3, Gr2 = 0.1; in mattresses: Der p1 = 1.2, Der f1 = 3.4, Gr2 = 0.3. The median of Fel d1 in floor dust was 0.2 microg/g, in mattresses 0.1 microg/g. Sensitisation to dust mite allergen was found to be more prevalent than sensitisation to cat. The distribution of sensitisation among the cases and controls is different. Among the cases, more subjects were sensitised to dust mites (32.9 %) and cat (13.1 %). Among the controls, 17.1 % were sensitised to dust mites and 4.1 % to cat. The results showed no direct association between the prevalence of allergies or respiratory tract illnesses and the indoor concentrations of the allergens. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.

  4. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-03

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations.

  5. Indoor allergens, environmental avoidance, and allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    Indoor allergen exposure to sources such as house-dust mites, pets, fungi, and insects plays a significant role in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The identification of the major allergens has led to methods that can quantitate exposure, e.g., immunoassays for Der p 1 in settled dust samples. Sensitization and the development of allergic respiratory disease result from complex genetic and environmental interactions. New paradigms that examine the role of other environmental factors, including exposure to proteases that can activate eosinophils and initiate Th2 responses, and epigenetics, are being explored. Recommendations for specific environmental allergen avoidance measures are discussed for house-dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and fungi. Specific measures to reduce indoor allergen exposure when vigorously applied may reduce the risk of sensitization and symptoms of allergic respiratory disease, although further research will be necessary to establish cost-effective approaches.

  6. Short-term dynamics of indoor and outdoor endotoxin exposure: Case of Santiago, Chile, 2012.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Heyer, Johanna; Palma, Wilfredo; Edwards, Ana María; Muñoz, Marcelo; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Montoya, Lupita D

    2016-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor endotoxin in PM2.5 was measured for the very first time in Santiago, Chile, in spring 2012. Average endotoxin concentrations were 0.099 and 0.094 [EU/m(3)] for indoor (N=44) and outdoor (N=41) samples, respectively; the indoor-outdoor correlation (log-transformed concentrations) was low: R=-0.06, 95% CI: (-0.35 to 0.24), likely owing to outdoor spatial variability. A linear regression model explained 68% of variability in outdoor endotoxins, using as predictors elemental carbon (a proxy of traffic emissions), chlorine (a tracer of marine air masses reaching the city) and relative humidity (a modulator of surface emissions of dust, vegetation and garbage debris). In this study, for the first time a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was applied to outdoor endotoxin measurements. Wind trajectory analysis identified upwind agricultural sources as contributors to the short-term, outdoor endotoxin variability. Our results confirm an association between combustion particles from traffic and outdoor endotoxin concentrations. For indoor endotoxins, a predictive model was developed but it only explained 44% of endotoxin variability; the significant predictors were tracers of indoor PM2.5 dust (Si, Ca), number of external windows and number of hours with internal doors open. Results suggest that short-term indoor endotoxin variability may be driven by household dust/garbage production and handling. This would explain the modest predictive performance of published models that use answers to household surveys as predictors. One feasible alternative is to increase the sampling period so that household features would arise as significant predictors of long-term airborne endotoxin levels.

  7. Indoor dust and air concentrations of endotoxin in urban and rural environments.

    PubMed

    Barnig, C; Reboux, G; Roussel, S; Casset, A; Sohy, C; Dalphin, J-C; de Blay, F

    2013-03-01

    Rural dairy farming is associated with high exposure to indoor endotoxins as compared to rural nonfarming houses and urban houses. The time spent on the mattress (7 h for an adult) and of the proximity of the contaminated source should be taken into account with the other causes of exposure. Studies in European children from a farming background have shown that these children have a reduced risk of asthma and atopic sensitization compared to their urban counterparts. It has been suggested that this might be due to exposure to high levels of endotoxin in the farming environment. The aim of this study was to compare indoor endotoxin concentrations in air and dust samples from randomly selected urban and rural dwellings. In the rural area, endotoxins were analysed in farmhouses and nonfarmhouses as well as housing characteristics, lifestyle factors and agricultural practices likely to influence air and dust endotoxin levels. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in floor (6600 ± 6100 vs 3600 ± 5600 and 3800 ± 17,000 ng g⁻¹; P < 0·001) and mattress dust (2900 ± 4100 vs 1100 ± 2400 and 800 ± 2600 ng g⁻¹; P < 0·001) from farmhouses compared to other rural and urban homes. However, no difference was observed between endotoxin concentrations in the air of urban and rural houses, and airborne endotoxin levels did not correlate to dust levels. Lack of ventilation and direct entry into the house were correlated with an increase in dust endotoxin levels. These results confirm that dairy farming is associated with high exposure to endotoxins in indoor dust samples. No difference was observed between indoor airborne concentrations between urban and rural houses. These results suggest that measuring endotoxin in dust is the most relevant method to assess endotoxin exposure. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Allergenic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yongjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, SPH,...

  9. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Allergenic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yongjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, SPH,...

  10. Exposure to indoor allergens and association with allergy symptoms of employees in a work environment.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Barbara; Brescianini, Sonia; Barletta, Bianca; Butteroni, Cinzia; Rotondi, Daniela; Masciulli, Rosalba; Aliberti, Malaguti; Pini, Carlo; Di Felice, Gabriella; Iacovacci, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens is an important risk factor for sensitisation and respiratory allergy. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the levels of mite, cat and latex allergens in dust collected from an indoor workplace and to assess whether the exposure to these allergens was associated with the allergy symptoms reported by employees. Sixty dust samples were collected. Allergen concentrations were measured with antibody based ELISAs. All 144 participants compiled a questionnaire exploring possible symptoms of allergy. No association between latex allergen exposure and symptoms was found in spite of the high frequency of latex allergens. Mite allergens were detected in a minority of rooms. Cat allergen was the most important indoor allergen in the sampled workplace and exposure to this allergen could represent a risk for employees.

  11. Indoor emissions as a primary source of airborne allergenic fungal particles in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Hospodsky, Denina; Dannemiller, Karen C; Nazaroff, William W; Peccia, Jordan

    2015-04-21

    This study quantifies the influence of ventilation and indoor emissions on concentrations and particle sizes of airborne indoor allergenic fungal taxa and further examines geographical variability, each of which may affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Quantitative PCR and multiplexed DNA sequencing were employed to count and identify allergenic fungal aerosol particles indoors and outdoors in seven school classrooms in four different countries. Quantitative diversity analysis was combined with building characterization and mass balance modeling to apportion source contributions of indoor allergenic airborne fungal particles. Mass balance calculations indicate that 70% of indoor fungal aerosol particles and 80% of airborne allergenic fungal taxa were associated with indoor emissions; on average, 81% of allergenic fungi from indoor sources originated from occupant-generated emissions. Principal coordinate analysis revealed geographical variations in fungal communities among sites in China, Europe, and North America (p < 0.05, analysis of similarity), demonstrating that geography may also affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Indoor emissions including those released with occupancy contribute more substantially to allergenic fungal exposures in classrooms sampled than do outdoor contributions from ventilation. The results suggest that design and maintenance of buildings to control indoor emissions may enable reduced indoor inhalation exposures to fungal allergens.

  12. Indoor and outdoor particulate matter and endotoxin concentrations in an intensely agricultural county

    PubMed Central

    Pavilonis, Brian T.; Anthony, T. Renee; O’Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Humann, Michael J.; Merchant, James A.; Moore, Genna; Thorne, Peter S.; Weisel, Clifford P.; Sanderson, Wayne T.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize rural populations’ indoor and outdoor exposure to PM10, PM2.5, and endotoxin and identify factors that influence these concentrations. Samples were collected at 197 rural households over five continuous days between 2007 and 2011. Geometric mean indoor PM10 (21.2 μg m−3) and PM2.5 (12.2 μg m−3) concentrations tended to be larger than outdoor PM10 (19.6 μg m−3) and PM2.5 (8.2 μg m−3) concentrations (PM10 p= 0.086; PM2.5 p <0.001). Conversely, GM outdoor endotoxin concentrations (1.93 EU m−3) were significantly larger than indoor (0.32 EU m−3) (p<0.001). Compared to measurements from previous urban studies, indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in the study area tended to be smaller while, ambient endotoxin concentrations measured outside rural households were 3-10 times larger. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, seasonality did not have a significant effect on mean ambient PM10 concentrations; however, endotoxin concentrations in the autumn were almost seven-times larger than winter. Excluding home cleanliness, the majority of agricultural and housing characteristics evaluated were found to be poorly associated with indoor and outdoor particulate and endotoxin concentrations. PMID:23321860

  13. The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Libby A.; Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens. Recent findings Sensitization to Fel d 1 is the dominant event in inhalant responses to cat; however, there are also IgE responses to the lipocalin (Fel d 4), to cat albumin (Fel d 2), and to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) on cat IgA (Fel d 5w) and other molecules. The dose response and routes of sensitization for these allergens are now thought to be diverse. It is important to remember that exposure outside a house with a cat is sufficient to cause sensitization. Furthermore, the only solid evidence about a role in asthma relates to Fel d 1. Recently, it has been shown that tolerance associated with early exposure to cats can persist to age 18 and that IgE to alpha-gal (on cat IgA) is not related to asthma. In addition, a recent study of anti-IgE reinforces the evidence that IgE antibodies to indoor allergens make a major contribution to asthma severity. Summary Exposure to Fel d 1 in a home with a cat is far higher than the levels necessary to induce an allergic (IgE antibody) response. In keeping with that, children may develop tolerance, which can be long-lived. In addition, there is increasing evidence that IgE antibodies to an inhalant allergen, such as Fel d 1, dust mite, or cockroach, are causally related to lung inflammation and asthma. PMID:22081090

  14. Elevated concentrations of endotoxin in indoor air due to cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Aleksandra; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart

    2006-05-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important worldwide public health issue. The present study demonstrates that cigarette smoke can be a major source of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in indoor environments. Gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry was used to determine 3-hydroxy fatty acids as markers of endotoxin in air-borne house dust in homes of smokers and non-smokers. Air concentrations of endotoxin were 4-63 times higher in rooms of smoking students than in identical rooms of non-smoking students. The fact that cigarette smoke contains large amounts of endotoxin may partly explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and may also draw attention to a hitherto neglected risk factor of ETS.

  15. [Air quality in schools - classroom levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, endotoxins and cat allergen].

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Heitmann, D; Dietrich, S; Schierl, R; Körner, W; Kiranoglu, M; Zapf, A; Twardella, D

    2008-02-01

    Children are assumed to be more vulnerable to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in schools. To assess the exposure situation in this microenvironment, we evaluated the indoor air quality in winter 2004/5 in 92 classrooms, and in 75 classrooms in summer 2005 in south Bavaria, Germany. Indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity), carbon dioxide (CO2) and various volatile organic compounds, aldehydes and ketones were measured. Additionally, cat allergen (Fel d1) and endotoxin (LAL-test) were analysed in the settled dust of school rooms. Data on room and building characteristics were collected by use of a standardised form. Only data collected during teaching hours were considered in analysis. The median indoor CO2 concentration in the classrooms ranged in the winter and summer period from 598 to 4 172 ppm and 480 to 1 875 ppm, respectively. While during the winter period in 92% of the classrooms the CO2 daily medians went above 1 000 ppm, the percentage of classrooms with increased CO2 concentration fell to 28% in summer. In winter, in 60% of classes the daily median CO2 concentration exceeded 1 500 ppm, while in summer this threshold was reached by only 9%. A high concentration of CO2 was associated with a high number of pupils, a low room surface area and a low room volume. The levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) in classrooms ranged between 110 and 1 000 microg/m3 (median in winter 345 microg/m3, in summer 260 microg/m3). Acetone, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in concentrations from 14.0 to 911 microg/m3, from 3.1 to 46.1 microg/m3, and from 2.9 to 78 microg/m3, respectively. The other aldehydes were detected in minor amounts only. The median Fel d1 level in winter was 485 ng/g dust (20 to 45 160 ng/g) and in summer it was 417 ng/g (40-7 470 ng/g). We observed no marked differences between the two sampling periods and between smooth floors and rooms with carpeted floors. No differences were found

  16. Does exposure to indoor allergens contribute to the development of asthma and allergy?

    PubMed

    Arshad, S Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Common indoor allergens include house dust mite, cockroach, animal dander, and certain molds. In genetically susceptible children, exposure to these indoor allergens during the critical postnatal period may lead to sensitization in early childhood. Consistent evidence indicates that children sensitized to common indoor allergens are at several-fold higher risk of asthma and allergy. Due to conflicting evidence from prospective studies, some doubt remains regarding a direct and dose-response relationship between exposure and development of asthma. However, in recent years, evidence has accumulated that exposure to indoor allergen causes asthma and allergy, but this effect may depend on dose and type of allergen as well as the underlying genetic susceptibility of the child.

  17. Allergen endotoxins induce T-cell-dependent and non-IgE-mediated nasal hypersensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Naruhito; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Fukuoka, Ayumi; Nakahira, Masakiyo; Matsumoto, Makoto; Akasaki, Shoko; Yasuda, Koubun; Shimizu, Takeshi; Yoshimoto, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE on mast cells/basophils is a well-recognized trigger for type 1 allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR). However, allergens may not be the sole trigger for AR, and several allergic-like reactions are induced by non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. We sought to describe a novel non-IgE-mediated, endotoxin-triggered nasal type-1-hypersensitivity-like reaction in mice. To investigate whether endotoxin affects sneezing responses, mice were intraperitoneally immunized with ovalbumin (OVA), then nasally challenged with endotoxin-free or endotoxin-containing OVA. To investigate the role of T cells and mechanisms of the endotoxin-induced response, mice were adoptively transferred with in vitro-differentiated OVA-specific TH2 cells, then nasally challenged with endotoxin-free or endotoxin-containing OVA. Endotoxin-containing, but not endotoxin-free, OVA elicited sneezing responses in mice independent from IgE-mediated signaling. OVA-specific TH2 cell adoptive transfer to mice demonstrated that local activation of antigen-specific TH2 cells was required for the response. The Toll-like receptor 4-myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway was indispensable for endotoxin-containing OVA-elicited rhinitis. In addition, LPS directly triggered sneezing responses in OVA-specific TH2-transferred and nasally endotoxin-free OVA-primed mice. Although antihistamines suppressed sneezing responses, mast-cell/basophil-depleted mice had normal sneezing responses to endotoxin-containing OVA. Clodronate treatment abrogated endotoxin-containing OVA-elicited rhinitis, suggesting the involvement of monocytes/macrophages in this response. Antigen-specific nasal activation of CD4(+) T cells followed by endotoxin exposure induces mast cell/basophil-independent histamine release in the nose that elicits sneezing responses. Thus, environmental or nasal residential bacteria may exacerbate AR symptoms. In addition, this novel phenomenon might explain

  18. Indoor environmental quality in a 'low allergen' school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Spickett, J; Rumchev, K; Lee, A H; Stick, S

    2006-02-01

    To investigate indoor environmental quality in classrooms, assessments were undertaken in a 'low allergen' school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia. Dust allergens, air pollutants and physical parameters were monitored in the four schools at four times (summer school term, autumn holiday, winter school term and winter holiday) in 2002. The levels of particulate matter (PM(10)) and volatile organic compounds were similar between the four primary schools. Although slightly decreased levels of dust-mite and cat allergens were observed in the 'low allergen' school, the reductions were not statistically significant and the allergen levels in all schools were much lower than the recommended sensitizing thresholds. However, significantly lower levels of relative humidity and formaldehyde level during summer-term were recorded in the 'low allergen' school. In conclusion, the evidence here suggests that the 'low allergen' school did not significantly improve the indoor environmental quality in classrooms. Practical Implications School is an important environment for children in terms of exposure to pollutants and allergens. By assessing the levels of key pollutants and allergens in a low allergen school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia, this study provides useful information for implementation of healthy building design that can improve the indoor environment in schools.

  19. How environment affects patients with allergic disease: indoor allergens and asthma.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, T A

    1994-04-01

    Progressive changes in American housing and life styles have been associated with increased prevalence of allergen sensitization and asthma. Not only have there been large increases in the proportion of time spent indoors, but many of the changes made in houses are likely to increase exposure to indoor allergens. Thus, higher mean indoor temperatures, reduced ventilation, cool wash detergents, and the widespread use of carpeting are all changes that could have increased the levels of allergens in American homes. Over the past 15 years, dust mites, cockroaches, and cats have been identified as major sources of indoor allergens. The combination of exposure and sensitization to one of these allergens is significantly associated with acute asthma. Furthermore, clinical studies have shown a direct quantitative correlation between dust mite allergen exposure and the prevalence of both sensitization and asthma. New evidence suggests that reductions in allergen exposure may improve asthma symptoms, leading to decreased inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity. Furthermore, as understanding of sources of allergens increases, the protocols for decreasing exposure become better defined and relatively easy to implement.

  20. Exposure to multiple indoor allergens in US homes and relationship to asthma

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Crockett, Patrick W.; Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing was the first population-based study to measure indoor allergen levels in US homes. Objective We characterized the overall burden to multiple allergens and examined whether elevated allergen levels were associated with occupants’ asthma status. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed a nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the US. Information was collected by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Allergen concentrations in dust samples were assessed by immunoassays. The following cut points were used to define elevated allergen levels: 10 μg/g for Der p 1, Der f 1, and Can f 1; 8 μg/g for Fel d 1; 8 U/g Bla g 1; 1.6 μg/g for mouse urinary protein; and 7 μg/g for Alternaria antigens. Allergen burden was considered high when 4 or more allergens exceeded elevated levels in any of the sampling locations. Results Exposure to multiple allergens was common in US homes. Of the surveyed homes, 51.5% had at least 6 detectable allergens and 45.8% had at least 3 allergens exceeding elevated levels. Occupants’ race, income, housing type, absence of children, and presence of smokers, pets, cockroaches, rodents and mold/moisture related problems were independent predictors of high allergen burden. Among atopics, high allergen burden increased the odds of having asthma symptoms (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.04-3.15). Conclusion Elevated allergen levels in the home are associated with asthma symptoms in allergic individuals. Clinical implication In allergic asthma, indoor allergen exposures play an important role in asthma exacerbations. PMID:18255132

  1. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination.

  2. Asian ladybugs (Harmonia axyridis): a new seasonal indoor allergen.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Satinover, Shama M; Naccara, Lisa; Goddard, Lucy; Dragulev, Bojan P; Peters, Edward; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2007-02-01

    Harmonia axyridis, the Asian ladybug (ALB), was repeatedly introduced between 1916 and 1990. These beetles are intolerant to cold and move indoors during the winter. To investigate sensitization to ALB. Proteins in ALB extracts were purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Purified fractions were screened for IgE antibody using the streptavidin CAP technique in sera from 20 patients with allergy living in ALB-infested houses. Two proteins were fully purified. Serum antibodies were also assessed in sera from 68 adult patients with asthma. Fifteen of the 20 sera had measurable IgE antibody, 7 with high titers, > 10 IU/mL, to ALB extract. The 2 proteins, Har a 1, 10 kd, and Har a 2, 55 kd, bound IgE antibody in 65% and 75% of the sera, respectively. Sequencing revealed a novel N-terminal sequence for Har a 1. Sequencing of Har a 2 demonstrated homology to a dehydrogenase from the red flour beetle. Although sera from 18 of the patients with asthma were positive for IgE antibody to ALB, they were also positive to Blatella germanica. These subjects did not report exposure to H axyridis, and inhibition studies with B germanica blocked > or = 95% of ALB IgE antibody binding. Two proteins of ALB have been purified and used to demonstrate that patients exposed to this beetle can develop high-titer IgE antibody. Cross-reactivity with B germanica was found but was significant only among patients primarily exposed to cockroaches. Asian ladybug has become an important seasonal indoor allergen in the United States.

  3. Diet influences growth rates and allergen and endotoxin contents of cultured Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Avula-Poola, Swetha; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

    2012-01-01

    The house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are cultured to obtain material for the production of allergen extracts for research, diagnostic and immunotherapeutic purposes. We cultured mites on two different diets that supported thriving populations and determined the population growth rates, dynamics of allergen accumulation, and endotoxin concentrations in extracts made from mites harvested from the cultures. D. farinae populations grew faster on a diet of rodent chow/yeast than on an egg/yeast diet but a larger peak population size was achieved on the egg/yeast diet. Diet influenced the dynamics of the production of groups 1 and 2 allergens and the group 1/2 ratios for both species. To population peak, Der f 1 was produced at a faster rate on the chow/yeast diet but greater amounts of Der f 1 were produced by mites grown on the egg/yeast diet. D. pteronyssinus populations grew faster and achieved greater density on the egg/yeast diet compared to the chow/yeast diet. D. pteronyssinus produced more Der p 1 than Der p 2 when grown on chow/yeast while more Der p 2 than Der p 1 was produced on egg/yeast. Endotoxin concentrations in extracts made from whole cultures for both species at maximum population density were very different in the two diets. Washing the mites resulted in the loss of up to 88% of the allergen. Mite-culturing diet directly effects population growth, the dynamics of allergen accumulation, the group 1/2 allergen ratio and the endotoxin contents in extracts of cultured house dust mites. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of experimental eosinophilic esophagitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Mishra, Anil

    2010-01-01

    EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3 ± 6.8/mm2 and 33.4 ± 11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3 ± 1.8/mm2 and 2.1 ± 1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease. PMID:20413729

  5. Indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of experimental eosinophilic esophagitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K; Abonia, J Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E; Mishra, Anil

    2010-08-01

    EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3+/-6.8/mm2 and 33.4+/-11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3+/-1.8/mm2 and 2.1+/-1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease.

  6. Sampling, extraction and measurement of bacteria, endotoxin, fungi and inflammatory potential of settling indoor dust.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Matthiesen, Christoffer B; Frederiksen, Margit W; Frederiksen, Marie; Frankel, Mika; Spilak, Michal; Gunnarsen, Lars; Timm, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Selection of sampling device, sampling location and period are important first steps in the measurement of exposure to bioaerosols in indoor air. The steps following the sampling include treatment of samples and laboratory analysis. In this study, settling bacteria, endotoxin, fungi and serine protease have been measured in Danish homes using Electrostatic Dust Fall Collectors (EDCs). The effects of the presence of occupants, sampling on open surfaces versus in bookcases and treatment of samples have been studied. Concentrations of bacteria and endotoxin were significantly higher when occupants were at home than when they were absent. Across homes, higher concentrations of fungi were found in spring than in winter, as was the total inflammatory potential, while higher concentrations of protease were found in winter than in spring. The placement of the EDCs in bookcases versus on an open surface significantly affected the measured concentrations of bacteria and endotoxin. Direct extraction of EDC cloths caused a higher measured concentration of bacteria, fungi and serine protease than if EDC cloths were extracted post-storage at -20 °C. Extraction of EDC cloths caused an average of 51% and 58% extraction of bacteria and fungi respectively. In conclusion, EDCs should be placed on open surfaces during the sampling, how much occupants are present in their home during sampling and sampling season should be considered, EDC cloths should not be stored in a freezer before extraction of microorganisms, but extraction suspensions can be stored at -80 °C without affecting the number of microorganisms significantly.

  7. Differences in the presence of allergens among several types of indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Barbara; Barletta, Bianca; Brescianini, Sonia; Masciulli, Rosalba; Perfetti, Luca; Moscato, Gianna; Frusteri, Liliana; Schirru, Maria Antonietta; Pini, Carlo; Di Felice, Gabriella; Iacovacci, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens can occur both at home and in public places such as schools and workplaces. To investigate and compare the presence of indoor allergens in different kind of environments (schools, offices and homes), dust samples were collected from furniture, desks, mattresses and floors with a standardized procedure. Samples were analyzed for Der p 1, Der f 1, Mite group 2 (mites) and Fel d 1(cat) by monoclonal antibody ELISA assay. Mite allergens were detected with low frequencies in schools and workplaces and with high frequency in homes. Fel d 1 was found with high frequency in every examined environment. Homes rather than public places can represent the environment where people can easier incur in mite allergy. All environments could be at risk for cat allergen exposure.

  8. Are Neighborhood-Level Characteristics Associated with Indoor Allergens in the Household?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L.; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Background Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well-studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York Department of City Planning. Objective We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Methods Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n=261) we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates) and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 μg/g; cat: >1 μg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 μg/g. Results Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Conclusions Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions. PMID

  9. Are neighborhood-level characteristics associated with indoor allergens in the household?

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-02-01

    Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York City Department of City Planning. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n = 261), we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1,000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates), and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 microg/g; cat: >1 microg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 microg/g. Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat, and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions.

  10. LOW-DOSE AIRBORNE ENDOTOXIN EXPOSURE ENHANCES BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO INHALED ALLERGEN IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endotoxin exposure has been associated with both protection against development of TH2-immune responses during childhood and exacerbation of asthma in persons who already have allergic airway inflammation.1 Occupational and experimental inhalation exposures to endotoxin have been...

  11. LOW-DOSE AIRBORNE ENDOTOXIN EXPOSURE ENHANCES BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO INHALED ALLERGEN IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endotoxin exposure has been associated with both protection against development of TH2-immune responses during childhood and exacerbation of asthma in persons who already have allergic airway inflammation.1 Occupational and experimental inhalation exposures to endotoxin have been...

  12. [Leather dust and sensitizing agents. A study on occupational indoor allergenic pollution in shoes].

    PubMed

    Cirla, Angelo Mario; Del Frate, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to ascertain a possible pollution by allergenic Mites in 15 samples of leather dust belonging to occupational environments of 4 Italian shoes factories. All dosages were both performed by a quantitative immunologic and ELISA method (Indoor Biotechnology Lmd) and a semi-quantitative colorimetric method (Aclotest Lofarma) and the results were compared according to a five steps risk-evaluation. In all factories allergenic components of Mites were documented. The highest concentration of Der p1 and Der f 1 in dust was 15,4 mcg/g, while allergens prevailed around the working-places, where discards of leather usually were collected. Moulds were studied in 29 samples of 9 shoes factories, adopting specific cultures. In all but one occupational environment moulds were present and taxa of Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium were prevalent, spores of them have known allergenic propert. Besides the identification, quantitative levels were not planned in this study. Dermatophytes were absent, while four taxa of Keratinophylic non allergenic moulds were observe. When leather dust are disperded in occupational environments a risk due to allergenic agents as secondary contamination must be carefully considered. Such a risk, according to our results, may be classified as "intermediate for allergenic Mites" and temptatively "light for allergenic moulds". Such a risk might be carefully considered for legal and preventive purposes and also monitored by occupational healthcare professionals.

  13. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The indoor environment has increased in importance to children's health with children now spending more than 90% of their time indoors. Molds are an important component of this environment and have been associated with exacerbation of asthma. Their contribution t...

  14. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The indoor environment has increased in importance to children's health with children now spending more than 90% of their time indoors. Molds are an important component of this environment and have been associated with exacerbation of asthma. Their contribution t...

  15. Beta(1-->3)-glucan in house dust of German homes: housing characteristics, occupant behavior, and relations with endotoxins, allergens, and molds.

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, U; Douwes, J; Doekes, G; Koch, A; Bischof, W; Fahlbusch, B; Richter, K; Wichmann, H E; Heinrich, J

    2001-01-01

    beta(1-->3)-Glucans are potent proinflammatory agents that have been suggested to play a role in indoor-related respiratory health effects. The aim of this study was to assess whether beta(1-->3)-glucan concentrations in house dust are correlated with levels of endotoxins, allergens, and culturable mold spore counts in house dust. Further, the associations of beta(1-->3)-glucan with housing characteristics and occupant behavior were assessed. beta(1-->3)-Glucan was measured in settled house dust from living room floors of 395 homes of two German cities, Erfurt and Hamburg, with a specific enzyme immunoassay. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to 19,013 microg/m(2) (22,588 microg/g dust). Concentrations per square meter were found to be correlated with endotoxins, mite and cat allergens, and culturable mold spores. Correlations were weaker when concentrations were expressed per gram of dust, indicating that variance in concentrations of all factors is largely determined by the amount of dust sampled. Associations between beta(1-->3)-glucan, housing characteristics, and occupant behavior were found for concentrations per square meter but not for concentrations per gram of dust. The following characteristics were associated with a significant increase in beta(1-->3)-glucan levels: carpets in the living room [means ratio (MR) = 1.9-2.1], keeping a dog inside (MR = 1.4), use of the home by four or more persons (MR = 1.4), use of the living room for > 180 hr/week (MR = 2.1), lower frequency of vacuum cleaning (MR = 1.6-3.0) and dust cleaning (MR = 1.2 and 1.4, respectively), and presence of mold spots during the past 12 months (MR = 1.4). We conclude that that the amount of dust sampled can be used as a proxy for hygiene and that beta(1-->3)-glucan concentrations per square meter are related to the amount of dust sampled. PMID:11266323

  16. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  17. Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380–690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID

  18. Indoor allergens, asthma, and asthma-related symptoms among adolescents in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Salo MS, Päivi M.; MD, Jiang Xia; PhD, C. Anderson Johnson; MD, Yan Li; Avol PhD, Edward L.; MD, Jie Gong; London MD, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Information on indoor allergen exposures among non-Western populations, which have lower prevalence of atopic illness, is scant. We examined whether exposures to common indoor allergens were associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma and asthma-related symptoms among Chinese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study of 4185 ninth grade students was conducted at 22 randomly selected schools in Wuhan, China. Information on respiratory health and exposures to indoor allergens was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire completed in class. Results Having animals currently was associated with persistent cough (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI ] 1.21–2.11) and wheeze (POR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.03–1.94). Early-life exposure to animals was also associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma (POR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.35–2.82). Associations with respiratory symptoms strengthened with higher levels of exposure and for exposure in both early childhood and in adolescence. Exposure to cockroaches and having mold/water damage in the home contributed especially to wheezing (POR=2.03, 95% CI 1.41–2.90 for cockroaches; POR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.82–3.40 for mold/water damage). Conclusions Indoor allergen exposures were positively associated with asthma diagnosis and persistent respiratory symptoms among Chinese adolescents. Neither early-life nor current exposure to animals was protective for asthma or asthma-related symptoms. PMID:15350953

  19. Indoor allergen sensitization and the risk of asthma and eczema in children in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Brook M; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sensitization to cockroach and mouse allergens is correlated with presence and severity of asthma, especially among children living in inner cities. This study evaluated the prevalence of positive skin testing to indoor allergens in the Pittsburgh area and the association with asthma and eczema. A retrospective analysis was performed of 540 children from the Pittsburgh area who underwent skin testing to indoor allergens. Presence of asthma and eczema were determined by parent and/or physician report. Asthma and eczema are not significantly more frequent among children who had positive skin testing to cockroaches or mice. However, asthma was more common among children who had positive skin testing to dogs (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65), cats (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58), and dust mites (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37). Eczema was more common in children who had positive skin testing to cats (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02). Both asthma (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.18-1.58) and eczema (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92) were more prevalent among children with any positive skin test. We did not find that sensitization to cockroaches or mice was correlated with the diagnosis or asthma or eczema in the Pittsburgh area. However, sensitization to any allergen, and to cats and/or dogs specifically, was associated with diagnosis of both asthma and eczema. Our result suggests that allergic sensitization is associated with these diseases, but the implicated allergens may vary.

  20. A pilot investigation of the relative toxicity of indoor and outdoor fine particles: in vitro effects of endotoxin and other particulate properties.

    PubMed Central

    Long, C M; Suh, H H; Kobzik, L; Catalano, P J; Ning, Y Y; Koutrakis, P

    2001-01-01

    In this study we assessed the in vitro toxicity of 14 paired indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) samples (particulate matter < or =2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) collected in 9 Boston-area homes. Samples were collected as part of a large indoor particle characterization study that included the simultaneous measurement of indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), particle size distributions, and compositional data (e.g., elemental/organic carbon, endotoxin, etc.). Bioassays were conducted using rat alveolar macrophages (AMs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was measured to assess particle-induced proinflammatory responses. Additional experiments were also conducted in which AMs were primed with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to simulate preexisting pulmonary inflammation such as that which might exist in sick and elderly individuals. Significant TNF production above that of negative controls was observed for AMs exposed to either indoor or outdoor PM(2.5). TNF releases were further amplified for primed AMs, suggesting that preexisting inflammation can potentially exacerbate the toxicity of not only outdoor PM(2.5) (as shown by previous studies) but also indoor PM(2.5). In addition, indoor particle TNF production was found to be significantly higher than outdoor particle TNF production in unprimed AMs, both before and after normalization for endotoxin concentrations. Our results suggest that indoor-generated particles may be more bioactive than ambient particles. Endotoxin was demonstrated to mediate proinflammatory responses for both indoor and outdoor PM(2.5), but study findings suggest the presence of other proinflammatory components of fine particles, particularly for indoor-generated particles. Given these study findings and the fact that people spend 85-90% of their time indoors, future studies are needed to address the toxicity of indoor particles. PMID:11689347

  1. Indoor allergen exposure in west and East Germany: a cause for different prevalences of asthma and atopy?

    PubMed

    Hirsch, T

    1999-01-01

    West and East Germans have been living in two different political systems for 40 years. These two populations have become a classic epidemiological example for the hypothesis that lifestyle changes accompanying the industrial and economic development of modern societies are responsible for an increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases. A higher prevalence of atopic sensitization, asthma, and hay fever was found in young West Germans after the unification. It has been hypothesized that this phenomenon was at least partially due to the installation of insulating windows and central heating systems in Western homes, favoring the growth of microorganisms like mites and moulds and increasing indoor allergen exposure. This review summarizes studies that have investigated reservoir concentrations of indoor allergens in public buildings and private homes in East and West Germany. Whereas a higher prevalence of atopic sensitization in West Germans was found for nearly all tested allergens (cat, mite, pollen), allergen exposure was higher only for cat allergens, but probably not for mite and cockroach allergens or moulds. The published data do not support the view that the differences in specific sensitization are caused by differences in the exposure to specific allergens.

  2. Exposure matrices of endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, fungi, and dust mite allergens in flood-affected homes of New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Atin; Lewis, Jocelyn Suzanne; Reponen, Tiina; Degrasse, Enjoli C; Grimsley, L Faye; Chew, Ginger L; Iossifova, Yulia; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2010-10-15

    This study examined: (i) biocontaminant levels in flooded homes of New Orleans two years after the flooding; (ii) seasonal changes in biocontaminant levels, and (iii) correlations between biocontaminant levels obtained by different environmental monitoring methods. Endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, fungal spores, and dust mite allergens were measured in 35 homes during summer and winter. A combination of dust sampling, aerosolization-based microbial source assessment, and long-term inhalable bioaerosol sampling aided in understanding exposure matrices. On average, endotoxin found in the aerosolized fraction accounted for <2% of that measured in the floor dust, suggesting that vacuuming could overestimate inhalation exposures. In contrast, the (1→3)-β-d-glucan levels in the floor dust and aerosolized fractions were mostly comparable, and 25% of the homes showed aerosolizable levels even higher than the dust-borne levels. The seasonal patterns for endotoxin in dust and the aerosolizable fraction were different from those found for (1→3)-β-d-glucan, reflecting the temperature and humidity effects on bacterial and fungal contamination. While the concentration of airborne endotoxin followed the same seasonal trend as endotoxin aerosolized from surfaces, no significant seasonal difference was identified for the concentrations of airborne (1→3)-β-d-glucan and fungal spores. This was attributed to the difference in the particle size; smaller endotoxin-containing particles can remain airborne for longer time than larger fungal spores or (1→3)-β-d-glucan-containing particles. It is also possible that fungal aerosolization in home environments did not reach its full potential. Detectable dust mite allergens were found only in dust samples, and more commonly in occupied homes. Levels of endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, and fungi in air had decreased during the two-year period following the flooding as compared to immediate measurements; however, the dust

  3. Indoor exposures to air pollutants and allergens in the homes of asthmatic children in inner-city Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Breysse, Patrick N; Buckley, Timothy J; Williams, D'Ann; Beck, Christopher M; Jo, Seong-Joon; Merriman, Barry; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon; Swartz, Lee J; Callahan, Karen A; Butz, Arlene M; Rand, Cynthia S; Diette, Gregory B; Krishnan, Jerry A; Moseley, Adrian M; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Durkin, Nowella B; Eggleston, Peyton A

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents indoor air pollutant concentrations and allergen levels collected from the homes of 100 Baltimore city asthmatic children participating in an asthma intervention trial. Particulate matter (PM), NO2, and O3 samples were collected over 72 h in the child's sleeping room. Time-resolved PM was also assessed using a portable direct-reading nephelometer. Dust allergen samples were collected from the child's bedroom, the family room, and the kitchen. The mean PM10 concentration, 56.5+/-40.7 microg/m3, is 25% higher than the PM2.5 concentration (N=90), 45.1+/-37.5 microg/m3. PM concentrations measured using a nephelometer are consistent and highly correlated with gravimetric estimates. Smoking households' average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are 33-54 microg/m3 greater than those of nonsmoking houses, with each cigarette smoked adding 1.0 microm/m3 to indoor PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. Large percentages of NO2 and O3 samples, 25% and 75%, respectively, were below the limit of detection. The mean NO2 indoor concentration is 31.6+/-40.2 ppb, while the mean indoor O3 concentration in the ozone season was 3.3+/-7.7 ppb. The levels of allergens are similar to those found in other inner cities. Results presented in this paper indicate that asthmatic children in Baltimore are exposed to elevated allergens and indoor air pollutants. Understanding this combined insult may help to explain the differential asthma burden between inner-city and non-inner-city children.

  4. [Prevalence of positive skin tests to indoor allergens in preschooler children with respiratory allergy in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Baeza Bacab, Manuel Antonio; Dávila Velázquez, Jorge Rubén; Loeza Medina, Sergio Ramón

    2005-01-01

    Infantile asthma and rhinitis are commonly thought to be caused by indoor allergens but preschooler children are not commonly skin tested. To know the frequency of skin test reactivity to indoor allergens in allergic preschooler children. We evaluated 176 children (103 females/73 males) between 2 and 5 years old with respiratory allergy. All of the children tested had at least one positive skin test (house dust mite, cockroach, dog, feathers, and cat). Seventy seven children had allergic rhinitis (44%), 68 had asthma and rhinitis (39%), and 31 had only asthma (18%). One hundred thirty two (75%) of the children were skin test positive to house dust mite, 91 (52%) to cockroach, 31 (18%) to dog, 25 (14%) to feathers, and 24 (14%) to cat. Furthermore, the frequency of sensitization to house dust mite has an increase associated with the age of the patients with a significant difference at 5 years old (odds ratio=11.63, I.C. 95%=3.83-37.10; p <0.001). The most frequent indoor allergen was house dust mite, with a trend directly proportional to age of the patients.

  5. Allergen

    MedlinePlus

    Common allergens include: Animal proteins and animal dander Dust Drugs (such as antibiotics or medicines you put on your skin) Foods (such as egg, peanut, milk, nuts, soy, fish, animal meat, and wheat) Fungal spores ...

  6. The Indoor Level of House Dust Mite Allergen Is Associated with Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoon; Woo, Sook-young; Han, Youngshin; Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Lim, In-Seok; Choi, Eung-Sang; Choi, Byoung-Whi; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Sang-Il

    2013-01-01

    We attempted to investigate the correlation between the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children and the indoor level of house dust mite (HDM) allergens. Ninety-five patients (31.1 ± 19.5 months of age) with AD were enrolled in this study, and serum specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae was measured. The severity of AD was assessed using the visual analogue scale on the same day of house dust collection. Living rooms and mattresses where the child usually slept were vacuumed for 2 minutes and concentrations of Der f 1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The skin symptoms were more severe in patients with Der f 1 concentrations in living room > 2 µg/g dust than ≤ 2 µg/g dust (P = 0.018). This difference was noted in AD patients without sensitization to HDM (P = 0.004), but not in patients with sensitization. There was no difference in symptom severity according to Der f 1 concentrations in mattresses (P = 0.062). The severity of skin symptoms is associated with indoor concentrations of HDM in children with AD, and it is likely to act as nonspecific irritants as well as allergens in AD skin lesions. PMID:23341715

  7. Indoor allergens in settled dust from kindergartens in city of Łódź, Poland.

    PubMed

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Buczyńska, Alina; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the levels of house dust mite (Der p1), dog (Can f1), cat (Fel d1) and cockroach (Bla g2) allergens in kindergartens localized in an urban agglomeration. A quantitative analysis of allergens was carried out in settled dust samples collected by vacuuming the floor surface in three kindergartens (N = 84) and children's clothing (N = 36). The samples were collected in spring-summer and autumn-winter periods as well as at the beginning and end of the week. The allergen dust concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). The mean geometric concentrations (±geometric standard deviations) of allergens Der p1, Can f1, Fel d1 and Bla g2 determined in kindergartens were: 0.02 ± 3.21 μg/g of dust; 0.97 ± 4.49 μg/g of dust; 0.30 ± 4.43 μg/g of dust and 0.01 ± 3.08 μg/g of dust, respectively. Younger classrooms (children aged from 3 to 4 years) were characterized by almost twice higher mean concentration of allergen Fel d1, as compared to older classrooms (children aged from 5 to 6 years) (p < 0.05). A significant impact of seasonality on the level of dog allergen Can f1 was found (p < 0.05). No significant weekly variation was found in average concentrations of the allergens. Children who had a dog and/or cat at home were characterized by high concentrations of allergens Can f1 and Fel d1 on their clothes (59.2 ± 5.39 μg Can f1/g of dust; 3.63 ± 1.47 μg Fel d1/g of dust), significantly higher than concentrations of allergens in children who did not have any pets (p < 0.001). Special attention should be paid to keeping the kindergarten rooms tidy and clean and to an appropriate choice of furnishings and fittings which would prevent the proliferation of the house dust mite and accumulation of allergens.

  8. Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Church, Timothy R; Jones, David; Fredrickson, Ann; Sexton, Ken

    2005-11-01

    This article presents measurements of biological contaminants in two elementary schools that serve inner city minority populations. One of the schools is an older building; the other is newer and was designed to minimize indoor air quality problems. Measurements were obtained for airborne fungi, carpet loadings of dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, cat allergens, and carpet fungi. Carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were also measured. Each of these measurements was made in five classrooms in each school over three seasons--fall, winter, and spring. We compared the indoor environments at the two schools and examined the variability in measured parameters between and within schools and across seasons. A fixed-effects, nested analysis was performed to determine the effect of school, season, and room-within-school, as well as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. The levels of all measured parameters were comparable for the two schools. Carpet culturable fungal concentrations and cat allergen levels in the newer school started and remained higher than in the older school over the study period. Cockroach allergen levels in some areas were very high in the newer school and declined over the study period to levels lower than the older school. Dust mite allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in both schools were relatively low compared with benchmark values. The daily averages for temperature and relative humidity frequently did not meet ASHRAE guidelines in either school, which suggests that proper HVAC and general building operation and maintenance procedures are at least as important as proper design and construction for adequate indoor air quality. The results show that for fungi and cat allergens, the school environment can be an important exposure source for children.

  9. The indoor environment and inner-city childhood asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Exposure to indoor pollutants and allergens has been speculated to cause asthma symptoms and exacerbations and influence the risk of developing asthma. The aim of this article is to review the medical literature regarding the role of the indoor environment on inner-city childhood asthma. Data sources A literature search was performed in PubMed. Studies focusing on inner-city indoor allergen, childhood asthma, and environmental controls were included. Results The prevalence of asthma in children is increasing especially in inner-city area. Exposure to high levels of indoor allergens and pollutants has been related to asthma development. Studies have shown that mouse, cockroach, pets, dust mite, mold, tobacco smoke, endotoxin and nitrogen dioxide are the important exposures. Recent studies have shown that indoor environmental control is beneficial in reducing asthma morbidity and development. Conclusions Inner-city children are exposed to various indoor allergens and pollutants that may lead to asthma development and exacerbation of existing asthma. Multifaceted environmental controls are beneficial in improving asthma symptom and maybe a viable prevention strategy. Further prospective studies of environmental intervention are needed to further identify effective strategies to improve and prevent asthma symptoms in inner-city children. PMID:25003723

  10. Exposure to Indoor Allergens in Different Residential Settings and Its Influence on IgE Sensitization in a Geographically Confined Austrian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Schweidler, Bettina; Doppler, Patrick; Klinglmayr, Eva; Moser, Stephanie; Lueftenegger, Lisa; Himly, Martin; Lang, Roland; Zumbach, Joerg; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Hawranek, Thomas; Bathke, Arne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to indoor allergens is crucial for IgE sensitization and development of allergic symptoms. Residential settings influence the allergen amount in house dust and hence allergic sensitization. Within this study, we investigated allergen exposure and molecule-based IgE levels in a geographically confined region and evaluated the impact of housing, pets and cleaning. Methods 501 adolescents from Salzburg, Austria participated in this cross-sectional study. House dust samples were examined regarding major mite, cat, dog, and mold allergens using a multiplex assay. Serum samples of participants were analyzed for specific IgE to Der p 1, Der p 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1 and Alt a 1 using the multiplex array ImmunoCAP ISAC. Information on allergies, living areas, dwelling form (house, flat, farm), pets, and household cleanliness were obtained by a questionnaire. Results In investigated house dust samples, the concentration of cat allergen was highest while the prevalence of mold allergens was very low. Participants showed IgE sensitization to Der p 1 (13.2%), Der p 2 (18.2%), Fel d 1 (14.4%), Can f 1 (2.4%) and Alt a 1 (2.0%). In alpine regions, lower mite allergen concentrations were detected which correlated with reduced IgE levels. A trend for increased sensitization prevalence from rural to alpine to urban regions was noted. Living on farms resulted in lower sensitization prevalence to mite and cat allergens, even though exposure to mites was significantly elevated. The presence of cats was associated with a lower sensitization rate and IgE levels to cat and mite allergens, and less frequent allergic diseases. Cleaning did not impact allergen concentrations, while IgE reactivity to mites and allergic diseases were more pronounced when living in cleaner homes. Conclusion Allergen exposure to indoor allergens was influenced by setting of homes. Living in a farm environment and having a cat at home showed a protective effect for IgE sensitization and allergies

  11. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    by extraction of bacterial mass in saline (CA-S), showed the ability of these extracts to evoke inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the lungs, to stimulate alveolar macrophages to produce superoxide anion (O2(-)), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and chemotactic factors for other macrophages and neutrophils, and to increase the pulmonary concentrations of toll-like receptors and chemokines. The most potent properties showed the CA-S which may be attributed to the allergenic properties of P. agglomerans proteins enhanced by the presence of the autologous endotoxin. The results of these experiments are in accord with the clinical studies which revealed a high reactivity of the agricultural and grain industry workers to allergenic extracts of P. agglomerans, and the presence in these populations of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and asthma cases caused by this bacterium. P. agglomerans has been also identified as a potential causative agent of allergic dermatitis in farmers and of allergic pulmonary disorders in cattle. In conclusion, similar to the cotton industry, also in the grain industry and in agriculture, Pantoea agglomerans should be regarded as one of the major causative agents of work-related diseases, caused by the adverse effects of protein allergens and endotoxin produced by this bacterium.

