Science.gov

Sample records for indoor climate systems

  1. Indoor climate.

    PubMed

    Höppe, P R

    1993-09-15

    In industrialized countries most of the time is spent indoors. The basic ambient parameters for a thermally comfortable indoor climate are air temperature, air velocity, humidity and radiation pattern. Besides the thermal component, the concentrations of air pollutants in the indoor air are also of importance for wellbeing and health. Their levels are influenced both by the outdoor concentrations and the indoor emissions. The increasing use of air conditioning systems in many cases has not resulted in improving the indoor climate but causes a wide range of irritations and health problems summarized as 'sick building syndrome'.

  2. Multisensor System for Isotemporal Measurements to Assess Indoor Climatic Conditions in Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Eliseo; Guijarro, Enrique; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Balasch, Sebastián; Hospitaler, Antonio; Torres, Antonio G.

    2012-01-01

    The rearing of poultry for meat production (broilers) is an agricultural food industry with high relevance to the economy and development of some countries. Periodic episodes of extreme climatic conditions during the summer season can cause high mortality among birds, resulting in economic losses. In this context, ventilation systems within poultry houses play a critical role to ensure appropriate indoor climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a multisensor system to evaluate the design of the ventilation system in broiler houses. A measurement system equipped with three types of sensors: air velocity, temperature and differential pressure was designed and built. The system consisted in a laptop, a data acquisition card, a multiplexor module and a set of 24 air temperature, 24 air velocity and two differential pressure sensors. The system was able to acquire up to a maximum of 128 signals simultaneously at 5 second intervals. The multisensor system was calibrated under laboratory conditions and it was then tested in field tests. Field tests were conducted in a commercial broiler farm under four different pressure and ventilation scenarios in two sections within the building. The calibration curves obtained under laboratory conditions showed similar regression coefficients among temperature, air velocity and pressure sensors and a high goodness fit (R2 = 0.99) with the reference. Under field test conditions, the multisensor system showed a high number of input signals from different locations with minimum internal delay in acquiring signals. The variation among air velocity sensors was not significant. The developed multisensor system was able to integrate calibrated sensors of temperature, air velocity and differential pressure and operated succesfully under different conditions in a mechanically-ventilated broiler farm. This system can be used to obtain quasi-instantaneous fields of the air velocity and temperature, as well as differential

  3. Changes in airborne fungi from the outdoors to indoor air; large HVAC systems in nonproblem buildings in two different climates.

    PubMed

    Kemp, P C; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Esposito, B; Lysek, G; Murray, F

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the changes in occurrence and distribution of airborne fungi as they are transported in the airstream from the outdoor air through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to the indoor air. To better understand this, airborne fungi were analyzed in the HVAC systems of two large office buildings in different climate zones. Fungal samples were taken in each of the walk-in chambers of the HVAC systems using a six-stage Andersen Sampler with malt extract agar. Results showed that fungal species changed with different locations in the HVAC systems. The outdoor air intake produced the greatest filtration effect for both the counts and species of outdoor air fungi. The colony forming unit (CFU) counts and species diversity was further reduced in the air directly after the filters. The cooling coils also had a substantial filtration effect. However, in room air the CFU counts were double and the mixture of fungal species was different from the air leaving the HVAC system at the supply air outlet in most locations. Diffusion of outdoor air fungi to the indoors did not explain the changes in the mixture of airborne fungi from the outdoor air to the indoor air, and some of the fungi present in the indoor air did not appear to be transported indoors by the HVAC systems.

  4. Indoor climate, air pollution, and human comfort.

    PubMed

    Mølhave, L

    1991-01-01

    The term sick building syndrome (SBS) is frequently used to describe a set of symptoms often reported by occupants of certain buildings. The symptoms are supposed to be direct or indirect consequences of an inadequate indoor climate. Typically, a majority of the occupants in these buildings complain, and the most frequent complaint is irritation of eyes, nose, and throat. Many different factors are known to be potential agents for the symptoms and no definitive causality has been identified yet. In consequence authors of publications on indoor air quality have been using the SBS term in different ways. A review of literature indicates that in supposed "sick buildings" only the prevalence of irritation of mucosal membranes and headaches seems to differ significantly from the prevalence in buildings considered to have a normal indoor climate. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are known to have a potency to cause symptoms like those included in SBS. A dose-response relation for sensory reactions and mucosal irritation caused by volatile organic air pollutants is discussed, and a tentative guideline at 3 mg/m3 (about 0.9 PPM toluene equivalent) for the total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) is suggested for the nonindustrial indoor climates.