  12. Sensitization to Indigenous Pollen and Molds and Other Outdoor and Indoor Allergens in Allergic Patients From Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Airborne allergens vary from one climatic region to another. Therefore, it is important to analyze the environment of the region to select the most prevalent allergens for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive skin tests to pollen and fungal allergens collected from local indigenous plants or isolated molds, as well as other outdoor and indoor allergens in allergic patients in 6 different geographical areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates, and Sudan. Materials and methods Four hundred ninety-two consecutive patients evaluated at different Allergy Clinics (276 women and 256 men; mean age, 30 years) participated in this study. The selection of indigenous allergens was based on research findings in different areas from Riyadh and adjoining areas. Indigenous raw material for pollen grains was collected from the desert near the capital city of Riyadh, KSA. The following plants were included: Chenopodium murale, Salsola imbricata, Rumex vesicarius, Ricinus communis, Artiplex nummularia, Amaranthus viridis, Artemisia monosperma, Plantago boissieri, and Prosopis juliflora. Indigenous molds were isolated from air sampling in Riyadh and grown to obtain the raw material. These included the following: Ulocladium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium spp., and Alternaria spp. The raw material was processed under Good Manufacturing Practices for skin testing. Other commercially available outdoor (grass and tree pollens) and indoor (mites, cockroach, and cat dander) allergens were also tested. Results The highest sensitization to indigenous pollens was detected to C. murale (32%) in Khartoum (Sudan) and S. imbricata (30%) and P. juliflora (24%) in the Riyadh region. The highest sensitization to molds was detected in Khartoum, especially to Cladosporium spp. (42%), Aspergillus (40%), and Alternaria spp. (38%). Sensitization to mites was also very prevalent

  13. Indoor mite allergens in patients with respiratory allergy living in Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Plácido, J L; Cuesta, C; Delgado, L; da Silva, J P; Miranda, M; Ventas, P; Vaz, M

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the levels of mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, and Lep d 1) in dust samples from the homes of 59 patients with asthma, 36 sensitized to house-dust mites (HDM) and 23 to grass pollen (controls), living in Porto, northern Portugal. The relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM and the influence of housing conditions on mite-allergen levels were also evaluated. Der p 1 (median 9.2 micrograms/g) and Der 2 (4.6 micrograms/g) were the main allergens, while Der f 1 and Lep d 1 levels were always < 1 microgram/g dust and undetectable in 11% and 47% of samples, respectively. All HDM-sensitized asthmatics were exposed to Der p 1 levels > 2 micrograms/g and their homes contained significantly higher levels of Der p 1 (median 12.5 vs 6.4 micrograms/g; P = 0.008) and Der 2 (6.2 vs 3.0 micrograms/g; P = 0.004) when compared to the control group. A significant correlation was observed between the exposure to Der p 1 and the wheal area at skin testing with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) extract (P = 0.01) as well as with serum specific IgE levels to Dp (P = 0.03). Patients with higher levels of serum specific IgE (> or = 17.5 HRU/ml) were also more frequently exposed to Der p 1 levels > or = 10 micrograms/g (P = 0.002). Old homes, presence of carpets, and signs of dampness were conditions associated with significantly higher levels of mite allergens. In conclusion, we found high levels of Der p 1 and Der 2 particularly in the homes of HDM-sensitized patients and we confirm the relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM, assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In additional to a favorable outdoor climate, we found in our region housing conditions propitious to mite growth, suggesting that specific geographic characteristics must also be taken into account for the correct planning of mite-avoidance measures.

  14. Endotoxin and β-(1,3)-glucan levels in automobiles: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chang, Chin-Fu; Lai, Shu-Mei; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial endotoxin and fungal β-(1,3)-glucan in the indoor environment can induce respiratory symptoms. Automobiles are an exposure source of allergens but it is not known if, and how much exposure there is to endotoxin and fungal β-(1,3)-glucan. The objective of the study was to determine whether automobiles are a potential source of exposure to these microbial products. Dust was sampled from the passenger seats of 40 automobiles. Specific Limulus amoebocyte kinetic assays were used to measure endotoxin and β-(1,3)-glucan, respectively. Endotoxin and β-(1,3)-glucan was detected in all samples ranging from 19.9-247.0 EU/mg and 1.6-59.8 μg/g, respectively. There were no significant differences in endotoxin levels between automobiles of smokers and non-smokers, but β-(1,3)-glucan levels were about two-fold higher in the automobiles of non-smokers. In conclusion, endotoxin and β-(1,3)-glucan exposure in automobiles at levels found in our study may be of importance for asthmatics.

  15. Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: a cross-sectional analysis of los angeles households, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Although racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors have been linked to asthma, and the association between indoor allergens and asthma is well documented, few studies have examined the relationship between these factors and indoor allergens. We examined the frequency of reported indoor allergens and differences by racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics among a diverse sample of Los Angeles households. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data from 723 households from wave 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. The reported presence of rats, mice, cockroaches, mold, pets, and tobacco smoke were the primary outcomes of interest. Hispanic and Asian households had a nearly threefold increase in the odds of reporting cockroaches compared to non-Hispanic Whites (OR, 2.85; 95 % CI 1.38-5.88 and OR, 2.62; 95 % CI 1.02-6.73, respectively) even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Primary caregivers who had obtained a high school degree were significantly less likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to primary caregivers with less than a high school degree (OR, 0.19; 95 % CI 0.08-0.46 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI 0.23-0.68, respectively). Primary caregivers with more than a high school degree were also less likely to report the presence of rats, mice, and cockroaches within their households, compared to those with less than a high school degree. Compared to renters, home owners were less likely to report the presence of mice, cockroaches, and mold within their households. At the neighborhood level, households located within neighborhoods of high concentrated poverty (where the average poverty rate is at least 50 %) were more likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to households in low concentrated poverty neighborhoods (average poverty rate is 10 % or less), after adjusting for individual race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Our study

  16. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  17. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  18. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James D.; Tuttle, Steven C.; Nelson, Morgan C.; Bradshaw, Rebecca K.; Hoybjerg, Taylor G.; Johnson, Julene B.; Kruman, Bryce A.; Orton, Taylor S.; Cook, Ryan B.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Weber, K. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan–Apr) and summer (July–Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  19. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  20. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  1. Assessment of indoor environment in Paris child day care centers.

    PubMed

    Roda, Célina; Barral, Sophie; Ravelomanantsoa, Hanitriniala; Dusséaux, Murielle; Tribout, Martin; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Children are sensitive to indoor environmental pollution. Up until now there has been a lack of data on air quality in child day care centers. The aim of this study is to document the indoor environment quality of Paris child day care centers by repeated measurements, and to compare pollutant levels in child day care centers with levels in Paris dwellings. We selected 28 child day care centers frequented by a random sample of babies who participated in the PARIS birth cohort environmental investigation, and visited the child day care centers for one week twice in one year. Biological contaminants assessed were fungi, endotoxin, dust mite allergens, and chemical pollutants: aldehydes, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Relative humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide levels were measured simultaneously. A standardized questionnaire was used to gather information about the buildings and their inhabitants. Airborne endotoxin levels in child day care centers were higher than those found in Paris dwellings. Dust mite allergens in child day care centers were below the threshold level for sensitization in the majority of samples, and in common with dwelling samples. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most commonly identified genera fungi. The child day care center indoor/outdoor ratio for most chemical pollutants was above unity except for NO2, the levels for NO2 being significantly higher than those measured in homes. Chemical and biological contamination in child day care centers appears to be low, apart from endotoxin and NO2. Failure to take child exposure in child day care centers into account could result in an overestimation of children's exposure to other pollutants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  3. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy.

  4. Endotoxins in tobacco smoke: shifting tobacco industry positions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Richard L; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    In the 1980s, the tobacco industry started a campaign to divert attention away from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) as a major source of indoor air pollution in workplaces by highlighting the roles of other indoor air pollutants. The industry, working through "third parties," highlighted endotoxins, naturally occurring substances that cause numerous inflammatory reactions in humans, as an alternative explanation to SHS as causing indoor air problems. In 1995, Hasday and colleagues were the first to present findings that cigarette smoke contains significant quantities of endotoxins. This discovery surprised tobacco industry scientists. The 1999 publication of the full Hasday et al. findings received only limited media attention but got the full attention of Philip Morris scientists concerned about a new public health issue and a new basis for regulation of workplace smoking by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which already regulated workplace endotoxin exposures from other sources. Philip Morris undertook an internal endotoxin research project to test the Hasday et al. findings and to determine if endotoxin-free cigarettes were possible. Although experiments were conducted to remove endotoxin from the tobacco, there is no evidence that they were successful. Following confirmation of SHS as an important source of endotoxins, the scientist promoting endotoxins as an important indoor air pollutant for the tobacco industry softened his position on the role of endotoxins as indoor pollutants. The presence of endotoxins in SHS provides an additional mechanism for the adverse effects of SHS that should be researched further, and the risk of exposure should be assessed.

  5. Personal endotoxin exposure in a panel study of school children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endotoxin exposure has been associated with asthma exacerbations and increased asthma prevalence. However, there is little data regarding personal exposure to endotoxin in children at risk, or the relation of personal endotoxin exposure to residential or ambient airborne endotoxin. The relation between personal endotoxin and personal air pollution exposures is also unknown. Methods We characterized personal endotoxin exposures in 45 school children with asthma ages 9-18 years using 376 repeated measurements from a PM2.5 active personal exposure monitor. We also assayed endotoxin in PM2.5 samples collected from ambient regional sites (N = 97 days) and from a subset of 12 indoor and outdoor subject home sites (N = 109 and 111 days, respectively) in Riverside and Whittier, California. Endotoxin was measured using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate kinetic chromogenic assay. At the same time, we measured personal, home and ambient exposure to PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC). To assess exposure relations we used both rank correlations and mixed linear regression models, adjusted for personal temperature and relative humidity. Results We found small positive correlations of personal endotoxin with personal PM2.5 EC and OC, but not personal PM2.5 mass or stationary site air pollutant measurements. Outdoor home, indoor home and ambient endotoxin were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. However, in mixed models, personal endotoxin was not associated with indoor home or outdoor home endotoxin, but was associated with ambient endotoxin. Dog and cat ownership were significantly associated with increased personal but not indoor endotoxin. Conclusions Daily fixed site measurements of endotoxin in the home environment may not predict daily personal exposure, although a larger sample size may be needed to assess this. This conclusion is relevant to short-term exposures involved in the acute exacerbation of asthma. PMID:21810249

  6. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Stre...

  7. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Stre...

  8. Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Raetz, Christian R. H.; Whitfield, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Summary Since lipopolysaccharide endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria were last reviewed in this series in 1990, much has been learned about the assembly and signaling functions of these remarkable glycoconjugates. Lipopolysaccharides typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a non-repeating “core” oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen). The flood of recent genomic data has made it possible to study lipopolysaccharide assembly in diverse Gram-negative bacteria, many of which are human or plant pathogens, and to create mutants or hybrid constructs with novel properties. Unexpectedly, key genes for lipid A biosynthesis have also been found in higher plants, indicating that eucaryotic lipid A-like molecules may exist. The carbohydrate diversity of lipopolysaccharides is better appreciated now than ten years ago, but much remains to be learned about function. Sequence comparisons suggest that extensive lateral transfer of genes for the assembly of O-antigens has occurred among bacteria. The most significant finding in the field of endotoxin biology since 1990 has been the identification of the plasma membrane protein TLR4 as the lipid A signaling receptor of animal cells. The latter belongs to a family of innate immunity receptors, all of which possess a large extracellular domain of leucine-rich repeats, a single trans-membrane segment and a smaller cytoplasmic signaling region that engages the adaptor protein MyD88. The expanding knowledge of TLR4 specificity and its downstream signaling pathways should provide new opportunities for blocking the inflammatory side effects of sepsis. Future progress will require insights into lipopolysaccharide-protein recognition at the atomic level, greater understanding of intra- and inter-cellular lipopolysaccharide trafficking, and incisive biological approaches that combine the tools of bacterial and animal genetics. PMID:12045108

  9. Ambient endotoxin concentrations in PM10 from Southern California.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Anneling, Linda; Avol, Ed; Peters, John M; Thorne, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of endotoxin in urban air pollution have not previously been extensively characterized. We measured 24-hr levels of PM10 (particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and the associated endotoxin component once every 6 weeks for 1 year in 13 communities in Southern California. All the samples collected had detectable PM10 and endotoxin levels. The geometric mean PM10 was 34.6 microg/m3 [geometric SD (GSD), 2.1; range, 3.0-135]. By volume, the endotoxin geometric mean was 0.44 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 (GSD, 3.1; range, 0.03-5.44). Per unit material collected, the geometric mean of endotoxin collected was 13.6 EU/mg (GSD, 3.2; range, 0.7-96.8). No correlation was found between endotoxin concentrations and other ambient pollutants concurrently measured [ozone, nitrogen dioxide, total acids, or PM2.5 (particulate matter < 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter]. PM10 and endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated, most strongly in summer. Samples collected in more rural and agricultural areas had lower PM10 and mid-range endotoxin levels. The high desert and mountain communities had lower PM10 levels but endotoxin levels comparable with or higher than the rural agricultural sites. By volume, endotoxin levels were highest at sites downwind of Los Angeles, California, which were also the locations of highest PM10. Endotoxin concentrations measured in this study were all < 5.5 EU/m3, which is lower than recognized thresholds for acute adverse health effects for occupational exposures but in the same range as indoor household concentrations. This study provides the first extensive characterization of endotoxin concentration across a large metropolitan area in relation to PM10 and other pollutant monitoring, and supports the need for studies of the role of endotoxin in childhood asthma in urban settings. PMID:15064165

  10. Seasonal variability of endotoxin in ambient fine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Carty, Cara L; Gehring, Ulrike; Cyrys, Josef; Bischof, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2003-12-01

    Endotoxin is a toxic, pro-inflammatory compound that has been detected in indoor air and dust in homes and occupational settings, and also in outdoor air. Data on the outdoor sampling of endotoxin are limited. Currently, little is known about the seasonal variation and influence of temperature on outdoor endotoxin levels. In the present study, we report endotoxin levels in fine fraction particulate matter with a 50% aerodynamic cutoff diameter of 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and describe the seasonal variation of endotoxin in Munich, Germany. In 1999-2000, PM2.5 was collected at forty outdoor monitoring sites across Munich. Approximately four samples were collected at each site for a total of 158 samples. Endotoxin concentrations in the PM2.5 samples were determined using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. The geometric mean endotoxin concentration was 1.07 EU mg PM2.5(-1) (95% C.I.: 0.915-1.251) or 0.015 EU m(-3) of sampled air (95% C.I.: 0.013-0.018). Munich endotoxin levels were significantly related to ambient temperature (p < 0.0001) and percent relative humidity (p < 0.0001). Sampling periods with higher average temperatures yielded higher levels of endotoxin in PM2.5 (r = 0.641), whereas decreases in percent relative humidity were associated with increased endotoxin levels in PM2.5 (r = -0.388). Endotoxin levels were significantly higher during the warmer seasons of spring [means ratio (MR): 2.5-2.7] and summer (MR: 2.1-3.0) than during winter. Although temperature and relative humidity do not explain all of the variability in endotoxin levels, their effects were significant in our data set. Temperature effects and seasonal variation of endotoxin should be considered in future studies of outdoor endotoxin.

  11. Allergen nomenclature*

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031

  12. Respiratory infection, exposure to mouse allergen and breastfeeding: role in recurrent wheezing in early life.

    PubMed

    Rullo, Vera E V; Arruda, L Karla; Cardoso, M Regina; Valente, Vivien; Zampolo, Alessandra S; Nóbrega, Fernando; Naspitz, Charles K; Solé, Dirceu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental factors may influence the development of allergen sensitization and asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of endotoxin and allergen exposure in early life as a risk factor for recurrent wheezing. One hundred and four infants from low-income families, at high risk of asthma, were enrolled at birth. Dust samples were collected from the bedding and bedroom floor within 6 months after birth. Recurrent wheezing was defined as 3 or more wheezing episodes in the past year. Endotoxin was determined by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and major indoor allergens were quantitated by ELISA in dust extracts. IgE antibodies were measured by ImmunoCAP at 30 months of age. At 30 months, 51 of the 99 infants who completed the study (51.5%) had recurrent wheezing. Respiratory infection was strongly associated with recurrent wheezing (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.96-22.72), whereas exclusive breastfeeding for at least 1 month was a protective factor (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.51). Exposure to high levels of mouse allergen was more frequent among non-recurrent wheezers, approaching significance (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-1.13; p = 0.064). None of the children were sensitized to mouse. Sensitization to mite was found in 26/90 (28.8%) children, with no association with recurrent wheezing. Respiratory infection was strongly associated with recurrent wheezing in the first 30 months of life, in children at high risk of asthma, living in a socially deprived community in Brazil. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  14. Allergen nomenclature.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D. G.; Goodfriend, L.; King, T. P.; Lowenstein, H.; Platts-Mills, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a nomenclature system for allergens which has been officially recommended by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). The nomenclature is based on proposals of the IUIS Sub-Committee for Allergen Nomenclature and is applicable to highly purified, well-characterized allergens and to non-purified or partially purified allergenic extracts. PMID:3492310

  15. Predictors of Endotoxin Levels in U.S. Housing

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Mav, Deepak; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Background The relationship of domestic endotoxin exposure to allergy and asthma has been widely investigated. However, few studies have evaluated predictors of household endotoxin, and none have done so for multiple locations within homes and on a national scale. Objectives We assayed 2,552 house dust samples in a nationwide study to understand the predictors of household endotoxin in bedroom floors, family room floors, beds, kitchen floors, and family room sofas. Methods Reservoir house dust from five locations within homes was assayed for endotoxin and demographic and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and onsite evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent national demographics. We performed repeated-measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) for 37 candidate variables to identify independent predictors of endotoxin. Meteorologic data were obtained for each primary sampling unit and tested as predictors of indoor endotoxin to determine if wetter or warmer microclimates were associated with higher endotoxin levels. Results Weighted geometric mean endotoxin concentration ranged from 18.7 to 80.5 endotoxin units (EU)/mg for the five sampling locations, and endotoxin load ranged from 4,160 to 19,500 EU/m2. Bivariate analyses and rANOVA demonstrated that major predictors of endotoxin concentration were sampling location in the home, census division, educational attainment, presence of children, current dog ownership, resident-described problems with cockroaches, food debris, cockroach stains, and evidence of smoking observed by field staff. Low household income entered the model if educational attainment was removed. Conclusion Increased endotoxin in household reservoir dust is principally associated with poverty, people, pets, household cleanliness, and geography. PMID:19479019

  16. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Elisabet; Vesper, Stephen; Levin, Linda; LeMasters, Grace; Grinshpun, Sergey; Reponen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Streptomyces is a large genus of Gram-positive bacteria, and some species have been shown to produce inflammatory reactions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of streptomycetes levels in house dust, and to compare the variation in streptomycetes levels with that in endotoxin levels. Dust was collected by floor vacuuming from 178 homes in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. streptomycetes levels were measured by quantitative PCR and endotoxin was assayed by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate method. Associations between home characteristics and bacterial contaminants, expressed as concentration and load, were investigated through multiple regression analyses. The presence of two or more dogs was a strong predictor of both streptomycetes and endotoxin levels. Season of dust collection and levels of outdoor molds were predictors of streptomycetes but not endotoxin levels. In contrast, number of inhabitants was a significant predictor of endotoxin load only. Neither streptomycetes nor endotoxin levels were associated with metrics of moisture damage. PMID:21204988

  17. EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children now spend more than 90% of their time indoors. Thus, any exposure to indoor pollutants may be critical to their health. Molds are one of the most important pollutants children are exposed to indoors. Molds produce hundreds of allergens and toxins. These products ha...

  18. Use of a robotic sampling platform to assess young children's exposure to indoor bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zuocheng; Shalat, Stuart L.; Black, Kathleen; Lioy, Paul J.; Stambler, Adam A.; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Hernandez, Marta; Han, Taewon; Ramagopal, Maya; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2011-01-01

    Indoor exposures to allergens, mold spores and endotoxin have been suggested as etiological agents of asthma; therefore, accurate determination of those exposures, especially in young children (6–36 months), is important for understanding the development of asthma. Since use of personal sampling equipment in this population is difficult, and in children < 1 year of age impossible, we developed a personal sampling surrogate: the Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic sampler (PIPER) to better estimate their exposures. During sampling, PIPER simulates the activity patterns, speed of motion and the height of the breathing zones of young children, and mechanically resuspends the deposited dust just as a young child does during running and crawling. The concentrations of allergens, mold spores and endotoxin measured by PIPER were compared to those measured using traditional stationary air sampling in 75 homes in central New Jersey, US. Endotoxin was detected in all homes with median concentrations of 1.0 and 0.55 EU/m3 for PIPER and stationary sampler, respectively. The difference in median concentrations obtained using the two methods was statistically significant for homes with carpeted floors (p= 0.0001) in the heating season. For such homes, the average ratio of endotoxin concentration measured by PIPER and the stationary sampler was 2.96 (95% CI 2.29–3.63). Fungal spores were detected in all homes, with median fungal concentrations of 316 and 380 spores/m3 for PIPER and stationary sampler, respectively. For fungi, the difference between the two sampling methods was not statistically significant. For both sampling methods, the total airborne mold levels were statistically significantly higher in the non-heating season than in the heating season. Allergens were detected in ~15% of investigated homes. The data indicate that the traditional stationary air sampling methods may substantially underestimate personal exposures to endotoxin, especially

  19. Other Allergens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  20. The Role of Allergen Exposure and Avoidance in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Sachin N.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Allergy testing and avoidance of allergens plays an important role in asthma control. Increased allergen exposure, in genetically susceptible individuals, can lead to allergic sensitization. Continued allergen exposure can increase the risk of asthma and other allergic diseases. In a patient with persistent asthma, identification of indoor and outdoor allergens and subsequent avoidance can improve symptoms. Often times, a patient will have multiple allergies and the avoidance plan should target all positive allergens. Several studies have shown that successful allergen remediation includes a comprehensive approach including education, cleaning, physical barriers and maintaining these practices. PMID:20568555

  1. Recombinant allergens

    PubMed Central

    Jutel, Marek; Solarewicz-Madejek, Katarzyna; Smolinska, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only known causative treatment of allergic diseases. Recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies arose from a strong need to both to improve safety and enhance efficacy of SIT. In addition, new vaccines can be effective in allergies including food allergy or atopic dermatitis, which poorly respond to the current treatment with allergen extracts. A number of successful clinical studies with both wild-type and hypoallergenic derivatives of recombinant allergens vaccines have been reported for the last decade. They showed high efficacy and safety profile as well as very strong modulation of T and B cell responses to specific allergens. PMID:23095874

  2. Endotoxin Augments Myeloid Dendritic Cell Influx into the Airways in Patients with Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Schaumann, Frank; Müller, Meike; Braun, Armin; Luettig, Birgit; Peden, David B.; Hohlfeld, Jens M.; Krug, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Epidemiologic studies have shown that exacerbation of asthma is modulated by environmental endotoxin. High levels of endotoxin are associated with asthma symptoms and the current use of asthma medication. However, the underlying mechanisms by which endotoxin modulates asthma are not completely understood. Objectives: The aim of the study was to test whether endotoxin enhances the response of individuals with allergic asthma to allergen, and to determine if this interaction is associated with increased numbers of antigen-presenting cells in the airways. Methods: Seventeen subjects with mild allergic asthma underwent segmental challenge with allergen, endotoxin, and the combination of both in three different lung segments via bronchoscopy. The cellular influx including monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), as well as the level of cytokines, were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained 24 hours after segmental challenge. Monocytes, mDCs, and pDCs were isolated and their capacity to induce T cell proliferation was determined. Measurements and Main Results: Endotoxin enhanced the cellular response to allergen. The combination of allergen and endotoxin resulted in increased numbers of total cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and mDCs, as well as increased levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, IL-1α, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor–α in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with allergen alone. Isolated mDCs but not pDCs induced a strong T cell proliferation in vitro. Conclusions: Endotoxin augments the allergic inflammation in the lungs of individuals with asthma, and induces an enhanced influx of monocytes and functionally active antigen-presenting mDCs into the respiratory tract. PMID:18388357

  3. House dust endotoxin and allergic sensitization in children.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Ulrike; Bischof, Wolfgang; Fahlbusch, Bärbel; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2002-10-01

    A higher exposure to endotoxin was hypothesized to contribute to lower prevalence of allergic sensitization and hay fever in children growing up on a farm. We studied the association between house dust endotoxin and allergic sensitization. We randomly selected 740 children, aged between 5 and 10 years, from a group of children who participated in two cross-sectional surveys performed in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, from 1992 to 1993 and from 1995 to 1996, such that 50% of the children were atopic or had a diagnosis of asthma. From 1996 to 1998, we collected living-room floor dust in the homes of 454 of these children (61%). The content of endotoxin in house dust was quantified using a chromogenic kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate test and was related with health outcomes measured in the preceding cross-sectional surveys. Multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for place of residence, sex, age, parental education, parental atopy, and pet ownership showed a negative association between exposure to endotoxin and sensitization to one or more allergens (aOR [95% CI] 0.95 [0.83; 1.10]) and two or more allergens (aOR [95% CI] 0.80 [0.67; 0.97]) using 0.35 kU/L as the cutoff value for sensitization. The protective effect was strengthened with increasing degree of sensitization. In conclusion, exposure to higher levels of house dust endotoxin is associated with lower prevalence of allergic sensitization in children.

  4. Nomenclature and structural biology of allergens.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna; Breiteneder, Heimo; Ferreira, Fatima

    2007-02-01

    Purified allergens are named using the systematic nomenclature of the Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee of the World Health Organization and International Union of Immunological Societies. The system uses abbreviated Linnean genus and species names and an Arabic number to indicate the chronology of allergen purification. Most major allergens from mites, animal dander, pollens, insects, and foods have been cloned, and more than 40 three-dimensional allergen structures are in the Protein Database. Allergens are derived from proteins with a variety of biologic functions, including proteases, ligand-binding proteins, structural proteins, pathogenesis-related proteins, lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and calcium-binding proteins. Biologic function, such as the proteolytic enzyme allergens of dust mites, might directly influence the development of IgE responses and might initiate inflammatory responses in the lung that are associated with asthma. Intrinsic structural or biologic properties might also influence the extent to which allergens persist in indoor and outdoor environments or retain their allergenicity in the digestive tract. Analyses of the protein family database suggest that the universe of allergens comprises more than 120 distinct protein families. Structural biology and proteomics define recombinant allergen targets for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and identify motifs, patterns, and structures of immunologic significance.

  5. Dermatophagoides farinae allergens diversity identification by proteomics.

    PubMed

    An, Su; Chen, Lingling; Long, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xuemei; Lu, Xingre; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhigang; Lai, Ren

    2013-07-01

    The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1-3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests, immunoblots, basophil activation test, and skin prick tests. Eight of them are the first report as D. farinae allergens. The procedure of using a proteomic approach combined with a purely discovery approach using sera of patients with broad IgE reactivity profiles to mite allergens was an effective method to investigate a more complete repertoire of D. farinae allergens. The identification of eight new D. farinae allergens will be helpful for HDM allergy diagnosis and therapy, especially for patients without response for HDM major allergens. In addition, the current work significantly extendedthe repertoire of D. farinae allergens.

  6. A revisit to cockroach allergens.

    PubMed

    Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Among cockroaches (CR) that live in people's homes, two species, i.e., German CR (Blattella germanica) and American CR (Periplaneta americana) predominate in temperate and tropical areas, respectively. CR is an important source of inhalant indoor allergens that sensitize atopic subjects to (localized) type I hypersensitivity or atopy including allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In Thailand the predominant CR species is P. americana. CR allergens are found throughout CR infested houses; the number found in kitchens correlates with the degree of CR infestation while sensitization and reactivation of the allergic morbidity are likely to occur in the living room and bedroom. Levels of the CR allergens in homes of CR allergic Thais, measured by using locally made quantification test kits, revealed that the highest levels occur in dust samples collected from the wooden houses of urban slums and in the cool and dry season. CR allergens are proteins that may be derived from any anatomical part of the insect at any developmental stage. The allergens may be also from CR secretions, excretions, body washes or frass. The proteins may be the insect structural proteins, enzymes or hormones. They may exist as dimers/multimers and/or in different isoforms. Exposure to CR allergens in infancy leads to allergic morbidity later in life. Clinical symptoms of CR allergy are usually more severe and prolonged than those caused by other indoor allergens. The mechanisms of acute and chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) have been addressed including specific IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms, i.e., role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Participation of various allergen activated-CD4+ T cells of different sublineages, i.e., Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, Th25, Tregs/Th3 as well as invariant NKT cells, in asthma pathogenesis have been mentioned. The diagnosis of CR allergy and the allergy intervention by CR population control are also discussed.

  7. Endotoxin levels in settled airborne dust in European schools: the HITEA school study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J H; Krop, E J M; Borras-Santos, A; Zock, J-P; Taubel, M; Hyvarinnen, A; Pekkanen, J; Doekes, G; Heederik, D J J

    2014-04-01

    Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with different climates. Our aim was to characterize endotoxin levels in primary schools and evaluate associations with potential determinants. Endotoxin levels were repeatedly assessed in 23 schools in Spain (n = 7), the Netherlands (n = 10), and Finland (n = 6) using electrostatic dustfall collectors. In total, 645 measurements were taken in 237 classrooms. Endotoxin levels differed significantly between countries; Dutch schools had the highest levels, while Finnish schools showed the lowest levels. In each country, differences in endotoxin levels were observed between schools and over the sampling periods. Estimates improved after adjustment for sampling period. Factors affecting endotoxin levels in a school differed per country. In general, endotoxin levels were higher in lower grades and in classrooms with higher occupancy. School endotoxin levels may contribute significantly to total endotoxin exposure in children and teachers. As the correlation between the repeated measurements is reasonable, single endotoxin measurements form a reasonable basis for estimating annual endotoxin levels in schools.

  8. Risk of wheezing associated with house-dust mite allergens and indoor air quality among three-year-old children. Kraków inner city study.

    PubMed

    Jeedrychowski, Wiesław; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Perzanowski, Mattew S; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mróz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house-dust mite (HDM) allergens in homes of three-year-old children and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 microg/g of dust may be regarded as a risk level possibly affecting respiratory health in early childhood. House-dust samples were collected in 275 dwellings from mattresses, children's bedrooms and kitchen floors. In the laboratory, dust samples were analyzed for Der f 1 and Der p 1 using monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). At the time of the house-dust collection, mothers were interviewed on the household characteristics and their children's respiratory health. Respiratory outcome variables included wheezing or whistling in the chest irrespective of respiratory infections. The number of the wheezing episodes and their duration in days over the last 6 months were recorded in the questionnaire. In the multivariate Poisson regression analysis on the association between the occurrence of wheezing and exposure, a set of potential confounders, such as child's gender, maternal education, maternal allergy, older siblings, presence of moulds, house dampness, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was taken into account. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of wheezing ascribed to a higher HDM level (> 2.0 microg/g dust) were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.45-2.34) for duration of wheezing and 1.56 (95% CI: 0.88-2.75) for episodes. Of the confounders taken into consideration, the presence of moulds had the strongest impact on the risk of wheezing (IRR = 4.24; 95% CI: 3.08-5.84). The data support the view that exposure to a higher level of HDM allergens increases the burden of respiratory diseases in the early childhood and the effect is independent of maternal atopy, ETS, and moulds in homes.

  9. [Allergens causing respiratory allergy: the aeroallergens].

    PubMed

    Deschildre, A

    1999-01-01

    Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, particularly asthma and rhinitis. Indoor allergens, including house dust mites, domestic pets, cockroaches, and molds are of particular importance. Pollens are also recognized as a major source of allergens. The role of these different allergens varies with environment conditions, such as climatic factors, and degree of exposure. Knowledge about allergens has progressed, especially with recent molecular biology studies. Structure and function have been identified. These studies have provided explanations about the relationship between allergic sensitization, allergen exposure, and disease activity, about clinical observations such as allergic cross reactions, and improvement in the production of allergenic extracts (necessary to diagnosis and immunotherapy). Environmental control measures are of particular importance in the prevention and management of allergic diseases.

  10. Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, M.; Thornburg, J.; Semmens, E.; Ward, T.; Noonan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM 10–2.5) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m3, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM10–2.5 concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) μg/m3, while PM2.5 concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) μg/m3. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM10–2.5 filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m3 and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM10–2.5 but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

  11. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  12. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  13. Predictors of coarse particulate matter and associated endotoxin concentrations in residential environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; MacNeill, Morgan; Kindzierski, Warren B.; Wallace, Lance; Héroux, Marie-Ève; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM), i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM10-2.5), is of increasing interest due to the potential for health effects including asthma, allergy and respiratory symptoms. Limited information is available on indoor and outdoor coarse PM and associated endotoxin exposures. Seven consecutive 24-h samples of indoor and outdoor coarse PM were collected during winter and summer 2010 using Harvard Coarse Impactors in a total of 74 Edmonton homes where no reported smoking took place. Coarse PM filters were subsequently analyzed for endotoxin content. Data were also collected on indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity, air exchange rate, housing characteristics and occupants' activities. During winter, outdoor concentrations of coarse PM (median = 6.7 μg/m3, interquartile range, IQR = 3.4-12 μg/m3) were found to be higher than indoor concentrations (median 3.4 μg/m3, IQR = 1.6-5.7 μg/m3); while summer levels of indoor and outdoor concentrations were similar (median 4.5 μg/m3, IQR = 2.3-6.8 μg/m3, and median 4.7 μg/m3, IQR = 2.1-7.9 μg/m3, respectively). Similar predictors were identified for indoor coarse PM in both seasons and included corresponding outdoor coarse PM concentrations, whether vacuuming, sweeping or dusting was performed during the sampling period, and number of occupants in the home. Winter indoor coarse PM predictors also included the number of dogs and indoor endotoxin concentrations. Summer median endotoxin concentrations (indoor: 0.41 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.64 EU/m3) were 4-fold higher than winter concentrations (indoor: 0.12 EU/m3, outdoor: 0.16 EU/m3). Other than outdoor endotoxin concentrations, indoor endotoxin concentration predictors for both seasons were different. Winter endotoxin predictors also included presence of furry pets and whether the vacuum had a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Summer endotoxin predictors were problems with mice in the

  14. MECHANISMS OF ENDOTOXIN TOLERANCE

    PubMed Central

    Greisman, Sheldon E.; Woodwards, William E.

    1965-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins were administered by continuous intravenous infusions at constant rates to normal man and rabbits. An initial progressive febrile reaction was followed by progressive defervescence to baseline. The resulting pyrogenic refractory state was characterized as follows: (a) reticuloendothelial blockade with thorotrast neither prevented nor reversed its course; (b) passive transfer was unsuccessful with refractory phase plasma; (c) infusions of normal plasma or fresh whole blood failed to restore responsiveness; (d) a minimum of 4 hours of continuous endotoxin infusion was required for full development of unresponsiveness; (e) circulating antibody titers to endotoxin remained unaltered; (f) peripheral leukocytosis appeared; (g) infusion of febrile phase plasma reevoked an immediate, monophasic fever; (h) endotoxinemia could be demonstrated by pyrogen bioassay; (i) 10-fold increases in endotoxin infusion rates reevoked fever; (j) impaired responsiveness extended to heterologous endotoxins; (k) dermal inflammatory responses to endotoxin were suppressed in man while tuberculin reactivity remained unimpaired; dermal inflammatory responses to endotoxin were enhanced in rabbits; and (l) pyrogenic reactivity to endotoxin reappeared within 24 hours in man; refractoriness persisted in rabbits. It is concluded that the pyrogenic refractory state reflects an inability of the host to continue to mobilize endogenous pyrogen during sustained endotoxinemia. Such observations, together with previous studies, are consistent with two distinct immunologic mechanisms of resistance to endotoxin pyrogenicity: (a) desensitization at the cellular level; and (b) elaboration of circulating antibodies which assist reticuloendothelial clearance and destruction of endotoxin. Whereas both such mechanisms may contribute to pyrogenic tolerance, the characteristics of the pyrogenic refractory state suggest the participation only of the former. PMID:14319407

  15. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  16. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  17. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  18. Assessment of environmental cockroach allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ginger L

    2012-10-01

    In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics, much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies for decreasing exposures.

  19. Assessment of Environmental Cockroach Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ginger L.

    2016-01-01

    In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies to decrease exposures. PMID:22825884

  20. Endotoxin contamination of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Esch, R Keith; Han, Li; Foarde, Karin K; Ensor, David S

    2010-03-01

    Endotoxin has established health impacts and may be a potential confounding factor in toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENM). We aimed to characterize endotoxin contamination for a representative set of carbon-based ENM. The established method for quantifying endotoxin relies on its activity in a complex biochemical assay system. Because of their physical and chemical properties, measurement of endotoxin associated with many ENM presents non-trivial technical challenges. We have made progress in identifying and implementing methods for ENM analysis with respect to endotoxin content, revealing varying levels of endotoxin contamination in the ENM examined here. The physical association of ENM and endotoxin and their shared physiological effects suggest the possibility that contaminating endotoxin may contribute to the toxicity that is ascribed to ENM. We found in this small number of samples that endotoxin levels were not related to type of ENM or surface area but may be introduced randomly during manufacture.

  1. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R

    1978-01-01

    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  2. Neurotoxic Properties on Endotoxins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. 4 t’ ABS TRACT Some endotoxins produce a biphasic effect on spontaneous transmitter secretion, with an early facilitation of release...spontaneous and evoked trans- mitter secretion under physiological conditions. However, glycolipid produces a bipitasic effect on both spontaneous and...the abolition of transmitter release might be effected by a more general mechanism. Endotoxin may isolate the presynaptic terminal from the

  3. Endotoxin Interactions with Platelets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    irreversible aggregation of human platelets (Hamberg and Sainuelsson 1974; Hlamberg et al 1975). Acetylsalicylic acid , an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase aud...exposure to endotoxin (100 ttg/nil). To simulate the lipopolysac- charide of endotoxin, several different fatty acids were added individually to platelet...platelet lytic capability. Similarity, iflegaradt doses of ganima radiation 6wCo destroy fatty acid groups on lipid A (L. Bertok, personal communication

  4. Allergen databases and allergen semantics.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    The efficacy of any specific bioinformatic analysis of the potential allergenicity of new food proteins depends directly on the nature and content of the databases that are used in the analysis. A number of different allergen-related databases have been developed, each designed to meet a different need. These databases differ in content, organization, and accessibility. These differences create barriers for users and prevent data sharing and integration. The development and application of appropriate semantic web technologies, (for example, a food allergen ontology) could help to overcome these barriers and promote the development of more advanced analytic capabilities.

  5. Allergenic extracts to diagnose and treat sensitivity to insect venoms and inhaled allergens.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Taruna; Bridgewater, Jennifer L; Rabin, Ronald L

    2017-05-01

    To review allergenic extracts used to diagnose or treat insect allergies, including how the extracts are manufactured and their measurements of potency or concentration. Peer-reviewed articles derived from searching PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information) about insect allergies and extract preparation. Encyclopedia of Life (http://www.eol.org/) and http://allergome.org/ were also referenced for background information on insects and associated allergens. Search terms used for the PubMed searches included insect allergens and allergies, Apidae, Vespidae, fire ants, cockroach allergies, insect allergen extract preparation, and standardization. Humans may be sensitized to insect allergens by inhalation or through stings. Cockroaches and moths are predominantly responsible for inhalation insect allergy and are a major indoor allergen in urban settings. Bees, fire ants, and wasps are responsible for sting allergy. In the United States, there are multiple insect allergen products commercially available that are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Of those extracts, honeybee venom and insect venom proteins are standardized with measurements of potency. The remaining insect allergen extracts are nonstandardized products that do not have potency measurements. Sensitization to inhalational and stinging insect allergens is reported worldwide. Crude insect allergen extracts are used for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy. A variety of source materials are used by different manufacturers to prepare these extracts, which may result in qualitative differences that are not reflected in measurements of potency or protein concentration. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  7. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  8. Endotoxin Exposure: Predictors and Prevalence of Associated Asthma Outcomes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mendy, Angelico; Metwali, Nervana; Salo, Päivi; Co, Caroll; Jaramillo, Renee; Rose, Kathryn M.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Inhaled endotoxin induces airway inflammation and is an established risk factor for asthma. The 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included measures of endotoxin and allergens in homes as well as specific IgE to inhalant allergens. Objectives: To understand the relationships between endotoxin exposure, asthma outcomes, and sensitization status for 15 aeroallergens in a nationally representative sample. Methods: Participants were administered questionnaires in their homes. Reservoir dust was vacuum sampled to generate composite bedding and bedroom floor samples. We analyzed 7,450 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dust and quality assurance samples for their endotoxin content using extreme quality assurance measures. Data for 6,963 subjects were available, making this the largest study of endotoxin exposure to date. Log-transformed endotoxin concentrations were analyzed using logistic models and forward stepwise linear regression. Analyses were weighted to provide national prevalence estimates and unbiased variances. Measurements and Main Results: Endotoxin exposure was significantly associated with wheeze in the past 12 months, wheeze during exercise, doctor and/or emergency room visits for wheeze, and use of prescription medications for wheeze. Models adjusted for age, sex, race and/or ethnicity, and poverty-to-income ratio and stratified by allergy status showed that these relationships were not dependent upon sensitization status but were worsened among those living in poverty. Significant predictors of higher endotoxin exposures were lower family income; Hispanic ethnicity; participant age; dog(s), cat(s), cockroaches, and/or smoker(s) in the home; and carpeted floors. Conclusions: In this U.S. nationwide representative sample, higher endotoxin exposure was significantly associated with measures of wheeze, with no observed protective effect regardless of sensitization status. PMID:26258643

  9. Endotoxin Exposure: Predictors and Prevalence of Associated Asthma Outcomes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Peter S; Mendy, Angelico; Metwali, Nervana; Salo, Päivi; Co, Caroll; Jaramillo, Renee; Rose, Kathryn M; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2015-12-01

    Inhaled endotoxin induces airway inflammation and is an established risk factor for asthma. The 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included measures of endotoxin and allergens in homes as well as specific IgE to inhalant allergens. To understand the relationships between endotoxin exposure, asthma outcomes, and sensitization status for 15 aeroallergens in a nationally representative sample. Participants were administered questionnaires in their homes. Reservoir dust was vacuum sampled to generate composite bedding and bedroom floor samples. We analyzed 7,450 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dust and quality assurance samples for their endotoxin content using extreme quality assurance measures. Data for 6,963 subjects were available, making this the largest study of endotoxin exposure to date. Log-transformed endotoxin concentrations were analyzed using logistic models and forward stepwise linear regression. Analyses were weighted to provide national prevalence estimates and unbiased variances. Endotoxin exposure was significantly associated with wheeze in the past 12 months, wheeze during exercise, doctor and/or emergency room visits for wheeze, and use of prescription medications for wheeze. Models adjusted for age, sex, race and/or ethnicity, and poverty-to-income ratio and stratified by allergy status showed that these relationships were not dependent upon sensitization status but were worsened among those living in poverty. Significant predictors of higher endotoxin exposures were lower family income; Hispanic ethnicity; participant age; dog(s), cat(s), cockroaches, and/or smoker(s) in the home; and carpeted floors. In this U.S. nationwide representative sample, higher endotoxin exposure was significantly associated with measures of wheeze, with no observed protective effect regardless of sensitization status.

  10. Airborne Endotoxin Is Associated with Respiratory Illness in the First 2 Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert; Miller, David; Ruest, Ken; Guay, Mireille; Judek, Stan

    2006-01-01

    To determine the influence of endotoxin on the incidence of acute respiratory illness during the first 2 years of life, we carried out a longitudinal follow-up study, beginning at birth, of 332 children born in Prince Edward Island, Canada. We measured 5-day averaged air endotoxin in the homes of children, whose parents provided information by daily symptom diaries and twice-monthly telephone contact for up to 2 years. Endotoxin concentration was 0.49 ± 3.49 EU/m3 (geometric mean ± geometric SD), and number of annualized illness episodes was 6.83 ± 2.80 (mean ± SD). A doubling of the air endotoxin concentration was associated with an increase of 0.32 illness episodes per year (p = 0.0003), adjusted for age, year of study, breast-feeding, environmental tobacco smoke, child care attendance, indoor temperature, and income. Indoor mold surface area and fungal ergosterol were not significantly associated with endotoxin. Airborne endotoxin appears to be a risk factor for clinically symptomatic respiratory illnesses during the first 2 years of life independent of indoor fungus. PMID:16581554

  11. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus M. Anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaerosol contamination. One of ...

  12. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus M. Anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaerosol contamination. One of ...

  13. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaer...

  14. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaer...

  15. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Ambient Endotoxin Concentrations in Fresno, California

    PubMed Central

    Tager, Ira B.; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Haight, Thaddeus; Alcorn, Siana; Penfold, Bryan; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2010-01-01

    Background Endotoxins are found in indoor dust generated by human activity and pets, in soil, and adsorbed onto the surfaces of ambient combustion particles. Endotoxin concentrations have been associated with respiratory symptoms and the risk of atopy and asthma in children. Objective We characterized the temporal and spatial variability of ambient endotoxin in Fresno/Clovis, California, located in California’s Central Valley, to identify correlates and potential predictors of ambient endotoxin concentrations in a cohort of children with asthma [Fresno Asthmatic Children’s Environment Study (FACES)]. Methods Between May 2001 and October 2004, daily ambient endotoxin and air pollutants were collected at the central ambient monitoring site of the California Air Resources Board in Fresno and, for shorter time periods, at 10 schools and indoors and outdoors at 84 residences in the community. Analyses were restricted to May–October, the dry months during which endotoxin concentrations are highest. Results Daily endotoxin concentration patterns were determined mainly by meteorologic factors, particularly the degree of air stagnation. Overall concentrations were lowest in areas distant from agricultural activities. Highest concentrations were found in areas immediately downwind from agricultural/pasture land. Among three other measured air pollutants [fine particulate matter, elemental carbon (a marker of traffic in Fresno), and coarse particulate matter (PMc)], PMc was the only pollutant correlated with endotoxin. Endotoxin, however, was the most spatially variable. Conclusions Our data support the need to evaluate the spatial/temporal variability of endotoxin concentrations, rather than relying on a few measurements made at one location, in studies of exposure and and respiratory health effects, particularly in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:20494854

  16. Optimization of allergen standardization.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Lee, Joo-Shil; Park, Jung-Won

    2011-05-01

    Preparation of high quality allergen extracts is essential for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Standardization of allergen extracts concerns determination of the allergen unit, development of reference material and measurement of the overall IgE binding capacity of an allergen extract. Recently, quantification of individual allergens has been the main focus of allergen standardization because the allergenicity of most allergen extracts is known to be mainly dependent on the content of a small number of allergen molecules. Therefore, characterization of major allergens will facilitate the standardization of allergens. In this article, we review the current state of allergen standardization. In addition, we briefly summarize the components of allergen extracts that should be under control for the optimization of allergen standardization, since its adjuvant-like activities could play an important role in allergic reactions even though the molecule itself does not bind to the IgE antibodies from subjects.

  17. Biosensor of endotoxin and sepsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Xiang; Wu, Xi; Gao, Wei; He, Qing-hua; Cai, Shaoxi

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the relation between biosensor of endotoxin and endotoxin of plasma in sepsis. Method: biosensor of endotoxin was designed with technology of quartz crystal microbalance bioaffinity sensor ligand of endotoxin were immobilized by protein A conjugate. When a sample soliton of plasma containing endotoxin 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0Eu, treated with perchloric acid and injected into slot of quartz crystal surface respectively, the ligand was released from the surface of quartz crystal to form a more stable complex with endotoxin in solution. The endotoxin concentration corresponded to the weight change on the crystal surface, and caused change of frequency that occurred when desorbed. The result was biosensor of endotoxin might detect endotoxin of plasma in sepsis, measurements range between 0.05Eu and 0.5Eu in the stop flow mode, measurement range between 0.1Eu and 1Eu in the flow mode. The sensor of endotoxin could detect the endotoxin of plasm rapidly, and use for detection sepsis in clinically.

  18. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3-Ia+ B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  19. Importance of the personal endotoxin cloud in school-age children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitch, Nathan; Liu, Andrew H; Zhang, Lening; Rodes, Charles E; Foarde, Karin; Dutton, Steven J; Murphy, James R; Gelfand, Erwin W

    2005-11-01

    A number of studies have observed associations between the amount of endotoxin in urban dust and chronic asthma severity, but a direct relationship between personal exposure to household endotoxin and acute asthma worsening has not yet been defined. We sought to investigate the relationship between day-to-day changes in personal endotoxin exposure and asthma severity. In the winter and spring of 1999 through 2000, endotoxin exposures were monitored in asthmatic schoolchildren by using portable, as opposed to stationary, monitors designed to measure inhalable and respirable particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microm in diameter. Children were followed with daily measurements of FEV(1) and asthma symptoms. Over a 24-hour period, median daily personal endotoxin exposures ranged from 0.08 EU/m(3) (measured at a particulate matter size range endotoxin measurements from either indoor or outdoor stationary monitors. Moreover, individual exposures did not correlate with stationary measurements, suggesting that exposures derived from sources in close proximity to the children's personal activities might be better correlated with disease severity. Increases in personal endotoxin exposures were associated with decreased FEV(1) values and increased symptoms. These findings demonstrate the importance of using personal monitoring to both measure and correlate endotoxin exposure with asthma severity.

  20. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    PubMed

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  1. Mouse allergen is the major allergen of public health relevance in Baltimore City.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Sharon K; Peng, Roger D; Breysse, Patrick N; Diette, Gregory B; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Aloe, Charles; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2013-10-01

    Cockroach and mouse allergens have both been implicated as causes in inner-city asthma morbidity in multicenter studies, but whether both allergens are clinically relevant within specific inner-city communities is unclear. Our study aimed to identify relevant allergens in Baltimore City. One hundred forty-four children (5-17 years old) with asthma underwent skin prick tests at baseline and had clinical data collected at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Home settled dust samples were collected at the same time points for quantification of indoor allergens. Participants were grouped based on their sensitization and exposure status to each allergen. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and serum total IgE level. Forty-one percent were mouse sensitized/exposed, and 41% were cockroach sensitized/exposed based on bedroom floor exposure data. Mouse sensitization/exposure was associated with acute care visits, decreased FEV1/forced vital capacity percentage values, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels, and bronchodilator reversibility. Cockroach sensitization/exposure was only associated with acute care visits and bronchodilator reversibility when exposure was defined by using bedroom floor allergen levels. Mouse-specific IgE levels were associated with poor asthma health across a range of outcomes, whereas cockroach-specific IgE levels were not. The relationships between asthma outcomes and mouse allergen were independent of cockroach allergen. Although sensitization/exposure to both mouse and cockroach was generally associated with worse asthma, mouse sensitization/exposure was the primary contributor to these relationships. In a community with high levels of both mouse and cockroach allergens, mouse allergen appears to be more strongly and consistently associated with poor asthma outcomes than cockroach allergen. Community-level asthma interventions in Baltimore should prioritize reducing mouse allergen exposure. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy

  2. Are cats and dogs the major source of endotoxin in homes?

    PubMed

    Ownby, D R; Peterson, E L; Wegienka, G; Woodcroft, K J; Nicholas, C; Zoratti, E; Johnson, C C

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that exposure to cats and dogs during early childhood reduces the risk of allergic disease, possibly by increasing home endotoxin exposure. This study asked the question of whether cats and dogs are the dominant influence on dust endotoxin concentrations in homes after considering other variables reportedly associated with endotoxin. The presence of cats or dogs in homes, household and home characteristics, and dust endotoxin concentrations from 5 locations were assessed in 966 urban and suburban homes. Whether considered together as pets or as cats and dogs separately, the presence of cats and dogs significantly contributed to living room and bedroom floor endotoxin concentrations, but not to bed endotoxin concentrations. However, the two variables consistently related to endotoxin in all home sites were the home occupant density (occupants/room) and cleanliness of the home. Our data suggest that reducing occupant density and improving home cleanliness would reduce home endotoxin concentrations more than removing pet cats or dogs from the home. Many studies have shown that early childhood exposure to indoor cats or dogs is associated with a reduced risk of later allergic disease and asthma. An important question is whether alteration in allergic risk associated with cat and dog exposure results from increased endotoxin exposure or from some other associated exposure. Our findings show that cats and dogs are not the dominant source of endotoxin in homes; rather, the density of human occupation and poor cleaning contribute more consistently to higher home endotoxin concentrations especially in the beds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Allergens in urban schools and homes of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Permaul, Perdita; Hoffman, Elaine; Fu, Chunxia; Sheehan, William; Baxi, Sachin; Gaffin, Jonathan; Lane, Jeffrey; Bailey, Ann; King, Eva; Chapman, Martin; Gold, Diane; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2012-09-01

    Most studies of indoor allergens have focused on the home environment. However, schools may be an important site of allergen exposure for children with asthma. We compared school allergen exposure to home exposure in a cohort of children with asthma. Correlations between settled dust and airborne allergen levels in classrooms were examined. Settled dust and airborne samples from 12 inner-city schools were analyzed for indoor allergens using multiplex array technology (MARIA). School samples were linked to students with asthma enrolled in the School Inner-City Asthma Study (SICAS). Settled dust samples from students' bedrooms were analyzed similarly. From schools, 229 settled dust and 197 airborne samples were obtained. From homes, 118 settled dust samples were obtained. Linear mixed regression models of log-transformed variables showed significantly higher settled dust levels of mouse, cat and dog allergens in schools than homes (545% higher for Mus m 1, estimated absolute difference 0.55 μg/g, p < 0.0001; 198% higher for Fel d 1, estimated absolute difference 0.13 μg/g, p = 0.0033; and 144% higher for Can f 1, estimated absolute difference 0.05 μg/g, p = 0.0008). Airborne and settled dust Mus m 1 levels in classrooms were moderately correlated (r = 0.48; p < 0.0001). There were undetectable to very low levels of cockroach and dust mite allergens in both homes and schools. Mouse allergen levels in schools were substantial. In general, cat and dog allergen levels were low, but detectable, and were higher in schools. Aerosolization of mouse allergen in classrooms may be a significant exposure for students. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of indoor allergen exposure in schools on asthma morbidity in students with asthma. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Indoor air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.

    1985-01-01

    The air inside buildings can contain various threats to human health: cigarette smoke, fumes from fires and cookers, microbes, gases, allergens and fumes produced by household products or building materials. Higher standards of insulation and draught-proofing and more use of air conditioning can increase the problems. This book provides a summary of indoor air quality problems in homes, offices and public buildings. Contents: Preface; Introduction; Formaledhyde and other household contaminants; Radon; Particulates; Combustion products; Involuntary smoking; Energy-efficient buildings and indoor air quality; Control of indoor air pollutants; Indoor air quality problems in office buildings; Legal and regulatory issues; Appendices; Sources and suggested reading; Glossary; Index.

  5. [Elimination of airborne allergens from the household environment].

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Casel, S; Colas, F; Spirlet, F; Pauli, G

    2000-02-01

    Exposure to allergens could be either a risk factor of sensitization and nonspecific hyperresponsiveness in genetically predisposed patients or a risk of onset of asthma attack in certain allergic asthma. During the past 20 years, in western countries the houses have become higher and the number of furred pets have increased and have been more kept inside the house which makes probable that exposure to indoor aeroallergen has increased. The development of new methods of allergen measurements allows a more precise identification of allergen source and reservoirs, an assessment of allergen exposure and a monitoring of allergen eviction methods. Concerning mite allergens, controlled studies which showed a clinical efficacy are those with a global mite eviction and at least a 6 months follow-up for cat and dog allergens, high efficiency-filters air cleaners or vacuum-cleaners are able to reduce airborne cat or dog allergen levels. According to the increasing number of papers about allergen eviction, it seems logical to propose allergen eviction as "first line treatment" of allergic asthma. In the future, it would be interesting to develop biological markers to identify more accurately patients who have a clinical improvement after allergen eviction.

  6. Animal Allergens and Their Presence in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  7. [Indoor air and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kunkel, G; Rudolph, R; Muckelmann, R

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infects of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chimico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  8. New contact allergens and allergen sources.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z; Krajewska, D; Kozłowska, A; Czerwińska-Dihm, I

    1978-01-01

    In the report new contact allergens and allergen sources detected in Warsaw in the period 1975-1977 are described. They are divided into 3 groups: industrial allergens, remaining occupational allergens and cosmetics. There are given some data concerning the substances present in industrial oils, hardeners and epoxy resin solvents, drugs sensitizing nurses, several new sources of chromium allergens, essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours are discussed as the main allergens in cosmetics.

  9. Pest and allergen exposure and abatement in inner-city asthma: a work group report of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Indoor Allergy/Air Pollution Committee.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, William J; Rangsithienchai, Pitud A; Wood, Robert A; Rivard, Don; Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Chew, Ginger L; Seltzer, James M; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-03-01

    Our work group report details the importance of pest allergen exposure in inner-city asthma. We will focus specifically on mouse and cockroach exposure. We will discuss how exposure to these pests is common in the inner city and what conditions exist in urban areas that might lead to increased exposure. We will discuss how exposure is associated with allergen sensitization and asthma morbidity. Finally, we will discuss different methods of intervention and the effectiveness of these tactics.

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  11. Pets and cockroaches: two increasing causes of respiratory allergy in indoor environments. Characteristics of airways sensitization and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Cazzola, M; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2000-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic sensitization to indoor allergens such as dust mites, pets and cockroaches is the result of the changes in indoor environments induced by human activities. The Westernized lifestyle and the increasing time spent indoors determine a reduction in natural air ventilation and, consequently, higher levels of allergen concentrations and longer exposure to allergens. The major cat allergen Fel d 1 is carried by small-dimension particles (< 5 microm diameter) that readily become airborne and persist immodified for a long time. Fel d 1 must be considered a ubiquitous allergen because it has been found in indoor environments and even in public places where a cat has never been kept. Recent research has demonstrated that clothing of cat owners may contribute to the dispersal of Fel d 1 in cat-free environments. Therefore, washing Fel d 1-contaminated clothes should be considered a simple and effective method for removing this allergen from clothing and, consequently, reducing the risk of Fel d 1 dispersion. Cockroach allergens constitute another important cause of environment-related respiratory allergy and may trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. In the prevention of cockroach allergy, the use of chemical agents associated with an intensive vacuum cleaning of indoor environments is an important tool in removing cockroach material containing allergenic proteins. Early recognition of allergy-predisposed babies, monitoring indoor allergens and adequate strategies of allergen avoidance are likely to be important means for reducing the prevalence of bronchial asthma.

  12. Ibuprofen in canine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, E R; Soulsby, M E; Bone, R C; Wilson, F J; Hiller, F C

    1982-01-01

    The participation of prostaglandins in the physiologic alterations of endotoxin shock has been well established with the aid of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. Our study was designed to investigate the potential of ibuprofen, a highly specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, to reverse the hemodynamic and acid base abnormalities of canine endotoxin shock. Mean blood pressure fell to 49.8 +/- 6.6 mm Hg in dogs given endotoxin by 5 min after injection, and remained below 83 mm Hg for the duration of the 120-min observation period. In animals given endotoxin followed by ibuprofen, a similar initial drop of systemic blood pressure was seen, but it subsequently recovered to 150.2 +/- 4.1 mm Hg by 120 min (P less than 0.001). Cardiac index increased in animals given ibuprofen (2.3 +/- 0.28 liter/m2 per min) compared with animals given endotoxin alone (1.0 +/- 0.09 liter/m2 per min) by termination of the experiment. The arterial pH dropped in endotoxin treated animals to 7.18 +/- 0.03 by 120 min. Ibuprofen prevented the acidosis, the final pH in ibuprofen and endotoxin treated animals measuring 7.36 +/- 0.01. We conclude that ibuprofen protects against the hypotension, acidosis, and depression of cardiac index of canine endotoxin shock. PMID:7107893

  13. Indoor Environmental Control Practices and Asthma Management.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Elizabeth C; Abramson, Stuart L; Sandel, Megan T

    2016-11-01

    Indoor environmental exposures, particularly allergens and pollutants, are major contributors to asthma morbidity in children; environmental control practices aimed at reducing these exposures are an integral component of asthma management. Some individually tailored environmental control practices that have been shown to reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations are similar in efficacy and cost to controller medications. As a part of developing tailored strategies regarding environmental control measures, an environmental history can be obtained to evaluate the key indoor environmental exposures that are known to trigger asthma symptoms and exacerbations, including both indoor pollutants and allergens. An environmental history includes questions regarding the presence of pets or pests or evidence of pests in the home, as well as knowledge regarding whether the climatic characteristics in the community favor dust mites. In addition, the history focuses on sources of indoor air pollution, including the presence of smokers who live in the home or care for children and the use of gas stoves and appliances in the home. Serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E antibody tests can be performed or the patient can be referred for allergy skin testing to identify indoor allergens that are most likely to be clinically relevant. Environmental control strategies are tailored to each potentially relevant indoor exposure and are based on knowledge of the sources and underlying characteristics of the exposure. Strategies include source removal, source control, and mitigation strategies, such as high-efficiency particulate air purifiers and allergen-proof mattress and pillow encasements, as well as education, which can be delivered by primary care pediatricians, allergists, pediatric pulmonologists, other health care workers, or community health workers trained in asthma environmental control and asthma education.

  14. Endotoxin hitchhiking on polymer nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnell, Mason L.; Lyon, Andrew J.; Mormile, Melanie R.; Barua, Sutapa

    2016-07-01

    The control of microbial infections is critical for the preparation of biological media including water to prevent lethal septic shock. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. More than half a million patients suffer from sepsis every year. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are responsible for septic infection by the most common organisms i.e., Escherichia coli and Pseuodomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial cell membrane releases negatively charged endotoxins upon death and enzymatic destruction, which stimulate antigenic response in humans to gram-negative infections. Several methods including distillation, ethylene oxide treatment, filtration and irradiation have been employed to remove endotoxins from contaminated samples, however, the reduction efficiency remains low, and presents a challenge. Polymer nanoparticles can be used to overcome the current inability to effectively sequester endotoxins from water. This process is termed endotoxin hitchhiking. The binding of endotoxin on polymer nanoparticles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions offers efficient removal from water. However, the effect of polymer nanoparticles and its surface areas has not been investigated for removal of endotoxins. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer was tested for its ability to effectively bind and remove endotoxins from water. By employing a simple one-step phase separation technique, we were able to synthesize PCL nanoparticles of 398.3 ± 95.13 nm size and a polydispersity index of 0.2. PCL nanoparticles showed ∼78.8% endotoxin removal efficiency, the equivalent of 3.9 × 105 endotoxin units (EU) per ml. This is 8.34-fold more effective than that reported for commercially available membranes. Transmission electron microscopic images confirmed binding of multiple endotoxins to the nanoparticle surface. The concept of using nanoparticles may be applicable not only to eliminate gram-negative bacteria, but also for any gram

  15. Indoor Tanning

    MedlinePlus

    ... UV radiation causes wrinkles and age spots. The theory that adding red light to an indoor tanning ... any use of indoor tanning systems. For More Information To learn more about the risks of tanning, ...

  16. Lead, Allergen, and Pesticide Levels in Licensed Child Care Centers in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergens, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels ...

  17. Dispersion of horse allergen from stables and areas with horses into homes.

    PubMed

    Emenius, G; Merritt, A-S; Härfast, B

    2009-01-01

    To protect susceptible subjects from exposure to horse allergen, a Swedish national report recommended a distance of at least 500 m between homes and stables and other areas with horses. The aim of this project was to study indoor and outdoor levels of horse allergen in relation to distance from stables and horse tracks. Indoor and outdoor samples were collected with Petri dishes at 49 sites in different housing areas and near to a track for trotting horses. In the apartments, Petri dishes were placed on a bookshelf in the living room at a height of approximately 1.5 m. Outdoors, cages containing Petri dishes were attached to tree branches at various distances from the horse track. Six of 45 indoor samples had detectable levels of horse allergen, 3 of those despite the fact that no family member had had any contact with horses, and 16 of 26 outdoor samples were positive. Outdoors, allergen levels drop quickly when the distance from stables or horses increases. Further, the allergen level found at a distance of 45 m from a horse track was around 1% of the allergen level found at 1 m from the track. Allergens dispersed from horses decline rapidly outdoors and are barely found indoors in homes. We support the view that indirect exposure to horses such as exposure from clothing of horse riders, should be taken into account when measures to protect susceptible people from undesired exposure to horse allergens are taken. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Lead, Allergen, and Pesticide Levels in Licensed Child Care Centers in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergens, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels ...

  19. Allergen Avoidance in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Francesca; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    Allergic asthma is the most frequent disease among the chronic respiratory disorders in pediatric age with an important social impact. In the last years, many efforts have been made to identify effective preventive approaches to get a better control of symptoms and to obtain the best future outcomes for the patients. In patients with allergic asthma triggered by the exposure to indoor allergens, the avoidance is the first intervention to prevent the appearance or the worsening of bronchial symptoms. This review article summarized the most recent evidence from literature about the efficacy of specific control interventions for the most important allergens. Even if a wide spectrum of interventions has been suggested and may help to reduce exposure to trigger allergy for sensitized patients suffering from respiratory allergy, evidence supporting the efficacy of these approaches is still weak and subject of controversy. However, the exposure control to specific airborne allergens is still widely recommended and may be effective as part of a holistic approach to reduce the severity of allergic respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. PMID:28540285

  20. Measurement of Horse Allergen (Equ cx) in Schools.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Anne-Sophie; Emenius, Gunnel; Elfman, Lena; Smedje, Greta

    2011-01-01

    Background. The presence of horse allergen in public places is not well-known, unlike for instance cat and dog allergens, which have been studied extensively. The aim was to investigate the presence of horse allergen in schools and to what extent the influence of number of children with regular horse contact have on indoor allergen levels. Methods. Petri dishes were used to collect airborne dust samples during one week in classrooms. In some cases, vacuumed dust samples were also collected. All samples were extracted, frozen and analysed for Equ cx content shortly after sampling, and some were re-analysed six years later with a more sensitive ELISA assay. Results. Horse allergen levels were significantly higher in classrooms, in which many children had horse contact, regardless of sampling method. Allergen levels in extracts from Petri dish samples, which had been kept frozen, dropped about 53% over a six-year period. Conclusion. Horse allergen was present in classrooms and levels were higher in classrooms where many children had regular horse contact in their leisure time. This suggests that transfer of allergens takes place via contaminated clothing. Measures should be taken to minimize possible transfer and deposition of allergens in pet-free environments, such as schools.

  1. Mold Allergens in Respiratory Allergy: From Structure to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Swoboda, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy. PMID:25840710

  2. Endotoxin in inner-city homes: Associations with wheeze and eczema in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Miller, Rachel L.; Thorne, Peter S.; Barr, R. Graham; Divjan, Adnan; Sheares, Beverley J.; Garfinkel, Robin S.; Perera, Frederica P.; Goldstein, Inge F.; Chew, Ginger L.

    2007-01-01

    Background An inverse association between domestic exposure to endotoxin and atopy in childhood has been observed. The relevance of this aspect of the “hygiene hypothesis” to U.S. inner-city communities that have disproportionately high asthma prevalence has not been determined. Objectives To measure endotoxin in the dust from inner-city homes, evaluate associations between endotoxin and housing/lifestyle characteristics, and determine whether endotoxin exposure predicted wheeze, allergic rhinitis and eczema over the first three years of life. Methods As part of an ongoing prospective birth cohort study, children of Dominican and African-American mothers living in New York City underwent repeated questionnaire measures. Dust samples collected from bedroom floors at age 12 or 36 months were assayed for endotoxin. Results Among the samples collected from 301 participant’s homes, the geometric mean endotoxin concentration [95% C.I.] was 75.9 EU/mg [66–87] and load was 3,892 EU/m2 [3,351–4,522]. Lower endotoxin concentrations were associated with wet mop cleaning and certain neighborhoods. Endotoxin concentration correlated weakly with cockroach (Bla g 2: r=0.22,p<0.001) and mouse (MUP: r=0.28,p<0.001) allergens in the dust. Children in homes with higher endotoxin concentration were less likely to have eczema at age 1 year (O.R. 0.70 [0.53–0.93]) and more likely to wheeze at age 2 years (O.R. 1.34 [1.01–1.78]). These associations were stronger among children with a maternal history of asthma. Conclusions Endotoxin levels in this inner-city community are similar to non-farm homes elsewhere. In this community, domestic endotoxin exposure was inversely associated with eczema at age 1, but positively associated with wheeze at age 2. Clinical Implications Endotoxin exposure in the inner-city community may be related to wheeze in the early life; however, given the inverse association seen with eczema, the long term development of allergic disease is still in

  3. Passive airborne dust sampling with the electrostatic dustfall collector: optimization of storage and extraction procedures for endotoxin and glucan measurement.

    PubMed

    Noss, Ilka; Doekes, Gert; Sander, Ingrid; Heederik, Dick J J; Thorne, Peter S; Wouters, Inge M

    2010-08-01

    We recently introduced a passive dust sampling method for airborne endotoxin and glucan exposure assessment-the electrostatic dustfall collector (EDC). In this study, we assessed the effects of different storage and extraction procedures on measured endotoxin and glucan levels, using 12 parallel EDC samples from 10 low exposed indoor environments. Additionally, we compared 2- and 4-week sampling with the prospect of reaching higher dust yields. Endotoxin concentrations were highest after extraction with pyrogen-free water (pf water) + Tween. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-Tween yielded significantly (44%) lower levels, and practically no endotoxin was detected after extraction in pf water without Tween. Glucan levels were highest after extraction in PBS-Tween at 120 degrees C, whereas extracts made in NaOH at room temperature or 120 degrees C were completely negative. Direct extraction from the EDC cloth or sequential extraction after a preceding endotoxin extraction yielded comparable glucan levels. Sample storage at different temperatures before extraction did not affect endotoxin and glucan concentrations. Doubling the sampling duration yielded similar endotoxin and only 50% higher glucan levels. In conclusion, of the tested variables, the extraction medium was the predominant factor affecting endotoxin and glucan yields.

  4. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Chiu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust) and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:23840530

  5. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Yan, Dah-Chin; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Chiu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust) and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis.

  6. Characterization of the bacterial and fungal microbiome in indoor dust and outdoor air samples: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Blake; Zhou, Yanjiao; Bautista, Eddy J; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Silverman, Frances; Muilenberg, Michael; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Gold, Diane R; Sordillo, Joanne E

    2016-06-15

    Environmental microbes have been associated with both protective and adverse health effects in children and adults. Epidemiological studies often rely on broad biomarkers of microbial exposure (i.e. endotoxin, 1 → 3-beta-d-glucan), but fail to identify the taxonomic composition of the microbial community. Our aim was to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiome in different types of environmental samples collected in studies of human health effects. We determined the composition of microbial communities present in home, school and outdoor air samples by amplifying and sequencing regions of rRNA genes from bacteria (16S) and fungi (18S and ITS). Samples for this pilot study included indoor settled dust (from both a Boston area birth cohort study on Home Allergens and Asthma (HAA) (n = 12) and a study of school exposures and asthma symptoms (SICAS) (n = 1)), as well as fine and coarse concentrated outdoor ambient particulate (CAP) samples (n = 9). Sequencing of amplified 16S, 18S, and ITS regions was performed on the Roche-454 Life Sciences Titanium pyrosequencing platform. Indoor dust samples were dominated by Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria); the most abundant bacterial genera were those related to human flora (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Lactobacillus). Outdoor CAPs were dominated by Gram-negative Proteobacteria from water and soil sources, in particular the genera Acidovorax, and Brevundimonas (which were present at very low levels or entirely absent in indoor dust). Phylum-level fungal distributions identified by 18S or ITS regions showed very similar findings: a predominance of Ascomycota in indoor dust and Basidiomycota in outdoor CAPs. ITS sequencing of fungal genera in indoor dust showed significant proportions of Aureobasidium and Leptosphaerulina along with some contribution from Cryptococcus, Epicoccum, Aspergillus and the human commensal Malassezia. ITS sequencing detected more than 70 fungal genera

  7. Characterization of the bacterial and fungal microbiome in indoor dust and outdoor air samples: a pilot study†

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Blake; Zhou, Yanjiao; Bautista, Eddy J.; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Silverman, Frances; Muilenberg, Michael; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Gold, Diane R.; Sordillo, Joanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental microbes have been associated with both protective and adverse health effects in children and adults. Epidemiological studies often rely on broad biomarkers of microbial exposure (i.e. endotoxin, 1→3, Beta-D glucan), but fail to identify the taxonomic composition of the microbial community. Our aim was to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiome in different types of environmental samples collected in studies of human health effects. We determined the composition of microbial communities present in home, school and outdoor air samples by amplifying and sequencing regions of rRNA genes from bacteria (16S) and fungi (18S and ITS). Samples for this pilot study included indoor settled dust (from both a Boston area birth cohort study on Home Allergens and Asthma (HAA)(n=12) and a study of school exposures and asthma symptoms (SICAS) (n=1)), as well as fine and coarse concentrated outdoor ambient particulate (CAP) samples (n=9). Sequencing of amplified 16S, 18S, and ITS regions was performed on the Roche-454 Life Sciences Titanium pyrosequencing platform. Indoor dust samples were dominated by gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria); the most abundant bacterial genera were those related to human flora (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Lactobacillus). Outdoor CAPs were dominated by gram-negative Proteobacteria from water and soil sources, in particular the genera Acidovorax, and Brevundimonas (which were present at very low levels or entirely absent in indoor dust). Phylum-level fungal distributions identified by 18S or ITS regions showed very similar findings: a predominance of Ascomycota in indoor dust and Basidiomycota in outdoor CAPs. ITS sequencing of fungal genera in indoor dust showed significant proportions of Aureobasidium and Leptosphaerulina along with some contribution from Cryptococcus, Epicoccum, Aspergillus and the human commensal Malassezia. ITS sequencing detected an additional 70 fungal genera in

  8. Characterization of allergens of Penicillium and Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Shen, H D; Han, S H

    1998-09-01

    Penicillium and Aspergillus species are common indoor airborne fungi and have been identified to be important causative agents of extrinsic bronchial asthma. However, little was known about allergens of these ubiquitous fungal species. Results from a survey conducted by us showed that P. citrinum was the most prevalent Penicillium species in the Taipei area. Characterization of allergens by SDS-PAGE-immunoblotting using sera from asthmatic patients showed that there was an IgE cross-reactivity among the 33 KDa group major allergens of P. citrinum, P. notatum and P. brevicompactum. Results obtained from N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis suggest that the 33 KDa major allergens of P. citrinum and P. brevicompactum may be the alkaline serine proteinase of individual Penicillium species. In addition, our results suggest that the 34 KDa major allergen of A. oryzae is also an alkaline serine proteinase. IgE cross-reactivity between the major serine proteinase allergens of A. oryzae and P. citrinum has also been detected. Furthermore, results from cDNA cloning suggest that the 68 KDa allergen of P. notatum is a beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase. Lastly, a heat shock protein in the hsp70 family has also been identified as an allergen of P. citrinum. Results obtained in these studies will provide important basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment of mould allergy.

  9. New tree nut allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...

  10. Indoor residential chemical emissions as risk factors for respiratory and allergic effects in children: a review.

    PubMed

    Mendell, M J

    2007-08-01

    Most research into effects of residential exposures on respiratory health has focused on allergens, moisture/mold, endotoxin, or combustion products. A growing body of research from outside the US; however, has associated chemical emissions from common indoor materials with risk of asthma, allergies, and pulmonary infections. This review summarizes 21 studies in the epidemiologic literature on associations between indoor residential chemical emissions, or emission-related materials or activities, and respiratory health or allergy in infants or children. Associations, some strong, were reported between many risk factors and respiratory or allergic effects. Risk factors identified most frequently included formaldehyde or particleboard, phthalates or plastic materials, and recent painting. Findings for other risk factors, such as aromatic and aliphatic chemical compounds, were limited but suggestive. Elevated risks were also reported for renovation and cleaning activities, new furniture, and carpets or textile wallpaper. Reviewed studies were entirely observational, limited in size, and variable in quality, and specific risk factors identified may only be indicators for correlated, truly causal exposures. Nevertheless, overall evidence suggests a new class of residential risk factors for adverse respiratory effects, ubiquitous in modern residences, and distinct from those currently recognized. It is important to confirm and quantify any risks, to motivate and guide necessary preventive actions. Composite wood materials that emit formaldehyde, flexible plastics that emit plasticizers, and new paint have all been associated with increased risks of respiratory and allergic health effects in children. Although causal links have not been documented, and other correlated indoor-related exposures may ultimately be implicated, these findings nevertheless point to a new class of little recognized indoor risk factors for allergic and respiratory disease, distinct from the

  11. Early allergen exposure and atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Harris, J M; Williams, H C; White, C; Moffat, S; Mills, P; Newman Taylor, A J; Cullinan, P

    2007-04-01

    The relationship between exposure to indoor aeroallergens in early life and subsequent eczema is unclear. We have previously failed to show any significant associations between early life exposure to house dust mite and cat fur allergens and either sensitization to these allergens or wheeze. We have also previously reported a lower prevalence of parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed eczema by age 2 years for children exposed to higher concentrations of house dust mite, but no other associations with other definitions of eczema or for exposure to cat allergen. To extend the exposure-response analysis of allergen exposure and eczema outcomes measured up to age 8 years, and to investigate the role of other genetic and environmental determinants. A total of 593 children (92 x 4% of those eligible) born to all newly pregnant women attending one of three general practitioner surgeries in Ashford, Kent, were followed from birth to age 8 years. Concentrations of house dust mite and cat allergen were measured in dust samples collected from the home at 8 weeks after birth. The risk of subsequent eczema as defined by the U.K. diagnostic criteria was determined according to different levels (quintiles) of allergen exposure at birth. By age 8 years, 150 (25 x 3%) children had met the diagnostic criteria for eczema at least once. Visible flexural dermatitis was recorded at least once for 129 (28 x 0%). As in other studies, parental allergic history was positively associated with most eczema outcomes, as were higher maternal education and less crowded homes. No clear linear associations between early exposure to house dust mite or cat allergen were found, regardless of the definition of eczema used. The risk of eczema appeared to increase for the three lowest quintiles of house dust mite allergen exposure (odds ratio, OR 1 x 37 for third quintile compared with first), and then to fall for the two highest quintiles (OR 0 x 66 and 0 x 71) even after controlling for confounding factors

  12. Dog allergen (Can f 1) and cat allergen (Fel d 1) in US homes: Results from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing

    PubMed Central

    Arbes, Samuel J.; Cohn, Richard D.; Yin, Ming; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Friedman, Warren; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposures to dog and cat allergens are believed to play important roles in the etiology of asthma; however, the levels of these allergens have never been assessed in a representative sample of US homes. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate and characterize exposures to Can f 1 (dog allergen) and Fel d 1 (cat allergen) in US homes. Methods Data were obtained from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing, a nationally representative survey of 831 US homes. Vacuumed-collected dust samples from the bed, bedroom floor, living room floor, and living room sofa were analyzed for concentrations of Can f 1 and Fel d 1 (micrograms of allergen per gram of dust). Results Although a dog or cat had lived in only 49.1% of homes in the previous 6 months, Can f 1 and Fel d 1 were detected in 100% and 99.9% of homes, respectively. Averaged over the sampled sites, geometric mean concentrations (µg/g) were 4.69 for Can f 1 and 4.73 for Fel d 1. Among homes with an indoor dog and cat, respectively, geometric mean concentrations were 69 for Can f 1 and 200 for Fel d 1. Among homes without the indoor pet, geometric mean concentrations were above 1.0. The independent predictors of elevated concentrations in homes without pets were all demographic variables that were also linked to a higher prevalence of pet ownership. Conclusions Can f 1 and Fel d 1 are universally present in US homes. Levels that have been associated with an increased risk of allergic sensitization were found even in homes without pets. Because of the transportability of these allergens on clothing, elevated levels in homes without pets, particularly among demographic groups in which pet ownership is more prevalent, implicate the community as an important source of these pet allergens. PMID:19055206

  13. High exposure to endotoxin in farming is associated with less new-onset pollen sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Doekes, Gert; Basinas, Ioannis; Bolund, Anneli Clea Skjelmose; Hjort, Charlotte; Grønager, Pernille Milvang; Omland, Øyvind; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2017-08-23

    Little is known about risk factors for new onset and loss of atopic sensitisation in adulthood. The aim is to examine the longitudinal effect of quantitatively assessed endotoxin exposures on changes in specific allergen sensitisation in young adults. The cohort consisted of 1113 young Danish farmers and rural controls, with a mean age of 19 years at baseline. Sensitisation to birch pollen, grass pollen, cat dander and house dust mite was measured by specific IgE levels in serum samples from baseline and at 15 years' follow-up. Changes in sensitisation were analysed in relation to cumulative endotoxin exposure during follow-up, considering early life farm exposure. Endotoxin exposure during follow-up was significantly associated with less new onset of specifically grass and birch pollen sensitisation. For the highest versus lowest quartile of cumulative endotoxin exposure, the OR for new-onset IgE sensitisation was 0.35 (0.13-0.91) for birch and 0.14 (0.05-0.50) for grass. On the other hand, loss of pollen sensitisation showed a positive, although mostly non-significant, association with increased levels of endotoxin exposure. Endotoxin exposure was not associated with significant changes in cat dander and house dust mite sensitisation. High exposure to endotoxin during young adulthood appears to protect against new onset of pollen sensitisation, independent of childhood farm exposure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE. D. M. Brass, J. D. Savov, *S. H. Gavett, ?C. George, D. A. Schwartz. Duke Univ Medical Center Durham, NC, *U.S. E.P.A. Research Triangle Park, NC, ?Univ of Iowa,...

  15. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE IN ENDOTOXIN-SENSITIVE BUT NOT ENDOTOXIN-RESISTANT MICE. D. M. Brass, J. D. Savov, *S. H. Gavett, ?C. George, D. A. Schwartz. Duke Univ Medical Center Durham, NC, *U.S. E.P.A. Research Triangle Park, NC, ?Univ of Iowa,...

  16. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses.

  17. Mouse and cockroach allergens in the dust and air in northeastern United States inner-city public high schools.

    PubMed

    Chew, G L; Correa, J C; Perzanowski, M S

    2005-08-01

    Considering that high school students spend a large proportion of their waking hours in the school environment, this could be an important location for exposure to indoor allergens. We have investigated the levels of mouse and cockroach allergens in the settled dust and air from 11 schools in a major northeastern US city. Settled dust samples were vacuumed from 87 classrooms, three times throughout the school year. Two separate air samples (flow = 2.5 lpm) were collected by 53 students over a 5-day period from both their school and their home. Mouse allergen (MUP) in the dust varied greatly between schools with geometric means ranging from 0.21 to 133 microg/g. Mouse allergen was detectable in 81% of the samples collected. Cockroach allergen (Bla g 2) ranged from below limit of detection (<0.003 microg/g) to 1.1 microg/g. Cockroach allergen was detected (>0.003 microg/g) in 71% of the dust samples. Bla g 2 was detected in 22% of airborne samples from the schools. By comparison, mouse allergen was only detected in 5%. These results indicate that the school may be an important location for exposure to allergens from mice and cockroaches and is an indoor environment that should be considered in an overall allergen intervention strategy. To date, cockroach and mouse allergen intervention strategies have been mainly focused on the home environment. Considering that children spend a significant amount of time in schools, some studies have assessed cockroach allergen levels in schools. This study provides a clearer picture of the distribution and variability of not only cockroach allergen, but also mouse allergen in the school environment. In addition, this study describes limitations of personal air sampling in a student population. Our results suggest that although cockroach and mouse allergens are commonly recovered in classroom dust samples of inner city schools, cockroach allergens are recovered in the personal air samples with a greater frequency relative to mouse

  18. THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ENDOTOXIN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Evidence from this laboratory and others indicates that endotoxin shock is a form of anaphylactic shock mediated through natural antibody and...bacteria may influence susceptibility to endotoxin by their effect on the production of both natural and acquired antibody. The immunologic factors...in the production of endotoxin shock were investigated further by the following studies: ( 1 ) A Systematic Analysis of the Reaction Between Endotoxin

  19. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Harald; Gornicec, Jan; Neuper, Theresa; Parigiani, Maria Alejandra; Wallner, Michael; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2017-01-01

    Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the masking capacities of different buffer formulations and whether masked endotoxin is biologically active. We show that both naturally occurring endotoxin as well as control standard endotoxin can be affected by LER. Furthermore, whereas masked endotoxin cannot be detected in Factor C based assays, it is still detectable in a cell-based TLR4-NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in primary human monocytes, masked LPS induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and surface activation markers even at very low concentrations. We therefore conclude that masked LPS is a potent trigger of immune responses, which emphasizes the potential danger of masked LPS, as it may pose a health threat in pharmaceutical products or compromise experimental results. PMID:28317862

  20. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions.

    PubMed

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef; Hartl, Arnulf

    2016-07-01

    Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect.

  1. Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

  2. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  3. Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

  4. Differential effects of air conditioning type on residential endotoxin levels in a semi-arid climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J D; Kruman, B A; Nelson, M C; Merrill, R M; Graul, R J; Hoybjerg, T G; Tuttle, S C; Myers, S J; Cook, R B; Weber, K S

    2017-01-31

    Residential endotoxin exposure is associated with protective and pathogenic health outcomes. Evaporative coolers, an energy-efficient type of air conditioner used in dry climates, are a potential source of indoor endotoxins; however, this association is largely unstudied. We collected settled dust biannually from four locations in homes with evaporative coolers (n=18) and central air conditioners (n=22) in Utah County, Utah (USA), during winter (Jan-Apr) and summer (Aug-Sept), 2014. Dust samples (n=281) were analyzed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Housing factors were measured by survey, and indoor temperature and relative humidity measures were collected during both seasons. Endotoxin concentrations (EU/mg) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons. Endotoxin surface loads (EU/m(2) ) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons and in upholstered furniture during winter. For the nine significant season-by-location comparisons, EU/mg and EU/m(2) were approximately three to six times greater in homes using evaporative coolers. A plausible explanation for these findings is that evaporative coolers serve as a reservoir and distribution system for Gram-negative bacteria or their cell wall components in homes.

  5. Airborne Mold and Endotoxin Concentrations in New Orleans, Louisiana, after Flooding, October through November 2005

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Gina M.; Hjelmroos-Koski, Mervi; Rotkin-Ellman, Miriam; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2006-01-01

    Background The hurricanes and flooding in New Orleans, Louisiana, in October and November 2005 resulted in damp conditions favorable to the dispersion of bioaerosols such as mold spores and endotoxin. Objective Our objective in this study was to assess potential human exposure to bioaerosols in New Orleans after the flooding of the city. Methods A team of investigators performed continuous airborne sampling for mold spores and endotoxin outdoors in flooded and nonflooded areas, and inside homes that had undergone various levels of remediation, for periods of 5–24 hr during the 2 months after the flooding. Results The estimated 24-hr mold concentrations ranged from 21,000 to 102,000 spores/m3 in outdoor air and from 11,000 to 645,000 spores/m3 in indoor air. The mean outdoor spore concentration in flooded areas was roughly double the concentration in nonflooded areas (66,167 vs. 33,179 spores/m3; p < 0.05). The highest concentrations were inside homes. The most common mold species were from the genera of Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium; Stachybotrys was detected in some indoor samples. The airborne endotoxin concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 8.3 EU (endo-toxin units)/m3 but did not vary with flooded status or between indoor and outdoor environments. Conclusions The high concentration of mold measured indoors and outdoors in the New Orleans area is likely to be a significant respiratory hazard that should be monitored over time. Workers and returning residents should use appropriate personal protective equipment and exposure mitigation techniques to prevent respiratory morbidity and long-term health effects. PMID:16966092

  6. Airborne mold and endotoxin concentrations in New Orleans, Louisiana, after flooding, October through November 2005.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gina M; Hjelmroos-Koski, Mervi; Rotkin-Ellman, Miriam; Hammond, S Katharine

    2006-09-01

    The hurricanes and flooding in New Orleans, Louisiana, in October and November 2005 resulted in damp conditions favorable to the dispersion of bioaerosols such as mold spores and endotoxin. Our objective in this study was to assess potential human exposure to bioaerosols in New Orleans after the flooding of the city. A team of investigators performed continuous airborne sampling for mold spores and endotoxin outdoors in flooded and nonflooded areas, and inside homes that had undergone various levels of remediation, for periods of 5-24 hr during the 2 months after the flooding. The estimated 24-hr mold concentrations ranged from 21,000 to 102,000 spores/m3 in outdoor air and from 11,000 to 645,000 spores/m3 in indoor air. The mean outdoor spore concentration in flooded areas was roughly double the concentration in nonflooded areas (66,167 vs. 33,179 spores/m3 ; p < 0.05) . The highest concentrations were inside homes. The most common mold species were from the genera of Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium ; Stachybotrys was detected in some indoor samples. The airborne endotoxin concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 8.3 EU (endotoxin units) /m3 but did not vary with flooded status or between indoor and outdoor environments. The high concentration of mold measured indoors and outdoors in the New Orleans area is likely to be a significant respiratory hazard that should be monitored over time. Workers and returning residents should use appropriate personal protective equipment and exposure mitigation techniques to prevent respiratory morbidity and long-term health effects.

  7. Analysis of olive allergens.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C; Montealegre, C; Marina, M L; García, M C

    2012-04-15

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Besides this, some cases of contact dermatitis and food allergy to the olive fruit and olive oil have been also described. Several scientific studies dealing with olive allergens has been reported, being the information available about them constantly increasing. Up to date, twelve allergens have been identified in olive pollen while just one allergen has been identified in olive fruit. This review article describes considerations about allergen extraction and production, also describing the different methodologies employed in the physicochemical and immunological characterization of olive allergens. Finally, a revision of the most relevant studies in the analysis of both olive pollen and olive fruit allergens is carried out.

  8. Molecular approaches to allergen standardization.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Martin D; Briza, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Molecular approaches to allergen standardization include the development of purified natural or recombinant allergen standards whose structural and allergenic properties have been validated, in tandem with certified immunoassays for allergen measurement. Purified allergens can be used individually or incorporated into multiple allergen standards. Multicenter international collaborative studies are required to validate candidate allergen standards and immunoassays, as a prelude to being approved by regulatory agencies. Mass spectrometry is a sophisticated and powerful proteomics tool that is being developed for allergen analysis. Recent results using pollen allergens show that mass spectrometry can identify and measure specific allergens in a complex mixture and can provide precise information of the variability of natural allergen extracts. In future, the combined use of immunoassays and mass spectrometry will provide complete standardization of allergenic products. Molecular standardization will form the basis of new allergy diagnostics and therapeutics, as well as assessment of environmental exposure, and will improve the quality of treatment options for allergic patients.

  9. Role of Tryptophan Pyrrolase in Endotoxin Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Robert J.; Berry, L. Joe

    1968-01-01

    Using substrate induction as a tool, we attempted to determine the role of tryptophan pyrrolase in the response to endotoxin in mice. Previous results have shown that the administration of the ld50 of endotoxin lowers tryptophan pyrrolase activity. α-Methyltryptophan was found to maintain tryptophan pyrrolase activity above control levels in endotoxin-poisoned mice without increasing survival. 5-Hydroxytryptophan, by contrast, lowered tryptophan pyrrolase activity but did not sensitize mice to endotoxin. These results suggest that tryptophan pyrrolase per se does not play a unique role in survival of mice poisoned with endotoxin. This enzyme, however, may reflect the fate of other liver enzymes inducible by adrenocorticoids. In mice given concurrent injections of tryptophan and endotoxin, tryptophan pyrrolase activity was elevated to a level intermediate between that of normal mice and that of mice given tryptophan alone. The mice injected with tryptophan and endotoxin also had about the same mortality as mice given endotoxin alone. Mice treated with tryptophan 4 hr after endotoxin, at a time when the substrate did not fully elevate tryptophan pyrrolase activity, died convulsively and in larger numbers than those given endotoxin alone. This effect was reversed by prior treatment with cyproheptadine, an antiserotonin drug. These results indicate that the depression of tryptophan pyrrolase activity previously observed in vitro after injection of endotoxin reflects an actual decrease in the in vivo activity of the enzyme. PMID:4869211

  10. Endotoxin emissions from commercial composting activities

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed to extracts from the filters was measured. Endotoxin was detected in elevated concentrations close to composting activities. A secondary peak, of lesser magnitude than the peak at source was detected at 100-150 m downwind of the site boundary. Unexpectedly high concentrations of endotoxin were measured at the most distant downwind sampling point. Extracted endotoxin was found to stimulate human monocytes and a human lung epithelial cell line to produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. On a weight basis, endotoxin extracted from the composting source has a greater inflammatory cytokine inducing effect than commercial E. coli endotoxin. PMID:20102594

  11. Endotoxin emissions from commercial composting activities.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Lewis; Pankhurst, Louise; Liu, Jian; Drew, Gillian H; Hayes, Enda T; Jackson, Simon; Longhurst, James; Longhurst, Philip; Pollard, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed to extracts from the filters was measured. Endotoxin was detected in elevated concentrations close to composting activities. A secondary peak, of lesser magnitude than the peak at source was detected at 100-150 m downwind of the site boundary. Unexpectedly high concentrations of endotoxin were measured at the most distant downwind sampling point. Extracted endotoxin was found to stimulate human monocytes and a human lung epithelial cell line to produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. On a weight basis, endotoxin extracted from the composting source has a greater inflammatory cytokine inducing effect than commercial E. coli endotoxin.

  12. Indoor Tanning

    MedlinePlus

    ... young patients for skin cancer. Indoor Tanning vs. Sunlight The sun's rays contain two types of ultraviolet ... Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours ...

  13. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhalation toxicology models of endotoxin- and bioaerosol-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Thorne, P S

    2000-11-02

    Inhalation toxicology studies in rodents have proven their usefulness for furthering our understanding of the causal agents, mechanisms, and pathology associated with exposures to environmental endotoxins and bioaerosols. Inhalation animal models are used to determine which components of a mixture are the most important toxicants for inducing the observed adverse outcome. They are used to obtain exposure-response relationships for allergens and pro-inflammatory agents to help elucidate disease mechanisms and contribute quantitative data to the risk assessment process. Inhalation models serve as important adjuncts to epidemiology studies and human exposure studies. They are also useful for establishing phenotype in studies of genetic polymorphisms and disease susceptibility and are widely applied for evaluation of safety and efficacy for potential therapeutic agents. In order to produce reliable data, rigorous exposure chamber design, aerosol generation systems, exposure quantitation and experimental protocols must be utilized.