  5. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  6. Carbonyl compounds indoors in a changing climate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Formic acid, acetic acid and formaldehyde are important compounds in the indoor environment because of the potential for these acids to degrade calcareous materials (shells, eggs, tiles and geological specimens), paper and corrode or tarnish metals, especially copper and lead. Carbonyl sulfide tarnishes both silver and copper encouraging the formation of surface sulfides. Results Carbonyls are evolved more quickly at higher temperatures likely in the Cartoon Gallery at Knole, an important historic house near Sevenoaks in Kent, England where the study is focused. There is a potential for higher concentrations to accumulate. However, it may well be that in warmer climates they will be depleted more rapidly if ventilation increases. Conclusions Carbonyls are likely to have a greater impact in the future. PMID:22439648

  7. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations☆

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures’ responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 °C, 13.8 °C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings PMID:22071034

  8. Exploring the consequences of climate change for indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaroff, William W.

    2013-03-01

    Climate change will affect the concentrations of air pollutants in buildings. The resulting shifts in human exposure may influence public health. Changes can be anticipated because of altered outdoor pollution and also owing to changes in buildings effected in response to changing climate. Three classes of factors govern indoor pollutant levels in occupied spaces: (a) properties of pollutants; (b) building factors, such as the ventilation rate; and (c) occupant behavior. Diversity of indoor conditions influences the public health significance of climate change. Potentially vulnerable subpopulations include not only the young and the infirm but also those who lack resources to respond effectively to changing conditions. Indoor air pollutant levels reflect the sum of contributions from indoor sources and from outdoor pollutants that enter with ventilation air. Pollutant classes with important indoor sources include the byproducts of combustion, radon, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Outdoor pollutants of special concern include particulate matter and ozone. To ensure good indoor air quality it is important first to avoid high indoor emission rates for all pollutants and second to ensure adequate ventilation. A third factor is the use of air filtration or air cleaning to achieve further improvements where warranted. Reprinted with permission from Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health (2011) by the National Academy of Sciences, Courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

  9. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  10. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  11. Spatial Database Modeling for Indoor Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotlib, Dariusz; Gnat, Miłosz

    2013-12-01

    For many years, cartographers are involved in designing GIS and navigation systems. Most GIS applications use the outdoor data. Increasingly, similar applications are used inside buildings. Therefore it is important to find the proper model of indoor spatial database. The development of indoor navigation systems should utilize advanced teleinformation, geoinformatics, geodetic and cartographical knowledge. The authors present the fundamental requirements for the indoor data model for navigation purposes. Presenting some of the solutions adopted in the world they emphasize that navigation applications require specific data to present the navigation routes in the right way. There is presented original solution for indoor data model created by authors on the basis of BISDM model. Its purpose is to expand the opportunities for use in indoor navigation.

  12. NFC Internal: An Indoor Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Ozdenizci, Busra; Coskun, Vedat; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability. PMID:25825976

  13. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  14. Indoor climate and air quality . Review of current and future topics in the field of ISB study group 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppe, P.; Martinac, Ivo

    In industrialized countries about 90% of the time is spent indoors. The ambient parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature and humidity, air velocity, and radiant heat exchange within an enclosure. In assessing the thermal environment, one needs to consider all ambient parameters, the insulating properties of the occupants' clothing, and the activity level of the occupants by means of heat balance models of the human body. Apart from thermal parameters, air quality (measured and perceived) is also of importance for well-being and health in indoor environments. Pollutant levels are influenced by both outdoor concentrations and by indoor emissions. Indoor levels can thus be lower (e.g. in the case of ozone and SO2) or higher (e.g. for CO2 and formaldehyde) than outdoor levels. Emissions from cooking play an important role, especially in developing countries. The humidity of the ambient air has a wide range of effects on the energy and water balance of the body as well as on elasticity, air quality perception, build-up of electrostatic charge and the formation or mould. However, its effect on the indoor climate is often overestimated. While air-handling systems are commonly used for achieving comfortable indoor climates, their use has also been linked to a variety of problems, some of which have received attention within the context of ''sick building syndrome''.