  15. High-dose allergen exposure leads to tolerance.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A

    2005-02-01

    Reports of decreased sensitization to cat allergen (Fel d 1) among individuals living with a cat or subjects exposed to high-dose cat allergen may be explained by the development of a form of high-dose tolerance resulting from natural exposure to an inhalant allergen. Although the epidemiological data regarding the relationship between exposure and sensitization to Fel d 1 are conflicting, the ability for high-dose Fel d 1 to induce a characteristic nonallergic immune response with a distinctive serum antibody profile has been established. Definition of this modified T-helper (Th)2 response to cat allergen, coupled with the renewed interest in regulatory T cells within the immunology field, has provided an avenue for exploring the mechanism by which IgE antibody-mediated responses are controlled. There is mounting evidence to suggest that the modified Th2 response is a variation of the allergic response and that the modified Th2-allergic axis is influenced by allergen dose and genetics. This article discusses putative immune mechanisms of tolerance within the context of an allergen-specific system. The relevance of high-dose allergen exposure and alternate factors such as endotoxin to the development of tolerance is considered. Fel d 1 exhibits unique molecular and immunological characteristics that may contribute to its tolerogenic properties. Major T-cell epitopes of Fel d 1 that preferentially induce regulatory factors have been defined. Furthermore, high-titer IgE antibody responses associated with atopic dermatitis are characterized by a defect in the T-cell repertoire that is specific to these epitopes. Identification of Fel d 1 epitopes that induce interleukin-10 may provide new targets for treatment.

  16. Deteriorated housing contributes to high cockroach allergen levels in inner-city households.

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Virginia A; Chew, Ginger R; Garfinkel, Robin S

    2002-01-01

    The high prevalence of childhood asthma in low-income, inner-city populations is not fully understood but has been at least partly attributed to the disproportionate exposures associated with socioeconomic disadvantage. The contribution of indoor allergens to asthma is well documented, but links between socioeconomic disadvantage and indoor allergen levels are not clear. We investigated levels of cockroach allergens (Bla g 2) in a sample of 132 Dominican or African American low-income households with young children in northern Manhattan in New York City (40% were receiving public assistance) to determine whether the distribution of allergens is a function of housing deterioration. Deterioration was measured by the presence and number of physical housing problems (holes in the ceilings and walls, water damage, etc.). More than 50% of the sample had two or more types of housing dilapidation, and 67% of the sample reported cockroach sightings in their homes. Samples of dust were collected from kitchen and bedroom surfaces. We hypothesized that the greater the dilapidation, the higher the allergen levels, independent of income, sociocultural factors, and pest-control methods. In addition, we hypothesized that the homes of families characterized by frequent moves (23.5%) would have higher allergen levels than more stable families. Results showed significant positive associations between housing deterioration and allergen levels in kitchens, after adjusting for income and ethnicity, with independent effects of residential stability (p< 0.05). Bedroom allergen levels were associated with housing instability (p < 0.01) and ethnicity (p< 0.01). Findings demonstrated that indoor household allergen levels are related to degree of household disrepair, after adjusting for individual family attributes, suggesting that social-structural aspects of housing may be appropriate targets for public health interventions designed to reduce allergen exposure. PMID:11929744

  17. T cell responses to known allergen proteins are differently polarized and account for a variable fraction of total response to allergen extracts1

    PubMed Central

    Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Vita, Randi; Tripple, Victoria; McKinney, Denise M.; Southwood, Scott; Brodie, Tess M.; Sallusto, Federica; Grey, Howard; Alam, Rafeul; Broide, David; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Kolla, Ravi; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    A panel of 133 allergens derived from 28 different sources, including fungi, trees, grasses, weeds and indoor allergens, was surveyed utilizing prediction of HLA class II binding peptides and ELISPOT assays with PBMC from allergic donors, resulting in the identification of 257 T cell epitopes. More than 90% of the epitopes were novel, and for 14 allergen sources were the first ever identified. The epitopes identified in the different allergen sources summed up to a variable fraction of the total extract response. In cases of allergens where the identified T cell epitopes accounted for a minor fraction of the extract response, fewer known protein sequences were available, suggesting that for “low epitope coverage” allergen sources, additional allergen proteins remain to be identified. IL-5 and IFN-γresponses were measured as prototype Th2 and Th1 responses, respectively. While in some cases (e.g., Orchard Grass, Alternaria, Cypress, and Russian Thistle) IL-5 production greatly exceeded IFN-γ, in others (e.g., Aspergillus, Penicillum, and Alder) the production of IFN-γ exceeded IL-5. Thus, different allergen sources are associated with variable polarization of the responding T cells. The present study represents the most comprehensive survey to date of human allergen derived T cell epitopes. These epitopes might be used to characterize T cell phenotype/T cell plasticity as a function of seasonality, or as a result of SIT treatment or varying disease severity (asthma or rhinitis). PMID:22786768

  18. Population growth and allergen accumulation of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus cultured at 20 and 25 °C.

    PubMed

    Yella, Lakshmi; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

    2011-02-01

    The house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae are cultured commercially and in research laboratories and material is harvested from these cultures to make extracts that are used for diagnosis, immunotherapy and research. Temperature and other climatic conditions can influence population growth rates, dynamics of allergen production, and the associated endotoxin, enzyme and protein levels of the mite material harvested from these cultures. Here we determined how temperature affected these parameters. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was cultured at 20 and 25 °C at 75% relative humidity, and at 2-week intervals the concentrations of mites, Der p 1 and Der p 2 allergens, endotoxin, and selected enzymes were determined. Mite density increased exponentially but growth rate and final population density were greater at 25 °C compared to 20 °C. The combined allergen (Der p 1 + Der p 2) concentrations accumulated in the cultures at about the same rate at both temperatures. However, individual Der p 1 and Der p 2 accumulation rates varied independently at the two temperatures. Der p 1 accumulated faster at 20 °C whereas Der p 2 accumulated faster at 25 °C. The amount of Der p 1 in whole cultures was greater than the amount of Der p 2. The concentration of allergen for washed mites harvested from the cultures was much less than for the whole cultures. Our study demonstrated that temperature is an important factor in population growth and the dynamics of allergen production in cultured mites.

  19. Emerging pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte; Batanero, Eva; Palomares, Oscar; Salamanca, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Numerous pollen allergens have been reported over the last few years. Most of them belong to well-known families of proteins but some others constitute the first member of new allergenic families. Some of the factors that can contribute to the detection and identification of new pollen allergens are: a) advances in the technology tools for molecular analysis; and b) the deep knowledge of many allergenic sources. The combination of these factors has provided vast information on the olive pollen allergogram and the identification of minor allergens that become major ones for a significant population. The close taxonomical relationship between olive tree and ash -both Oleaceae- has permitted to identify Fra e 1 (the Ole e 1-like allergen) in ash pollen and to detect the presence of protein homologues of Ole e 3 and Ole e 6. In the other hand, extensive areas of south Europe are suffering an increasing desertification. As a consequence of this, new botanical species are spontaneously growing in these areas or being used in greening ground programs: Chenopodium album and Salsola kali are some examples recently recognized as allergenic woods. The identification of the complete panel of allergens from the hypersensitizing sources might help to develop more accurate diagnosis, and efficient and safer therapy tools for Type-I allergic diseases.

  20. [New aero-allergens].

    PubMed

    De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G

    1996-01-01

    As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  1. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection.

  2. Lipopolysaccaride Detoxification by Endotoxin Neutralizing Protein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    than 3 mg/kg). ENP also reduces or eliminates $ - a FLETCHER ET AL.: ENDOTOXIN NEUTRALIZING PROTEIN 153 TABLE 4 Microscopic Pathology of Organs Liver...bUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Lipopolysaccharide detoxification by endotoxin neutralizing protein PE- 61153N PR- MR04120 6. AUTHOR(S) Fletcher MA...Lipopolysaccharide Detoxification by Endotoxin Neutralizing Protein MARK A. FLETCHER, M.D., THOMAS M. MCKENNA, PH.D., JERRY L. QCANCE, D.V.M., NORMAN R. WAINWRIGHT

  3. Endotoxin as a determinant of asthma and wheeze among rural dwelling children and adolescents: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between endotoxin exposure and asthma is complex and has been associated with rural living. We examined the relationship between domestic endotoxin and asthma or wheeze among rural school-aged children (6–18 years) and assessed the interaction between endotoxin and other characteristics with these outcomes. Methods Between 2005 and 2007 we conducted a case–control study of children 6–18 years in the rural region of Humboldt, Canada. Cases (n = 102) reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or wheeze in the past year. Controls (n = 208) were randomly selected from children without asthma or wheeze. Data were collected to ascertain symptoms, asthma history and indoor environmental exposures (questionnaire), endotoxin (dust collection from the play area floor and child’s mattress), and tobacco smoke exposure (saliva collection). Statistical testing was completed using multiple logistic regression to account for potential confounders and to assess interaction between risk factors. A stratified analysis was also completed to examine the effect of personal history of allergy. Results Among children aged 6–12 years, mattress endotoxin concentration (EU/mg) and load (EU/m2) were inversely associated with being a case [odds ratio (OR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.20-0.98; and OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.20-0.75, respectively]. These associations were not observed in older children or with play area endotoxin. Conclusions Our results suggest that endotoxin exposure might be protective for asthma or wheeze. The protective effect is found in younger school-aged, non-allergic children. These results may help explain the inconsistencies in previous studies and suggest that the protective effects of endotoxin in the prevention of atopy and asthma or wheeze are most effective earlier in life. PMID:22966977

  4. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  5. Rodent allergen in Los Angeles inner city homes of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jill; McConnell, Rob; Milam, Joel; Galvan, Judith; Kotlerman, Jenny; Thorne, Peter; Jones, Craig; Ferdman, Ronald; Eggleston, Peyton; Rand, Cynthia; Lewis, Mary Ann; Peters, John; Richardson, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the presence of mouse allergen in inner city children with asthma. Researchers have found high levels of rodent allergen in homes sampled in the northeast and midwest United States, but there has been considerable variation between cities, and there have been few studies conducted in western states. We evaluated the frequency of rodent sightings and detectable mouse allergen and the housing conditions associated with these outcomes in inner city homes in Los Angeles. Two hundred and two families of school children, ages 6-16 living in inner city neighborhoods, participated in the study. Families were predominantly Latino (94%), and Spanish speaking (92%). At study entry, parents completed a home assessment questionnaire, and staff conducted a home evaluation and collected kitchen dust, which was analyzed for the presence of mouse allergen. Fifty-one percent of homes had detectable allergen in kitchen dust. All 33 families who reported the presence of rodents had detectable allergen in the home and were also more likely to have increased levels of allergen compared to those who did not report rodents. Unwashed dishes or food crumbs, lack of a working vacuum, and a caretaker report of a smoker in the home were all significantly associated with a greater risk of rodent sightings or detectable allergen (P<0.05). Detached homes were significantly more likely to have detectable allergen. The prevalence of allergen is common enough that it may have public health implications for asthmatic children, and detectable allergen was not routinely identified based on rodent sightings. Many of the predictors of rodent allergen are amenable to low-cost interventions that can be integrated with other measures to reduce exposure to indoor allergens.

  6. [Ficus benjamina--the hidden allergen in the house].

    PubMed

    Schenkelberger, V; Freitag, M; Altmeyer, P

    1998-01-01

    The weeping fig, Ficus benjamina (Fb), is a relatively common indoor allergen. Many cases of perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma caused by Fb hypersensitivity are not detected. These patients typically have proven sensitization to housedust mites and do not improve after avoidance of exposure (encasing) and specific immunotherapy. The number of Fb sensitizations is increasing in Germany, which can partly be explained by the cross-reactivity between Hevea brasiliensis (Hb) latex and Fb and the rapidly increasing number of mostly occupational latex allergies. But Fb itself is a potential sensitizer which is widely spread as ornamental plant in homes and offices. As relevant indoor allergen Fb ranks third after housedust mites and pets but before molds among our allergy patients. For diagnosis, prick-tests with Fb-latex seem to be more sensitive than in vitro-methods (RAST, CAPRAST). Fb plants should not be kept in the homes of atopic individuals or persons with latex (Hb) allergy.

  7. Cockroach allergens: function, structure and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Pomés, A; Wünschmann, S; Hindley, J; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D

    2007-01-01

    Cockroach allergy is a widespread health problem in the world, associated with the development of asthma. The German and American cockroach species are important producers of a wide variety of allergens. Knowledge of their structure and function contributes to understand their role in allergy and to design tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  8. Quality of indoor residential air and health

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert; Liu, Ling; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Gilbert, Nicolas L.

    2008-01-01

    About 90% of our time is spent indoors where we are exposed to chemical and biological contaminants and possibly to carcinogens. These agents may influence the risk of developing nonspecific respiratory and neurologic symptoms, allergies, asthma and lung cancer. We review the sources, health effects and control strategies for several of these agents. There are conflicting data about indoor allergens. Early exposure may increase or may decrease the risk of future sensitization. Reports of indoor moulds or dampness or both are consistently associated with increased respiratory symptoms but causality has not been established. After cigarette smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon are the most common causes of lung cancer. Homeowners can improve the air quality in their homes, often with relatively simple measures, which should provide health benefits. PMID:18625986

  9. Inhalant allergens: as a cause of respiratory allergy in east Mediterranean area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Güneser, S; Atici, A; Cengizler, I; Alparslan, N

    1996-01-01

    Inhalant allergens were identified by analyzing the positive skin tests of 614 respiratory allergic patients. The important indoor allergens causing skin test positivity were house dust, Dermatophogoides pteronyssinus, cockroach, mosquito and Dermatophogoides farinea. Johnson grass, cultivated wheat, rye, orchard, and cultivated corn were among important grass pollens. Animal allergens like cow hair, cat and dog dander, bird and chicken feathers and horse hair caused skin test positivity in our allergic patients. Weeds and garden plants were also among important inhalant allergens in this region. Common cocklebur, narcissus, rose, mugworth, and daisy caused skin test positivity in decreasing frequencies. Carob, willow, poplar, olive and cypress pollens were among important inhalant allergens causing skin test positivity that may be important cause of respiratory allergy in this region.

  10. Is there a threshold concentration of cat allergen exposure on respiratory symptoms in adults?

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Zock, Jan-Paul; Villani, Simona; Olivieri, Mario; Modig, Lars; Jarvis, Deborah; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 μg/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8 μg/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the asthma related respiratory symptoms or the development of sensitization has not yet been confirmed. We studied the associations between domestic cat allergen concentrations and allergic symptoms in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II, with the aim of confirming this suggested threshold. Cat allergen concentrations were measured in the mattress dust of 3003 participants from 22 study centres. Levels of specific immunoglobulin E to cat allergens were measured in serum samples using an immunoassay. Information on allergic symptoms, medication use, home environment and smoking was obtained from a face-to-face interview. Domestic cat allergen concentrations were not associated with allergic/ asthmatic symptoms in the entire study population, nor in the subset sensitized to cat allergen. We also found no association among individuals exposed to concentrations higher than 8 μg/g. However, exposure to medium cat allergen concentrations (0.24-0.63 μg/g) was positively associated with reported asthmatic respiratory symptoms in subjects who have experienced allergic symptoms when near animals. The proposed 8 μg/g threshold of cat allergen concentrations for the exacerbation of allergic/ respiratory symptoms was not confirmed in a general European adult population. Potential biases attributable to avoidance behaviours and an imprecise exposure assessment cannot be excluded.

  11. [Nasal allergenic provocation test].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, M H; Pérez López, A; Azuara Pliego, E

    2000-01-01

    This is a method to evaluate both specific sensitivity to allergens in the nasal mucosa, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and antiinflammatory and antiallergic drugs efficacy, whose objectives are for research in diagnosis and treatment. The method is based in allergen extracts delivery in the nasal mucosa and the post-challenge measurement of rhinitis symptoms, vasoactive mediators release quantification and nasal obstruction degree evaluated by rhinomanometry. Nasal allergen challenge is a procedure of diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation usefulness, that must be performed in selected patients, in adequate facilities, by experts physicians, with standardised allergen dosages, in an specific nasal area, with objective measurements (rhinomanometry, mediators and secretions of the allergic response) and symptoms scoring that allow get reliable results in patients with allergic rhinitis under study.

  12. Allergens in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  13. Allergens in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  14. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria.

  15. Monitoring for airborne allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, H.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Monitoring for allergens can provide some information on the kinds and levels of exposure experienced by local patient populations, providing volumetric methods are used for sample collection and analysis is accurate and consistent. Such data can also be used to develop standards for the specific environment and to begin to develop predictive models. Comparing outdoor allergen aerosols between different monitoring sites requires identical collection and analysis methods and some kind of rational standard, whether arbitrary, or based on recognized health effects.32 references.

  16. Allergens in corticosteroid vehicles.

    PubMed

    Coloe, Jacquelyn; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Whereas allergy to vehicle ingredients (ie, excipients and preservatives) in topical steroid vehicles is well recognized, there are no data regarding which vehicle ingredients are in common use or on which vehicles and active molecules are associated with which ingredients. To produce descriptive data on the use of allergenic vehicle ingredients in prescription topical corticosteroids. The package insert for every steroid in widespread use in the United States was obtained from the manufacturer and used to generate an ingredient list for the product. There are seven vehicle ingredients that are commonly used in topical corticosteroid vehicles that are well-known allergens: propylene glycol, sorbitan sesquioleate, formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, parabens, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, lanolin, and fragrance. Of 166 topical corticosteroids, 128 (including all creams) had at least one of these vehicle ingredients. More generic products were free of allergens than were branded products. Solutions and ointments were the least allergenic vehicles. The most commonly present potential allergens were propylene glycol and sorbitan sesquioleate. Most prescription topical corticosteroids have the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis owing to vehicle ingredients. Dermatologists should be aware of this possibility and should consider prescribing agents that do not contain potentially allergenic vehicle ingredients.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a...

  20. Movement of Endotoxin Through Soil Columns

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sagar M.; Gerba, Charles P.; Lance, J. Clarence

    1980-01-01

    Land treatment of wastewater is an attractive alternative to conventional sewage treatment systems and is gaining widespread acceptance. Although land application systems prevent surface water pollution and augment the available water supplies, the potential dangers to human health should be evaluated. Since sewage may contain high amounts of bacterial endotoxin, the removal of endotoxin from sewage by percolation through soil was investigated. It was found that 90 to 99% of the endotoxin was removed after travel of sewage through 100 to 250 cm of loamy sand soil. When distilled water was allowed to infiltrate into the soil to simulate rainfall, the endotoxin was mobilized and moved in a concentrated band through the soil column. On testing samples from actual land treatment sites, as much as 480 ng of endotoxin per milliliter was found in some groundwater samples. The presence of endotoxin in potable water is known to be a potential problem under some circumstances, but the importance of endotoxin in water supplies has not been fully assessed. Therefore, the design, operation, and management of land application systems should take into account the fate of endotoxin in groundwater beneath the sites. PMID:7387154

  1. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a...

  3. Allergen stabilities and compatibilities in immunotherapy mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts.

    PubMed

    Grier, Thomas J; Hall, Dawn M; Duncan, Elizabeth A; Gada, Satyen M

    2015-12-01

    Indoor allergen mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts are commonly used in allergy clinics for subcutaneous immunotherapy, but product-specific stabilities and mixing compatibilities in these complex patient formulas have not been determined. To assess the recoveries of cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach mix allergen activities in 5 component mixtures and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions stored for up to 12 months. Concentrated stock mixtures, 10-fold dilutions of these mixtures in human serum albumin-saline diluent, and analogous single-extract controls were analyzed for major allergen concentrations (cat Fel d 1, dog dander Can f 1) and multiallergen IgE-binding potencies (dog epithelia, D farinae, cockroach mix) after storage for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at 2°C to 8°C. The selected immunoassays were specific for individual target extracts in the 5-component mixtures and exhibited analytical sensitivities sufficient for evaluation of both the concentrated and diluted indoor allergen formulas. All control samples except diluted cockroach extract had near-complete stabilities during refrigerated storage. Mixtures that contained cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, and D farinae extracts exhibited favorable mixing compatibilities in 1:1 (vol/vol) concentrates (47.5% glycerin) and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions (4.75% glycerin), relative to corresponding control sample reactivities. Cockroach allergens in both 1:1 (vol/vol) and 1:10 (vol/vol) concentrations were stabilized significantly by mixing with the other 4 indoor allergen extracts. Extracts in mixtures that contained 5 common sources of indoor allergens possess favorable stabilities and mixing compatibilities and support the practice of combining these products in the same patient treatment formulations for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. [New aero-allergens. Interaction between allergens and the environment].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Vervloet, D

    1997-11-01

    There is a qualitative as well as a quantitative change in allergen exposure. From a qualitative viewpoint, the relevance of some allergens (domestic allergens i.e. cockroaches, outdoor allergens i.e. plane tree, chestnut and ash tree pollens) has been established. The role of some other allergens has been, strictly speaking, discovered: latex from Hevea and ficus, trichophyton mold, some occupational allergens and very recently transgenic allergens. From a quantitative viewpoint, the concentration and/or distribution of some allergens has increased. Plantation of numerous trees or fortuitous introduction of weeds has led to an increased specific sensitization. In like manner, introduction of new foods or food processing procedures has created new food allergens and allergy. Besides, the distribution of some well-known aero-allergens is better known since discovery of ELISA--technology allowing measurements of minute amounts of these allergens. A burning issue today is to know whether irritant factors could modify allergens. Few data, sometimes contradictory, are available in the field of interaction between air pollutants and allergens.

  5. Longitudinal evaluation of allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in inner-city households.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sook Ja; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Grengs, Jason; Ryan, Andrew D; Eberly, Lynn E; Adgate, John L

    2008-02-01

    To characterize seasonal variation of three allergens (dust mite, cat, and cockroach) and total culturable fungi and to explore whether residential characteristics were associated with the concentrations of these agents, floor dust was collected from 47 inner-city homes in Minneapolis, Minnesota, over a 1-year period. A longitudinal analysis of allergen and fungal concentrations was carried out using mixed-effect models. Overall, relative humidity was a better predictor of allergen concentrations over time than indoor temperature. Seasonal variation of cat and cockroach allergens was negligible compared with the variability associated with residential characteristics such as race/ethnicity, family income, and the presence of cats. Fungal concentrations showed significant seasonal variation that outweighed the variability associated with residential characteristics. Less than 30% of the dust mite allergen and cockroach allergens concentrations were above limits of detection. Observed cockroach allergen concentrations were higher in Spanish- and Somali-speaking households than in English-speaking households, while English-speaking households had significantly higher cat allergen concentrations compared with the other language groups. The ratios of within-home to between-home variance for total culturable fungi, dust mite, cockroach, and cat allergen concentrations were 2.54, 1.91, 0.55, and 0.24, respectively. This ratio is used to predict the number of repeated measurements of each allergen required to robustly estimate long-term exposure estimates such that exposure misclassification bias is kept within acceptable limits. It is not clear whether repeated measurements of dust mite and cockroach allergens are required for long-term average exposure because of the large fraction of nondetects. It is concluded that a single measurement of cat allergen is a reasonable surrogate for long-term average exposure, since repeated measurements over time were highly correlated

  6. Seasonal variations of indoor microbial exposures and their relation to temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-12-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m(3)). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m(3)). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.

  7. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2012-01-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m3) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m3). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. PMID:23001651

  8. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  9. Current trends in endotoxin detection and analysis of endotoxin-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dullah, Elvina Clarie; Ongkudon, Clarence M

    2017-03-01

    Endotoxin is a type of pyrogen that can be found in Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin can form a stable interaction with other biomolecules thus making its removal difficult especially during the production of biopharmaceutical drugs. The prevention of endotoxins from contaminating biopharmaceutical products is paramount as endotoxin contamination, even in small quantities, can result in fever, inflammation, sepsis, tissue damage and even lead to death. Highly sensitive and accurate detection of endotoxins are keys in the development of biopharmaceutical products derived from Gram-negative bacteria. It will facilitate the study of the intermolecular interaction of an endotoxin with other biomolecules, hence the selection of appropriate endotoxin removal strategies. Currently, most researchers rely on the conventional LAL-based endotoxin detection method. However, new methods have been and are being developed to overcome the problems associated with the LAL-based method. This review paper highlights the current research trends in endotoxin detection from conventional methods to newly developed biosensors. Additionally, it also provides an overview of the use of electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and docking programs in the endotoxin-protein analysis.

  10. Indoor air quality in homes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Osman, Liesl M; Douglas, J Graham; Garden, Carole; Reglitz, Karen; Lyon, Janice; Gordon, Sue; Ayres, Jon G

    2007-09-01

    Outdoor air quality is associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. Less is known of the relationship of indoor air quality to respiratory health of groups vulnerable to outdoor air, such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To investigate among patients with COPD the association of health status with indoor air quality in their homes. Observational study of indoor environmental characteristics of homes of 148 patients with severe COPD in North East Scotland. Airborne living room levels of particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microm or less (PM(2.5)) (microg/m(3)) were measured over 8 to 14 hours using DustTrak monitors. Nitrogen dioxide exposure (ppb) in living rooms was measured over 1 week. Endotoxin (EU [endotoxin units]/mg) in living room dust was measured. Health status of participants was assessed by the St. George's Respiratory Health Questionnaire (symptoms, activity limitation, and disease impact). The mean age of participants was 69 years. Approximately 45% were male, 39% were smokers, and 49% lived in smoking households. Average indoor PM(2.5) levels were 18 mug/m(3), nitrogen dioxide was 7.8 ppb, and endotoxin levels were 95.8 EU/mg of dust. PM(2.5) was significantly higher in smoking households (P < 0.001) and was associated with higher levels of endotoxin and NO(2). PM(2.5) was significantly associated with increased symptom burden (P < 0.01), with greater effect for current smokers. Endotoxin and nitrogen dioxide exposure were not related to health status. Higher levels of PM(2.5) are associated with worse health status of these patients with severe COPD. Indoor levels of PM(2.5) are significantly higher in homes with smokers.

  11. Two new types of allergens from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y; Long, C; Bai, X; Liu, W; Rong, M; Lai, R; An, S

    2015-12-01

    Periplaneta americana cockroach is an important source of inhalant indoor allergen resource, and there are more than twenty IgE-binding components identified in P. americana, but only nine allergens were characterized. Our knowledge about cockroach allergens remains poor. In this work, two novel allergen proteins Per a 11 (alpha-amylase) and Per a 12 (chitinase) with molecular weight around 55 and 45 kDa, respectively, were purified and characterized from the midgut of cockroaches. Their primary sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning. Sera from 39 and 30 of 47 (83.0% and 63.8%) patients reacted to Per a 11 and Per a 12 on immunoblots, respectively. The allergenicity of Per a 11 and Per a 12 was further confirmed by competitive ELISA, basophil activation test (BAT), and skin prick test (SPT). They appear to be of importance for the allergic reactions induced by cockroach and have a potential for component-based diagnosis of allergy.

  12. EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL ENDOTOXINS ON METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Berry, L. Joe; Smythe, Dorothy S.

    1961-01-01

    In vitro secretion of glycocorticoids by adrenal glands pooled from several control mice was compared with that of glands removed from animals following injections of either ACTH or endotoxin. Both substances prevent glycocorticoid synthesis stimulated in vitro with ACTH. Cholesterol content of adrenal glands under these conditions was nearly depleted, indicating maximal response to ACTH or endotoxin prior to their removal for the in vitro tests. In an effort to account physiologically for the manner in which endotoxin suppresses or prevents the rise in urinary nitrogen excreted in response to ACTH, blood non-protein nitrogen levels (NPN) were determined. The following experimental conditions resulted in increased urinary nitrogen excretion but did not alter blood NPN: cortisone given alone or at the same time as endotoxin; ACTH alone; dichloroisoproterenol (DCI) given concurrently with endotoxin; and lactalbumin digest injected intraperitoneally. Increases (2- to 3-fold) in blood NPN were observed when endotoxin was given alone, concurrently with ACTH, or 3 hours prior to cortisone, DCI, or lactalbumin digest. Urinary nitrogen excretion showed no change under these conditions. The elevation in blood NPN in endotoxin-poisoned mice was found to be due almost entirely to urea nitrogen and not to amino acid nitrogen or to other nitrogenous wastes. Blood clearance of mulin, phenol red excretion, and urea elimination were each determined in control and in endotoxin-poisoned mice. The latter mice showed impaired renal function. Treatment with diuretics (diuril and aminophylline) failed to alter oliguria or elevated blood NPN. Hydergine treatment was also without effect. Total carcass NPN and urinary nitrogen excretion data were combined to give a picture of total protein catabolized by mice under different experimental conditions. Cortisone injected at the same time as endotoxin or 3 hours later resulted in the same increase in total NPN. However, in the former case all

  13. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  14. Mite and pet allergen exposure in Brazilian private cars.

    PubMed

    Justino, Caroline M; Segundo, Gesmar R S; Pereira, Fernando L; Silva, Deise A O; Sopelete, Monica C; Sung, Sun-Sang J; Taketomi, Ernesto A

    2005-06-01

    The role of mite and pet allergens in the development of allergic diseases has been recognized for many years. To determine mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Der p 1] and Dermatophagoidesfarinae [Der f 1]), cat (Felis domesticus [Fel d 1]), and dog (Canis familiaris [Can f 1]) allergen levels in Brazilian private cars. Mite, cat, and dog allergens were measured in dust samples collected from 60 upholstered seats of private vehicles using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Mean levels of Der p 1 (0.24 microg/g of dust; range, 0.06-2.05 microg/g of dust) and Der f 1 (0.29 microg/g of dust; range, 0.06-2.07 microg/g of dust) were extremely low in most dust samples analyzed. In contrast, sensitizing mean levels of Can f 1 (1.51 microg/g of dust; range, 0.14-30.96 microg/g of dust) and Fel d 1 (0.43 microg/g of dust; range, 0.02-5.75 microg/g of dust) were observed in 32 (53%) and 12 (20%) samples, respectively. Mean Can f 1 levels were significantly higher in cars whose owners kept dogs at home (3.27 microg/g of dust) than in those without pets (0.57 microg/g of dust; P = .008). There were no significant differences in allergen levels regarding the age of the vehicle or the number of users and whether the owners transport pets inside the vehicles. Private cars constitute an important pet, but not mite, allergen reservoir for continuous contamination of the indoor environment. Pet allergens may be present even in cars whose owners do not have pets. Effective measures to reduce allergen exposure in cars should be taken routinely, especially for pet-allergic patients.

  15. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Expression of the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart, G A; Harmsen, M M; Chua, K Y; Thomas, W R; Aalberse, R C; Van Ree, R

    1998-01-01

    The major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 was expressed as a recombinant mature protein in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast produces the protein fused to the invertase signal peptide, leading to the secretion of Der p 2 as a soluble protein into the culture medium. The signal peptide is hereby cleaved off, resulting in a mature allergen. In this system Der p 2 was produced in 7.6 (+/-2.9) mg/L growth culture. Purification of the recombinant allergen was achieved by a single gel filtration step, resulting in a purity > or = 95%. The yeast-derived Der p 2 was almost indistinguishable from natural Der p 2 with respect to IgE-reactivity and binding to the majority of Der p 2 specific MoAbs -- as was shown in RAST analysis (n = 168) and a sandwich ELISA and RIA analysis, respectively. Recombinant and natural Der p 2 also showed similar biological activity in histamine release assays (n = 4). An expression system for Der p 2 was developed that enables the production of a soluble allergen in the culture supernatant with immunological characteristics similar to the natural allergen. In addition, yeast offers the advantage of the absence of endotoxin in comparison to E. coli. This might facilitate acceptance of recombinant allergens for in vivo applications as immunotherapy or skin-prick testing.

  18. Allergens, sources, particles, and molecules: Why do we make IgE responses?

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Commins, Scott P; Schuyler, Alexander J; Erwin, Elizabeth A; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-10-01

    Allergens are foreign proteins or glycoproteins that are the target of IgE antibody responses in humans. The relationship between subsequent exposure and the allergic symptoms is often or usually obvious; however, there is increasing evidence that in asthma, atopic dermatitis and some forms of food allergy the induction of symptoms is delayed or chronic. The primary exposure to inhaled allergens is to the particles, which are capable of carrying allergens in the air. Thus, the response reflects not only the properties of the proteins, but also the biological properties of the other constituents of the particle. This is best understood in relation to the mite fecal particles in which the contents include many different immunologically active substances. Allergic disease first became a major problem over 100 years ago, and for many years sensitization to pollens was the dominant form of these diseases. The rise in pediatric asthma correlates best with the move of children indoors, which started in 1960 and was primarily driven by indoor entertainment for children. While the causes of the increase are not simple they include both a major increase in sensitization to indoor allergens and the complex consequences of inactivity. Most recently, there has also been an increase in food allergy. Understanding this has required a reappraisal of the importance of the skin as a route for sensitization. Overall, understanding allergic diseases requires knowing about the sources, the particles and the routes of exposure as well as the properties of the individual allergens.

  19. Field Studies Measuring the aerosolization of Endotoxin ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Endotoxin is a component of the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria and is known to be present in biosolids. Endotoxins have been shown to be a potent stimulator of the innate immune response causing airway irritation and shortness of breath. Class B biosolids are routinely applied to agricultural lands in the US to enhance soil properties and can be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. This study investigated the aerosolized endotoxin produced during the land application of Class B biosolids from various wastewater treatment plants on agricultural land and a concrete surface at two sites in Colorado, USA. Aerosolized endotoxin was captured using HiVol sampler fitted with glass fiber filter, polycarbonate filter cassette (both open and closed), and BioSampler impinger air samplers. Endotoxins were also measured in the bulk biosolids to allow for correlating bulk biosolids concentrations with aerosol emission rates. Endotoxin concentrations in biosolids, impinger solutions, and filter extracts were determined using the kinetic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Aerosolized endotoxin concentration was detected from all sites with levels ranging from 0.5 to 642 EU/m3. The four types of sampling apparatus were compared and the HiVol and open-faced cassette samplers used produced higher TWA measurements (EU/m3) than the impinger and closed cassette samplers. Ambient wind speed at the sites was found to be the variable best describing the results wit

  20. Indoor radon.

    PubMed

    Polpong, P; Bovornkitti, S

    1998-01-01

    The naturally radioactive but chemically inert gas, radon, is formed from the radioactive decay of radium which is part of the uranium series. Radon gas, which has a half life of 3.8 days, must escape from soil particles through air-filled pores in order to enter the atmosphere following the decay of radium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies, depending on the place, time, height above the ground and meteorological conditions. It is thus an inescapable source of radiation exposure, both at home and at work. The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from indoor radon gas and its daughter products are of great concern worldwide. Noting of an excessive lung cancer risk among several groups of underground miners exposed to radon and its daughter products, studies on radon concentrations in the workplace and in dwellings have been conducted in many countries. The results have shown that the distribution of radon concentrations are approximately lognormal from which population weighted; the arithmetic mean of radon concentration of 40 Bq.m-3 has been adopted worldwide for dwellings and workplaces. The principal methods for reducing a high indoor radon concentration are: reducing the radon supply by reversing the pressure difference between the building and the soil; raising the resistance of the foundations to soil gas entry; removing the radon sources such as water or underlying soil; diluting the concentration by increasing the ventilation rate; and reducing the concentration of radon progeny by filtering and increasing the circulation of indoor air. Buildings which have a radon concentration higher than 200 Bq.m-3 should be investigated by the national authorities concerned; meanwhile, householders should be advised to take simple temporary precautions, such as increasing ventilation, until a permanent remedy can be effected.

  1. Taxis but not private cars are mite allergen reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, E A; Justino, C M; Pereira, F L; Segundo, G R; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Silva, D A

    2006-01-01

    Indoor allergens are major causative agents in allergic disease development. Besides homes, public transport vehicles have been considered important mite and pet allergen reservoirs. Our recent studies on allergen exposure in automobiles showed that different allergen levels are found in private cars versus taxis. We quantified group 1 Dermatophagoides spp. (Der 1), Felis domesticus (Fel d 1), and Canis familiaris (Can f 1) allergen levels by ELISA in dust samples from 60 taxi and 60 private car upholstered seats. Mean levels of Der 1 and Fel d 1 were significantly higher in taxis than private cars. A significantly higher percentage of taxis (42%) harboring sensitizing levels of Der 1 compared to private cars (5%) was also found. In spite of the low mean Fel d 1 levels, comparison of the percentage of vehicles with moderate Fel d 1 levels showed a significant difference between taxis and private cars (43% vs. 20%). On the other hand, mean Can f 1 levels were significantly higher in private cars compared to taxis concomitant with a significantly higher percentage of private cars containing moderate Can f 1 levels than taxis (53% vs. 28%). We conclude that upholstered seats from Brazilian taxis but not private cars constitute an important mite allergen reservoir. Thus, additional effective measures for the reduction of allergen exposure in vehicles within the global allergen avoidance strategy should also be routinely accomplished to minimize the induction of sensitization and symptoms in allergic patients.

  2. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions

    PubMed Central

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. Methods A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. Results HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. Conclusions In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect. PMID:27126724

  3. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  4. Alternaria alternata allergens: Markers of exposure, phylogeny and risk of fungi-induced respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata spores are considered a well-known biological contaminant and a very common potent aeroallergen source that is found in environmental samples. The most intense exposure to A. alternata allergens is likely to occur outdoors; however, Alternaria and other allergenic fungi can colonize in indoor environments and thereby increase the fungal aeroallergen exposure levels. A consequence of human exposure to fungal aeroallergens, sensitization to A. alternata, has been unequivocally associated with increased asthma severity. Among allergenic proteins described in this fungal specie, the major allergen, Alt a 1, has been reported as the main elicitor of airborne allergies in patients affected by a mold allergy and considered a marker of primary sensitization to A. alternata. Moreover, A. alternata sensitization seems to be a triggering factor in the development of poly-sensitization, most likely because of the capability of A. alternata to produce, in addition to Alt a 1, a broad and complex array of cross-reactive allergens that present homologs in several other allergenic sources. The study and understanding of A. alternata allergen information may be the key to explaining why sensitization to A. alternata is a risk factor for asthma and also why the severity of asthma is associated to this mold. Compared to other common environmental allergenic sources, such as pollens and dust mites, fungi are reported to be neglected and underestimated. The rise of the A. alternata allergy has enabled more research into the role of this fungal specie and its allergenic components in the induction of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Indeed, recent research on the identification and characterization of A. alternata allergens has allowed for the consideration of new perspectives in the categorization of allergenic molds, assessment of exposure and diagnosis of fungi-induced allergies.

  5. Analysis of 10 Environmental Allergen Components of the American Cockroach in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mey-Fann; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Lin, Shyh-Jye; Song, Pei-Pong

    2016-11-01

    Cockroaches are important sources of indoor airborne allergens. The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is the second leading inhalant allergen causing allergic airway diseases in Taiwan. We previously reported a difference in pathogenicity of different allergen components from American cockroaches. To analyze the environmental profile of American cockroach allergen components. Polyclonal antibodies were generated to recombinant American cockroach allergens, Per a 1 through Per a 10. The levels of each allergen in (1) whole-body extracts and feces from American cockroaches and in (2) fresh-frozen 6-month-old and 12-month-old dead American cockroaches were evaluated by immunoblotting and quantified. Levels of allergen components from patients' household dust samples were determined by competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Per a 1, 2, and 10 proteins were present predominantly in roach feces, whereas other allergen components were found predominantly in roach bodies. There was a time-dependent decrease in total levels of some allergen proteins. Although levels of Per a 4, 5, 6, and 9 significantly decreased to less 20% of the basal level, there was no significant change in levels of Per a 2, 7, and 10 after 1-year decomposition. The most abundant allergen components in 20 dust samples from patients' houses were Per a 9, Per a 10, and Per a 2. The concentration of 10 American cockroach allergen components differed in the environment. Per a 2 and Per a 10 can be used as markers of long-term environmental cockroach control and Per a 9 as current status of control in patients' houses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND E. COLI ENDOTOXIN. I. EFFECT OF RADIATION ON ENDOTOXIN SHOCK.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    E . coli endotoxin and total body irradiation has been studied in 38 adult mongrel dogs. Results indicate that prior irradiation (1000 r) abolishes the endotoxin shock syndrome, and the dogs die of radiation sickness on an average of 62 hr after exposure. Unirradiated dogs given E . coli endotoxin die on an average of 5 hr after injection of the toxin. It is postulated that irradiation interferes with, or actually prevents, the ’trigger mechanism’ of endotoxin shock. This interaction may involve the immune mechanism, complement, liberation

  7. Particulate matter from indoor environments of classroom induced higher cytotoxicity and leakiness in human microvascular endothelial cells in comparison with those collected from corridor.

    PubMed

    Chua, M L; Setyawati, M I; Li, H; Fang, C H Y; Gurusamy, S; Teoh, F T L; Leong, D T; George, S

    2016-09-23

    We investigated the physicochemical properties (size, shape, elemental composition, and endotoxin) of size resolved particulate matter (PM) collected from the indoor and corridor environments of classrooms. A comparative hazard profiling of these PM was conducted using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). Oxidative stress-dependent cytotoxicity responses were assessed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high content screening (HCS), and disruption of monolayer cell integrity was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and transwell assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed differences in the morphology and elemental composition of PM of different sizes and origins. While the total mass of PM collected from indoor environment was lower in comparison with those collected from the corridor, the endotoxin content was substantially higher in indoor PM (e.g., ninefold higher endotoxin level in indoor PM8.1-20 ). The ability to induce oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity and leakiness in cell monolayer were higher for indoor PM compared to those collected from the corridor. In conclusion, this comparative analysis suggested that indoor PM is relatively more hazardous to the endothelial system possibly because of higher endotoxin content.

  8. Reducing indoor air pollutants with air filtration units in wood stove homes.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Marcy L; Thornburg, Jonathon; Semmens, Erin O; Ward, Tony J; Noonan, Curtis W

    2017-08-15

    Biomass burning has been shown to be a major source of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in developing and higher income countries across the world. Specifically, wood burning for cooking and heating contributes to high indoor concentrations of fine (particles with aerodynamic diameters<2.5μm; PM2.5) and coarse (particles with aerodynamic diameters <10μm and >2.5μm; PMc) particulate matter. Endotoxin, predominantly found within the coarse fraction of airborne particulate matter, is associated with proinflammatory effects and adverse outcomes among susceptible populations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of air filter interventions in reducing indoor PM2.5, PMc, and PMc-associated endotoxin concentrations in homes using a wood stove for primary heating. Homes (n=48) were randomized to receive in-room air filtration units with either a high efficiency filter (i.e. active) or a lower efficiency fiberglass filter (i.e., placebo). The active filter intervention showed a 66% reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations (95% CI: 42.2% to 79.7% reduction) relative to the placebo intervention. Both the active and the placebo filters were effective in substantially reducing indoor concentrations of PMc (63.3% and 40.6% average reduction for active and placebo filters, respectively) and PMc-associated endotoxin concentrations (91.8% and 80.4% average reductions, respectively). These findings support the use of high efficiency air filtration units for reducing indoor PM2.5 in homes using a wood stove for primary heating. We also discovered that using lower efficiency, lower cost filter alternatives can be effective for reducing PMc and airborne endotoxin in homes burning biomass fuel. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Orthologous Allergens and Diagnostic Utility of Major Allergen Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Antonio; Alcover, Javier; Rodríguez, David; Palacios, Ricardo; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypersensitivity to fungi is associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. For some fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), the symptoms of asthma are persistent, increasing disease severity and the risk of fatal outcomes. There are a large number of species of fungi but knowledge of them remains limited. This, together with the difficulties in obtaining adequate standardized extracts, means that there remain significant challenges in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy associated with fungi. The type of indoor fungi related to asthma/allergy varies according to geographic, climatic, and seasonal factors, making their study difficult. The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to indoor fungi in a population from Cuenca, Spain. Methods Thirty-five patients with symptoms compatible with rhinitis or asthma who showed clear worsening of their symptoms in their homes or workplace were included. In vivo and in vitro tests were made with a battery of fungal allergens, including the species isolated in the home or workplace. Results Ulocladium botrytis (U. botrytis) and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. These species showed very high concordance in skin tests, specific IgE, and histamine release. The allergen Alt a 1, which was recognized in all patients, was detected in A. alternata, U. botrytis, and Stemphylium botryosum (S. botryosum). Conclusions U. botrytis and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. Alt a 1 was recognized in all patients and may be considered a non-species-specific allergen that could be used as a diagnostic source of sensitization to some species of the Pleosporaceae family. PMID:27334781

  10. Redefining the major peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are “major” allergens and allergens of less importance. “Major allergens” have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract

  11. Diet Matters: Endotoxin in the Diet Impacts the Level of Allergic Sensitization in Germ-Free Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Martin; Srutkova, Dagmar; Hermanova, Petra; Leulier, Francois; Kozakova, Hana; Schabussova, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Germ-free animals have been used to define the vital role of commensal bacteria on the maturation of the host immune system. However, the role of bacterial residues in diet in this setting is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of bacterial contamination in sterile diet on the level of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Sterile grain-based diets ST1 and R03 were tested for the level of bacterial contamination. ST1 contained higher amount of bacterial DNA, approximately ten times more endotoxin, and induced higher, TLR4-dependent, cytokine production in dendritic cells compared to R03. In a germ-free mouse model of sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, feeding on ST1 for at least two generations was associated with decreased production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies in sera in comparison to R03. Furthermore, reduced levels of allergen-specific and ConA-induced cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 accompanied by increased levels of IFN-γ were detected in splenocytes cultures of these mice. Our results show that contamination of experimental diet with bacterial residues, such as endotoxin, significantly affects the development of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Therefore, careful selection of sterile food is critical for the outcomes of germ-free or gnotobiotic experimental models of immune-deviated diseases. PMID:28052076

  12. Staghorn calculus endotoxin expression in sepsis.

    PubMed

    McAleer, Irene M; Kaplan, George W; Bradley, John S; Carroll, Stephen F

    2002-04-01

    Staghorn calculi are infrequent and generally are infected stones. Struvite or apatite calculi are embedded with gram-negative bacteria, which can produce endotoxin. Sepsis syndrome may occur after surgical therapy or endoscopic manipulation of infected or staghorn calculi. Sepsis, which can occur despite perioperative antibiotic use, may be due to bacteremia or endotoxemia. We present a child with an infected staghorn calculus who developed overwhelming sepsis and died after percutaneous stone manipulation. Endotoxin assay of stone fragments demonstrated an extremely high level of endotoxin despite low colony bacterial culture growth. This is the first reported case in which endotoxin was demonstrated in stone fragments from a child who died of severe sepsis syndrome after percutaneous staghorn stone manipulation.

  13. New Insights into Cockroach Allergens.

    PubMed

    Pomés, Anna; Mueller, Geoffrey A; Randall, Thomas A; Chapman, Martin D; Arruda, L Karla

    2017-04-01

    This review addresses the most recent developments on cockroach allergen research in relation to allergic diseases, especially asthma. The number of allergens relevant to cockroach allergy has recently expanded considerably up to 12 groups. New X-ray crystal structures of allergens from groups 1, 2, and 5 revealed interesting features with implications for allergen standardization, sensitization, diagnosis, and therapy. Cockroach allergy is strongly associated with asthma particularly among children and young adults living in inner-city environments, posing challenges for disease control. Environmental interventions targeted at reducing cockroach allergen exposure have provided conflicting results. Immunotherapy may be a way to modify the natural history of cockroach allergy and decrease symptoms and asthma severity among sensitized and exposed individuals. The new information on cockroach allergens is important for the assessment of allergen markers of exposure and disease, and for the design of immunotherapy trials.

  14. Comparison of patterns of allergen sensitization among inner-city Hispanic and African American children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Deepa; Reddy, Mamta; Neugebauer, Richard

    2006-11-01

    Among Hispanics, the largest minority ethnic group in the United States, asthma prevalence is increasing, particularly in inner-city neighborhoods. Although allergen sensitization among asthmatic African Americans has been extensively studied, similar details are not available for Hispanic children. To examine patterns of allergen sensitization, including the association with illness severity, in asthmatic children overall and in Hispanic and African American children living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area of New York City. A retrospective medical record review of asthmatic children attending a community hospital in the South Bronx area of New York City was performed. Information abstracted included demographics, asthma severity classification, reported exposures to indoor allergens, and results of allergy testing. Among 384 children in the analysis, 270 (70.3%) were Hispanic and 114 (29.7%) were African American. Sensitization to indoor and outdoor allergens, respectively, did not differ between Hispanic (58.5% and 27.0%) and African American (58.8% and 32.6%) children. Allergen sensitization exhibited a direct, significant association with asthma severity for indoor allergens for the 2 ethnic groups combined and for Hispanics separately but not between asthma severity and outdoor allergens (P < .01). No correlation was found between self-reported allergen exposure and sensitization. Patterns of allergen sensitization among inner-city Hispanic asthmatic children resemble those among African American children, a finding that is likely explained by the similarity in levels of environmental exposures. With the increasing prevalence of asthma among inner-city Hispanic children, skin testing should be used frequently for objective evaluation of asthma in this ethnic group.

  15. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are shown to remain associated with protein material and a yellow pigment during paper chromatography and during dialyses and ultrafiltrations of various types. Dialysable* allergens comprise only a fraction of 1 per cent of the total activity and the amount of activity extractable by diethylene glycol (DEG) and similar solvents is of the same order. Besides the allergens, the DEG and aqueous extracts contain large amounts of inositol, glucose and fructose, also some yellow pigments and phosphates. Larger amounts of free and combined amino acids are found in the aqueous than in the DEG extracts, but the reverse is true for sucrose. In addition the DEG extracts contain a yellow glucoside different from the dactylen of the aqueous extracts, a glucosan and an arabinose-galactose-pigment complex, only the latter being associated with any activity. The spontaneous release of the crystalline dactylen from originally clear aqueous pollen extracts is found not to be caused by enzymes. The washed crystals are found to be chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous and devoid of allergenic activity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13640676

  16. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  17. Allergenicity of processed food.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  18. Serum albumins - unusual allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341

  19. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  20. Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

  1. Role of platelets in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    From, A H; Fong, J S; Chiu, T; Good, R A

    1976-01-01

    Endotoxin-platelet interactions are thought to be of major importance in the response of dogs and other species to bacterial endotoxin; the mechanisms postulated are: (i) the release of vasoactive substances, (ii) the formation of occlusive platelet aggregates, and (iii) induction of intravascular coagulation. The role of platelets in canine endotoxin shock was examined in animals with thrombocytopenia induced by estrogen pretreatment (less than 10,000 platelets/mm3) and in controls. After intravenously administered endotoxin, the hemodynamic responses, mortality, and gross necropsy findings were similar in both groups. These data indicate that endotoxin-platelet interactions are not determinative in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock. PMID:786877

  2. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments.

    PubMed Central

    Arundel, A V; Sterling, E M; Biggin, J H; Sterling, T D

    1986-01-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens. PMID:3709462

  3. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E.M.; Biggin, J.H.; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.

  4. Climate and Allergic Sensitization to Airborne Allergens in the General Population: Data from the French Six Cities Study.

    PubMed

    Charpin, Denis; Ramadour, Myriam; Lavaud, François; Raherison, Chantal; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frederic; Pauli, Gabrielle; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    The results of international epidemiological surveys show large geographical variations in skin test reactivity but do not provide a rationale for such variations. To assess the relationship between climate and allergic sensitization in schoolchildren. In the present study, we analyzed data from a multicenter, epidemiological survey that included 6,461 schoolchildren, aged 9-11 years, living in 6 French cities scattered around France. The protocol also included a battery of skin prick tests to common airborne allergens. The crude prevalence of sensitization to each allergen was estimated for each city and then adjusted for potential confounding factors. This analysis was repeated for monosensitization and for allergens grouped into 2 categories: indoor allergens, i.e., house dust mite (HDM), cat, and cockroach allergens, and outdoor allergens, i.e., birch pollen, grass pollen, and Alternaria. We also grouped cities according to their location on the coast, i.e., Marseille and Bordeaux, or inland, i.e., Créteil, Clermont-Ferrand, Reims, and Strasbourg. A difference in prevalence of sensitization to each airborne allergen or allergens grouped into indoor and outdoor categories was found between cities, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Also, a higher prevalence of sensitization to HDM, cat dander, and, broadly speaking, indoor allergens, was found in children living on the coast than in those living inland, whereas they showed a lower prevalence of sensitization to birch pollen. Between-city differences in the prevalence of monosensitization were also statistically significant. Children living in coastal cities had a higher rate of monosensitization to indoor allergens and a lower prevalence of sensitization to birch pollen. The higher prevalence of allergic sensitization in children from coastal cities is most likely due to climatic conditions, such as proximity from sea and humidity. Differences in sensitization to birch allergens could be

  5. Isolation of Endotoxin Eliminating Lactic Acid Bacteria and a Property of Endotoxin Eliminating Protein.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Ayaka; Asami, Kyoko; Suda, Yoshihito; Shimoyamada, Makoto; Kanauchi, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Recently, many scholars have reported lactic acid bacteria (LAB) functions, such as anticancer activity and anti-inflammatory activity for intestines. To decrease inflammatory substances such as endotoxins, LAB consumed safely with meals were isolated from food and food ingredients. First, LAB were isolated as 168 strains of bacillus LAB (49 strain) and coccus LAB (119 strains) from food ingredients and fermented foods such as rice, rice bran, malt, grains, miso soy paste, and some pickles. Their LAB (168 strains) were cultivated in medium containing endotoxin from Escherichia coli O18 LPS at 15 and 30 °C for 64 h to identify endotoxin-eliminating LAB. Consequently, the AK-23 strain was screened as an endotoxin-eliminating LAB strain. The strain decreased endotoxin in YP medium without sugar at 30 °C for 64 h until 9% of endotoxin. The strain was identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus according to morphological characteristics such as its cell shape, physiological characteristics related to its fermentation type, assimilation of sugars, pH tolerance, optimum growth temperature, and molecular biological characteristics as its homology to 16S rRNA. To investigate the location of the endotoxin-eliminating substance, 4 fractions were separated from AK-23 cells as extracellular, cell wall digestion, cytoplasm, and cell membrane fractions. The endotoxin-decreasing substance, located on a cell wall, was identified as a 217 kDa protein. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Endotoxins in Environmental and Clinical Samples Assessed by GC-Tandem MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szponar, Bogumila

    Bacteria appeared on the Earth millions years before us and human evolution was triggered by the constant presence of pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms in our surroundings. Interplay occurred between higher organism and microbial consortia residing in the host organs and on the epithelial surfaces; another natural space of bacteria-human interaction is the indoor environment where we spend the majority of our lifetime. Indoor microbial exposure affects our well-being and can result in respiratory symptoms, such as allergies and asthma, since both dead and live microorganisms and their cell constituents, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxins), interact with our immune system. Thus, there is a demand for robust tools for qualitative and quantitative determination of the microbial communities that we are exposed to.

  7. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  8. Mold and Endotoxin Levels in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Project of Homes in New Orleans Undergoing Renovation

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ginger L.; Wilson, Jonathan; Rabito, Felicia A.; Grimsley, Faye; Iqbal, Shahed; Reponen, Tiina; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Thorne, Peter S.; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Morley, Rebecca L.

    2006-01-01

    Background After Hurricane Katrina, many New Orleans homes remained flooded for weeks, promoting heavy microbial growth. Objectives A small demonstration project was conducted November 2005–January 2006 aiming to recommend safe remediation techniques and safe levels of worker protection, and to characterize airborne mold and endotoxin throughout cleanup. Methods Three houses with floodwater lines between 0.3 and 2 m underwent intervention, including disposal of damaged furnishings and drywall, cleaning surfaces, drying remaining structure, and treatment with a biostatic agent. We measured indoor and outdoor bioaerosols before, during, and after intervention. Samples were analyzed for fungi [culture, spore analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and endotoxin. In one house, real-time particle counts were also assessed, and respirator-efficiency testing was performed to establish workplace protection factors (WPF). Results At baseline, culturable mold ranged from 22,000 to 515,000 colony-forming units/m3, spore counts ranged from 82,000 to 630,000 spores/m3, and endotoxin ranged from 17 to 139 endotoxin units/m3. Culture, spore analysis, and PCR indicated that Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces predominated. After intervention, levels of mold and endotoxin were generally lower (sometimes, orders of magnitude). The average WPF against fungal spores for elastomeric respirators was higher than for the N-95 respirators. Conclusions During baseline and intervention, mold and endotoxin levels were similar to those found in agricultural environments. We strongly recommend that those entering, cleaning, and repairing flood-damaged homes wear respirators at least as protective as elastomeric respirators. Recommendations based on this demonstration will benefit those involved in the current cleanup activities and will inform efforts to respond to future disasters. PMID:17185280

  9. Mold and endotoxin levels in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: a pilot project of homes in New Orleans undergoing renovation.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ginger L; Wilson, Jonathan; Rabito, Felicia A; Grimsley, Faye; Iqbal, Shahed; Reponen, Tiina; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Dearborn, Dorr G; Morley, Rebecca L

    2006-12-01

    After Hurricane Katrina, many New Orleans homes remained flooded for weeks, promoting heavy microbial growth. A small demonstration project was conducted November 2005-January 2006 aiming to recommend safe remediation techniques and safe levels of worker protection, and to characterize airborne mold and endotoxin throughout cleanup. Three houses with floodwater lines between 0.3 and 2 m underwent intervention, including disposal of damaged furnishings and drywall, cleaning surfaces, drying remaining structure, and treatment with a biostatic agent. We measured indoor and outdoor bioaerosols before, during, and after intervention. Samples were analyzed for fungi [culture, spore analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and endotoxin. In one house, realtime particle counts were also assessed, and respirator-efficiency testing was performed to establish workplace protection factors (WPF). At baseline, culturable mold ranged from 22,000 to 515,000 colony-forming units/m3, spore counts ranged from 82,000 to 630,000 spores/m3, and endotoxin ranged from 17 to 139 endotoxin units/m3. Culture, spore analysis, and PCR indicated that Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces predominated. After intervention, levels of mold and endotoxin were generally lower (sometimes, orders of magnitude). The average WPF against fungal spores for elastomeric respirators was higher than for the N95 respirators. During baseline and intervention, mold and endotoxin levels were similar to those found in agricultural environments. We strongly recommend that those entering, cleaning, and repairing flood-damaged homes wear respirators at least as protective as elastomeric respirators. Recommendations based on this demonstration will benefit those involved in the current cleanup activities and will inform efforts to respond to future disasters.

  10. Colostrinin decreases hypersensitivity and allergic responses to common allergens.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, Istvan; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Bacsi, Attila; Choudhury, Barun K; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Kruzel, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Colostrinin (CLN), isolated from mothers' pre-milk fluid (colostrum), is a uniform mixture of low-molecular-weight, proline-rich polypeptides. CLN induces neurite outgrowth of pheochromocytoma cells, extends the lifespan of diploid fibroblast cells, inhibits beta-amyloid-induced apoptosis and improves cognitive functions when administered to Alzheimer's disease patients. The aim of this study was to investigate potential allergic responses to CLN and its impact on allergic sensitization and inflammation caused by common allergens. We used a well-characterized mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. Changes in IgE/IgG1 and mucin levels, airway eosinophilia and hyperreactivity to methacholine were determined by ELISA, differential cell counting and whole-body plethysmography, respectively. CLN did not increase IgE/IgG1 levels or induce cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction, airway inflammation and mucin production. Importantly, CLN significantly (p < 0.001) decreased IgE/IgG1 production, airway eosinophilia, mucin production and hypersensitivity induced by allergenic extracts from ragweed pollen grains and house dust mites. CLN itself is non-allergenic; however, it is effective in preventing allergic responses to known indoor and outdoor allergens. These data support the safe application of CLN and its potential use in the prevention of allergic inflammation in humans. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Inhalant Allergens in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes Câmara Camacho, Irene

    2017-02-23

    This review aims to present in a simple manner the work performed in Portugal regarding the identification of the most prevalent aeroallergens in the country and the sensitization levels in Portuguese patients. Much of the data was summarized in tables and illustrated on maps, enabling the community of clinicians, researchers, and patient organizations to access the knowledge about the research performed. This study provides an overview about the distribution of aeroallergens in Portugal, signaling regions and critical periods of exposure of the sensitized population. The illustrated data can help the community of allergy specialists to view the temporal and spatial distribution of aeroallergens across the country. In addition, this information can guide clinicians to select the most appropriate allergens for allergy diagnostic testing, treatment, and allergen avoidance.

  12. Dampness and mold in the indoor environment: implications for asthma.

    PubMed

    Sahakian, N M; Park, J-H; Cox-Ganser, J M

    2008-08-01

    This article presents epidemiologic findings pertinent to asthma and asthma-like symptoms in relation to exposure to dampness/mold in homes, schools, and workplaces. With regard to specific agents found in damp indoor environments that may play a role in asthma, it concentrates on mold (used synonymously with fungi) and includes some findings on bacteria. The literature on asthma in relation to dust mite or cockroach allergens is not addressed.

  13. Altered immune responses in broiler chicken husbandry workers and their association with endotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Ravi; Heo, Yong; Lim, GyeongDong; Song, EunSeob; Roque, Katharine; Lee, JaeHee; Kim, YeonGyeong; Cho, AhRang; Shin, SoJung; Kim, ChangYul; Bang, GiHwan; Bahng, JiYun; Kim, HyoungAh

    2017-08-22

    Exposure to bioaerosols in indoor animal farms associates with respiratory illnesses, but little is known about the immune modulation to chicken farmers. This study aimed to compare the general immunity of chicken farmers with those of control subjects with non-agricultural jobs. Blood taken from the farmers and controls was subjected to plasma IgE and IgG subclass measurements. Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated and cytokine production was measured. Indoor total and respirable dust levels and their endotoxin (LPS) and aflatoxin (AF) levels in the farms were measured. In total, 29 chicken farmers on 19 farms and 14 age- and sex-matched office workers participated. Hematological differences were not observed. The farmers tended to have higher serum IgE and IgG subclass levels with significance for IgG1. The cytokines released by PBMC from farmers indicated skewing toward Type-2 helper T-cell responses: interferon (IFN)-γ:interleukin (IL)-4 and IFNγ:IL-13 ratios were significantly lower than for control PBMC. The farms had 707.1 EU/m(3) LPS in total dust, and 15.8 EU/m(3) LPS in respirable dust. Farmers exhibited immune skewing towards allergic immune responses that correlated with the LPS levels on their farms. Chicken farmers may be at risk of respiratory allergies due to occupational endotoxin exposure.

  14. Phospholipid imprinted polymers as selective endotoxin scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Robert; Szekely, Gyorgy; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Wierzbicka, Celina; Vilela, Filipe; Bauer, David; Sellergren, Börje

    2017-03-01

    Herein we explore phospholipid imprinting as a means to design receptors for complex glycolipids comprising the toxic lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A series of polymerizable bis-imidazolium and urea hosts were evaluated as cationic and neutral hosts for phosphates and phosphonates, the latter used as mimics of the phospholipid head groups. The bis-imidazolium hosts interacted with the guests in a cooperative manner leading to the presence of tight and well defined 1:2 ternary complexes. Optimized monomer combinations were subsequently used for imprinting of phosphatidic acid as an endotoxin dummy template. Presence of the aforementioned ternary complexes during polymerization resulted in imprinting of lipid dimers – the latter believed to crudely mimic the endotoxin Lipid A motif. The polymers were characterized with respect to template rebinding, binding affinity, capacity and common structural properties, leading to the identification of polymers which were thereafter subjected to an industrially validated endotoxin removal test. Two of the polymers were capable of removing endotoxin down to levels well below the accepted threshold (0.005 EU/mg API) in pharmaceutical production.

  15. Phospholipid imprinted polymers as selective endotoxin scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Sulc, Robert; Szekely, Gyorgy; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Wierzbicka, Celina; Vilela, Filipe; Bauer, David; Sellergren, Börje

    2017-01-01

    Herein we explore phospholipid imprinting as a means to design receptors for complex glycolipids comprising the toxic lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A series of polymerizable bis-imidazolium and urea hosts were evaluated as cationic and neutral hosts for phosphates and phosphonates, the latter used as mimics of the phospholipid head groups. The bis-imidazolium hosts interacted with the guests in a cooperative manner leading to the presence of tight and well defined 1:2 ternary complexes. Optimized monomer combinations were subsequently used for imprinting of phosphatidic acid as an endotoxin dummy template. Presence of the aforementioned ternary complexes during polymerization resulted in imprinting of lipid dimers – the latter believed to crudely mimic the endotoxin Lipid A motif. The polymers were characterized with respect to template rebinding, binding affinity, capacity and common structural properties, leading to the identification of polymers which were thereafter subjected to an industrially validated endotoxin removal test. Two of the polymers were capable of removing endotoxin down to levels well below the accepted threshold (0.005 EU/mg API) in pharmaceutical production. PMID:28303896

  16. EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL ENDOTOXIN ON RABBIT PLATELETS

    PubMed Central

    Des Prez, Roger M.; Bryant, Richard E.

    1966-01-01

    The divalent ion requirements of rabbit platelet injury by endotoxin have been defined by the use of various anticoagulant solutions and have been compared to the divalent ion requirements of platelet injury produced by addition of antigen to immune platelet-rich plasma. The endotoxin-platelet interaction takes place in citrated blood. Platelet damage by antigen is inhibited by citrate, but preincubation of antigen and immune platelet-poor plasma in the absence of citrate results in a substance, presumably antigen-antibody complement complex, which then does injure platelets in the presence of citrate. Neither endotoxin nor preincubated antigen injures platelets in the presence of sodium EDTA in concentrations sufficient to interact with all divalent cations present in plasma. These observations have been interpreted by viewing the platelet-endotoxin interaction as a consequence of platelet phagocytosis of endotoxin, a reaction not requiring complement but requiring definite small concentrations of divalent cations. The interaction of antigen and platelets is regarded as a two phase reaction, the first requiring the participation of complement and concentrations of divalent cation larger than those provided in citrated plasma, the second requiring smaller concentrations of divalent cation, no further participation of complement, and active in citrated plasma. This second phase is regarded as representing platelet phagocytosis of immune complexes. PMID:5951281

  17. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  18. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  19. Effects of endotoxin on the lactating mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) sequences in trans by a host gene, the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, was suspected from a genetic linkage analysis. The Lps locus mediates the mouse's response to the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the responder mouse while mice with the deficient allele are incapable of responding. Others have found that endotoxin exposure reduces milk production in lactating animals. This observation was confirmed in mice and extended by examining /sup 125/I-prolactin binding to liver membranes of lactating mice. Endotoxin treatment of responder mice increases liver prolactin binding within 15 minutes, followed by a decline over 6 hours. Scatchard analysis shows that the immediate increase comes from both increased affinity and abundance of the prolactin receptor. No such change in prolactin binding is seen in the non-responder following endotoxin treatment nor in /sup 125/I-insulin binding in responders.

  20. Exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxin among Danish pig farmers affected by work tasks and stable characteristics.

    PubMed

    Basinas, Ioannis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Takai, Hisamitsu; Heederik, Dick; Omland, Øyvind; Wouters, Inge M; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-10-01

    To identify working tasks and stable characteristics that determine intensity and variability of personal exposure to dust and endotoxin among pig farmers. Three hundred fifty-four personal full-shift measurements were performed in 231 farmers employed in 53 Danish pig farms. Filters were gravimetrically analysed for inhalable dust and for endotoxin by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Information on working tasks and stable characteristics were collected using self-reported activity diaries and walk-through surveys performed in conjunction with the measurements. Associations between log-transformed dust and endotoxin exposure and working tasks and stable characteristics were examined using linear mixed-effects analysis. In these models, worker and farm identity were treated as random effects and working tasks and stable characteristics as fixed effects. Both separate and combined models for tasks and stable characteristics were elaborated. Inhalable dust concentrations ranged between 0.1 and 48 mg m(-3) and endotoxin concentrations varied between 9.2 and 370,000 EU m(-3). Field work activities played a dominant role on the exposure variability. Indoor working tasks with intense animal activity or handling of feed materials increased exposure concentrations, whereas engagement in field work was associated with lower exposure concentrations. High-pressure water cleaning increased endotoxin exposure but did not affect exposure to inhalable dust. Stable characteristics related to feeding practices and type of ventilation were determinants of exposure to inhalable dust. For endotoxin, the most important determinants were use of dry feed and slatted floor coverage. Feeding practices solely explained all between-farms variability in exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxin. These findings suggest feeding systems, flooring and ventilation to be potential areas where improved methods can reduce exposure to dust and endotoxin among pig farmers. Further, they highlight

  1. Is There a Threshold Concentration of Cat Allergen Exposure on Respiratory Symptoms in Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Villani, Simona; Olivieri, Mario; Modig, Lars; Jarvis, Deborah; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 μg/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8μg/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the asthma related respiratory symptoms or the development of sensitization has not yet been confirmed. We studied the associations between domestic cat allergen concentrations and allergic symptoms in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II, with the aim of confirming this suggested threshold. Methods Cat allergen concentrations were measured in the mattress dust of 3003 participants from 22 study centres. Levels of specific immunoglobulin E to cat allergens were measured in serum samples using an immunoassay. Information on allergic symptoms, medication use, home environment and smoking was obtained from a face-to-face interview. Results Domestic cat allergen concentrations were not associated with allergic/ asthmatic symptoms in the entire study population, nor in the subset sensitized to cat allergen. We also found no association among individuals exposed to concentrations higher than 8 μg/g. However, exposure to medium cat allergen concentrations (0.24-0.63 μg/g) was positively associated with reported asthmatic respiratory symptoms in subjects who have experienced allergic symptoms when near animals. Conclusions The proposed 8 μg/g threshold of cat allergen concentrations for the exacerbation of allergic/ respiratory symptoms was not confirmed in a general European adult population. Potential biases attributable to avoidance behaviours and an imprecise exposure assessment cannot be excluded. PMID:26035304

  2. Cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergen levels in cars, dwellings and schools.

    PubMed

    Niesler, A; Ścigała, G; Łudzeń-Izbińska, B

    Pets are an important source of indoor allergens. The aim of the study was to compare cat and dog allergen levels in cars, schools and homes. The study was carried out in 17 cars, 14 classrooms and 19 dwellings located in the highly industrialized and urbanized region of Poland. Dust and air samples were analyzed for Fel d 1 and Can f 1 using a double monoclonal ELISA assay. The highest amounts of cat and dog allergens (Fel d 1: 1169 μg/g; Can f 1: 277 μg/g) were found in dwellings with pets. Allergen concentrations were correlated with the number of animals kept at home. Although concentrations on automobile seats were lower, Fel d 1 levels exceeded 8 μg/g in 23.5 % of cars and high levels of Can f 1 (>10 μg/g) were found in 17.6 % of cars. The study revealed that cars of pet owners may be reservoirs of cat and dog allergens even when animals are not transported in them. In schools, concentrations of pet allergens did not reach high levels, but the moderate levels of Fel d 1 (≥1-8 μg/g) and Can f 1 (≥2-10 μg/g) were detected in 42.9 and 7.1 % of the investigated classrooms. Concentrations of cat and dog allergen in schools were higher than in homes without pets. While airborne Fel d 1 and Can f 1 levels were found low, residential allergen concentrations in settled dust and air were correlated. The study results suggest that classrooms and cars of pet owners may be important sites of exposure to cat and dog allergens, though the highest concentrations of Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are found in homes of pet owners.

  3. Population growth and allergen accumulation of Dermatophagoides farinae cultured at 20 and 25 °C.

    PubMed

    Yella, Lakshmi; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

    2013-05-01

    House dust mites are cultured to obtain mite allergen material to produce allergen extracts (vaccines) for diagnostic tests, immunotherapy, and research purposes. Research laboratories and manufacturers have their own culturing protocols to grow these mites and these may vary between manufacturers and between research laboratories. The temperature at which mites are cultured may influence the allergen composition, allergen ratio of Der 1: Der 2 and endotoxin levels in the extracts produced from these cultured mites. In order to produce standardized and uniform extracts, across the industry and in various research laboratories, the influence of culture conditions must be understood. Here we determined how temperature affects mite population growth rates, dynamics of allergen production, Der f 1: Der f 2 ratio and endotoxin levels in extracts made from Dermatophagoides farinae mites cultured at 20 and 25 °C. We found that Der f 1 and Der f 2 accumulated exponentially in the cultures with Der f 1 accumulating faster than Der f 2. When the live mite populations peaked, the ratios for Der f 1: Der f 2 were 4.1 and 4.7 for cultures reared at 20 and 25 °C, respectively. Most of the Der f 1 and Der f 2 allergen in whole cultures is not in mite bodies and is lost when the mite material is washed. Thus, if the ratio of Der f 1 and Der f 2 is an important consideration for commercial and research extracts, then the temperature at which the mites are cultured and the collection procedure are important considerations.

  4. Indoor Air Quality in Schools (IAQ): The Importance of Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundersingh, David; Bearg, David W.

    This article highlights indoor air quality and exposure to pollutants at school. Typical air pollutants within schools include environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, allergens, pathogens, radon, pesticides, lead, and dust. Inadequate ventilation, inefficient…

  5. Survey of the Asp f 1 allergen in office environments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, T J; Whitehead, L W; Connor, T H; Burau, K D

    2001-06-01

    Sick Building Syndrome remains a prevalent problem with patient complaints similar to typical allergy symptoms. Unlike household allergens typically found in domestic reservoirs, the allergen from a common fungus like Aspergillus fumigatus (i.e., Asp f 1) is conceivably widespread in the work environment. This project surveyed airborne levels of the Asp f 1 allergen in office and non-industrial occupational environments, as well as the dust reservoirs of A. fumigatus believed to be responsible for those levels. Airborne and bulk dust samples were collected, extracted, and assayed for Asp f 1. Concurrently, bulk dusts collected from the same locations were selectively cultured for A. fumigatus, and mesophilic fungi and bacteria. Samples were collected during both wet and dry climatological conditions from paired wet and dry building locations to examine the possibility of Asp f 1 increases due to fungal growth blooms. Very low levels of Asp f 1 were detected but only in the airborne samples (2/120 positive samples, with 3.6 ng/m3 and 1.8 ng/m3; LOD < 1.2 ng/m3). No dust samples showed even detectable traces of the allergen (LOD = 5 ng/g dust). Although A. fumigatus counts from dusts fluctuated significantly with exterior moisture events, analysis of wet versus dry period samples showed no differences in Asp f 1 levels. These results indicate that even in the presence of measurable fungal concentrations, background levels of Asp f 1 are low. Nonindustrial office buildings devoid of indoor air quality issues were not observed to have significant levels of the Asp f 1 allergen in the geographical region studied.

  6. Air pollution and allergens.

    PubMed

    Bartra, J; Mullol, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Jáuregui, I; Montoro, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in recent decades in the industrialized world. Exposure to environmental pollutants may partially account for this increased prevalence. In effect, air pollution is a growing public health problem. In Europe, the main source of air pollution due to particles in suspension is represented by motor vehicles--particularly those that use diesel fuel. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are composed of a carbon core upon which high-molecular weight organic chemical components and heavy metals deposit. Over 80% of all DEPs are in the ultrafine particle range (< 0.1 pm in diameter). Air pollutants not only have a direct or indirect effect upon the individual, but also exert important actions upon aeroallergens. Pollen in heavily polluted zones can express a larger amount of proteins described as being allergenic. Through physical contact with the pollen particles, DEPs can disrupt the former, leading to the release of paucimicronic particles and transporting them by air--thus facilitating their penetration of the human airways. Climate change in part gives rise to variations in the temperature pattern characterizing the different seasons of the year. Thus, plants may vary their pollination calendar, advancing and prolonging their pollination period. In addition, in the presence of high CO2 concentrations and temperatures, plants increase their pollen output. Climate change may also lead to the extinction of species, and to the consolidation of non-native species--with the subsequent risk of allergic sensitization among the exposed human population. In conclusion, there is sufficient scientific evidence on the effect of air pollution upon allergens, increasing exposure to the latter, their concentration and/or biological allergenic activity.

  7. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  8. Allantoin as a solid phase adsorbent for removing endotoxins.

    PubMed

    Vagenende, Vincent; Ching, Tim-Jang; Chua, Rui-Jing; Gagnon, Pete

    2013-10-04

    In this study we present a simple and robust method for removing endotoxins from protein solutions by using crystals of the small-molecule compound 2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl urea (allantoin) as a solid phase adsorbent. Allantoin crystalline powder is added to a protein solution at supersaturated concentrations, endotoxins bind and undissolved allantoin crystals with bound endotoxins are removed by filtration or centrifugation. This method removes an average of 99.98% endotoxin for 20 test proteins. The average protein recovery is ∼80%. Endotoxin binding is largely independent of pH, conductivity, reducing agent and various organic solvents. This is consistent with a hydrogen-bond based binding mechanism. Allantoin does not affect protein activity and stability, and the use of allantoin as a solid phase adsorbent provides better endotoxin removal than anion exchange, polymixin affinity and biological affinity methods for endotoxin clearance.

  9. Moving environmental justice indoors: understanding structural influences on residential exposure patterns in low-income communities.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Gary; Zota, Ami R; Fabian, M Patricia; Chahine, Teresa; Julien, Rhona; Spengler, John D; Levy, Jonathan I

    2011-12-01

    The indoor environment has not been fully incorporated into the environmental justice dialogue. To inform strategies to reduce disparities, we developed a framework to identify the individual and place-based drivers of indoor environment quality. We reviewed empirical evidence of socioeconomic disparities in indoor exposures and key determinants of these exposures for air pollutants, lead, allergens, and semivolatile organic compounds. We also used an indoor air quality model applied to multifamily housing to illustrate how nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) vary as a function of factors known to be influenced by socioeconomic status. Indoor concentrations of multiple pollutants are elevated in low-socioeconomic status households. Differences in these exposures are driven by the combined influences of indoor sources, outdoor sources, physical structures, and residential activity patterns. Simulation models confirmed indoor sources' importance in determining indoor NO(2) and PM(2.5) exposures and showed the influence of household-specific determinants. Both theoretical models and empirical evidence emphasized that disparities in indoor environmental exposure can be significant. Understanding key determinants of multiple indoor exposures can aid in developing policies to reduce these disparities.

  10. Moving Environmental Justice Indoors: Understanding Structural Influences on Residential Exposure Patterns in Low-Income Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Chahine, Teresa; Julien, Rhona; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The indoor environment has not been fully incorporated into the environmental justice dialogue. To inform strategies to reduce disparities, we developed a framework to identify the individual and place-based drivers of indoor environment quality. Methods. We reviewed empirical evidence of socioeconomic disparities in indoor exposures and key determinants of these exposures for air pollutants, lead, allergens, and semivolatile organic compounds. We also used an indoor air quality model applied to multifamily housing to illustrate how nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) vary as a function of factors known to be influenced by socioeconomic status. Results. Indoor concentrations of multiple pollutants are elevated in low-socioeconomic status households. Differences in these exposures are driven by the combined influences of indoor sources, outdoor sources, physical structures, and residential activity patterns. Simulation models confirmed indoor sources’ importance in determining indoor NO2 and PM2.5 exposures and showed the influence of household-specific determinants. Conclusions. Both theoretical models and empirical evidence emphasized that disparities in indoor environmental exposure can be significant. Understanding key determinants of multiple indoor exposures can aid in developing policies to reduce these disparities. PMID:21836112

  11. Characterization of a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae—Der f 28

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-Li; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Yu-Lan; Sun, Bao-Qing; Gao, An-Jian; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background House dust mites (HDMs) are the major sources of indoor allergens which induce asthma, dermatitis, rhinitis, and some other allergic diseases. Close to 30 sub-allergens have been identified. Methods Through analyzing the full genome sequence of dust mite, a new allergen whose primary structure belongs to the heat shock protein family was identified. The sequence of this allergen was determined by cDNA cloning. The allergenicity was assayed by skin prick test, Western-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results r-Der f 28 bound to serum IgE from mite allergic patients. Positive responses to r-Der f 28 were shown in 11.5% by skin prick testing from 26 DM-allergic patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE and IL-4 were significantly increased in allergic asthma mouse model sensitized to r-Der f 28. Conclusions Der f 28 is a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae. PMID:26623108

  12. Airborne particle sizes and sources found in indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, M. K.; Ensor, D. S.; Sparks, L. E.

    As concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, understanding indoor aerosols has become increasingly important so that control techniques may be implemented to reduce damaging health effects and soiling problems. This paper begins with a brief look at the mechanics of deposition in the lungs and the aerosol dynamics that influence particles at all times. This discussion shows that the particle diameters must be known to predict dose or soiling and to determine efficient mitigation techniques. The particle sizes produced by the various indoor sources, as well as unusual aspects of each type of source, must be known so that this process may begin. This paper summarizes the results of a literature search into the sources, sizes and concentrations of indoor particles. There are several types of indoor particles: plant and animal bioaerosols and mineral, combustion and home/personal care aerosols. These types may be produced indoors or outdoors, entering through building openings. The sources may be short term, seasonal or continuous. Particle sizes produced vary from submicrometer to larger than 10 μm. The particles may be toxic or allergenic. This information is presented in a summary table and is discussed in the text.

  13. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Heat and pH stability studies and experiments with organic solvents show that the A-antigens discussed in the preceding paper (Augustin, 1959c) are much more labile than the I- (`inner ring') antigens. Breakdown products and/or aggregates are produced which no longer precipitate with antisera to the original extracts, but act as inhibitors. Solutions of pollen allergens, on the other hand, are found to withstand even autoclaving for 15 min. at 20 atm. and vigorous boiling over the naked flame of a bunsen burner. None of the carbohydrates tested has a demonstrable effect on skin reactivity which is, however, destroyed by crystalline pepsin, crystalline trypsin, a crystalline mould protease and a tissue protease (a partially purified extract from rabbit spleen). It follows that the bulk of the allergens—if not all—are proteins. The relation of skin reactivity, immuno-electrophoretic patterns, carbohydrate and protein reactions to the selective destruction of the pollen antigens is investigated. Pollen components prove to have a somewhat wider range of electrophoretic mobilities than serum proteins and are probably as complicated a mixture. The most and least highly negatively charged components are without skin reactivity in allergic subjects. The skin reactive allergens appear to have the mobilities of α- and β-globulins. Not all the hay fever subjects react equally to all the components, and Cocksfoot and Timothy activity patterns vary in different subjects. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:13795119

  14. [Allergenic pollens in Spain].

    PubMed

    Subiza Garrido-Lestache, J

    2004-01-01

    Allergenic pollens that cause rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma are those from trees or plants that pollinate through the air (anemophilic pollination) and not through insects (entomophilic pollination). Although pollen grains would seem to be too large to easily reach the intrapulmonary airways, the relationship between pollen counts and the presence of asthmatic symptoms is only too evident. This is probably because the allergens inducing seasonal asthma are not only found within pollen grains but also outside the grains in particles of less than 10 mm that are freely found in the atmosphere. The most important pollens producing pollinosis in Spain are those from cypress trees from January-March, birch trees in April (macizo galaico), Platanus hispanica (March-April), grasses and olive trees from April-June, Parietaria from April-July and Chenopodium and/or Salsola from July-September. By geographical areas, the main cause of pollinosis are grasses in the center and north of the peninsula, olive trees in the south (Jaén, Sevilla, Granada, Córdoba) and Parietaria in the Mediterranean coast (Barcelona, Murcia, Valencia).

  15. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of endotoxin from dairy wastewater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of various treatments on removing endotoxin (ET) from wastewater was tested by using the treated water to induce a systemic reaction via intratracheal inoculation (20 ml/goat, 6 goats/group). Treatments (T1-T7) of wastewater were as follows: 1) autoclaved 15 min, centrifuged and contain...

  17. Enteric vascular endothelial response to bacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Koshi, R.; Mathan, V. I.; David, S.; Mathan, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    The response of enteric vasculature to endotoxin was examined at the ultrastructural level using a murine model of endotoxin-induced acute diarrhoea. Morphological changes indicative of endothelial damage were evident as early as 15 minutes following endotoxin challenge. These changes, characterized by widening of intercellular spaces, increased microvillous projections and the appearance of stress fibres, preceded the leucocytic response. Endothelial damage increased with time, being associated with progressive degenerative changes in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and organelles, ultimately leading to desquamation. These latter changes were temporally associated with margination of neutrophils and platelet adhesion to the denuded subendothelium. The venules were the primary site of these changes while the capillaries were the least affected. The arterioles were markedly constricted with minimal endothelial damage. These changes suggest that the enteric vascular endothelium may be an important target organ, and the resultant endothelial injury may have implications in host responses to endotoxin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8292557

  18. Endotoxin contamination delays the foreign body reaction.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Sander M; Wübben, Maike; Plantinga, Josée A; Hennink, Wim E; van Luyn, Marja J A; Harmsen, Martin C

    2011-09-15

    Biomaterials are at continuous risk of bacterial contamination during production and application. In vivo, bacterial contamination of biomaterials delays the foreign body reaction (FBR). Endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), major constituents of the bacterial cell wall, are potent stimulators of the immune system in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, biomaterials contaminated with LPS induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines by adherent macrophages. This suggests that the presence of endotoxins on biomaterials will intensify the FBR. The effects of LPS on the course of the FBR have never been studied in vivo. In this study, the influence of LPS contamination on the FBR to subcutaneously implanted Puramatrix-loaded hexamethylenediisocyanate-crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (HDSC) disks was studied in rats. During the onset phase of the FBR, a massive influx of granulocytes was detected in LPS-contaminated disks, while their presence was prolonged. IL-10 production inside LPS-contaminated disks was increased at days 10 and 21. Macrophage densities were not affected by the presence of LPS. However, macrophage functionality was altered: giant cell formation and biomaterial degradation were delayed by LPS-contamination up to 21 days. On the basis of these results, we conclude that LPS delays the FBR. This finding indicates that endotoxin contamination has significant implications for the in vivo function of biomaterials and medical devices and emphasizes the importance of endotoxin testing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Kinetics of Hydrothermal Inactivation of Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lixiong; Wilbur, Chris L.; Mintz, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model was established for the inactivation of endotoxins in water at temperatures ranging from 210°C to 270°C and a pressure of 6.2 × 106 Pa. Data were generated using a bench scale continuous-flow reactor system to process feed water spiked with endotoxin standard (Escherichia coli O113:H10). Product water samples were collected and quantified by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. At 250°C, 5-log endotoxin inactivation was achieved in about 1 s of exposure, followed by a lower inactivation rate. This non-log-linear pattern is similar to reported trends in microbial survival curves. Predictions and parameters of several non-log-linear models are presented. In the fast-reaction zone (3- to 5-log reduction), the Arrhenius rate constant fits well at temperatures ranging from 120°C to 250°C on the basis of data from this work and the literature. Both biphasic and modified Weibull models are comparable to account for both the high and low rates of inactivation in terms of prediction accuracy and the number of parameters used. A unified representation of thermal resistance curves for a 3-log reduction and a 3 D value associated with endotoxin inactivation and microbial survival, respectively, is presented. PMID:21193667

  20. Characterization of airborne molds, endotoxins, and glucans in homes in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Rao, Carol Y; Riggs, Margaret A; Chew, Ginger L; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Van Sickle, David; Dunn, Kevin H; Brown, Clive

    2007-03-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused breeches in the New Orleans, LA, levee system, resulting in catastrophic flooding. The city remained flooded for several weeks, leading to extraordinary mold growth in homes. To characterize the potential risks of mold exposures, we measured airborne molds and markers of molds and bacteria in New Orleans area homes. In October 2005, we collected air samples from 5 mildly water-damaged houses, 15 moderately to heavily water-damaged houses, and 11 outdoor locations. The air filters were analyzed for culturable fungi, spores, (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans, and endotoxins. Culturable fungi were significantly higher in the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses (geometric mean=67,000 CFU/m3) than in the mildly water-damaged houses (geometric mean=3,700 CFU/m3) (P=0.02). The predominant molds found were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma, and Paecilomyces. The indoor and outdoor geometric means for endotoxins were 22.3 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 and 10.5 EU/m3, respectively, and for (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans were 1.7 microg/m3 and 0.9 microg/m3, respectively. In the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses, the geometric means were 31.3 EU/m3 for endotoxins and 1.8 microg/m3 for (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans. Molds, endotoxins, and fungal glucans were detected in the environment after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans at concentrations that have been associated with health effects. The species and concentrations were different from those previously reported for non-water-damaged buildings in the southeastern United States.

  1. Characterization of Airborne Molds, Endotoxins, and Glucans in Homes in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita▿

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Carol Y.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Chew, Ginger L.; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Thorne, Peter S.; Van Sickle, David; Dunn, Kevin H.; Brown, Clive

    2007-01-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused breeches in the New Orleans, LA, levee system, resulting in catastrophic flooding. The city remained flooded for several weeks, leading to extraordinary mold growth in homes. To characterize the potential risks of mold exposures, we measured airborne molds and markers of molds and bacteria in New Orleans area homes. In October 2005, we collected air samples from 5 mildly water-damaged houses, 15 moderately to heavily water-damaged houses, and 11 outdoor locations. The air filters were analyzed for culturable fungi, spores, (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans, and endotoxins. Culturable fungi were significantly higher in the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses (geometric mean = 67,000 CFU/m3) than in the mildly water-damaged houses (geometric mean = 3,700 CFU/m3) (P = 0.02). The predominant molds found were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma, and Paecilomyces. The indoor and outdoor geometric means for endotoxins were 22.3 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 and 10.5 EU/m3, respectively, and for (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans were 1.7 μg/m3 and 0.9 μg/m3, respectively. In the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses, the geometric means were 31.3 EU/m3 for endotoxins and 1.8 μg/m3 for (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans. Molds, endotoxins, and fungal glucans were detected in the environment after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans at concentrations that have been associated with health effects. The species and concentrations were different from those previously reported for non-water-damaged buildings in the southeastern United States. PMID:17209066

  2. Attempts to reduce exposure to fungi, β-glucan, bacteria, endotoxin and dust in vegetable greenhouses and a packaging unit.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Frederiksen, Margit W

    2014-01-15

    Indoor handling of large amounts of plant materials occurs in different occupational settings including greenhouses and causes exposure to bioaerosols. The bioaerosol components fungi, β-glucan, bacteria and endotoxin are involved in different airway symptoms and health effects can be dose-dependent. Therefore, there is a persistent need to reduce exposure. The aims of this study were to identify tasks causing exposure and to evaluate preventive measures aimed at reducing exposure of greenhouse workers to bioaerosols, and to study factors affecting the exposure. We have focused on different exposure scenarios; one with high short-term exposure found during clearing of old cucumber plants; the other with long-term, mid-level exposure found during tomato picking, leaf nipping, stringing up tomato plants, and packaging of cucumbers. Clearing of non-dried cucumber plants compared with clearing of dried cucumber plants significantly reduced the exposure to dust, endotoxin, bacteria, fungal spores and β-glucan. More endotoxin and fungi are emitted and more of the emitted particles were of respirable size if the leaves were dried. Along the cucumber packaging line, exposure levels were highly specific to each personal subtask. The subtask 'unloading of cucumbers' was the source of exposure making task ventilation or shielding of the process a possibility. Elimination of leaf debris on the floor reduced the exposure to fungi significantly. However, leaf debris on the floor did not contribute significantly to the exposure to dust, endotoxin and bacteria. Furthermore, to eliminate leaf debris, it had to be cleared away and this was associated with a higher exposure to dust and endotoxin. The age of the plants affected the exposure level to bioaerosols with higher exposures from old plants. In conclusion, different tasks and subtasks cause very different exposure levels. It is possible to reduce exposure by identifying subtasks causing the exposure and by modifying work

  3. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  4. Mite allergens in relation to home conditions and sensitization of asthmatic children from three climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Munir, A K; Björkstén, B; Einarsson, R; Ekstrand-Tobin, A; Möller, C; Warner, A; Kjellman, N I

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the levels of mite (Der p I and Der f I) allergen in dust from bedrooms, living rooms, kitchens, and bathrooms from 130 homes of asthmatic children in three climatic zones of Sweden. Bedroom dust samples included the child's mattress, carpets, floors, and other plain surfaces. Living-room dust samples were taken from sofas and other furniture, carpets, floors, and other plain surfaces. The allergen levels were related to home characteristics, including absolute indoor humidity (AIH), relative humidity (RH), and air changes per hour (ach). Mite allergen was detected in 62% of the homes. Levels of Der p I varied between < 16 ng and 50 micrograms/g dust, and Der f I between < 16 ng and 73 micrograms/g dust. Because we have designed a composite type of dust collection in our study, the allergen levels found tend to average down the results. Mite allergen levels were higher in homes with dampness problems, in homes with a smoker, and in homes without a basement. Homes with high absolute humidity (> or = 7 g/kg) or relative humidity (> or = 45%) and poor ventilation (< 0.5 ach) contained higher levels of mite allergens than homes with lower humidity and better ventilation. However, the number of ach measurements in homes was not high, and few homes had > 0.5 ach. Sensitization to house-dust mites was more common in southern than in northern and central Sweden. High levels of house-dust mite allergen in a temperate climate where mites are not ubiquitous are thus associated with dampness problems in homes and with tobacco smoking. Our data confirm and extend previous findings that high AIH and RH and poor ventilation increase the risk of mite infestation in homes. It seems to be important and necessary to control indoor humidity and ventilation levels, to avoid high mite allergen exposure in a temperate climate, because 34% of mite-sensitized asthmatic children were exposed to levels of mite allergen < 2 micrograms/g dust in their homes. The study also

  5. [Exposure to pollutants and allergens in the asthmatic child compared with the healthy child].

    PubMed

    Sarrazola Sanjuan, D M; Salas Ramírez, M; Segura Méndez, N H; Medrano, S; Martínez Cairo Cueto, S

    1997-01-01

    To assess the frequency of exposure to allergens and indoor pollutants of school age asthmatic children at the time of their first visit to the specialist, we studied 14 cases with the diagnosis of asthma according to international criteria, and 21 healthy controls. The parents of the children filed a questionnaire asking about socio-economic level, family history of asthma, exposure to allergens or indoor pollutants, and clinical severity of the disease. Questionnaires with less than 80% of the responses were excluded from analysis. Asthmatic patients had higher frequency of exposure to tobacco smoke (42.8% vs 38%), moisture in the home walls (42.9% vs 19%), and to dust reservoirs (71.4% vs 52.4%). A high proportion of the asthmatic patients did not apply adequate environmental control measures. Education for the patients and their primary care physicians must be increased, to reduce the morbidity of the diseases.