  15. Indoor climate and air quality. Review of current and future topics in the field of ISB study group 10.

    PubMed

    Höppe, P; Martinac, I

    1998-08-01

    In industrialized countries about 90% of the time is spent indoors. The ambient parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature and humidity, air velocity, and radiant heat exchange within an enclosure. In assessing the thermal environment, one needs to consider all ambient parameters, the insulating properties of the occupants' clothing, and the activity level of the occupants by means of heat balance models of the human body. Apart from thermal parameters, air quality (measured and perceived) is also of importance for well-being and health in indoor environments. Pollutant levels are influenced by both outdoor concentrations and by indoor emissions. Indoor levels can thus be lower (e.g. in the case of ozone and SO2) or higher (e.g. for CO2 and formaldehyde) than outdoor levels. Emissions from cooking play an important role, especially in developing countries. The humidity of the ambient air has a wide range of effects on the energy and water balance of the body as well as on elasticity, air quality perception, build-up of electrostatic charge and the formation or mould. However, its effect on the indoor climate is often overestimated. While air-handling systems are commonly used for achieving comfortable indoor climates, their use has also been linked to a variety of problems, some of which have received attention within the context of "sick building syndrome". PMID:9780844

  16. Indoor climate and air quality. Review of current and future topics in the field of ISB study group 10.

    PubMed

    Höppe, P; Martinac, I

    1998-08-01

    In industrialized countries about 90% of the time is spent indoors. The ambient parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature and humidity, air velocity, and radiant heat exchange within an enclosure. In assessing the thermal environment, one needs to consider all ambient parameters, the insulating properties of the occupants' clothing, and the activity level of the occupants by means of heat balance models of the human body. Apart from thermal parameters, air quality (measured and perceived) is also of importance for well-being and health in indoor environments. Pollutant levels are influenced by both outdoor concentrations and by indoor emissions. Indoor levels can thus be lower (e.g. in the case of ozone and SO2) or higher (e.g. for CO2 and formaldehyde) than outdoor levels. Emissions from cooking play an important role, especially in developing countries. The humidity of the ambient air has a wide range of effects on the energy and water balance of the body as well as on elasticity, air quality perception, build-up of electrostatic charge and the formation or mould. However, its effect on the indoor climate is often overestimated. While air-handling systems are commonly used for achieving comfortable indoor climates, their use has also been linked to a variety of problems, some of which have received attention within the context of "sick building syndrome".

  17. Skin complaints in buildings with indoor climate problems

    SciTech Connect

    Stenberg, B. )

    1989-01-01

    The Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a combination of both common and unspecific symptoms. Few studies have been published with detailed descriptions of clinical findings. One of the few dermatological references with a close relation to sick buildings is the so-called low humidity occupational dermatoses. Since 1982, an increasing number of outpatients from building with indoor climate problems have been investigated at the Department of Dermatology in Umea, Sweden. The most common findings regarding work-related diseases have been seborrheic dermatitis, facial erythema, periorbital eczema, rosacea, urticaria, and itching folliculitis. It is suggested that physical, chemical, and psychological factors are of importance in producing these symptoms.

  18. Indoor air climate and microbiological airborne: contamination in various hospital areas.

    PubMed

    Berardi, B M; Leoni, E

    1993-07-01

    Indoor climate indices and microbiological airborne contamination were evaluated in a department of a general hospital in Bologna only partially equipped with an air conditioning system. To determine the environmental parameters, an ANADATA (LSI) climate analyzer with relative transducers was used. The Effective Temperature (ET), the New Effective Temperature (ET*) and the Fanger indices (PMV-PPD) were calculated using the parameters measured. Microbial count measurements were taken with an S.A.S. (Surface Air System) sampler, to ascertain the total bacterial count at 37 degrees C, and the fungal particle, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa counts. Carbon dioxide air concentrations were also measured to evaluate the efficacy of air exchange. The Fanger indices were not within the range of thermal comfort in most rooms (52% in winter, 62% in summer). Air microbial counts were higher in the hospital wards and surgeries than in the offices and laboratories. In particular, coagulase-positive staphylococci were present only in the air of the patients' rooms. The microbial contamination was not correlated with the air conditioning system, but probably caused by the turnover in the hospital population, the number of people and their behaviour. However the most important measure to prevent airborne contamination and to reduce the number of microorganisms in the air is an efficient source control. Better management of the air conditioning system, by means of adequate air exchange and thermal adjustment, would lead to a notable improvement in indoor air quality, especially in units with hospitalized patients.

  19. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  20. Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

    2006-05-01

    Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

  1. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  2. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations. PMID:25938199

  3. Asynchronous indoor positioning system based on visible light communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weizhi; Chowdhury, M. I. Sakib; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    Indoor positioning has become an attractive research topic within the past two decades. However, no satisfying solution has been found with consideration of both accuracy and system complexity. Recently, research on visible light communications (VLC) offer new opportunities in realizing accurate indoor positioning with relatively simple system configuration. An indoor positioning system based on VLC technology is introduced, with no synchronization requirement on the transmitters. Simulation results show that, with over 95% confidence, the target receiver can be located with an accuracy of 5.9 cm, assuming indirect sunlight exposure and proper installation of light-emitting diode bulbs.