  6. Association analysis of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Shinya; Koike, Soichi; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2009-06-01

    Food allergy patients are known to present with allergic reactions to multiple allergens, but extrapolating these associations is difficult. Data mining, a procedure that analyzes characteristic combinations among large amounts of information, is often used to analyze and predict consumer purchasing behaviour. We applied this technique to the extrapolation of food allergen associations in allergy patients. We sent 1510 families our 'Questionnaire survey for the prevention of food allergies'. Responses noting 6549 allergens came from 878 families with 1383 patients, including 402 with anaphylaxis. Some results of the survey have already been published and here we presented the results of our association analysis of combinations of food allergens. Egg, milk, wheat, peanuts, and buckwheat are the most common food allergens. The most common simultaneous combinations of these allergens were 'egg-milk', 'egg-wheat', and 'milk-wheat'. The occurrence probability of a combination (i.e. one person suffering from a certain allergen also suffers from another) is called 'confidence'. Confidence was higher for 'chicken-egg', 'abalone-salmon eggs', and 'matsutake mushroom-milk'. As well, the combinations of 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', and 'squid-crab' also indicated higher values in a statistical examination of the occurrence probabilities of these allergen combinations (Z-score). From the results of the association analysis, we speculated that some food allergens, such as abalone, orange, salmon, chicken, pork, matsutake mushroom, peach and apple did not independently induce food allergies. We also found that combinations, such as 'crab-shrimp', 'squid-shrimp', 'squid-crab', 'chicken-beef', and 'salmon-mackerel' had strong associations.

  7. Nanoparticle-allergen interactions mediate human allergic responses: protein corona characterization and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Radauer-Preiml, Isabella; Andosch, Ancuela; Hawranek, Thomas; Luetz-Meindl, Ursula; Wiederstein, Markus; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Himly, Martin; Boyles, Matthew; Duschl, Albert

    2016-01-16

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) interact with different biomolecules as soon as they are in contact, resulting in the formation of a biomolecule 'corona'. Hence, the 'corona' defines the biological identity of the ENMs and could affect the response of the immune system to ENM exposure. With up to 40 % of the world population suffering from type I allergy, a possible modulation of allergen effects by binding to ENMs is highly relevant with respect to work place and consumer safety. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to gain an insight into the interactions of gold nanoparticles with different seasonally and perennially occurring outdoor and indoor allergens. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were conjugated with the major allergens of birch pollen (Bet v 1), timothy grass pollen (Phl p 5) and house dust mite (Der p 1). The AuNP-allergen conjugates were characterized by means of TEM negative staining, dynamic light scattering (DLS), z-potential measurements and hyperspectral imaging. Furthermore, 3D models were constructed, based on the characterization data, to visualize the interaction between the allergens and the AuNPs surface. Differences in the activation of human basophil cells derived from birch/grass pollen- and house dust mite-allergic patients in response to free allergen and AuNP-allergen conjugates were determined using the basophil activation assay (BAT). Potential allergen corona replacement during BAT was controlled for using Western blotting. The protease activity of AuNP-Der p 1 conjugates compared to free Der p 1 was assessed, by an enzymatic activity assay and a cellular assay pertaining to lung type II alveolar epithelial cell tight junction integrity. The formation of a stable corona was found for all three allergens used. Our data suggest, that depending on the allergen, different effects are observed after binding to ENMs, including enhanced allergic responses against Der p 1 and also, for some patients, against Bet v 1. Moreover elevated

  8. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  9. Detecting endotoxin with a flow cytometry-based magnetic aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ming-Yan; Chen, Li-Juan; Jiang, Hao; Tan, Lin; Luo, Zhao-Feng; Wang, Yan-Mei

    2014-12-01

    Endotoxin, which is also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a marker for intruding gram-negative pathogens. It is essential to detect endotoxin quickly and sensitively in a complex milieu. A new flow cytometry (FCM)-based magnetic aptasensor assay that employs two endotoxin-binding aptamers and magnetic beads has been developed to detect endotoxin. The endotoxin-conjugated sandwich complex on magnetic beads was observed by scanning confocal laser microscopy. The resulting magnetic aptasensor rapidly detected (<1 min) endotoxin within a broad dynamic detection range of 10(-8) to 10(0)mg/ml in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), RNA, sucrose, and glucose, which are most likely to coexist with endotoxin in the majority of biological liquids. Only 2 μl of magnetic aptasensor was required to quantify the endotoxin solution. Furthermore, the magnetic aptasensor could be regenerated seven times and still presented an outstanding response to the endotoxin solution. Therefore, the magnetic aptasensor exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility, thereby serving as a powerful tool for the quality control and high-throughput detection of endotoxin in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Mediated effect of endotoxin and lead upon hepatic metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Kuttner, R.E.; Ebata, T.; Schumer, W.

    1984-10-01

    A test was made of the possibility that gram-negative bacterial cell wall lipopolysaccharides acted directly on key glucoregulatory enzymes in rat liver cytosol to cause the characteristic hypoglycemia of severe endotoxemia. Fasted male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by the simultaneous intravenous injection of lead acetate. The minimum systemic dosage of endotoxin necessary to perturb the normal pattern of hepatic glycolytic intermediates was determined by serial testing with diminishing dosages of endotoxin. The hepatocyte concentration of endotoxin was then calculated from this minimum dosage by use of literature data on the fraction of endotoxin delivered to liver cells after a systemic intravenous injection of radiochromium labeled lipopolysaccharides. Accepting a molecular weight of 118,000 daltons for the smallest endotoxin monomer capable of evoking a physiologic response, the molar amount of endotoxin present in 1 gram of hepatocytes was readily calculated. The concentration of glucoregulatory enzymes in parenchymal cells was then estimated from other literature sources. It was found that the amount of endotoxin in the hepatocytes was insufficient to combine directly with even 1 per cent of the quantity of a single key glucoregulatory enzyme in liver parenchyma. Since a one to one stoichiometric reaction between endotoxin and enzyme could not occur in the liver cytosol, a direct interaction mechanism between agonist and biocatalyst can be ruled out. It is concluded that bacterial endotoxin must act on hepatic glucoregulation by an indirect mechanism presumably based upon the release and operation of mediators.

  11. Chorioamnionitis induced by subchorionic endotoxin infusion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Moss, Timothy J M; Nitsos, Ilias; Newnham, John P; Ikegami, Machiko; Jobe, Alan H

    2003-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether subchorionic endotoxin infusion causes chorioamnionitis and preterm lung maturation, as occurs after intra-amniotic endotoxin. From day 118 of pregnancy, sheep received infusions of endotoxin (subchorionic 7.5 mg/d, n=11; intra-amniotic 2.5 mg/d, n=9) until delivery of lambs at 120 or 124 days. Other sheep received a single intra-amniotic injection of endotoxin (10 mg, n=7) at 118 days before delivery at 124 days. Controls (n=9) received equivalent saline solution treatments. Chorioamnionitis accompanied all endotoxin treatments. Lung inflammation occurred after intra-amniotic endotoxin infusion or injection but not after subchorionic endotoxin. Umbilical arterial pH was lower and Pco(2) was higher than control after subchorionic endotoxin. Lung compliance and surfactant were increased after intra-amniotic endotoxin infusion or injection but not after subchorionic endotoxin. Chorioamnionitis may result from inflammatory stimuli at various intrauterine sites, with different sites causing different fetal effects and not all cases of chorioamnionitis being accompanied by enhanced lung maturation.

  12. AllergenFP: allergenicity prediction by descriptor fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Ivan; Naneva, Lyudmila; Doytchinova, Irini; Bangov, Ivan

    2014-03-15

    Allergenicity, like antigenicity and immunogenicity, is a property encoded linearly and non-linearly, and therefore the alignment-based approaches are not able to identify this property unambiguously. A novel alignment-free descriptor-based fingerprint approach is presented here and applied to identify allergens and non-allergens. The approach was implemented into a four step algorithm. Initially, the protein sequences are described by amino acid principal properties as hydrophobicity, size, relative abundance, helix and β-strand forming propensities. Then, the generated strings of different length are converted into vectors with equal length by auto- and cross-covariance (ACC). The vectors were transformed into binary fingerprints and compared in terms of Tanimoto coefficient. The approach was applied to a set of 2427 known allergens and 2427 non-allergens and identified correctly 88% of them with Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.759. The descriptor fingerprint approach presented here is universal. It could be applied for any classification problem in computational biology. The set of E-descriptors is able to capture the main structural and physicochemical properties of amino acids building the proteins. The ACC transformation overcomes the main problem in the alignment-based comparative studies arising from the different length of the aligned protein sequences. The conversion of protein ACC values into binary descriptor fingerprints allows similarity search and classification. The algorithm described in the present study was implemented in a specially designed Web site, named AllergenFP (FP stands for FingerPrint). AllergenFP is written in Python, with GIU in HTML. It is freely accessible at http://ddg-pharmfac.net/Allergen FP. idoytchinova@pharmfac.net or ivanbangov@shu-bg.net.

  13. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  14. Analysis of properties and proinflammatory functions of cockroach allergens Per a 1.01s.

    PubMed

    He, S; Zhang, Z; Zhang, H; Wei, J; Yang, L; Yang, H; Sun, W; Zeng, X; Yang, P

    2011-09-01

    Cockroaches have been identified as one of the major indoor allergens inducing perennial rhinitis and asthma. Per a 1s are a group of the major allergens from American cockroach. Although Per a 1s are major allergens from American cockroach, factors contributing to the allergenicity of Per a 1s are still poorly defined. To investigate the effects of Per a 1s on the expression of PARs and the release of proinflammatory cytokines from mast cells. Per a 1.0101 and Per a 1.0104 were cloned from American cockroach and then expressed in Eschericia coli. The purified allergens were used to stimulate P815 mast cells, and the expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs) was determined by real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The levels of IL-4 and IL-13 in culture media were detected with ELISA. Sera from 80 and 77.3% of cockroach allergy patients reacted to recombinant Per a (rPer a) 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104, confirming they are major allergens. Both rPer a 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104 had no enzymatic activity, but rPer a 1.0101 upregulated the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-2, and rPer a 1.0104 enhanced the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-4 proteins. Both recombinant allergens were able to increase the release of IL-4 and IL-13 from P815 mast cells. This is the first study aiming to investigate functions of group 1 allergens of American cockroach. rPer a 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104 have the capacity to upregulate the expression of PARs and to enhance Th2 cytokine production in mast cells.

  15. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  16. Genetic variants in endotoxin signalling pathway, domestic endotoxin exposure and asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Kljaic-Bukvic, Blazenka; Blekic, Mario; Aberle, Neda; Curtin, John A; Hankinson, Jenny; Semic-Jusufagic, Aida; Belgrave, Danielle; Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the interaction between genetic variants in endotoxin signalling pathway and domestic endotoxin exposure in relation to asthma presence, and amongst children with asthma, we explored the association of these genetic variants and endotoxin exposure with hospital admissions due to asthma exacerbations. In a case-control study, we analysed data from 824 children (417 asthmatics, 407 controls; age 5-18 yr). Amongst asthmatics, we extracted data on hospitalization for asthma exacerbation from medical records. Endotoxin exposure was measured in dust samples collected from homes. We included 26 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the final analysis (5 CD14, 7LY96 and 14 TLR4). Two variants remained significantly associated with hospital admissions with asthma exacerbations after correction for multiple testing: for CD14 SNP rs5744455, carriers of T allele had decreased risk of repeated hospital admissions compared with homozygotes for C allele [OR (95% CI), 0.42 (0.25-0.88), p = 0.01, False Discovery Rate (FDR) p = 0.02]; for LY96 SNP rs17226566, C-allele carriers were at a lower risk of hospital admissions compared with T-allele homozygotes [0.59 (0.38-0.90), p = 0.01, FDR p = 0.04]. We observed two interactions between SNPs in CD14 and LY96 with environmental endotoxin exposure in relation to hospital admissions due to asthma exacerbation which remained significant after correction for multiple testing (CD14 SNPs rs2915863 and LY96 SNP rs17226566). Amongst children with asthma, genetic variants in CD14 and LY96 may increase the risk of hospital admissions with acute exacerbations. Polymorphisms in endotoxin pathway interact with domestic endotoxin exposure in further modification of the risk of hospitalization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Allergen Peptides, Recombinant Allergens and Hypoallergens for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases are among the most common health issues worldwide. Specific immunotherapy has remained the only disease-modifying treatment, but it is not effective in all patients and may cause side effects. Over the last 25 years, allergen molecules from most prevalent allergen sources have been isolated and produced as recombinant proteins. Not only are these molecules useful in improved allergy diagnosis, but they also have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of allergic disease by means of immunotherapy. Panels of unmodified recombinant allergens have already been shown to effectively replace natural allergen extracts in therapy. Through genetic engineering, several molecules have been designed with modified immunological properties. Hypoallergens have been produced that have reduced IgE binding capacity but retained T cell reactivity and T cell peptides which stimulate allergen-specific T cells, and these have already been investigated in clinical trials. New vaccines have been recently created with both reduced IgE and T cell reactivity but retained ability to induce protective allergen-specific IgG antibodies. The latter approach works by fusing per se non-IgE reactive peptides derived from IgE binding sites of the allergens to a virus protein, which acts as a carrier and provides the T-cell help necessary for immune stimulation and protective antibody production. In this review, we will highlight the different novel approaches for immunotherapy and will report on prior and ongoing clinical studies.

  18. Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure.

    PubMed

    Hurraß, Julia; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A

    2017-04-01

    In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects. Apart from the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and the mycoses caused by mold, there is only sufficient evidence for the following associations between moisture/mold damages and different health effects: Allergic respiratory diseases, asthma (manifestation, progression, exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, exogenous allergic alveolitis and respiratory tract infections/bronchitis. In comparison to other environmental allergens, the sensitizing potential of molds is estimated to be low. Recent studies show a prevalence of sensitization of 3-10% in the total population of Europe. The evidence for associations to mucous membrane irritation and atopic eczema (manifestation, progression, exacerbation) is classified as limited or suspected. Inadequate or insufficient evidence for an association is given for COPD, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in children, rheumatism/arthritis, sarcoidosis, and cancer. The risk of infections from indoor molds is low for healthy individuals. Only molds that are capable to form toxins can cause intoxications. The environmental and growth conditions and especially the substrate determine whether toxin formation occurs, but indoor air concentrations are always very low. In the case of indoor moisture/mold damages, everyone can be affected by odor effects and

  19. Epizootiological characteristics of viable bacteria and fungi in indoor air from porcine, chicken, or bovine husbandry confinement buildings

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Katharine; Lim, Gyeong-Dong; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Shin, Kyung-Min; Song, Eun-Seob; Gautam, Ravi; Kim, Chang-Yul; Lee, Kyungsuk; Shin, Seungwon; Yoo, Han-Sang; Heo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms found in bioaerosols from animal confinement buildings not only foster the risk of spreading diseases among livestock buildings, but also pose health hazards to farm workers and nearby residents. This study identified the various microorganisms present in the air of swine, chicken, and cattle farms with different kinds of ventilation conditions in Korea. Microbial air samples were collected onto Petri dishes with bacterial or fungal growth media using a cascade impactor. Endotoxin levels in total dust were determined by the limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic QCL method. Prevalent Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) lentus, S. chromogenes, Bacillus (B.) cereus, B. licheniformis, and Enterococcus faecalis, while the dominant fungi and Gram-negative bacteria were Candida albicans and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, respectively. Considering no significant relationship between the indoor dust endotoxin levels and the isolation of Gram-negative bacteria from the indoor air, monitoring the indoor airborne endotoxin level was found to be also critical for risk assessment on health for animals or workers. The present study confirms the importance of microbiological monitoring and control on animal husbandry indoor air to ensure animal and worker welfare. PMID:27456779

  20. Epizootiological characteristics of viable bacteria and fungi in indoor air from porcine, chicken, or bovine husbandry confinement buildings.

    PubMed

    Roque, Katharine; Lim, Gyeong-Dong; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Shin, Kyung-Min; Song, Eun-Seob; Gautam, Ravi; Kim, Chang-Yul; Lee, Kyungsuk; Shin, Seungwon; Yoo, Han-Sang; Heo, Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Ah

    2016-12-30

    Microorganisms found in bioaerosols from animal confinement buildings not only foster the risk of spreading diseases among livestock buildings, but also pose health hazards to farm workers and nearby residents. This study identified the various microorganisms present in the air of swine, chicken, and cattle farms with different kinds of ventilation conditions in Korea. Microbial air samples were collected onto Petri dishes with bacterial or fungal growth media using a cascade impactor. Endotoxin levels in total dust were determined by the limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic QCL method. Prevalent Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) lentus, S. chromogenes, Bacillus (B.) cereus, B. licheniformis, and Enterococcus faecalis, while the dominant fungi and Gram-negative bacteria were Candida albicans and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, respectively. Considering no significant relationship between the indoor dust endotoxin levels and the isolation of Gram-negative bacteria from the indoor air, monitoring the indoor airborne endotoxin level was found to be also critical for risk assessment on health for animals or workers. The present study confirms the importance of microbiological monitoring and control on animal husbandry indoor air to ensure animal and worker welfare.

  1. Gastrointestinal digestion of food allergens: effect on their allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the in vitro digestion models developed to assess the stability digestion of food allergens, as well as the factors derived from the methodology and food structure that may affect the assay results. The adequacy of using the digestion stability of food allergens as a criterion for assessing potential allergenicity is also discussed. Data based on the traditional pepsin digestibility test in simulated gastric fluid are discussed in detail, with special attention to the influence of the pH and pepsin: allergen ratio in the pepsinolysis rate. This review points out the importance of using physiologically relevant in vitro digestion systems for evaluating digestibility of allergens. This would imply the sequential use of digestive enzymes in physiological concentrations, simulation of the stomach/small intestine environment (multi-phase models) with addition of surfactants such as phospholipids or bile salts, as well as the consideration of the gastrointestinal transit and the effect of the food matrices on the allergen digestion and subsequent absorption through the intestinal mucosa. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion protocols should be preferably combined with immunological assays in order to elucidate the role of large digestion-resistant fragments and the influence of the food matrix on the stimulation of the immune system.

  2. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa; Hayward, Barbara J.

    1962-01-01

    Cocksfoot and Timothy pollen extracts are each found to contain at least fifteen components antigenic in rabbits. Most of these can also be allergens for man, but only a few are regularly so. These `principal' allergens have now been isolated in highly purified form. Procedures are given for a simple method of preparing extracts for clinical purposes and for the partial separation, concentration and purification of the allergens by means of differential extractions of the pollens and by means of ultrafiltration, isoelectric precipitation and salt fractionations (at acid and neutral pH) of the extracts. Isoelectric precipitations gave highly pigmented acid complexes, two of which moved as single sharp peaks at pH 7.4 in free electrophoresis, but proved to be hardly active by skin tests. Acid NaCl fractionation of the remainder resulted for Cocksfoot and Timothy in the isolation of a nearly white powder (T21.111121112 = T21B) which was weight for weight 1000–10,000 times as active as the pollen from which it had been derived. The powders have retained their activity for 7 years. By gel diffusion tests, they were found to contain two antigens (one in each preparation) which were immunologically partially related, but the Timothy preparation contained in addition the `innermost' `twin' antigens specific for Timothy that we had discovered previously in the crude extracts by gel diffusion methods. Skin reactions could be elicited in hay-fever subjects by prick tests with concentrations of 10-9–10-8 g./ml., which is equivalent to intradermal injections of 10-11–10-10 mg. and represents a 300-fold purification with respect to the concentrates of crude pollen extracts prepared by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Fractionation on DEAE-cellulose of one of the highly purified Timothy preparations (T21.11112112 = T21A) and other, crude Timothy and Cocksfoot extracts resulted in considerable and reproducible separation of the various antigens, with no indication of the

  3. Applicability of bacterial endotoxins test to various blood products by the use of endotoxin-specific lysates.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Naito, Seishiro; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Masumi, Atsuko; Hamaguchi, Isao; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Yamaguchi, Kazunari

    2010-11-01

    Endotoxin contamination is a serious threat to the safety of parenteral drugs, and the rabbit pyrogen test has played a crucial role in controlling this contamination. Although the highly sensitive endotoxin test has replaced the pyrogen test for various pharmaceuticals, the pyrogen test is still implemented as the control test for most blood products in Japan. We examined the applicability of the endotoxin test to blood products for reliable detection and quantification of endotoxin. Nineteen types of blood products were tested for interfering factors based on spike/recovery of endotoxin by using 2 types of endotoxin-specific lysate reagents for photometric techniques. Interfering effects on the endotoxin test by the products could be eliminated by diluting from 1/2 to 1/16, with the exception of antithrombin III. However, conventional lysate reagents that also react with non-pyrogenic substances, such as (1-3)-β-D-glucan, produced results that were not relevant to endotoxin content or pyrogenicity. Our results showed that the endotoxin test would be applicable to most blood products if used with appropriate endotoxin-specific lysate reagents.

  4. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.

  5. Allergens and β-Glucans in Dutch Homes and Schools: Characterizing Airborne Levels

    PubMed Central

    Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Jacobs, José H.; Sander, Ingrid; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Heederik, Dick J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Indoor air quality has an effect on respiratory health. Children are more vulnerable to a decreased indoor air quality as their lungs are still developing. We measured levels of allergens and β-(1,3)-glucans in 19 school buildings and determined whether measured levels could be reproduced. School levels were compared to those in 169 homes and the effect of building characteristics on both home and school exposure was explored. Methods Electrostatic Dust fall Collectors were placed in school buildings for 8 weeks and in homes for 2 weeks to collect settled airborne dust. Cat, dog, and mouse allergen levels, domestic mite antigen levels and β-(1,3)-glucans were measured in the extracts from the collectors. Results were corrected for sampling duration. Using questionnaire data, relations between measured levels and building and classroom characteristics were explored. Results In schools, exposure levels were highest in classrooms and were influenced by the socioeconomic status of the children, the season measurements were performed, moisture status of the building and pet ownership. Repeated measurements in different seasons and over the years showed significantly different levels. Home exposure was influenced by socioeconomic status, occupancy and pet ownership. Domestic mite antigen was found in higher levels in extracts from homes compared to schools while pet allergen levels were 13 times higher in schools compared to homes without pets. For mouse allergen overall levels of exposure were low but still two times higher in schools compared to homes. Levels of β-(1,3)-glucans were also approximately two times higher in schools than in homes. Conclusion Exposure levels of several allergens and β-(1,3)-glucans in schools differ over time and are higher than in homes. For children, exposure levels measured at school could contribute to their total exposure as especially animal allergen levels can be much higher in schools compared to homes. PMID:24551183

  6. Pathophysiology of endotoxin tolerance: mechanisms and clinical consequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance was first described in a study that exposed animals to a sublethal dose of bacterial endotoxin. The animals subsequently survived a lethal injection of endotoxin. This refractory state is associated with the innate immune system and, in particular, with monocytes and macrophages, which act as the main participants. Several mechanisms are involved in the control of endotoxin tolerance; however, a full understanding of this phenomenon remains elusive. A number of recent reports indicate that clinical examples of endotoxin tolerance include not only sepsis but also diseases such as cystic fibrosis and acute coronary syndrome. In these pathologies, the risk of new infections correlates with a refractory state. This review integrates the molecular basis and clinical implications of endotoxin tolerance in various pathologies. PMID:24229432

  7. Endotoxin Inhalation Alters Lung Development in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kulhankova, Katarina; George, Caroline L.S.; Kline, Joel N.; Darling, Melissa; Thorne, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma is a significant public health problem. Epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between childhood asthma exacerbations and early life exposure to environmental endotoxin. Although the pathogenesis of endotoxin-induced adult asthma is well studied, questions remain about the impact of environmental endotoxin on pulmonary responsiveness in early life. Methods We developed a murine model of neonatal/juvenile endotoxin exposures approximating those in young children and evaluated the lungs inflammatory and remodeling responses. Results Persistent lung inflammation induced by the inhalation of endotoxin in early life was demonstrated by the influx of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory mediators to the airways and resulted in abnormal alveolarization. Conclusions Results of this study advance the understanding of the impact early life endotoxin inhalation has on the lower airways, and demonstrates the importance of an experimental design that approximates environmental exposures as they occur in young children. PMID:22576659

  8. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  9. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  10. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study

    PubMed Central

    Grimsley, L. F.; Wildfire, J.; Lichtveld, M.; Kennedy, S.; El-Dahr, J. M.; Chulada, P. C.; Cohn, R.; Mitchell, H.; Thornton, E.; Mvula, M.; Sterling, Y.; Martin, W.; Stephens, K.; White, L.

    2012-01-01

    Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4–12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) observational study. Dust (indoor) and air (indoor and outdoor) samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat). Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold), sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions. PMID:23304171

  11. Effects of endotoxin on monoamine metabolism in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorecky, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Taam, D.; Fine, J.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of effects of administered endotoxin on catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain, sympathetic neurons, and adrenal medulla. It is found that endotoxin, administered intraperitoneally, lowers the norepinephrine content in peripheral sympathetic neurons and the brain, and the catecholamine content in the adrenal medulla. It also accelerates the disappearance of H3-norepinephrine from all these tissues. It is therefore suggested that the effects of endotoxin on body temperature may be mediated in part by central non-adrenergic neurons.

  12. Silica enhancement of murine endotoxin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vogel, S N; English, K E; O'Brien, A D

    1982-11-01

    Silica has been used for many years as an agent which selectively alters macrophage functions and, as such, has been used to assess the role of macrophages in the immune response to a variety of microbial and chemically defined agents. Silica treatment of C3H/HeN mice 1 day before challenge with protein-free Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) resulted in a marked increase in LPS sensitivity, as evidenced by accelerated signs of endotoxemia as well as a fourfold decrease in the LPS 50% lethal dose. The silica-mediated increase in responsiveness to LPS was associated with increased production of macrophage-derived soluble factors both in vivo (interferon) and in vitro (Interleukin 1; previously referred to as lymphocyte activating factor or LAF) upon endotoxin stimulation. These findings support the central role of the macrophage and its products in mediating endotoxic reactions.

  13. Endotoxin-induced uveitis in rodents.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Ramana, Kota V

    2013-01-01

    Uveitis is a common cause of vision loss, accounting for 10-15 % of all cases of blindness worldwide and affects individuals of all ages, genders, and races. Uveitis represents a broad range of intraocular inflammatory conditions due to complications of autoimmune diseases, bacterial infections, viral infections, and chemical and metabolic injuries. Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rodents is an efficient experimental model to investigate the pathological mechanism and pharmacological efficacy of potential drug agents. EIU is characterized by clinically relevant classical signs of inflammation, including inflammatory exudates and cells in the anterior and vitreous chambers. EIU in small animal models such as rats, mice, and rabbits is a short-lived uveal inflammation that can be developed subsequent to administration of bacterial endotoxin, such as lipopolysaccharide. Here, we present a reproducible, reliable, and simplified protocol to induce EIU in mice. This method could be used with similar efficacy for EIU induction in other small animals as well.

  14. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  15. Fluorescent nanodiamonds as highly stable biomarker for endotoxin verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Thorsten; Burg, Jan Michael; Lilholt, Maria; Maeder, Ulf; Beer, Sebastian; Salzig, Denise; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (ND) provide advantageous properties as a fluorescent biomarker for in vitro and in vivo studies. The maximum fluorescence occurs around 700 nm, they do not show photobleaching or blinking and seem to be nontoxic. After a pretreatment with strong acid fluorescent ND can be functionalized and coupled to endotoxin. Endotoxin is a decay product of bacteria and causes strong immune reactions. Therefore endotoxin has to be removed for most applications. An effective removal procedure is membrane filtration. The endotoxin, coupled to fluorescent ND can be visualized by using confocal microscopy which allows the investigation of the separation mechanisms of the filtration process within the membranes.

  16. Risks associated with endotoxins in feed additives produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R John; Gropp, Jürgen; Dierick, Noël; Costa, Lucio G; Martelli, Giovanna; Brantom, Paul G; Bampidis, Vasileios; Renshaw, Derek W; Leng, Lubomir

    2016-01-15

    Increasingly, feed additives for livestock, such as amino acids and vitamins, are being produced by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli. The potential therefore exists for animals, consumers and workers to be exposed to possibly harmful amounts of endotoxin from these products. The aim of this review was to assess the extent of the risk from endotoxins in feed additives and to calculate how such risk can be assessed from the properties of the additive. Livestock are frequently exposed to a relatively high content of endotoxin in the diet: no additional hazard to livestock would be anticipated if the endotoxin concentration of the feed additive falls in the same range as feedstuffs. Consumer exposure will be unaffected by the consumption of food derived from animals receiving endotoxin-containing feed, because the small concentrations of endotoxin absorbed do not accumulate in edible tissues. In contrast, workers processing a dusty additive may be exposed to hazardous amounts of endotoxin even if the endotoxin concentration of the product is low. A calculation method is proposed to compare the potential risk to the worker, based on the dusting potential, the endotoxin concentration and technical guidance of the European Food Safety Authority, with national exposure limits.

  17. Bacterial endotoxins: biological properties and mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) are agents of pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria, implicated in the development of Gram-negative shock. Endotoxin reacts with lipopolysaccharide-sensitive cells producing endogenous mediators such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Macrophages are cells mediating the toxic activities of LPS and TNFα is the primary mediator of the lethal action of endotoxin. This review article discusses the various mechanisms by which endotoxin hypersensitivity in bacteria-sensitized animals develops. The paper concludes with a discussion on the possible protective effect of carnitine congeners against the lethal action of LPS. PMID:18475562

  18. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  19. Efficacy of a novel biofilter in hatchery sanitation: I. Removal of airborne bacteria, dust and endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Tymczyna, Leszek; Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    A novel biofilter containing organic, bentonite and halloysite media was applied for elimination of microbial pollutants from the air of an industrial hatchery. The concentrations of total mesophilic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, thermophilic actinomycetes, dust and bacterial endotoxin were determined in the air of hatchery during 2 months before installation of the biofilter, and during 6 months after installation of the biofilter, at the inlet and outlet ducts from each medium. Before installation of the biofilter, the concentrations of total mesophilic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, thermophilic actinomycetes, dust and endotoxin in the air were within the ranges of 0.97-131.2x10(3) cfu/m3, 0.0-34.4x10(3) cfu/m3, 0.0-0.02x10(3) cfu/m3, 0.37-4.53 mg/m3, and 50.9-520,450.4 ng/m3, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and other species) prevailed among bacterial species recovered from the air of the hatchery. A total of 56 species or genera of bacteria were identified in the air samples taken in the examined hatchery; of these, 11, 11 and 6 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic, immunotoxic and/or infectious properties The concentrations of total mesophilic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis and endotoxin found at the inlet duct of the biofilter after its installation were significantly smaller compared to those recorded before its installation (p<0.05). The concentrations of Gram-negative bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis and dust found at the outlet ducts of biofilter after its installation were significantly smaller compared to those recorded at the inlet duct of the biofilter (p<0.01). The concentrations of total meso-philic bacteria were also smaller at the outlet ducts of the biofilter compared to that at the inlet duct; however, the difference was not significant because of the massive growth of Streptomyces species in

  20. Modifiable factors governing indoor fungal diversity and risk of asthma.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, R; Thornton, C R; Osborne, N J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to dampness and fungi in the home is a known risk factor for individuals with allergic asthma. Inadequate heating and ventilation may lead to dampness and concomitant increased exposure to spores of allergenic fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium. These fungi have been cultured from sputum of asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals, and implicated in the initiation or exacerbation of asthma. Indoor environmental factors influence the presence and concentrations of fungal propagules and, in turn, risk of asthma outcomes. This review aims to identify modifiable risk factors in the built environment that have been shown to influence fungal composition indoors, and to examine this association with the risk of asthma development and/or exacerbation. A complex interaction between residential characteristics, the built environment and the behaviour of people regulate the diversity and concentrations of indoor fungi. Modifiable factors include build age, architectural design, level of maintenance, variations in construction materials, presence of pets, heating and ventilation patterns. Risk of fungal contamination and asthma outcomes are also influenced by low occupant awareness concerning potential health effects and socio-economic factors. Addressing these factors provides an opportunity to improve future housing interventions, though it is not clear how the built environment and occupant behaviours interact to modify the diversity of indoor fungi and resultant risk of asthma. A combination of housing improvements combined with awareness programmes and the alleviation of fuel poverty can be used to lower the allergen burden associated with damp homes. Further research is needed to identify factors that regulate the concentration and diversity of indoor fungi and how this may act as a modifier for asthma outcomes.

  1. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  2. Your Indoor Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the July 24, 2007 edition of "ExchangeEveryday", readers were asked to submit great indoor space elements from their early childhood programs. Readers sent photographs and brief descriptions of creative elements of their indoor environments. A sampling of ideas are shown on this article.

  3. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  4. Mite and pet allergen exposure in hotels in Uberlândia, Midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simplício, E C; Silva, D A O; Braga, I A; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Taketomi, E A

    2007-08-01

    Mite allergens are involved in airway sensitization and allergic diseases. We evaluated the exposure to house dust-mite (Der p 1 and Der f 1) and pet (Fel d 1 and Can f 1) allergens in hotels in Uberlândia, Midwestern Brazil. A total of 140 dust samples were collected from bedding (n = 98) and carpet (n = 42) of bedrooms in 20 hotels enrolled for this study. Geometric mean (GM) levels of Der f 1 (11.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 8.34-15.30 microg/g) were significantly higher than Der p 1 (0.15 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.13-0.18 microg/g) in bedding dust samples (P < 0.001), regardless of the hotel classes. Der f 1 levels were significantly higher in bedding (11.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 8.34-15.30 microg/g) than carpet (6.32 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 4.31-9.26 microg/g) dust samples (P < 0.05). High levels of Der f 1 (>10 microg/g of dust) were found in 58%, 76%, and 69% of dust samples from Simple, Economical, and Tourist/Superior hotels, respectively, while GM levels of Fel d 1 (0.11 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.09-0.14 microg/g) and Can f 1 (0.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.20-0.44 microg/g) were relatively low. These results indicate that Der f 1 is the predominant allergen in hotels in Uberlândia, especially in bedding dust samples, regardless of the hotel classes and could represent an important risk factor for exacerbation of allergic symptoms in previously mite-sensitized guests. Mites and pets are important sources of indoor allergens. Most people spend the greatest part of their time indoors. Hotels can constitute an important allergen reservoir of the indoor environment and could represent an important risk for exacerbation of allergic symptoms in previously sensitized guests. Thus, hotels should also be included for planning indoor allergen avoidance as part of a global management strategy, especially in patients with respiratory allergy.

  5. Allergens in celery and zucchini.

    PubMed

    Vieths, Stefan; Lüttkopf, D; Reindl, J; Anliker, M D; Wüthrich, B; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm allergy to celery tuber and to zucchini, for the first time, by DBPCFC, and to identify the allergens recognized by IgE from DBPCFC-positive patients. Therefore, raw vegetables were hidden in a broccoli drink, and a DBPCFC-procedure was developed that consisted of a spit and swallow protocol, making sure that the procedure was safe for the patients and that reactions strictly localized to the oral cavity as well as systemic reactions could be reproduced by DBPCFC. The allergens in celery and zucchini extract were identified by immunoblot inhibition using allergen extracts, recombinant allergens and purified N-glycans as inhibitors. Celery allergy was confirmed in 69% (22/32) of subjects with a positive case history. Four subjects with a history of allergic reactions to zucchini had a positive DBPCFC to this vegetable. During DBPCFC, systemic reactions were provoked in 50% (11/22) of the patients to celery, and in 3/4 of the zucchini-allergic patients. The Bet v 1-related major celery allergen was detected by IgE of 59% (13/22) of the patients. Cross-reactive carbohydrate epitopes (CCD) bound IgE of 55% (12/22) of the celery-allergic patients and in 2/4 of the subjects with zucchini allergy. Profilin was a food allergen in celery in 23% (5/22) and in zucchini in 2/4 of the cases. A zucchini-specific allergen was detected by IgE from one patient. We conclude that ubiquitous cross-reactive structures are important in allergy to both, celery and zucchini, and that a specific association to birch pollen allergy exists in allergy to celery (mediated by Api g 1), but not in zucchini allergy.

  6. Expression, purification and characterization of Der f 27, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Li, Meng; Liu, Yulin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Anjian; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoidesfarinae (D. farina), is one of the most important indoor allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma; itscharacterization is important in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of mite allergen-relevant diseases. This study aims to characterize a novel allergen, the D. farinae-derived serpin (Der f 27). In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, and the Der f 27 gene was cloned and expressed. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 27 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western-blotting with the sera of asthma patients, and skin prick test (SPT) in allergic human subjects. A r-Der f 27 allergic asthma mouse model was established. The cloned Der f 27 gene has been presented at the Gene Bank with an accession number of KM009995. The IgE levels of r-Der f 27 in the serum from r-Der f 27 SPT positive allergic patients were 3 folds more than healthy subjects. The Der f 27 SPT positive ratewas 42.1% in 19 DM-SPT positive patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, and levels of interleukin-4 in the spleen cell culture supernatant were significantly increased in allergic asthma mice sensitized to r-Der f 27. In conclusion, Der f 27 is a new subtype of house mite allergen. PMID:26328010

  7. Specific allergens evoking immune reactions in the lung: relationship to asthma.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, T A; Chapman, M D; Pollart, S; Luczynska, C M; Ward, G W

    1991-04-01

    Over the last 20 yrs our understanding of the relationship of allergens to asthma has changed completely. This is due to several interrelated developments: firstly, it is clear that bronchial hyperreactivity can be increased by allergen exposure and that it is at least in part reversible; secondly, it is now generally accepted that asthma involves inflammation of the bronchi in which eosinophils play an important role; thirdly, there are a large number of studies demonstrating an epidemiological relationship between immediate hypersensitivity to dust mites and asthma; finally, it has been shown that natural exposure to dust mite allergens is very different from bronchial provocation. Together these findings have lead to the view that indoor allergens can play a major role in causing bronchial inflammation with consequent bronchial reactivity and that this is usually not apparent to the patient. Recently three studies in the USA have established that immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalants can also be important risk factors for acute asthma. In these studies both dust mites and pollens were significant, but cat and cockroach allergy were also important. The results imply that the management of all asthma requires evaluation of the role of immediate hypersensitivity and that treatment of inflammation in the lungs should include both anti-inflammatory drugs and allergen avoidance.

  8. Navigating through the Jungle of Allergens: Features and Applications of Allergen Databases.

    PubMed

    Radauer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of available data on allergenic proteins demanded the establishment of structured, freely accessible allergen databases. In this review article, features and applications of 6 of the most widely used allergen databases are discussed. The WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Database is the official resource of allergen designations. Allergome is the most comprehensive collection of data on allergens and allergen sources. AllergenOnline is aimed at providing a peer-reviewed database of allergen sequences for prediction of allergenicity of proteins, such as those planned to be inserted into genetically modified crops. The Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP) provides a database of allergen sequences, structures, and epitopes linked to bioinformatics tools for sequence analysis and comparison. The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) is the largest repository of T-cell, B-cell, and major histocompatibility complex protein epitopes including epitopes of allergens. AllFam classifies allergens into families of evolutionarily related proteins using definitions from the Pfam protein family database. These databases contain mostly overlapping data, but also show differences in terms of their targeted users, the criteria for including allergens, data shown for each allergen, and the availability of bioinformatics tools. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Association of Roadway Proximity with Indoor Air Pollution in a Peri-Urban Community in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Lindsay J; Bose, Sonali; Williams, D'Ann L; Romero, Karina M; Malpartida, Gary; Breysse, Patrick N; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Combe, Juan M; Checkley, William; Hansel, Nadia N

    2015-10-26

    The influence of traffic-related air pollution on indoor residential exposure is not well characterized in homes with high natural ventilation in low-income countries. Additionally, domestic allergen exposure is unknown in such populations. We conducted a pilot study of 25 homes in peri-urban Lima, Peru to estimate the effects of roadway proximity and season on residential concentrations. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM₂.₅), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and black carbon (BC) were measured during two seasons, and allergens were measured in bedroom dust. Allergen levels were highest for dust mite and mouse allergens, with concentrations above clinically relevant thresholds in over a quarter and half of all homes, respectively. Mean indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations were similar (PM₂.₅: 20.0 vs. 16.9 μg/m³, BC: 7.6 vs. 8.1 μg/m³, NO₂: 7.3 vs. 7.5 ppb), and tended to be higher in the summer compared to the winter. Road proximity was significantly correlated with overall concentrations of outdoor PM₂.₅ (rs = -0.42, p = 0.01) and NO₂ (rs = -0.36, p = 0.03), and outdoor BC concentrations in the winter (rs = -0.51, p = 0.03). Our results suggest that outdoor-sourced pollutants significantly influence indoor air quality in peri-urban Peruvian communities, and homes closer to roadways are particularly vulnerable.

  10. Understanding allergic asthma from allergen inhalation tests

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W; Hargreave, Fredrick E; O’Byrne, Paul M; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors’ involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic) airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to allergen, identification of allergen-induced increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, documentation of beta2-agonist-induced increase in airway response to allergen (including eosinophilic inflammation), advances in understanding the pathophysiology and kinetics of allergen-induced airway responses, and development of a muticentre clinical trial group devoted to using the allergen challenge for investigating promising new therapeutic strategies for asthma. PMID:17948142

  11. Periplaneta americana arginine kinase as a major cockroach allergen among Thai patients with major cockroach allergies.

    PubMed

    Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Vichyanond, Pakit; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Tapchaisri, Pramuan

    2006-06-01

    Periplaneta americana is the predominant cockroach (CR) species and a major source of indoor allergens in Thailand. Nevertheless, data on the nature and molecular characteristics of its allergenic components are rare. We conducted this study to identify and characterize the P. americana allergenic protein. A random heptapeptide phage display library and monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to a the P. americana component previously shown to be an allergenic molecule were used to identify the MAb-bound mimotope and its phylogenic distribution. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, peptide mass fingerprinting, and BLAST search were used to identify the P. americana protein containing the MAb-specific epitope. We studied the allergenicity of the native protein using sera of CR-allergic Thai patients in immunoassays. The mimotope peptide that bound to the MAb specific to P. americana was LTPCRNK. The peptide has an 83-100% identity with proteins of Anopheles gambiae, notch homolog scalloped wings of Lucilia cuprina, delta protein of Apis mellifera; neu5Ac synthase and tyrosine phosphatase of Drosophila melanogaster, and a putative protein of Drosophila pseudoobscura. This finding implies that the mimotope-containing molecule of P. americana is a pan-insect protein. The MAb-bound protein of P. americana was shown to be arginine kinase that reacted to IgE in the sera of all of the CR-allergic Thai patients by immunoblotting, implying its high allergenicity. In conclusion, our results revealed that P. americana arginine kinase is a pan-insect protein and a major CR allergen for CR-allergic Thai patients.

  12. Recombinant allergens for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Oliver; Häfner, Dietrich; Nandy, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    Recombinant DNA technology provides the means for producing allergens that are equivalent to their natural counterparts and also genetically engineered variants with reduced IgE-binding activity. The proteins are produced as chemically defined molecules with consistent structural and immunologic properties. Several hundred allergens have been cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins, and these provide the means for making a very detailed diagnosis of a patient's sensitization profile. Clinical development programs are now in progress to assess the suitability of recombinant allergens for both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. Recombinant hypoallergenic variants, which are developed with the aim of increasing the doses that can be administered while at the same time reducing the risks for therapy-associated side effects, are also in clinical trials for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Grass and birch pollen preparations have been shown to be clinically effective, and studies with various other allergens are in progress. Personalized or patient-tailored immunotherapy is still a very distant prospect, but the first recombinant products based on single allergens or defined mixtures could reach the market within the next 5 years. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mystery of the disappearing allergen: published allergens rarely seen again.

    PubMed

    Zapolanski, Tamar; Maibach, Howard I

    2008-01-01

    Patch testing is an important tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Although this technique can be accurate, occasionally the results may be inconclusive. A previously positive result to an allergen may become negative upon repeat testing, and this may complicate the process of achieving a definitive diagnosis. There are some potential explanations for such inconsistencies, including the Excited Skin Syndrome, irritant reactions, a need to repeat the diagnostic algorithm, "rogue" reactions, and "contact allergy." These explanations should be taken into account when interpreting these results. However, further knowledge is needed to solve the mystery of an allergen that subsequently disappears.

  14. Can the use of HEPA cleaners in homes of asthmatic children and adolescents sensitized to cat and dog allergens decrease bronchial hyperresponsiveness and allergen contents in solid dust?

    PubMed

    Sulser, Claudia; Schulz, Gabriele; Wagner, Petra; Sommerfeld, Christine; Keil, Thomas; Reich, Andreas; Wahn, Ulrich; Lau, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Exposure and sensitization to pet allergens are associated with allergic asthma in children. Conflicting data have emerged regarding the potential benefit of air cleaners with respect to a reduction of indoor pet allergens and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). In a randomized controlled trial 36 asthmatic children with sensitization to cat and/or dog and significant exposure to cat and/or dog allergen (Fel d 1 and/or Can f 1 >500 ng/g of carpet dust) were included in order to study the effect of high-efficiency particulate arresting (HEPA) air cleaners placed in the living room and bedroom compared with the effect of sham air cleaners. Patients were allocated to two groups: group 1 exposed to active filters and group 2 exposed to sham filters. At month 0, after 6 months and after 12 months, pulmonary function testing and cold air challenge were performed, serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and specific IgE to seven aeroallergens were determined, and carpet dust samples and filters were collected. Major pet allergen concentrations (Fel d 1, Can f 1) were determined in filters and bulk dust samples. Thirty patients completed the study. After 6 and 12 months, there was no significant change in delta FEV(1) after cold air challenge, or in the use of medication and serum ECP levels. However, there was a trend in the active group towards an improvement of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, whereas the sham filter group showed a deterioration of BHR. Although HEPA air cleaners retained airborne pet allergens, no effect on disease activity or allergen concentrations in bulk dust samples was observed in this study. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Respiratory Health and Indoor Air Pollution at High Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Jacky Ann; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Wood, Steve; Eldridge, Marlowe W.

    2009-01-01

    In this research, the authors sought to provide experimental data on indoor air quality, and the resulting respiratory impact, for a high-elevation (4550 m), rural community in Ladakh, India. This community is of interest because the primarily nomadic residents burn biomass inside the home for heating and cooking. The concentrations of particulate matter (PM), endotoxin, and carbon monoxide were determined for 6 homes. Lung function data and induced sputum samples were collected for 9 female test-home subjects. In addition, lung function data were collected for 84 additional Ladakhi highlanders at this location. Sputum from 3 visiting scientists (sojourners) was collected and analyzed as well. The average PM concentration ranged from 2 mg/m3 to 7 mg/m3, with 85% of the sampled PM sized as respirable. The average endotoxin concentration ranged from 2.4 ng/m3 to 19 ng/m3, and average carbon monoxide levels ranged from 50 ppm to 120 ppm. Lung function values for the highlander population and the test-home subjects were equal to or greater than predicted, despite the highlanders’ significant exposure to indoor pollutants. An induced sputum analysis revealed a significantly greater total inflammatory cell count (M ± SD, 105 cell/mg) in the Ladakhi natives than in the sojourners (107.5 ± 75.2 vs 7.1 ± 8.1, p .01). Although the high levels of indoor pollutants did not correlate with significant decrements in lung function, the induced sputum analysis revealed marked airway inflammation dominated by macrophages and neutrophils. It appears that augmented lung mechanics of this high-altitude population are adaptive to reduce the work of breathing; thus, decrements in lung function go undetected because the true predicted values are greater than expected. PMID:16983862

  16. Hormone and Cytokine Responses to Repeated Endotoxin Exposures-No Evidence of Endotoxin Tolerance After 5 Weeks in Humans.

    PubMed

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Thomsen, Henrik H; Bach, Ermina; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L; Møller, Niels

    2015-07-01

    Endotoxin administrations are used in experimental models of inflammatory disease. Short-term endotoxin tolerance in response to repeated endotoxin exposure is well known, but the duration of endotoxin tolerance in humans remains unknown. The main purpose of this study was to test whether endotoxin tolerance is present in vivo when separating endotoxin exposures with more than 5 weeks, a time span often used between individual investigations in clinical experimental studies. Seventeen healthy young men were exposed twice to Escherichia coli endotoxin. The inflammatory response was calculated as area under the curve between the first and second endotoxin exposures for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, temperature, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. The median interval between exposures was 90 days (range, 37-244). The ratio between the inflammatory responses during the second and the first endotoxin exposures was 0.89 ± 0.09 (P = 0.28) for tumor necrosis factor α, 0.96 ± 0.07 (P = 0.53) for IL-1β, 0.97 ± 0.11 (P = 0.78) for IL-6, 1.30 ± 0.18 (P = 0.12) for IL-10, and 0.92 ± 0.04 (P = 0.10) for cortisol. Our data do not show evidence of in vivo tolerance to repeated endotoxin exposure when administrations are separated with at least 5 weeks. This observation is important in the planning and interpretation of future experimental endotoxin studies.

  17. Indoor particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nazaroff, W W

    2004-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter is a diverse pollutant class whose excessive presence in indoor air contributes to an array of adverse health and material-damage effects. Particles are classified according to their diameter into three size modes: ultrafine (0.1 microm), accumulation (0.1-2 microm), and coarse (= 2 microm). These modes have largely distinct sources and composition, and they exhibit different dynamic behaviors. The concept of mass conservation or material balance provides a foundation for quantitatively and mechanistically linking important outcome variables, such as concentrations and exposures, to the influencing input parameters. The factors governing indoor particle concentrations include direct emissions from indoor sources, ventilation supply from outdoor air, filtration, deposition onto indoor surfaces, and removal from indoor air by means of ventilation. In some circumstances, transport and transformation processes within indoor environments may also play an important role in influencing particle concentrations and consequences. Such processes include mixing, interzonal transport, resuspension, coagulation, and phase change. The paper gives a practical overview of issues related to particulate matter indoors, as well as valuable information for understanding filtration and how particles contribute to adverse health effects.

  18. General effect of endotoxin on glucocorticoid receptors in mammalian tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Stith, R.D.; McCallum, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Considering the ubiquitous nature of glucocorticoid actions and the fact that endotoxin inhibits glucocorticoid action in the liver, we proposed to examine whether endotoxin affected extrahepatic actions of glucocorticoids. Fasted C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with endotoxin (LD50) at 0800 and were killed 6 h later. Control mice were injected with an equal volume of saline. /sup 3/H-dexamethasone binding, measured by a new cytosol exchange assay utilizing molybdate plus dithiothreitol, in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, spleen, lung, and heart tissue was significantly lower in treated than in control mice. The equilibrium dissociation constants were not significantly different, but the number of available binding sites in each tissue was reduced by endotoxin treatment. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was significantly reduced in liver but not in kidney. Endotoxin treatment lowered glycogen content in liver but not in skeletal muscle. The reduction observed in the a form of liver glycogen synthase due to endotoxin was not seen in skeletal muscle glycogen synthase a. These data support the proposal that endotoxin or a mediator of its action inhibits systemic glucocorticoid action. The results also emphasize the central role of the liver in the metabolic disturbances of the endotoxin-treated mouse.

  19. Airborne endotoxin in different background environments and seasons.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxin is a cell wall component from Gram-negative bacteria, and inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. Background levels of endotoxin have not yet been extensively described. In this study, airborne endotoxin was measured with a standardized protocol in 5 types of background environment (169 samples) in Denmark from October to May. Endotoxin levels in a greenhouse (median = 13.2 EU/m3) were significantly higher than in the other environments. The air from biofuel plants (median = 5.3 EU/m3), the air on congested streets (median = 4.4 EU/m3) and on an agricultural field (median = 2.9 EU/m3) had higher endotoxin contents than the air in industrial areas (median = 1.3 EU/m3) or in towns (median = 0.33 EU/m3). Levels in industrial areas were significantly higher than in towns. A literature study revealed background levels of endotoxin on different continents between 0.063-410 EU/m3, with median or mean values between 0.063-3.6 EU/m3. Endotoxin concentrations in towns and industrial areas were higher in April and May than in autumn and winter, and were higher in October than in winter. These data of exposure in background environments and of seasonal variation are helpful for public health practitioners, epidemiologists and industrial hygienists.

  20. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  1. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  2. Nasal allergen challenge and mediators release.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Ferreira, M B; Santos, A S; Santos, M C; Pedro, E

    1997-11-01

    Nasal allergen challenges, despite not reproducing exactly natural allergen exposure, are a very useful method to understand the complex cellular kinetics and cellular interactions that occur in allergic rhinitis. Cell-specific soluble mediator measurements can give useful diagnostic information. In this paper we present data concerning eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tryptase measurements after nasal allergen challenge.

  3. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tannic acid (TA) is known to bind and form insoluble complexes with proteins, including peanut allergens; however, whether such complexes would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (i.e., gastric and intestinal pH) is not clear. Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorpt...

  4. Quantitative measurement of airborne cockroach allergen in New York City apartments.

    PubMed

    Esposito, W A; Chew, G L; Correa, J C; Chillrud, S N; Miller, R L; Kinney, P L

    2011-12-01

    We designed and tested a sampling and analysis system for quantitative measurement of airborne cockroach allergen with sufficient sensitivity for residential exposure assessment. Integrated 1-week airborne particle samples were collected at 10-15 LPM in 19 New York City apartments in which an asthmatic child who was allergic to cockroach allergen resided. Four simultaneous air samples were collected in each home: at heights of 0.3 and 1 m in the child's bedroom and in the kitchen. Extracts of air samples were analyzed by ELISA for the cockroach allergen Bla g2, modified by amplifying the colorimetric signal generated via use of AMPLI-Q detection system (DAKO Corporation, Carpinteria, CA, USA). Settled dust samples were quantified by conventional ELISA. Of the homes where cockroach allergen was detected in settled dust, Bla g2 also was detected in 87% and 93% of air samples in the bedroom and kitchen, respectively. Airborne Bla g2 levels were highly correlated within and between the bedroom and kitchen locations (P < 0.001). Expressed as picogram per cubic meter, the room average geometric mean for Bla g2 concentrations was 1.9 pg/m³ (95% CI 0.63, 4.57) and 3.8 pg/m³ (95% CI 1.35, 9.25) in bedrooms and kitchens, respectively. This method offers an attractive supplement to settled dust sampling for cockroach allergen exposure health studies. Until now, cockroach allergen exposures have usually been assessed by collection and analysis of settled dust, on the assumption that airborne cockroach allergen cannot be reliably measured. In this study, a sensitive and quantitative method for measuring indoor airborne exposures to cockroach allergens involving a 7-day integrated total suspended particulate (TSP) sample collected at approximately 10-15 l/min was developed. Investigators are now empowered with an alternative exposure assessment method to supplement their studies and the understanding of allergen aerodynamics in the homes of children with asthma. We report

  5. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients. PMID:24795722

  6. Fish allergens at a glance: variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  7. Shellfish allergens: tropomyosin and beyond.

    PubMed

    Faber, M A; Pascal, M; El Kharbouchi, O; Sabato, V; Hagendorens, M M; Decuyper, I I; Bridts, C H; Ebo, D G

    2016-12-27

    IgE-mediated shellfish allergy constitutes an important cause of food-related adverse reactions. Shellfish are classified into mollusks and crustaceans, the latter belonging to the class of arthropoda. Among crustaceans, shrimps are the most predominant cause of allergic reactions and thus more extensively studied. Several major and minor allergens have been identified and cloned. Among them, invertebrate tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and hemocyanin are the most relevant. This review summarizes our current knowledge about these allergens.

  8. New and emerging cosmetic allergens.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rosie F; Johnston, Graham A

    2011-01-01

    Human skin is exposed to a large variety of cosmetic allergens. Most allergic contact dermatitis occurs after exposure to fragrance, preservatives, and hair dyes. Such reactions can often be occult. As a result, a high index of suspicion is needed in assessing the patient with facial or cosmetic dermatitis. This contribution looks at why such a large number of chemicals are in everyday usage, at how dermatologists monitor trends in allergy to cosmetics, and at a number of new and emerging allergens to consider in the assessment of suspected cosmetic allergy.

  9. Exposure to airborne culturable microorganisms and endotoxin in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Paba, Emilia; Chiominto, Alessandra; Marcelloni, Anna Maria; Proietto, Anna Rita; Sisto, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Even if slaughterhouses' workers handle large amounts of organic material and are potentially exposed to a wide range of biological agents, relatively little and not recent data are available. The main objective of this study was to characterize indoor concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin mod = Im (endotoxin∼Gram-negative*plant*filter) in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses. Air samples near air handling units inlets were also collected. Since there are not standardized protocols for endotoxin sampling and extraction procedures, an additional aim of the study was to compare the extraction efficiency of three different filter.. The study was also aimed at determining the correlation between concentrations of Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin. In Plant A bacterial levels ranged from 17.5 to 2.6×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentrations were observed in evisceration area of chickens, between the automatic detachment of the neck and washing offal, and near birds coupling before hair-chilling. The highest mean value of Gram-negative (266.5 CFU/m3) was found near the washing offal of turkeys. In Plant B bacterial concentration ranged from 35 to 8×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentration. with the highest value of Gram-negative (248 CFU/m3), was found after defeathering. Fungal concentrations were overall lower than those found for bacteria (range: 0-205 CFU/m3 in Plant A and 0-146.2 CFU/m3 in Plant B). The microbial flora was dominated by Gram-negative and coagulase-negative staphylococci for bacteria and by species belonging to Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera for molds. The highest endotoxin concentrations were measured in washing offal for Plant A (range: 122.7-165.9 EU/m3) and after defeathering for Plant B (range: 0.83-38.85 EU/m3). In this study airborne microorganisms concentrations were lower than those found in similar occupational settings and below the occupational limits proposed by some authors. However, these

  10. Endotoxin Exposure Is a Risk Factor for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.; Kulhánková, Katarina; Yin, Ming; Cohn, Richard; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although research has shown that early life exposure to household endotoxin protects against development of allergies, studies are less clear on the relationship between household endotoxin exposure and prevalence of wheezing and asthma. We as- sayed 2,552 house dust samples in a representative nationwide sam- ple to explore relationships between endotoxin exposures and risk factors for asthma, asthma symptoms, and medication use. Methods: House dust was vacuum-sampled from five locations within homes and assayed for endotoxin. Health, demographic, and housing information was assessed through questionnaire and on-site evaluation of 2,456 residents of 831 homes selected to represent the demographics of the United States. Results: Endotoxin concentration (EU/mg) and load (EU/m2) were highly correlated (r = 0.73–0.79). Geometric mean endotoxin concentrations were as follows (in EU/mg): bedroom floors, 35.3 (5th–95th percentile, 5.0–260); bedding, 18.7 (2.0–142); family room floors, 63.9 (11.5–331); sofas, 44.8 (6.4–240); and kitchen floors, 80.5 (9.8–512). Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant relationships between increasing endotoxin levels and diagnosed asthma, asthma symptoms in the past year, current use of asthma medications, and wheezing among residents of the homes. These relationships were strongest for bedroom floor and bedding dust and were observed in adults only. Modeling the joint effect of bedding and bedroom floor endotoxin on recent asthma symptoms yielded an adjusted odds ratio of 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–7.87). When stratified by allergy status, allergic subjects with higher endotoxin exposure were no more likely to have diagnosed asthma or asthma symptoms than nonallergic subjects. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that household endotoxin exposure is a significant risk factor for increased asthma prevalence. PMID:16141442

  11. Endotoxin detection in end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan; Jeraj, Hassan; Vilar, Enric; Viljoen, Adie; Farrington, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Endotoxin detection assays are not validated for use in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). We investigated the accuracy and precision of the kinetic turbidimetric Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay to detect endotoxin in plasma from patients with ESKD. Optimisation of endotoxin recovery from plasma using the detergent Tween 80 was also explored. Plasma samples from 7 patients with ESKD and 7 healthy subjects were spiked with different concentrations of endotoxin. Repeated measurements for endotoxin at each level of spike were performed to assess the accuracy and precision of spike recovery. Endotoxin recovery in plasma samples diluted in Tween 80 and water was compared. Mean endotoxin spike recovery was 111.6% and 125.2% in ESKD and healthy subjects, respectively. There was no statistical difference in spike recovery between ESKD and healthy plasma. Precision of the LAL assay in plasma spiked with low (0.05 EU/mL) and high (0.5 EU/mL) concentration of endotoxin spikes was 24.1% and 8.9%, respectively. The use of Tween 80 as a diluent for plasma significantly improved spike recovery in ESKD plasma (100.1% vs 70.4%, p<0.001). The kinetic LAL turbidimetric assay is a valid tool for the detection of blood endotoxin in patients with ESKD, although in blood specimens with low-level endotoxemia (≤0.05 EU/mL) the assay may be less accurate and precise. Tween 80 can be used as a diluent to optimise recovery of endotoxin in ESKD plasma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PARENT ENDOTOXINS AND LIPOID FRACTIONS, WITH A KINETIC STUDY OF ACID-HYDROLYZED ENDOTOXIN

    PubMed Central

    Haskins, Willard T.; Landy, Maurice; Milner, Kelsey C.; Ribi, Edgar

    1961-01-01

    The biological potencies of a number of lipid fractions separated from endotoxins by acid hydrolysis, including the material known as lipid A, were determined in parallel with those of their parent endotoxins, employing bio-assays based on the following dose-related host responses: fever, resistance to infection, tumor damage, primary inflammation of skin, and lethality. Without exception, lipid fractions dispersed by detergents exerted less than 1 per cent of the biological activity of the potent endotoxins from which they were derived. A study was made of the rate at which biologic activities diminished in relation to the release of bound lipid during progressive hydrolysis of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin with dilute acid. Each of the five assays for endotoxin revealed that biological activity had been reduced to negligible proportions prior to any significant liberation from the endotoxin of water-insoluble firmly bound lipid. The major pharmacological activity of endotoxins, therefore, is acid-labile and cannot be accounted for in isolated lipids. This conclusion is also supported by the finding that lipids with activity similar to that of lipid A could be obtained by non-hydrolytic methods without diminishing the potency of the parent endotoxins. PMID:13905235

  13. An assessment of indoor air quality in recent Mexican immigrant housing in Commerce City, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Shelly L.; Scaramella, Peter; Campe, Joseph; Goss, Cynthia W.; Diaz-Castillo, Sandra; Hendrikson, Ed; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Litt, Jill

    An indoor air quality assessment was conducted on 100 homes of recent Mexican immigrants in Commerce City, Colorado, an urban industrial community north of Denver. Head of households were administered a family health survey, filled out an activity diary, and participated in a home inspection. Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) were measured for 24 h inside the main living area and outside of the homes. Harvard Impactors were used to collect 24-h samples of PM 2.5 at the same locations for gravimetric analysis. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming carpeting and flooring at four locations within the home and analyzed by ELISA for seven allergens. Mean indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 levels were 27.2 and 8.5 μg m -3, respectively. Indoor PM 2.5 and CO 2 were elevated in homes for which the number of hours with door/window open was zero compared to homes in which the number of hours was high (>15 h). Indoor PM 2.5 levels did not correlate with outdoor levels and tended to increase with number of inhabitants, and results indicate that the source of indoor particles were occupants and their activities, excluding smoking and cooking. Mean indoor CO 2 and CO levels were 1170 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. Carbon monoxide was higher than the 24-h National Ambient Air Quality Standard in 3 of the homes. The predominant allergens were cat ( Fel d 1) and mouse ( Mus m 1) allergens, found in 20 and 34 homes, respectively.

  14. Collagenase Production by Endotoxin-Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Larry M.; Wahl, Sharon M.; Mergenhagen, Stephan E.; Martin, George R.

    1974-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate macrophages, when exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in culture, were found to produce collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3). This enzyme was not detected in extracts of the macrophages or in media from nonstimulated macrophage cultures. Lipidcontaining fractions of the lipopolysaccharide, including a glycolipid from the rough mutant of Salmonella minnesota (R595) and lipid A, were potent stimulators of collagenase production. The lipid-free polysaccharide fraction had no effect. Cycloheximide prevented the production of collagenase by endotoxin-treated macrophages, suggesting that it was newly synthesized. Images PMID:4372628

  15. Phthalocyanine-dyed fibers adsorb allergenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Yano, H; Sugihara, Y; Shirai, H; Wagatsuma, Y; Kusada, O; Matsuda, T; Kuroda, S; Higaki, S

    2006-05-01

    Phthalocyanine (Pc)-dyed fiber is reported to reduce atopic symptoms in some patients when they use underwear made of the fiber. We investigated the adsorption of allergens on Pc-fiber. Pc-fiber trapped house dust/pollen/food allergens with varied molecular weight and pI. The adsorbed allergens were released in the presence of mild detergent. Pc-fiber did not change the molecular weight or disulfide bonding of the allergens. These observations imply that Pc-fiber is applicable as an "allergen trap" for a wide variety of products.

  16. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene.

  17. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  18. QUANTIFYING INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing awareness that indoor molds/fungi may be connected to such conditions as asthma, allergies, hemorrhaging, chronic rhinosinusitis, memory loss, and a symptom complex called sick-building-syndrome. In addition, molds cause frequently fatal nosocomical infections. ...

  19. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  20. QUANTIFYING INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing awareness that indoor molds/fungi may be connected to such conditions as asthma, allergies, hemorrhaging, chronic rhinosinusitis, memory loss, and a symptom complex called sick-building-syndrome. In addition, molds cause frequently fatal nosocomical infections. ...

  1. Polymorphisms of endotoxin pathway and endotoxin exposure: in vitro IgE synthesis and replication in a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, U M; Semic-Jusufagic, A; Curtin, J A; Birben, E; Belgrave, D; Sackesen, C; Simpson, A; Yavuz, T S; Akdis, C A; Custovic, A; Kalayci, O

    2014-12-01

    Genetic variants in endotoxin signaling pathway are important in modulating the effect of environmental endotoxin on asthma and atopic phenotypes. Our objective was to determine the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endotoxin signaling pathway that may influence in vitro IgE synthesis and to investigate the relationship between these variants and endotoxin exposure in relation to the development of asthma and atopy in a birth cohort. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 45 children with asthma were stimulated with 2 and 200 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide in vitro and IgE was measured in the culture supernatants. Children were genotyped for 121 SNPs from 30 genes in the endotoxin signaling pathway. Variants with a dose-response IgE production in relation to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were selected for replication in a population-based birth cohort, in which we investigated the interaction between these SNPs and endotoxin exposure in relation to airway hyper-responsiveness, wheeze, and atopic sensitization. Twenty-one SNPs in nine genes (CD14, TLR4, IRF3, TRAF-6, TIRAP, TRIF, IKK-1, ST-2, SOCS1) were found to modulate the effect of endotoxin on in vitro IgE synthesis, with six displaying high linkage disequilibrium. Of the remaining 15 SNPs, for seven we found significant relationships between genotype and endotoxin exposure in the genetic association study in relation to symptomatic airway hyper-responsiveness (CD14-rs2915863 and rs2569191, TRIF-rs4807000), current wheeze (ST-2-rs17639215, IKK-1-rs2230804, and TRIF-rs4807000), and atopy (CD14-rs2915863 and rs2569192, TRAF-6-rs5030411, and IKK-1-rs2230804). Variants in the endotoxin signaling pathway are important determinants of asthma and atopy. The genotype effect is a function of the environmental endotoxin exposure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome.

  3. Update of the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Database based on analysis of allergen sequences.

    PubMed

    Radauer, C; Nandy, A; Ferreira, F; Goodman, R E; Larsen, J N; Lidholm, J; Pomés, A; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Rozynek, P; Thomas, W R; Breiteneder, H

    2014-04-01

    The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee, under the auspices of the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies, maintains the systematic nomenclature of allergenic proteins and publishes a database of approved allergen names on its Web site, www.allergen.org. In this paper, we summarize updates of allergen names approved at the meetings of the committee in 2011 through 2013. These changes reflect recent progress in identification, cloning, and sequencing of allergens. The goals of this update were to increase consistency in the classification of allergens, isoallergens, and variants and in the incorporation of the evolutionary classification of proteins into allergen nomenclature, while keeping changes of established names to a minimum in the interest of continuity. Allergens for which names have been updated include respiratory allergens from birch and ragweed pollen, midge larvae, and horse dander; food allergens from peanut, cow's milk, and tomato; and cereal grain allergens. The IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee encourages researchers to use these updated allergen names in future publications.

  4. Characteristic motifs for families of allergenic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Torres, Miguel; Schein, Catherine H.; Braun, Werner

    2008-01-01

    The identification of potential allergenic proteins is usually done by scanning a database of allergenic proteins and locating known allergens with a high sequence similarity. However, there is no universally accepted cut-off value for sequence similarity to indicate potential IgE cross-reactivity. Further, overall sequence similarity may be less important than discrete areas of similarity in proteins with homologous structure. To identify such areas, we first classified all allergens and their subdomains in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) to their closest protein families as defined in Pfam, and identified conserved physicochemical property motifs characteristic of each group of sequences. Allergens populate only a small subset of all known Pfam families, as all allergenic proteins in SDAP could be grouped to only 130 (of 9318 total) Pfams, and 31 families contain more than four allergens. Conserved physicochemical property motifs for the aligned sequences of the most populated Pfam families were identified with the PCPMer program suite and catalogued in the webserver Motif-Mate (http://born.utmb.edu/motifmate/summary.php). We also determined specific motifs for allergenic members of a family that could distinguish them from non-allergenic ones. These allergen specific motifs should be most useful in database searches for potential allergens. We found that sequence motifs unique to the allergens in three families (seed storage proteins, Bet v 1, and tropomyosin) overlap with known IgE epitopes, thus providing evidence that our motif based approach can be used to assess the potential allergenicity of novel proteins. PMID:18951633

  5. Association Between Allergen Exposure in Inner-City Schools and Asthma Morbidity Among Students.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, William J; Permaul, Perdita; Petty, Carter R; Coull, Brent A; Baxi, Sachin N; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Lai, Peggy S; Gold, Diane R; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    Home aeroallergen exposure is associated with increased asthma morbidity in children, yet little is known about the contribution of school aeroallergen exposures to such morbidity. To evaluate the effect of school-specific aeroallergen exposures on asthma morbidity among students, adjusting for home exposures. The School Inner-City Asthma Study was a prospective cohort study evaluating 284 students aged 4 to 13 years with asthma who were enrolled from 37 inner-city elementary schools in the northeastern United States between March 1, 2008, and August 31, 2013. Enrolled students underwent baseline clinical evaluations before the school year started and were then observed clinically for 1 year. During that same school year, classroom and home dust samples linked to the students were collected and analyzed for common indoor aeroallergens. Associations between school aeroallergen exposure and asthma outcomes during the school year were assessed, adjusting for home exposures. Indoor aeroallergens, including rat, mouse, cockroach, cat, dog, and dust mites, measured in dust samples collected from inner-city schools. The primary outcome was maximum days in the past 2 weeks with asthma symptoms. Secondary outcomes included well-established markers of asthma morbidity, including asthma-associated health care use and lung function, measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Among 284 students (median age, 8 years [interquartile range, 6-9 years]; 148 boys and 136 girls), exposure to mouse allergen was detected in 441 (99.5%) of 443 school dust samples, cat allergen in 420 samples (94.8%), and dog allergen in 366 samples (82.6%). Levels of mouse allergen in schools were significantly higher than in students' homes (median settled dust level, 0.90 vs 0.14 µg/g; P < .001). Exposure to higher levels of mouse allergen in school (comparing 75th with 25th percentile) was associated with increased odds of having an asthma symptom day (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1

  6. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

  7. Irritants and allergens at school in relation to furnishings and cleaning.

    PubMed

    Smedje, G; Norbäck, D

    2001-06-01

    In order to study the influence of furnishings and cleaning on the indoor air quality at school, 181 randomly chosen classrooms were investigated. The amounts of open shelves, textiles and other fittings were noted, data were gathered on cleaning routines, and a number of pollutants were measured in the classrooms. In classrooms with more fabrics there was more settled dust and the concentration of formaldehyde was higher. Classrooms with more open shelves had more formaldehyde, and more pet allergens in settled dust, and classrooms with a white board, instead of a chalk board, were less dusty. Classrooms mainly cleaned through wet mopping had more airborne viable bacteria but less settled dust than classrooms mainly cleaned by dry methods. In rooms where the desks and curtains were more often cleaned, the concentrations of cat and dog allergen in settled dust were lower. It is concluded that furnishings and textiles in the classroom act as significant reservoirs of irritants and allergens and have an impact on the indoor air quality at school.

  8. Contamination of nanoparticles by endotoxin: evaluation of different test methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials can be contaminated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) during production or handling. In this study, we searched for a convenient in vitro method to evaluate endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. We assessed the reliability of the commonly used limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and an alternative method based on toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 reporter cells when applied with particles (TiO2, Ag, CaCO3 and SiO2), or after extraction of the endotoxin as described in the ISO norm 29701. Results Our results indicate that the gel clot LAL assay is easily disturbed in the presence of nanoparticles; and that the endotoxin extraction protocol is not suitable at high particle concentrations. The chromogenic-based LAL endotoxin detection systems (chromogenic LAL assay and Endosafe-PTS), and the TLR4 reporter cells were not significantly perturbed. Conclusion We demonstrated that nanoparticles can interfere with endotoxin detection systems indicating that a convenient test method must be chosen before assessing endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. PMID:23140310

  9. Duration of in vivo endotoxin tolerance in horses.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Susan J; Jacobs, Carrie C; Cook, Vanessa L; Gandy, Jeffery C; Hauptman, Joseph G; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2016-05-01

    Endotoxemia models are used to study mechanisms and treatments of early sepsis. Repeated endotoxin exposures induce periods of endotoxin tolerance, characterized by diminished proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and modulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Repeated measure designs using equine endotoxemia models are rarely performed, despite the advantages associated with reduced variability, because the altered responsiveness would confound study results and because the duration of equine endotoxin tolerance is unknown. We determined the interval of endotoxin tolerance, in vivo, in horses based on physical, clinicopathologic, and proinflammatory gene expression responses to repeated endotoxin exposures. Six horses received 30 ng/kg LPS in saline infused over 30 min. Behavior pain scores, physical examination parameters, and blood for complete blood count and proinflammatory gene expression were obtained at predetermined intervals for 24h. Horses received a total of 3 endotoxin exposures. The first exposure was LPS 1, followed 7 days later by LPS 7 or 14-21 days later by LPS 14-21. Lipopolysaccharide exposures were allocated in a randomized, crossover design. Lipopolysaccharide produced clinical and clinicopathologic signs of endotoxemia and increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, P<0.001. Horses exhibited evidence of endotoxin tolerance following LPS 7 but not following LPS 14-21. Horses had significantly lower pain scores, heart rates, respiratory rates and duration of fever, after LPS 7 compared to LPS 1 and LPS 14-21, P<0.001, and expression of TNFα was lower in the whole blood of horses after LPS 7, P=0.05. Clinical parameters and TNFα gene expression were similar or slightly increased in horses following LPS 14-21 compared to measurements made in horses following LPS 1, suggesting that endotoxin tolerance had subsided. A minimum of 3 weeks between experiments is warranted if

  10. Adherent endotoxin on dental implant surfaces: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Cascardo, Giovanna; Bellanda, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Osteoimmunology is the crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems, suggesting a role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulation of osteoclast activity. Endotoxin or bacterial challenges to inflammatory cells are directly relevant to dental implant pathologies involving bone resorption, such as osseointegration failure and peri-implantitis. While the endotoxin amount on implant devices is regulated by standards, it is unknown whether commercially available dental implants elicit different levels of adherent-endotoxin stimulated cytokines. The objective of this work is to develop a model system and evaluate endotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes relevant to osteoclast activation on commercially available dental implants. Murine J774-A1 macrophages were cultured on Ti disks with different level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination to define the time-course of the inflammatory response to endotoxin, as evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The developed protocol was then used to measure adherent endotoxin on commercially available packaged and sterile dental implants in the "as-implanted" condition. Results show that tested dental implants induce variable expression of endotoxin-stimulated genes, sometimes above the level expected to promote bone resorption in vivo. Results are unaffected by the specific surface treatment; rather, they likely reflect care in cleaning and packaging protocols. In conclusion, expression of genes that enhance osteoclast activity through endotoxin stimulation of inflammatory cells is widely different on commercially available dental implants. A reappraisal of the clinical impact of adherent endotoxins on dental (and bone) implant devices is required in light of increasing knowledge on crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems.

  11. Endotoxin Elimination in Patients with Septic Shock: An Observation Study.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24 h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24 h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24 h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p = 0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80 mm Hg (68-88), (p = 0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1 μg/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p = 0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24 h after endotoxin elimination (p = 0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients.

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli Endotoxin by Soft Hydrothermal Processing▿

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Toru; Okano, Shinya; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides, are a fever-producing by-product of gram-negative bacteria commonly known as pyrogens. It is essential to remove endotoxins from parenteral preparations since they have multiple injurious biological activities. Because of their strong heat resistance (e.g., requiring dry-heat sterilization at 250°C for 30 min) and the formation of various supramolecular aggregates, depyrogenation is more difficult than sterilization. We report here that soft hydrothermal processing, which has many advantages in safety and cost efficiency, is sufficient to assure complete depyrogenation by the inactivation of endotoxins. The endotoxin concentration in a sample was measured by using a chromogenic limulus method with an endotoxin-specific limulus reagent. The endotoxin concentration was calculated from a standard curve obtained using a serial dilution of a standard solution. We show that endotoxins were completely inactivated by soft hydrothermal processing at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system. Moreover, it is easy to remove endotoxins from water by soft hydrothermal processing similarly at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min, without any requirement for ultrafiltration, nonselective adsorption with a hydrophobic adsorbent, or an anion exchanger. These findings indicate that soft hydrothermal processing, applied in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system, can inactivate endotoxins and may be useful for the depyrogenation of parenterals, including end products and medical devices that cannot be exposed to the high temperatures of dry heat treatments. PMID:19502435

  13. Temperature Responses of Mice to Escherichia Coli Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Prashker, D.; Wardlaw, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    SJL mice kept in a 23° environment and injected intravenously with Escherichia coli endotoxin developed a marked hypothermia compared with animals given pyrogen-free saline (PFS). In contrast, giving endotoxin to SJL mice which had been “pre-conditioned” for 4 hr at 36° caused relative hyperthermia. Both responses were best observed at 1½ hr after injection. An endotoxin dose of 0·02 μg. was at the threshold of detectability in mice pre-conditioned at 36°, while with 23° animals, the threshold dose was 0·2 μg. Dose-response curves, with an index of precision (λ) of about 0·73, were obtained for mice in both environments, endotoxin doses of about 20 μg. being in the plateau regions of maximum responses. Mouse strains SWR/J and CMRL behaved similarly to SJL, but the temperature responses at both 23° and 36° were smaller. BALB/cJ and AKR/J mice showed a hyperthermic response to endotoxin at 36° but no hypothermia at 23°, while ST/bJ mice showed the converse pattern of hypothermia after endotoxin at 23° but no hyperthermia at 36°. Thus the strain of mouse is an important variable. We suggest that a hypothermia test in SJL mice may provide a simple and convenient bioassay procedure for endotoxin. Although its sensitivity is much less than the rabbit pyrogenicity test, it may be useful for the quantitative measurement of endotoxin activity of such preparations as typhoid, pertussis and cholera vaccines which are rich in endotoxin. PMID:4926536

  14. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma

    PubMed Central

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E

    2014-01-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-γ were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation. PMID:25504013

  15. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma.

    PubMed

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2015-07-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-γ were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation.

  16. [Allergenic activity of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, V M; Petrova, N S; Sinitsyna, N E; Emel'ianova, O Iu; Kanchurin, A Kh

    1987-04-01

    The allergenic activities of the laboratory batches of D. farinae allergens have been studied by the methods of indirect mast-cell degranulation, neuroglial cytocrit, electrophoretic mobility changes. D. farinae allergens have been shown to possess specific activity. The method of changes in the electrophoretic mobility of sheep red blood cells has demonstrated that D. pteronyssimus and D. farinae allergens possess common allergenic properties.

  17. Some metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Ross, A.J.; Smith, L.

    1968-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were highly resistant to endotoxins from both Escherichia coli and Aeromonas salmonicida (a fish pathogen) at 14 and 18 C.This resistance was investigated with liver tryptophan pyrrolase, liver glycogen depletion in vitro, and the arterial blood pressure as indicators. Liver glycogen depletion was accelerated by both endotoxins, but there was no significant cardiovascular response or effect on liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity. Since the cardiovascular effects of histamine were also limited, it was concluded that the metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonids are qualitatively different from those of the higher vertebrates.

  18. Comparative personal exposures to organic dusts and endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J C; Niven, R M; Pickering, C A; Oldham, L A; Fletcher, A M; Francis, H C

    1999-02-01

    The aims of the study were to provide valid comparative data for personal exposures to dust and endotoxins for different occupations and to calculate comparative data for the contamination of organic dusts with endotoxin. Nine different occupational settings were studied, drawn from the textile, agricultural and animal handling industries. Samples were collected by personal sampling techniques, using the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampling head, glass fibre filters and rechargeable sampling pumps. The dust exposures were calculated by gravimetric analysis and using the calculated volume of air sampled were expressed as mg/m3. Endotoxin exposures were measured using a simple water extraction from the collected dusts, followed by a quantitative turbidimetric assay. Results were expressed as ng/m3, using the calculated volume of air sampled. In addition, the levels of the contamination of dusts with endotoxin for individual industries were expressed as ng/mg of collected dust. Two hundred and fifty-nine samples, collected from 9 different industries and across 36 different sites were analysed. This represented a sampling rate of 25% for the total work force. The average sampling time was 4.62 h. For all the dusts collected, a significant correlation between the collected dust and endotoxin was seen (r = 0.7 and p < 0.001). The highest dust exposures occurred during cleaning activities (grain handling: 72.5 mg/m3). The individuals exposed to the highest median level of dust and endotoxin were the animal handlers (poultry handlers, dust: 11.53 mg/m3, endotoxin: 71,995 ng/m3). Weaving and mushroom cultivation had the lowest exposures for dust and endotoxins. The mostly highly contaminated dusts (median values expressed as ng of endotoxin per mg of collected dust) were found in the animal handling (poultry: 1,030 ng/mg, swine: 152 ng/mg) and cotton spinning (522 ng/mg) industries. Processing of cotton and wool fibres was found to reduce the levels of

  19. Bacterial endotoxins and liver haemorrhage in the oestrogenised chicken.

    PubMed

    Curtis, M J; Pearson, A W; Butler, E J

    1980-11-01

    Hepatic steatosis and haemorrhage in oestrogenised chickens were not associated with any increase in the endotoxin content of the plasma. The haemorrhage was not ameliorated by suppressing enteric bacteria with neomycin or exacerbated by the repeated injection of Escherichia coli O111 endotoxin and there were no relevant changes in plasma enzyme activities that are indicators of liver damage. These results therefore do not support the hypothesis that, as in the choline deficient rat, hepatic steatosis impairs the ability of the oestrogenised chicken to dispose of bacterial endotoxins and that these then damage the liver.

  20. Proteome, Allergenome, and Novel Allergens of House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Choopong, Jintarat; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee

    2016-02-05

    Dermatophagoides farinae mite is a predominant source of indoor allergens causing high incidence of allergy worldwide. People with different genetic background respond differently to the mite components, and thus the component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) is preferred to the conventional allergy test based on crude mite extract. In this study, proteome and culprit components in the D. farinae whole body extract that sensitized the allergic patients were studied by using SDS-PAGE (1DE) and 2DE-IgE immunoblotting followed by LC-MS/MS and database search for protein identification. From the 1DE, the mite extract revealed 105 proteins that could be classified into seven functionally different groups: allergens, structural components, enzymes, enzyme inhibitor, receptor proteins, transporters, and binding/regulatory/cell signaling proteins. From the 2DE, the mite extract produced 94 spots; 63 were bound by IgE in sera of 20 D. farinae allergic patients. One more protein that was not revealed by the 2DE and protein staining reacted with IgE in 2 allergic patients. Proteins in 40 spots could be identified as 35 different types. Three of them reacted to IgE of >50% of the allergic patients, and hence they are major allergens: tropomyosin or Der f 10 (75%), aconitate hydratase (70%), and one uncharacterized protein (55%). Aconitate hydratase is a novel D. farinae major allergen unraveled in this study. Several mite minor allergens that have never been previously reported are also identified. The data have clinical applications in the component-resolved diagnosis for tailor-designed allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  1. A View Indoors, Indoor Environment Division's e-Article Series

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  2. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    PubMed

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-07-03

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion. This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition and the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof may greatly influence the outcome as well as the interpretation of results. The finding that digests from food allergens may retain allergenicity, stresses the importance of using immunological assays for evaluating the allergenic potential of food allergen digestion products. Studies assessing the allergenicity of digestion products, by either IgE-binding, elicitation or sensitizing capacity, shows that digestion may abolish, decrease, have no effect, or even increase the allergenicity of food allergens. Therefore, the predictive value of the pepsin resistance test for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins can be questioned.

  3. Production of recombinant allergens in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed. PMID:21258627

  4. Impact of thermal processing on legume allergens.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-12-01

    Food induced allergic manifestations are reported from several parts of the world. Food proteins exert their allergenic potential by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and can even induce life threatening anaphylaxis reactions. Among all food allergens, legume allergens play an important role in induction of allergy because legumes are a major source of protein for vegetarians. Most of the legumes are cooked either by boiling, roasting or frying before consumption, which can be considered a form of thermal treatment. Thermal processing may also include autoclaving, microwave heating, blanching, pasteurization, canning, or steaming. Thermal processing of legumes may reduce, eliminate or enhance the allergenic potential of a respective legume. In most of the cases, minimization of allergenic potential on thermal treatment has generally been reported. Thus, thermal processing can be considered an important tool by indirectly prevent allergenicity in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing treatment costs and reducing industry/office/school absence in case of working population/school going children. The present review attempts to explore various possibilities of reducing or eliminating allergenicity of leguminous food using different methods of thermal processing. Further, this review summarizes different methods of food processing, major legumes and their predominant allergenic proteins, thermal treatment and its relation with antigenicity, effect of thermal processing on legume allergens; also suggests a path that may be taken for future research to reduce the allergenicity using conventional/nonconventional methods.

  5. Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in six single-family homes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taekhee; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Adhikari, Atin; Crawford, Carlos M.; Reponen, Tiina

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the culturability of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi was determined through long-term sampling (24-h) using a Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler. The air samples were collected during three seasons in six Cincinnati area homes that were free from moisture damage or visible mold. Cultivation and total microscopic enumeration methods were employed for the sample analysis. The geometric means of indoor and outdoor culturable fungal concentrations were 88 and 102 colony-forming units (CFU) m-3, respectively, with a geometric mean of the I/O ratio equal to 0.66. Overall, 26 genera of culturable fungi were recovered from the indoor and outdoor samples. For total fungal spores, the indoor and outdoor geometric means were 211 and 605 spores m-3, respectively, with a geometric mean of I/O ratio equal to 0.32. The identification revealed 37 fungal genera from indoor and outdoor samples based on the total spore analysis. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of culturable and total fungal spores showed significant correlations (r = 0.655, p<0.0001 and r = 0.633, p<0.0001, respectively). The indoor and outdoor median viabilities of fungi were 55% and 25%, respectively, which indicates that indoor environment provides more favorable survival conditions for the aerosolized fungi. Among the seasons, the highest indoor and outdoor culturability of fungi was observed in the fall. Cladosporium had a highest median value of culturability (38% and 33% for indoor and outdoor, respectively) followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium (9% and 2%) among predominant genera of fungi. Increased culturability of fungi inside the homes may have important implications because of the potential increase in the release of allergens from viable spores and pathogenicity of viable fungi on immunocompromised individuals. PMID:18458748

  6. Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in six single-family homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taekhee; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Adhikari, Atin; Crawford, Carlos M.; Reponen, Tiina

    In this study, the culturability of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi was determined through long-term sampling (24-h) using a Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler. The air samples were collected during three seasons in six Cincinnati area homes that were free from moisture damage or visible mold. Cultivation and total microscopic enumeration methods were employed for the sample analysis. The geometric means of indoor and outdoor culturable fungal concentrations were 88 and 102 colony-forming units (CFU) m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of the I/ O ratio equal to 0.66. Overall, 26 genera of culturable fungi were recovered from the indoor and outdoor samples. For total fungal spores, the indoor and outdoor geometric means were 211 and 605 spores m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of I/ O ratio equal to 0.32. The identification revealed 37 fungal genera from indoor and outdoor samples based on the total spore analysis. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of culturable and total fungal spores showed significant correlations ( r=0.655, p<0.0001 and r=0.633, p<0.0001, respectively). The indoor and outdoor median viabilities of fungi were 55% and 25%, respectively, which indicates that indoor environment provides more favorable survival conditions for the aerosolized fungi. Among the seasons, the highest indoor and outdoor culturability of fungi was observed in the fall. Cladosporium had a highest median value of culturability (38% and 33% for indoor and outdoor, respectively) followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium (9% and 2%) among predominant genera of fungi. Increased culturability of fungi inside the homes may have important implications because of the potential increase in the release of allergens from viable spores and pathogenicity of viable fungi on immunocompromised individuals.

  7. Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information.

    PubMed

    Daisey, J M; Angell, W J; Apte, M G

    2003-03-01

    We reviewed the literature on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), ventilation, and building-related health problems in schools and identified commonly reported building-related health symptoms involving schools until 1999. We collected existing data on ventilation rates, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and symptom-relevant indoor air contaminants, and evaluated information on causal relationships between pollutant exposures and health symptoms. Reported ventilation and CO2 data strongly indicate that ventilation is inadequate in many classrooms, possibly leading to health symptoms. Adequate ventilation should be a major focus of design or remediation efforts. Total volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde (HCHO) and microbiological contaminants are reported. Low HCHO concentrations were unlikely to cause acute irritant symptoms (<0.05 ppm), but possibly increased risks for allergen sensitivities, chronic irritation, and cancer. Reported microbiological contaminants included allergens in deposited dust, fungi, and bacteria. Levels of specific allergens were sufficient to cause symptoms in allergic occupants. Measurements of airborne bacteria and airborne and surface fungal spores were reported in schoolrooms. Asthma and 'sick building syndrome' symptoms are commonly reported. The few studies investigating causal relationships between health symptoms and exposures to specific pollutants suggest that such symptoms in schools are related to exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), molds and microbial VOCs, and allergens.

  8. Endotoxins in surgical instruments of hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Goveia, Vania Regina; Mendoza, Isabel Yovana Quispe; Guimarães, Gilberto Lima; Ercole, Flavia Falci; Couto, Bráulio Roberto Gonçalves Marinho; Leite, Edna Marilea Meireles; Stoianoff, Maria Aparecida Resende; Ferreira, José Antonio Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    To investigate endotoxins in sterilized surgical instruments used in hip arthroplasties. A descriptive exploratory study conducted in a public teaching hospital. Six types of surgical instruments were selected, namely: acetabulum rasp, femoral rasp, femoral head remover, chisel box, flexible bone reamer and femoral head test. The selection was based on the analysis of the difficulty in removing bone and blood residues during cleaning. The sample was made up of 60 surgical instruments, which were tested for endotoxins in three different stages. The EndosafeTM Gel-Clot LAL (Limulus Amebocyte Lysate method) was used. There was consistent gel formation with positive analysis in eight instruments, corresponding to 13.3%, being four femoral rasps and four bone reamers. Endotoxins in quantity ≥0.125 UE/mL were detected in 13.3% of the instruments tested. Investigar endotoxinas em instrumentais cirúrgicos esterilizados empregados em artroplastias do quadril. Estudo exploratório, descritivo, desenvolvido em um hospital público de ensino. Foram selecionados seis tipos de instrumentais, a saber: raspa acetabular, raspa femural, saca-cabeça de fêmur, formão box, fresa de fêmur e cabeça de prova de fêmur. A seleção foi feita a partir da análise da dificuldade para a remoção de resíduos de sangue e osso durante a limpeza. A amostra foi constituída por 60 instrumentais cirúrgicos, que foram testados para endotoxinas em três momentos distintos. Foi utilizado o método de gel-clot pelo Limulus Amebócito Lisado (LAL) Endosafe(tm). Houve formação de gel consistente com análise positiva em oito instrumentais, o que corresponde a 13,3%, sendo quatro raspas de fêmur e quatro fresas de fêmur. Foram detectadas endotoxinas em quantidade ≥0,125 UE/mL em 13,3% dos instrumentais testados.

  9. Allergenicity and allergens of amphipods found in nori (dried laver).

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Kanna; Hamada, Yuki; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    Gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order Amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. Amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order Decapoda. In this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and caprellid amphipod (Caprella equilibra) were examined for allergenicity and allergens using two species of decapods (black tiger prawn and spiny lobster) as references. When analyzed by ELISA, sera from crustacean-allergic patients reacted to extracts from amphipod samples, although less potently than to the extracts from decapods. In IgE-immunoblotting, a 37-kDa protein was found to be the major allergen in amphipods. Based on the molecular mass and the cross-reactivity with decapod tropomyosin evidenced by inhibition ELISA and inhibition immunoblotting, the 37-kDa protein was identified as amphipod tropomyosin.

  10. Food allergens: molecular and immunological aspects, allergen databases and cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Anne-Regine; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The currently known food allergens are assigned to a relatively small number of protein families. Food allergens grouped into protein families share common functional and structural features that can be attributed to the allergenic potency and potential cross-reactivity of certain proteins. Molecular data, in terms of structural information, biochemical characteristics and clinical relevance for each known allergen, including isoforms and variants, are mainly compiled into four open-access databases. Allergens are designated according to defined criteria by the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee. Food allergies are caused by primary sensitisation to the disease-eliciting food allergens (class I food allergen), or they can be elicited as a consequence of a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens and subsequent IgE cross-reaction to homologous proteins in food (class II food allergens). Class I and class II allergens display different clinical significance in children and adults and are characterised by different molecular features. In line with this, high stability when exposed to gastrointestinal digestion and heat treatment is attributed to many class I food allergens that frequently induce severe reactions. The stability of a food allergen is determined by its molecular characteristics and can be influenced by structural (chemical) modifications due to thermal processing. Moreover, the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food allergens further depends on specific T cell and B cell epitopes. Although the T cell epitope pattern can be highly diverse for individual patients, several immuno-prominent T cell epitopes have been identified. Such conserved T cell epitopes and IgE cross-reactive B cell epitopes contribute to cross-reactivity between food allergens of the same family and to clinical cross-reactivity, similar to the birch pollen-food syndrome.