  4. Central Sensitization and Perceived Indoor Climate among Workers with Chronic Upper-Limb Pain: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Persson, Roger; Andersen, Lars L.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of indoor climate is an essential part of occupational health and safety. While questionnaires are commonly used for surveillance, not all workers may perceive an identical indoor climate similarly. The aim of this study was to evaluate perceived indoor climate among workers with chronic pain compared with pain-free colleagues and to determine the influence of central sensitization on this perception. Eighty-two male slaughterhouse workers, 49 with upper-limb chronic pain and 33 pain-free controls, replied to a questionnaire with 13 items of indoor climate complaints. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured in muscles of the arm, shoulder, and lower leg. Cross-sectional associations were determined using general linear models controlled for age, smoking, and job position. The number of indoor climate complaints was twice as high among workers with chronic pain compared with pain-free controls (1.8 [95% CI: 1.3–2.3] versus 0.9 [0.4–1.5], resp.). PPT of the nonpainful leg muscle was negatively associated with the number of complaints. Workers with chronic pain reported more indoor climate complaints than pain-free controls despite similar actual indoor climate. Previous studies that did not account for musculoskeletal pain in questionnaire assessment of indoor climate may be biased. Central sensitization likely explains the present findings. PMID:26425368

  5. Effects of Climate Change on residential indoor-outdoor Air Exchange

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION: Climate change is expected to increase the mean and peak ambient temperatures, and perhaps wind patterns and intensity, while indoor environments will remain within the range of human thermal comfort. As passive air exchange through infiltration is partly driven by ...

  6. Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems in Educational Facilities: Guidelines for Hot, Humid Climates. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, J. David; DuBose, George

    This manual addresses the errors that occur during new construction that subsequently contribute to indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in newly constructed buildings in hot and humid climates, and offers guidelines for preventing them during the design and construction phases. It defines the roles and responsibilities of the design team, the…

  7. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  8. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  9. Climate system modeling program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Climate System Modeling Project is a component activity of NSF's Climate Modeling, Analysis and Prediction Program, supported by the Atmospheric Sciences Program, Geosciences Directorate. Its objective is to accelerate progress toward reliable prediction of global and regional climate changes in the decades ahead. CSMP operates through workshops, support for post-docs and graduate students and other collaborative activities designed to promote interdisciplinary and strategic work in support of the overall objective (above) and specifically in three areas, (1) Causes of interdecadal variability in the climate system, (2) Interactions of regional climate forcing with global processes, and (3) Scientific needs of climate assessment.

  10. Indoor climate, psychosocial work environment and symptoms in open-plan offices.

    PubMed

    Pejtersen, J; Allermann, L; Kristensen, T S; Poulsen, O M

    2006-10-01

    To study the indoor climate, the psychosocial work environment and occupants' symptoms in offices a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was made in 11 naturally and 11 mechanically ventilated office buildings. Nine of the buildings had mainly cellular offices; five of the buildings had mainly open-plan offices, whereas eight buildings had a mixture of cellular, multi-person and open-plan offices. A total of 2301 occupants, corresponding to a response rate of 72%, completed a retrospective questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised questions concerning environmental perceptions, mucous membrane irritation, skin irritation, central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and psychosocial factors. Occupants in open-plan offices are more likely to perceive thermal discomfort, poor air quality and noise and they more frequently complain about CNS and mucous membrane symptoms than occupants in multi-person and cellular offices. The association between psychosocial factors and office size was weak. Open-plan offices may not be suited for all job types. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Open-plan offices may be a risk factor for adverse environmental perceptions and symptoms.

  11. Steady-state balance model to calculate the indoor climate of livestock buildings, demonstrated for finishing pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauberger, G.; Piringer, M.; Petz, E.

    The indoor climate of livestock buildings is of importance for the well-being and health of animals and their production performance (daily weight gain, milk yield etc). By using a steady-state model for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the CO2 and odour mass flows, the indoor climate of mechanically ventilated livestock buildings can be calculated. These equations depend on the livestock (number of animals and how they are kept), the insulation of the building and the characteristics of the ventilation system (ventilation rate). Since the model can only be applied to animal houses where the ventilation systems are mechanically controlled (this is the case for a majority of finishing pig units), the