  11. Food Allergens in Mattress Dust in Norwegian Homes - A Potentially Important Source of Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Fæste, Christiane K.; Granum, Berit; Egaas, Eliann; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup; Løvik, Martinus

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitization to food allergens and food allergic reactions are mostly caused by ingesting the allergen, but can also occur from exposure via the respiratory tract or the skin. Little is known about exposure to food allergens in the home environment. Objective To describe the frequency of detection of allergens from fish, egg, milk, and peanut in mattress dust collected from homes of 13 year old adolescents, and secondly to identify home characteristics associated with the presence of food allergen contamination in dust. Methods Food allergens were measured by dot blot analysis in mattress dust from 143 homes in Oslo, Norway. We analyzed associations between home characteristics (collected by parental questionnaires and study technicians) and food allergens by multivariate regression models. Results Fish allergen was detected in 46%, peanut in 41%, milk in 39%, and egg allergen in 22% of the mattress dust samples; only three samples contained none of these allergens. All four food allergens were more frequently detected in mattresses in small dwellings (<100m2) than larger dwellings (≥130 m2); 63-71% of the small dwellings (n=24) had milk, peanut, and fish allergens in the samples compared to 33-44% of the larger dwellings (n=95). Milk, peanut, and egg allergens were more frequently detected in homes with bedroom and kitchen on the same floor as compared with different floors; with odds ratios of 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 5.6) for milk, 2.4 (95% CI: 1.0, 6.1) for peanut, and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.3, 7.5) for egg allergens. Conclusions and clinical relevance Food allergens occurred frequently in beds in Norwegian homes, with dwelling size and proximity of kitchen and bedroom as the most important determinants. Due to the amount of time children spend in the bedroom, mattress dust may be an important source of exposure to food allergens. PMID:24304208

  12. Endotoxin-Induced Structural Transformations in Liquid Crystalline Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, I.-Hsin; Miller, Daniel S.; Bertics, Paul J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2011-06-01

    The ordering of liquid crystals (LCs) is known to be influenced by surfaces and contaminants. Here, we report that picogram per milliliter concentrations of endotoxin in water trigger ordering transitions in micrometer-size LC droplets. The ordering transitions, which occur at surface concentrations of endotoxin that are less than 10-5 Langmuir, are not due to adsorbate-induced changes in the interfacial energy of the LC. The sensitivity of the LC to endotoxin was measured to change by six orders of magnitude with the geometry of the LC (droplet versus slab), supporting the hypothesis that interactions of endotoxin with topological defects in the LC mediate the response of the droplets. The LC ordering transitions depend strongly on glycophospholipid structure and provide new designs for responsive soft matter.

  13. THE LETHAL EFFECT OF ENDOTOXINS ON THE CHICK EMBRYO

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard T.; Thomas, Lewis

    1956-01-01

    Inoculation of the CAM of the 10-day chick embryo with endotoxin preparations derived from the meningococcus and other Gram-negative microorganisms has been shown to result in multiple hemorrhages and death of the embryo within a few hours. Evidence has been presented to indicate that this lethal effect is specific for the general class of endotoxins derived from Gram-negative bacteria. Susceptibility to endotoxin was maximal in 10-day old embryos, and younger or older embryos showed little or no response. The optimal incubation temperature for the effect of endotoxin was 39.5°C., and embryos incubated at 28°C. were completely protected. The lethal effect was prevented by small amounts of cortisone, hydrocortisone, and 9-alpha fluorohydrocortisone, but not by cholesterol, desoxycorticosterone, or 1-dehydrocortisone. PMID:13345967

  14. Induction of hyperreactivity to endotoxin in mice by Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed Central

    Schramek, S; Kazar, J; Sekeyova, Z; Freudenberg, M A; Galanos, C

    1984-01-01

    Intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with live or killed Coxiella burnetii phase I or phase II cells induced a marked hyperreactivity to the lethal effect of bacterial endotoxin and was accompanied by a marked hepatosplenomegaly. The degree and duration of hyperreactivity depended on the dose of C. burnetii administered and were higher with phase I than with phase II cells. Sensitization to the lethal effects of endotoxin and induction of splenomegaly by phase I C. burnetii cells also proceeded in the endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ strain of mice. Preincubation of C. burnetii cells with the corresponding immune serum significantly diminished the ability of phase I but not phase II cells to induce hyperreactivity to endotoxin. PMID:6469358

  15. Methylprednisolone Protection Against Endotoxin in Lead-Sensitized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marecki, Nelda M.

    1974-01-01

    Lead-sensitized BALB/c male mice are protected against Escherichia coli endotoxin by the intraperitoneal administration of 6α-methylprednisolone. This protection is dependent on time of administration of the methylprednisolone. PMID:4596282

  16. Indoor acoustic gain design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies against Olea europaea major allergen: allergenic activity of affinity-purified allergen and depleted extract and development of a radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of the allergen.

    PubMed

    Lombardero, M; Quirce, S; Duffort, O; Barber, D; Carpizo, J; Chamorro, M J; Lezaun, A; Carreira, J

    1992-04-01

    Several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against Olea europaea pollen-extract components. Two of these antibodies, named OL 2 and OL 7, recognize two nonoverlapping, nonrepeating epitopes on the olive-allergen Ole e I, as demonstrated by different techniques. The allergen was purified in a single step by MAb-based affinity chromatography, and the allergen revealed a band at molecular weight 20 kd as well as a minor band at 18 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The contribution of allergen Ole e I to the allergenic activity of O. europaea pollen extracts was determined from the effect of allergen depletion by affinity chromatography on skin reactivity and a histamine-release test. The removal of allergen caused a large reduction in the activity of the preparation in 25 monospecific olive-allergic patients. In agreement, the affinity-purified allergen demonstrated a similar response when it was compared with the whole extract in these assays. The results indicated that Ole e I is by far the most important olive-pollen allergen. A two-site solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed for the quantitation of the allergen Ole e I in mass units. The assay was based on the MAbs, OL 2 and OL 7, and had a detection limit in the nanogram range. A good correlation was found between allergenic activity, as determined by RAST inhibition, and allergen content in 18 olive-pollen extracts. This result indicates that the assay can be a good alternative to RAST inhibition for the standardization of O. europaea extracts.

  18. Characterization of Allergen Exposure in Homes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-17

    dust mixture.6 Dust mite allergens have been associated causatively with asthma, atopic dermatitis , and rhini- tis. 7 Studies from several countries...Asthma: A Controlled Trial. The Lancet 1976; ***:333-335. 10. Tuft L. Importance of Inhalant Allergens in Atopic Dermatitis . The Journal of Investigative...Monoclonal Antibodies to the Major Feline Allergen Fel d 1. 1I. Single Step Affinity Purification of Fel d 1, N-Terminal Sequence Analysis, and Development of

  19. Endotoxin in Size-Separated Metal Working Fluid Aerosol Particles.

    PubMed

    Dahlman-Höglund, Anna; Lindgren, Åsa; Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger

    2016-08-01

    Patients with airway symptoms working in metal working industries are increasing, despite efforts to improve the environmental air surrounding the machines. Our aim was to analyse the amount of endotoxin in size-separated airborne particles of metal working fluid (MWF) aerosol, by using the personal sampler Sioutas cascade impactor, to compare filter types, and to compare the concentration of airborne endotoxin to that of the corresponding MWFs. In a pilot field study, aerosols were collected in two separate machine halls on totally 10 occasions, using glass fibre and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters in parallel at each station. Airborne endotoxin was distributed over all size fractions. While a major part was found in the largest size fraction (72%, 2.5-10 µm), up to 8% of the airborne endotoxin was detected in the smallest size fraction (<0.25 µm). Comparing the efficiency of the filter types, a significantly higher median endotoxin level was found with glass fibres filters collecting the largest particle-size fraction (1.2-fold) and with PTFE filters collecting the smallest ones (5-fold). The levels of endotoxin in the size-separated airborne particle fractions correlated to those of the MWFs supporting the aerosol-generating machines. Our study indicates that a significant part of inhalable aerosols of MWFs consists of endotoxin-containing particles below the size of intact bacteria, and thus small enough to readily reach the deepest part of the lung. Combined with other chemical irritants of the MWF, exposure to MWF aerosols containing endotoxin pose a risk to respiratory health problems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  20. Ultrasensitive detection of endotoxins using computationally designed nanoMIPs.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Zeynep; Abdin, Mohammed J; Tothill, Alexander M; Karim, Kal; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-09-07

    Novel molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) were designed for endotoxin from Escherichia coli 0111:B4, using computational modeling. The screening process based on binding energy between endotoxin and each monomer was performed with 21 commonly used monomers, resulting in the selection of itaconic acid, methacrylic acid and acrylamide as functional monomers due to their strong binding interaction with the endotoxin template. The nanoMIPs were successfully synthesized with functional groups on the outer surface to aid in the immobilization onto sensor surface. The solid phase photopolymerization approach used for the synthesis of nanoMIPs ranging from 200 to 235 nm in diameter. The limit of detection and KD were significantly improved when endotoxin samples were prepared using a novel triethylamine method. This improved the efficiency of gold nanoparticle functionalization by targeting the subunits of the endotoxin. Compared to the vancomycin MIP control, the endotoxin MIPs displayed outstanding affinity and selectivity towards the endotoxin with KD values in the range of 4.4-5.3 × 10(-10) M, with limits of detection of 0.44 ± 0.02 ng mL(-1) as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor when itaconic acid was used as the functional monomer. The MIP surface can be regenerated >30 times without significant loss of binding activity making this approach highly cost effective for expensive analyte templates. The combination of molecular modeling and solid phase synthesis enabled the successful synthesis of nanoMIPs capable of recognition and ultrasensitive detection of endotoxins using the highly sensitive SPR biosensor with triethylamine method.

  1. Peanut Allergens Attached With p-Aminobenzamidine Are More Resistant to Digestion than Native Allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Undigested foods are excreted rather than absorbed and therefore, peanut allergens, if undigested, may not cause an allergic reaction in peanut-allergic individuals. Our objective was to make peanut allergens more resistant to digestion by preparing allergen conjugates and demonstrating that the con...

  2. [Profilins: allergens with clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Landa-Pineda, César Manuel; Guidos-Fogelbach, Guillermo; Marchat-Marchau, Laurence; López-Hidalgo, Marisol; Arroyo-Becerra, Analilia; Sandino Reyes-López, César Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Profilins are small ubiquitous proteins of 12-19 kDa involved in actin dynamics. These proteins are found in all eukaryotic organisms studied to date. Profilins have aminoacid sequences and tridimensional structure highly conserved. Allergy patients to pollen frequently have symptoms of allergy when ingestion of plant-derived foods like fruits, vegetables, seeds, among others. This phenomenon is known as latex-pollen-fruit allergy and it's the main cause of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) which is attributed to the cross-reactivity. Allergens shared between different sources theses are called panallergens for example are profilins which representing at least 20% of all pollen allergic patients. This cross-reactivity is results from the high amino acid sequence identity of profilin from plants, which is between 70% and 85%, this may explain the exacerbation symptoms of allergic patients to profilins from plants. We described some characteristics which show us the important participation of the profilins in the sensitization of people allergic, especially to plants, fruits and pollen. We looked research aminoacid sequences of all allergenic profilins reported to date and these were analyzed. Profilins are important allergens that are underrated in clinical practice and contribute to cross-reactivity in sensitized individuals by profilins from other sources.

  3. Cockroach allergen exposure and risk of asthma.

    PubMed

    Do, D C; Zhao, Y; Gao, P

    2016-04-01

    Cockroach sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. However, its underlying immune mechanisms and the genetic etiology for differences in allergic responses remain unclear. Cockroach allergens identification and their expression as biologically active recombinant proteins have provided a basis for studying the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced allergic sensitization and asthma. Glycans in allergens may play a crucial role in the immunogenicity of allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and C-type lectin receptors have been suggested to be important for the penetration of cockroach allergens through epithelial cells to mediate allergen uptake, dendritic cell maturation, antigen-presenting cell (APC) function in T-cell polarization, and cytokine production. Environmental pollutants, which often coexist with the allergen, could synergistically elicit allergic inflammation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and signaling may serve as a link between these two elements. Genetic factors may also play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and asthma-related phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological evidence for cockroach allergen-induced asthma, cockroach allergens, the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergen-induced innate immune responses, and the genetic basis for cockroach sensitization.

  4. Cockroach Allergen Exposure and Risk of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Do, Danh C.; Zhao, Yilin; Gao, Peisong

    2015-01-01

    Cockroach sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of asthma. However, its underlying immune mechanisms and the genetic etiology for differences in allergic responses remain unclear. Cockroach allergens identification and their expression as biologically active recombinant proteins has provided a basis for studying the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergens induced allergic sensitization and asthma. Glycans in allergens may play a crucial role in the immunogenicity of allergic diseases. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and C-type lectin receptors have been suggested to be important for the penetration of cockroach allergens through epithelial cells to mediate allergen uptake, dendritic cell maturation, antigen presenting cell (APC) function in T cell polarization, and cytokine production. Environmental pollutants, which often co-exist with the allergen, could synergistically elicit allergic inflammation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and signaling may serve as a link between these two elements. Genetic factors may also play an important role in conferring the susceptibility to cockroach sensitization. Several genes have been associated with cockroach sensitization and asthma-related phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological evidence for cockroach allergen-induced asthma, cockroach allergens, the mechanisms regarding cockroach allergens induced innate immune responses, and the genetic basis for cockroach sensitization. PMID:26706467

  5. Chapter 1: an overview of allergens.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachna; Grammer, Leslie C

    2012-01-01

    Most allergens are proteins or glycoproteins that range in molecular weight from 5000 to 100,000 Da, although polysaccharides and low molecular weight substances also may be allergenic. Common allergens include pollens, fungal spores, house-dust mites, and animal epithelial materials but can also include drugs, biological products, and insect venoms. The allergic response is dependent on the route of exposure. If exposure is to an inhaled aeroallergen, the allergic response will be a respiratory reaction in nature. Ingested or injected exposure gives rise to gastrointestinal, cutaneous, or anaphylactic reactions. Size of pollen determines clinical manifestation of allergy. For example, particles between 20 and 60 μm in diameter can be carried in the wind and cause nasal and ocular symptoms (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis). Particles <7 μm can deposit in the airways and cause symptoms of asthma. Animals produce allergens in forms unique to each species. Cat allergen, most importantly Fel d 1, is found mainly in cat saliva, sebaceous glands in the skin, and in urine of male cats. It is buoyant and "sticky," which means it easily remains airborne and may last in a home for up to 6-9 months after the source is removed. Cat allergen adheres to clothes and can be found in public places such as schools. Dog allergen, particularly Can f 1, is present in dander, saliva, urine, and serum. There are allergens specific to dog breeds, but all breeds produce allergenic proteins (even poodles and "hairless" dogs).

  6. Extraction and analysis of coffee bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E

    1978-05-01

    Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.

  7. Systemic endotoxin levels in chronic indolent periodontal infections

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, J. L.; Stevens, J.; Steffen, M. J.; Dawson, D.; Novak, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Periodontal disease has been linked with an increased risk of various systemic diseases. A plausible biologic explanation for this link includes the opportunity for oral pathogens to translocate to the circulation as a result of breakdown in integrity of the oral epithelium. This study refined a methodology used to detect endotoxin activity in the serum of subjects with indolent periodontal infections. Material and Methods: The QCL® Kinetic Chromogenic Assay (Cambrex) is a kinetic measure of endotoxin activity. Sera from 211 pregnant women with periodontitis enrolled in the Obstetrics and Periodontal Therapy Trial were used to develop the assay further and to evaluate the detection of endotoxin activity that might accompany a low-level bacteremia in chronic periodontitis. Results: We optimized the system to increase the sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay. The refined system was able to detect endotoxin activity in serum at > 0.0125 EU/mL. At baseline (13–16 wk of gestation), 35.5% of the women were positive for endotoxin activity (1.62 ± 2.21; range: 0.38–15 EU/mL). Conclusion: This report describes a sensitive measure of endotoxin activity in serum. The procedure allowed us to document levels of this microbial virulence factor in serum of individuals with indolent infections such as periodontal disease. PMID:20465752

  8. Endotoxin exposure and respiratory symptoms in the cotton textile industry.

    PubMed

    Latza, Ute; Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver

    2004-10-01

    One hundred fourteen male employees of a cotton spinning mill in western Germany participated in a cross-sectional study, the purpose of which was to clarify the dose effect of endotoxin exposure on respiratory symptoms. Airborne endotoxin exposures were classified as low (< or = 100 endotoxin units [EU]/m3), medium (> 100-450 EU/m3), or high (> 450 EU/m3), on the basis of endotoxin activity in the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Age- and smoking-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The dose-response relationship between current endotoxin exposure and prevalence of wheezing (medium: OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 0.48-9.62; high: OR = 5.49, 95% CI = 1.17- 25.81) and cough (medium: OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 0.59-7.56; high: OR = 3.93; 95% CI = 1.02-15.12) was significant (test for linear trend: p values = 0.020 and 0.040, respectively). The association between exposure and wheezing was stronger among atopic workers. The higher prevalence of chest tightness and shortness of breath among workers with medium and high current endotoxin exposure did not reach statistical significance. The results suggested that there was a dose-dependent increase in bronchial symptoms, with significant effects occurring at exposures that exceeded 450 EU/m3.

  9. Endotoxins-the invisible companion in biomaterials research.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Ramona; Petersen, Pétur Henry; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur Eysteinn

    2013-10-01

    Metal implants and polymeric devices for the application in the clinical treatment of orthopedic tissue injuries are increasingly coated with bioactive biomaterials derived from natural substances to induce desirable biological effects. Many metals and polymers used in biomaterials research show high affinity for endotoxins, which are abundant in the environment. Endotoxin contamination is indicated in the pathology of periodontitis and aseptic implant loosening, but may also affect the evaluation of a biomaterial's bioactivity by inducing strong inflammatory reactions. In this review, we discuss the high affinity of three commonly used implant biomaterials for endotoxins and how the contamination can affect the outcome of the orthopedic fixation. The chemical nature of bacterial endotoxins and some of the clinical health implications are described, as this knowledge is critically important to tackle the issues associated with the measurement and removal of endotoxins from medical devices. Commonly used methods for endotoxin testing and removal from natural substances are examined and the lack of standard guidelines for the in vitro evaluation of biomaterials is discussed.

  10. Detection of endotoxin antibody in long-term dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, S; Adachi, T; Sugimura, T; Wada, S; Kishimoto, T; Maekawa, M; Yoshimura, R; Niwa, M; Terano, Y; Shaldon, S

    1990-04-01

    Endotoxins are often seen in dialysate. They are derived from Gram-negative bacteria especially Pseudomonas, E. coli and Serratia. Endotoxins are large-molecular-weight substances with an average molecular weight of 10(8). These large units can be divided into subunits down to a molecular weight of 10,000 which are thought to pass through dialyzer membranes. To investigate this, endotoxin antibody levels were measured in two groups of patients on chronic regular hemodialysis, a low-flux group using cellulosic membrane dialyzers (cuprophan and cuproammonium rayon (CAR) and a high-flux group using synthetic polymer membrane dialyzers (PMMA, EVAL). Using an ELISA based on standard endotoxin antibodies the percentages of patients in the low flux group with endotoxin antibodies were 26.9% with Cuprophan and 25% with CAR, not significantly different from a normal control group. In the PMMA and EVAL groups, it was 53.6% and 68.4% respectively. Back filtration of dialysate into blood is understood as the main reason for the entry of endotoxin in patients treated with high-flux dialyzers.

  11. Endotoxin inactivation by selected drinking water treatment oxidants.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William B; Mayfield, Colin I; Dixon, D George; Huck, Peter M

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to endotoxins in treated drinking water can occur through ingestion, dermal abrasions, inhalation of water vapor, intravenous injection or during dialysis. While the risks associated with endotoxin ingestion and entry through dermal abrasions are not well quantified, adverse effects of intravenous injection and dialysis are well known and some studies indicate that inhalation of moisture-laden air may impact human health. This study quantifies the inactivation of endotoxin derived from Escherichia coli O55:B5 by three substances used either as disinfectants or oxidants in drinking water treatment: chlorine, monochloramine and potassium permanganate. Inactivation rates were found to be 1.4, 1.0 and 0.7 endotoxin units (EU)/mL h, for free chlorine, potassium permanganate and monochloramine, respectively. These rates are relatively slow given that contact times in drinking water distribution systems are typically less than 48 h. While small amounts of endotoxin may be removed by oxidation the observed removals are much less than those provided by physical removal processes. The significance of this finding is important for dialysis considerations but is as yet unclear with regard to inhalation, as the risk of inhaling sufficient quantities of endotoxin-containing aerosolized water droplets to adversely affect human health has not yet been adequately quantified.

  12. Indoor Environmental Exposures and Exacerbation of Asthma: An Update to the 2000 Review by the Institute of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Wang, Grace; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has found relationships between specific indoor environmental exposures and exacerbation of asthma. Objectives: In this review we provide an updated summary of knowledge from the scientific literature on indoor exposures and exacerbation of asthma. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2013 on indoor exposures and exacerbation of asthma were identified through PubMed, from reference lists, and from authors’ files. Articles that focused on modifiable indoor exposures in relation to frequency or severity of exacerbation of asthma were selected for review. Research findings were reviewed and summarized with consideration of the strength of the evidence. Results: Sixty-nine eligible articles were included. Major changed conclusions include a causal relationship with exacerbation for indoor dampness or dampness-related agents (in children); associations with exacerbation for dampness or dampness-related agents (in adults), endotoxin, and environmental tobacco smoke (in preschool children); and limited or suggestive evidence for association with exacerbation for indoor culturable Penicillium or total fungi, nitrogen dioxide, rodents (nonoccupational), feather/down pillows (protective relative to synthetic bedding), and (regardless of specific sensitization) dust mite, cockroach, dog, and dampness-related agents. Discussion: This review, incorporating evidence reported since 2000, increases the strength of evidence linking many indoor factors to the exacerbation of asthma. Conclusions should be considered provisional until all available evidence is examined more thoroughly. Conclusion: Multiple indoor exposures, especially dampness-related agents, merit increased attention to prevent exacerbation of asthma, possibly even in nonsensitized individuals. Additional research to establish causality and evaluate interventions is needed for these and other indoor exposures. Citation: Kanchongkittiphon W, Mendell MJ, Gaffin JM, Wang

  13. Novel mechanisms in immune tolerance to allergens during natural allergen exposure and allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    van de Veen, Willem; Wirz, Oliver F; Globinska, Anna; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2017-09-06

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for more than 100 years as a clinical tolerance-inducing and immune tolerance-inducing therapy for allergic diseases and represents a potentially curative method of treatment. AIT functions through multiple mechanisms including early desensitization of basophils and mast cells, regulating T-cell and B-cell responses, changing antibody isotypes, and decreasing activation, mediator release and affected tissue migration of eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. Similar molecular and cellular mechanisms have been observed in subcutaneous AIT, sublingual AIT and peptide immunotherapy as well as natural tolerance to high doses of allergen exposure in beekeepers and cat owners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Indoor air quality and health does fungal contamination play a significant role?

    PubMed

    Bardana, Emil J

    2003-05-01

    Fungal contamination in buildings can vary greatly, and their presence in a dwelling does not necessarily constitute exposure. Measurement of mold spores and fragments varies depending on the methodology and instruments used. Meaningful comparison of data is rarely possible. The presence of a specific immune response to a fungal antigen only connotes that exposure to one or more related species has occurred, but not that there is a symptomatic clinical state. The response of individuals to indoor bioaerosols is complex and depends on age, gender, state of health, genetic makeup, and degree and time of bioaerosol exposure. In general, mold contamination in buildings is associated with incursion of water or moisture, which should be remedied as efficiently as possible. When disease occurs, it more likely is related to transient annoyance or irritational reactions. Allergic symptoms may be related to mold proliferation in the home environment. Because molds are encountered both indoors and outdoors, it is difficult to determine where the sensitivity initially arose and if the response is solely provoked by either an indoor or outdoor source. As an indoor allergen, mold is considered to be an infrequent participant in the induction of allergic disease when compared with housedust mites, animal dander, and cockroach allergens. Infection in healthy individuals is rare and usually is caused by an outdoor source. Building-related disease caused by mycotoxicosis has not been proved in the medical literature.

  15. Indoor Confined Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Daniel L; Kroll, Lee Anne K

    2015-07-01

    Indoor confined feedlots offer advantages that make them desirable in northern climates where high rainfall and snowfall occur. These facilities increase the risk of certain health risks, including lameness and tail injuries. Closed confinement can also facilitate the rapid spread of infectious disease. Veterinarians can help to manage these health risks by implementing management practices to reduce their occurrence.

  16. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  17. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  18. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein A-I: effect on macrophage proliferation--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xueting; Xu, Qing; Champion, Keith; Kruth, Howard S

    2015-05-01

    This technical report addresses the problem of endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein reagents. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation cell proliferation assay, we observed that human plasma ApoA-I as low as 1 μg/ml resulted in a >90% inhibition in macrophage proliferation. However, not all ApoA-I from different sources showed this effect. We considered the possibility that endotoxin contamination of the apolipoproteins contributed to the differential inhibition of macrophage cell proliferation. Endotoxin alone very potently inhibited macrophage proliferation (0.1 ng/ml inhibited macrophage proliferation>90%). Measurement of endotoxin levels in the apolipoprotein products, including an analysis of free versus total endotoxin, the latter which included endotoxin that was masked due to binding to protein, suggested that free endotoxin mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation. Despite the use of an advanced endotoxin removal procedure and agents commonly used to inhibit endotoxin action, the potency of endotoxin precluded successful elimination of endotoxin effect. Our findings show that endotoxin contamination can significantly influence apparent apolipoprotein-mediated cell effects (or effects of any other biological products), especially when these products are tested on highly endotoxin-sensitive cells, such as macrophages.

  20. Endotoxin Contamination of Apolipoprotein A-I: Effect on Macrophage Proliferation – A Cautionary Tale

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xueting; Xu, Qing; Champion, Keith; Kruth, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    This technical report addresses the problem of endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein reagents. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation cell proliferation assay, we observed that human plasma ApoA-I as low as 1 μg/ml resulted in a >90% inhibition in macrophage proliferation. However, not all ApoA-I from different sources showed this effect. We considered the possibility that endotoxin contamination of the apolipoproteins contributed to the differential inhibition of macrophage cell proliferation. Endotoxin alone very potently inhibited macrophage proliferation (0.1 ng/ml inhibited macrophage proliferation >90%). Measurement of endotoxin levels in the apolipoprotein products, including an analysis of free versus total endotoxin, the latter which included endotoxin that was masked due to binding to protein, suggested that free endotoxin mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation. Despite the use of an advanced endotoxin removal procedure and agents commonly used to inhibit endotoxin action, the potency of endotoxin precluded successful elimination of endotoxin effect. Our findings show that endotoxin contamination can significantly influence apparent apolipoprotein-mediated cell effects (or effects of any other biological products), especially when these products are tested on highly endotoxin-sensitive cells, such as macrophages. PMID:25778625

  1. Low frequency of positive skin tests in asthmatic patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni exposed to high levels of mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Manoel; Almeida, Maria C; Figueiredo, Joanemile P; Atta, Ajax M; Mendes, Carlos M C; Araújo, Maria I; Taketomi, Ernesto A; Terra, Silvia A; Silva, Deise A O; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2004-04-01

    Helminthic infections and allergic diseases are highly prevalent in many parts of the world. Although skin reactivity to indoor allergens is decreased in subjects from helminthic endemic areas, the degree of exposure to mite allergens has not yet been investigated in these areas. This study evaluated the association between exposure to dust mites and skin reactivity to mite allergens in subjects with a history of wheezing in the last 12 months selected from a rural endemic area for schistosomiasis (group I, n = 21), and two non-Schistosoma mansoni endemic locale, a rural area (group II, n = 21) and a urban slum area (group III, n = 21). All subjects were evaluated by skin prick tests with mite allergens, and for total and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against dust mites, antibodies for S. mansoni, and for intestinal parasites. Dust samples from each subjects' home were quantified for mite allergen and species of the mite identification. Except for S. mansoni infection which was more prevalent in group I than in groups II and III (p < 0.0001), the prevalence of intestinal parasites, and total and specific IgE levels were similar for all groups. Despite the levels of mite allergens and specifically to Der p 1 detected in dust samples of subjects home from all three areas, the frequency of positive skin reactivity to mite antigens was significantly lower (19.0%) in subjects from group I relative to group II (76.2%) and group III (57.1%; p < 0.001). This result suggests that S. mansoni infection could modulate the immediate hypersensitivity skin response to mite allergens in highly exposed subjects.

  2. Relationships between mite allergen levels, mold concentrations, and sick building syndrome symptoms in newly built dwellings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Y; Kanazawa, A; Araki, A; Morimoto, K; Nakayama, K; Takigawa, T; Tanaka, M; Shibata, E; Yoshimura, T; Chikara, H; Kishi, R

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the possible relationships between exposures to mite allergen and airborne fungi with sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms for residents living in newly built dwellings. We randomly sampled 5709 newly built dwellings in six prefectures from northern to southern Japan. A total of 1479 residents in 425 households participated in the study by completing questionnaire surveys and agreeing to environmental monitoring for mite allergen (Der 1), airborne fungi, aldehydes, and volatile organic compounds. Stepwise logistic regression analyses adjusted for confounders were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) of mite allergen and fungi for SBS symptoms. Der 1 had a significantly high OR for nose symptoms. Rhodotorula had a significantly high OR for any symptoms, and Aspergillus had significantly high OR for eye symptoms. However, the total colony-forming units had a significantly low OR for throat and respiratory symptoms. Eurotium had a significantly low OR for skin symptoms. In conclusion, dust-mite allergen levels and indoor airborne Rhodotorula and Aspergillus concentrations may result in SBS symptoms in newly built dwellings. Various factors can cause sick building syndrome symptoms. This study focused on biologic factors such as dust-mite allergen and airborne fungi in newly built dwellings in Japan. Dust-mite allergen levels were significantly associated with higher rates of nose symptoms, airborne Rhodotorula concentrations were significantly associated with higher rates of any symptoms, and Aspergillus concentrations were significantly associated with higher rates of eye symptoms. Measures should be taken to reduce mite allergen levels and fungal concentrations in these dwellings. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Computational analysis of the relationship between allergenicity and digestibility of allergenic proteins in simulated gastric fluid

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bingjun; Qu, Hong; Hu, Yuanlei; Ni, Ting; Lin, Zhongping

    2007-01-01

    Background Safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) food, with regard to allergenic potential of transgene-encoded xenoproteins, typically involves several different methods, evaluation by digestibility being one thereof. However, there are still debates about whether the allergenicity of food allergens is related to their resistance to digestion by the gastric fluid. The disagreements may in part stem from classification of allergens only by their sources, which we believe is inadequate, and the difficulties in achieving identical experimental conditions for studying digestion by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) so that results can be compared. Here, we reclassify allergenic food allergens into alimentary canal-sensitized (ACS) and non-alimentary canal-sensitized (NACS) allergens and use a computational model that simulates gastric fluid digestion to analyze the digestibilities of these two types. Results The model presented in this paper is as effective as SGF digestion experiments, but more stable and reproducible. On the basis of this model, food allergens are satisfactorily classified as ACS and NACS types by their pathways for sensitization; the former are relatively resistant to gastric fluid digestion while the later are relatively labile. Conclusion The results suggest that it is better to classify allergens into ACS and NACS types when understanding the relationship between their digestibility and allergenicity and the digestibility of a target foreign protein is a parameter for evaluating its allergenicity during safety assessments of GM food. PMID:17922925

  4. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  5. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  6. Guilt by intimate association: what makes an allergen an allergen?

    PubMed

    Karp, Christopher L

    2010-05-01

    Why specific, ubiquitous, otherwise innocuous environmental proteins tend to provoke maladaptive, T(H)2-polarized immune responses in susceptible hosts is a fundamental mechanistic question for those interested in the pathogenesis, therapy, and prevention of allergic disease. The current renaissance in the study of innate immunity has provided important insights into this question. The theme emerging from recent studies is that direct (dys)functional interactions with pathways of innate immune activation that evolved to signal the presence of microbial infection are central to the molecular basis for allergenicity. This article reviews these data. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The allergenic significance of certain fungi rarely reported as allergens.

    PubMed

    Giannini, E H; Northey, W T; Leathers, C R

    1975-12-01

    The allergenic significance of seven different species of fungi was investigated. Included were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Podaxis pistillaris, Stemonitis ferruginea, Lycogala epidendrum, Fuligo septica, Ustilago maydis and Puccinia cynodontis. All of these fungi have wide distribution patterns and aerially disseminated spores but, because of their unique growth characteristics, are usually not reported in atmospheric fungal surveys. Seventy-eight patients were treated for dermal sensitivity to extracts of the organisms after the spores were extracted in 50% glycerinated Coca's solution. The results represent a six-month test period. Forty-four patients, representing 56% of the total number tested, demonstrated dermal reactivity toward one or more of the extracts.

  8. Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenxing; Lin, Hong; Cao, Limin

    2006-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  9. Allergen exposure modifies the relation of sensitization to fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels in children at risk for allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, Joanne E; Webb, Tara; Kwan, Doris; Kamel, Jimmy; Hoffman, Elaine; Milton, Donald K; Gold, Diane R

    2011-05-01

    Studies on airway inflammation, measured as fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), have focused on its relation to control of asthma, but the contribution of allergen exposure to the increase in FENO levels is unknown. We evaluated (1) whether FENO levels were increased in children with allergic sensitization or asthma; (2) whether specific allergen exposure increased FENO levels in sensitized, but not unsensitized, children; and (3) whether sedentary behavior increased FENO levels independent of allergen exposures. At age 12 years, in a birth cohort of children with a parental history of allergy or asthma, we measured bed dust allergen (dust mite, cat, and cockroach) by means of ELISA, specific allergic sensitization primarily based on specific IgE levels, and respiratory disease (current asthma, rhinitis, and wheeze) and hours of television viewing/video game playing by means of questionnaire. Children performed spirometric maneuvers before and after bronchodilator responses and had FENO levels measured by using electrochemical detection methods (NIOX MINO). FENO levels were increased in children with current asthma (32.2 ppb), wheeze (27.0 ppb), or rhinitis (23.2 ppb) compared with subjects without these respective symptoms/diagnoses (16.4-16.6 ppb, P < .005 for all comparisons). Allergic sensitization to indoor allergens (cat, dog, and dust mite) predicted higher FENO levels and explained one third of the variability in FENO levels. FENO levels were highest in children both sensitized and exposed to dust mite. Greater than 10 hours of weekday television viewing was associated with a 0.64-log increase in FENO levels after controlling for indoor allergen exposure, body mass index, and allergic sensitization. Allergen exposures and sedentary behavior (television viewing/video game playing) might increase airway inflammation, which was measured as the FENO. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  10. Asthma and indoor environment in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, T; Brinch, L; Hessen, J; Schei, M; Kolstrup, N; Jacobsen, B; Svanes, C; Pandey, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of asthma seems to be influenced by the adoption of a Western lifestyle. A study was undertaken to assess the importance of indoor environmental factors in Nepal where the lifestyle and home environment differ from that in the West.
METHODS—The home environment of 121 schoolchildren with asthma and 126 controls aged 11-17 years was studied. The homes of all participants were investigated and the children and their mothers were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. Cases and controls were identified from an ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) based population study of 2330 schoolchildren in Kathmandu, Nepal.
RESULTS—Keeping cattle inside the house during the night was related to a lower risk for having asthma (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.2(95% CI 0.1 to 0.5)) while there was no association between asthma and cattle kept outside. Asthma was associated with cigarette smoking by two or more family members (OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.9)) and with the domestic use of smoky fuels (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.5)). In analyses stratified by sex, passive smoking and the use of smoky fuels were significantly associated with asthma only in boys.
CONCLUSIONS—The risk of asthma in Nepalese children was lower in subjects exposed to cattle kept inside the house and higher in subjects exposed to passive smoking and indoor use of smoky fuels. Childhood exposure to microorganisms or allergens from cattle may protect against the development of atopic disease.

 PMID:11359965

  11. Field evaluation of endotoxin air sampling assay methods.

    PubMed

    Thorne, P S; Reynolds, S J; Milton, D K; Bloebaum, P D; Zhang, X; Whitten, P; Burmeister, L F

    1997-11-01

    This study tested the importance of filter media, extraction and assay protocol, and bioaerosol source on the determination of endotoxin under field conditions in swine and poultry confinement buildings. Multiple simultaneous air samples were collected using glass fiber (GF) and polycarbonate (PC) filters, and these were assayed using two methods in two separate laboratories: an endpoint chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay (QCL) performed in water and a kinetic chromogenic LAL assay (KQCL) performed in buffer with resistant-parallel line estimation analysis (KLARE). In addition, two aqueous filter extraction methods were compared in the QCL assay: 120 min extraction at 22 degrees C with vigorous shaking and 30 min extraction at 68 degrees C with gentle rocking. These extraction methods yielded endotoxin activities that were not significantly different and were very highly correlated. Reproducibility of endotoxin determinations from duplicate air sampling filters was very high (Cronbach alpha all > 0.94). When analyzed by the QCL method GF filters yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity than PC filters. QCL and KLARE methods gave similar estimates for endotoxin activity from PC filters; however, GF filters analyzed by the QCL method yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity estimates, suggesting enhancement of the QCL assay or inhibition of the KLARE asay with GF filters. Correlation between QCL-GF and QCL-PC was high (r = 0.98) while that between KLARE-GF and KLARE-PC was moderate (r = 0.68). Analysis of variance demonstrated that assay methodology, filter-type, barn-type, and interactions between assay and filter-type and between assay and barn-type were important factors influencing endotoxin exposure assessment.

  12. Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular protein permeability in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, C.H.; Dauber, I.M.; Weil, J.V.

    1986-10-01

    Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular permeability consistently in some species but fails to reliably cause injury in the dog. We wondered whether this phenomenon depended on the method of injury assessment, as others have relied on edema measurement; we quantified injury by monitoring the rate of extravascular protein accumulation. /sup 113m/In-labeled protein and /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes were injected into anesthetized dogs and monitored by an externally placed lung probe. A protein leak index, the rate of extravascular protein accumulation, was derived from the rate of increase in lung protein counts corrected for changes in intravascular protein activity. After administration of Salmonella enteriditis endotoxin (4 micrograms/kg), the protein leak index was elevated 2.5-fold (41.1 +/- 4.6 X 10(-4) min-1) compared with control (16.0 +/- 2.8 X 10(-4) min-1). In contrast, wet-to-dry weight ratios failed to increase after endotoxin (4.6 +/- 0.8 vs. control values of 4.2 +/- 0.5 g/g dry bloodless lung). However, we observed that endotoxin increased lung dry weight (per unit body weight), which may have attenuated the change in wet-to-dry weight ratios. To determine whether low microvascular pressures following endotoxin attenuated edema formation, we increased pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in five dogs by saline infusion, which caused an increase in wet-to-dry weight ratios following endotoxin but no change in the five controls. We conclude that low dose endotoxin causes pulmonary vascular protein leak in the dog while edema formation is minimal or absent.

  13. The natural immunity to evolutionary atavistic endotoxin for human cancer.

    PubMed

    Moncevičiūtė-Eringienė, Elena; Rotkevič, Kristina; Grikienis, Ruta Grikienyte

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new theory of the immunological control of cancer corresponding to the hypothesis that the specific natural immunity to evolutionary atavistic endotoxin has a potential role in human cancer prevention. The results of our studies have shown that IgMNAE, i.e. endogenous or spontaneous IgM class antibodies to enterobacterial lipopolysaccharide molecules (lipid A), control the immune mechanisms responsible for the internal medium stability not only against the damaging impact of the carcinogenic factors, but also against the malignant transformation of its own degenerated cells. Among people who in 1979 and 1982 had IgMNAE in their blood serum, after 15-30years fell ill with cancer 10%, versus 15% among people who had no IgMNAE (p<0.05). Therefore, it is possible to maintain that the stimulation of IgMNAE synthesis would help in the destruction and elimination of damaged somatic cells or prevent their mechanisms from the formation of invasiveness, metastatic and other properties of their parasitism. In the mechanism of the natural immunity to endotoxin it is possible to see the formation of the respective evolutionary protective reactions which protect the damaged cells from acquiring resistance to damaging factors and thus from becoming an independent new parasitic population. Thereby the presented theory of the immunological control of cancer has a causal connection with our evolutionary resistance theory of the origin of cancer. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of natural immunity to endotoxin and production of vaccines against evolutionary atavistic endotoxin or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin can be helpful when applied in cancer prophylaxis for persons with a low level of natural immunity to endotoxin and perhaps in creating immunotherapeutic methods for stopping the endogenous parasitism of tumour cells by binding IgMNAE to atavistic endotoxin in cancer patients.

  14. Effect of endotoxin on lung fluid balance in unanesthetized sheep.

    PubMed

    Gabel, J C; Hansen, T N; Drake, R E

    1984-02-01

    We used a gravimetric technique to test for increased pulmonary capillary permeability after Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion in unanesthetized sheep. The sheep were chronically prepared with cannulas placed into the left atrium and pulmonary artery 1-2 wk before the experiments. We estimated pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc) as the average of pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures, and used the modified method of Pierce to estimate the ratio of extravascular fluid weight (EVF) to blood-free dry weight. In 15 sheep we inflated a left atrial balloon to raise Pc to -10.7, 5, 10, or 15 mmHg above plasma oncotic pressure (IIc) for 3 h, then measured EVF. EVF averaged 4.0 +/- 0.2 (base line), 4.3 +/- 0.1, 4.5 +/- 0.1, and 5.1 +/- 0.5 (SD), respectively, for the four levels of Pc - IIc. We gave seven additional sheep 1 microgram/kg of E. coli endotoxin (0127:B8) and measured EVF after 3 h of stable Pc. Endotoxin increased Pc in each sheep. EVF was higher than control for the endotoxin sheep with Pc - IIc greater than -1. This finding is consistent with an increase in pulmonary capillary permeability caused by endotoxin. However, EVF was not elevated in the endotoxin sheep with Pc - IIc less than 1 mmHg. This shows that the increased permeability was insufficient to cause edema unless Pc was elevated. Thus endotoxin may cause edema by two mechanisms, 1) an increase in capillary permeability, and 2) an increase in Pc.

  15. Stress-Derived Corticotropin Releasing Factor Breaches Epithelial Endotoxin Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Loss of the endotoxin tolerance of intestinal epithelium contributes to a number of intestinal diseases. The etiology is not clear. Psychological stress is proposed to compromise the intestinal barrier function. The present study aims to elucidate the role of the stress-derived corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in breaching the established intestinal epithelial endotoxin tolerance. Methods Epithelial cells of HT-29, T84 and MDCK were exposed to lipopolysaccharide to induce the endotoxin tolerance; the cells were then stimulated with CRF. The epithelial barrier function was determined using as indicators of the endotoxin tolerant status. A water-avoid stress mouse model was employed to test the role of CRF in breaching the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestine. Results The established endotoxin tolerance in the epithelial cell monolayers was broken down by a sequent exposure to CRF and LPS manifesting a marked drop of the transepithelial resistance (TER) and an increase in the permeability to a macromolecular tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The exposure to CRF also increased the expression of Cldn2 in the epithelial cells, which could be mimicked by over expression of TLR4 in epithelial cells. Over expression of Cldn2 resulted in low TER in epithelial monolayers and high permeability to HRP. After treating mice with the 10-day chronic stress, the intestinal epithelial barrier function was markedly compromised, which could be prevented by blocking either CRF, or TLR4, or Cldn2. Conclusions Psychological stress-derived CRF can breach the established endotoxin tolerance in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23840363

  16. Evaluating variability of allergens in commodity crops.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crops with significant food allergen issues, include legumes, peanut and soybean, cereal grains, such as wheat and maize, and tree nuts (walnut, Brazil nut, among other phylogenetically diverse species) (Teuber et al. 2006). Officially recognized allergenic proteins may include one or multiple prot...

  17. New structural information on food allergens (abstract)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A small number of protein families are responsible for food allergies suffered by the majority of allergy patients. What properties of these proteins make them allergens is not clear at present. Reliable methods for allergen prediction and mitigation are lacking. Most the immediate type of food alle...

  18. Reducing food allergenicity at the molecular level.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food allergens are a significant worldwide public health issue. Estimates for the prevalence of food allergies are around 1-2 % of the total population and up to 8 % of children; although, the prevalence may vary between populations and age groups. Peanuts are one of the most allergenic foods. The...

  19. Specific IgG for cat allergens in patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Miyama, Anri; Mimura, Tatsuya; Noma, Hidetaka; Goto, Mari; Kamei, Yuko; Kondo, Aki; Saito, Yusuke; Okuma, Hiroko; Matsubara, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are involved in type II and type III hypersensitivity. We evaluated the relation between perennial allergic conjunctivitis and serum levels of specific IgG for cat allergens. A prospective study was conducted in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (seasonal group, n = 10), patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (perennial group, n = 10), and healthy control subjects (control group, n = 10). Serum levels of specific IgE and IgG for cat allergens and total tear IgE were measured, and a skin prick test was also performed. In addition, a severity score associated with allergic conjunctivitis was calculated (0-30). The positive rates and scores of for total tear IgE, serum cat-specific IgE, and serum cat-specific IgG were all higher in the seasonal and perennial groups than in the control group (all p < 0.05). Serum cat-specific IgG levels were higher in the perennial group than in the seasonal group (p = 0.0156), but there was no significant difference in the grade of cat-specific IgE between the two groups (p = 0.3008). On multivariate analysis, the mean wheal diameter for cat allergen was associated with the serum level of cat-specific IgG (not IgE) in all patients [odds ratio (OR) = 31.979, p < 0.0001]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the total objective score was strongly associated with serum cat-specific IgG (OR = 23.015, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that specific IgG antibodies may be involved in perennial allergic symptoms caused by indoor allergens such as cat allergens.

  20. Exposure to Mouse Allergen in U.S. Homes Associated with Asthma Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; London, Stephanie J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most studies investigating the role of residential mouse allergen exposures in asthma have focused on inner-city populations. Objective We examined whether elevated mouse allergen levels were associated with occupants’ asthma status in a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Methods Data for this study were collected as part of the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. This cross-sectional study surveyed 831 housing units inhabited by 2,456 individuals in 75 different locations throughout the United States. The survey obtained information on demographics, household characteristics, and occupants’ health status by questionnaire and environmental observations. We used a polyclonal immunoassay to assess concentrations of mouse urinary protein (MUP) in vacuumed dust collected from various indoor sites. Results Of the surveyed homes, 82% had detectable levels of MUP, and in 35% of the homes, MUP concentrations exceeded 1.6 μg/g, a level that has been associated with increased mouse allergen sensitization rates. Current asthma, defined as having doctor-diagnosed asthma and asthma symptoms in the preceding 12 months, was positively associated with increased MUP levels. The observed association was modified by atopic status; in allergic individuals, elevated MUP levels (> 1.6 μg/g) increased the odds of having asthma symptoms [adjusted OR = 1.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14–3.27], but we found no association in those who did not report allergies (adjusted OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.33–1.44). Conclusions In allergic asthma, residential mouse allergen exposure is an important risk factor for asthma morbidity. PMID:19337513

  1. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite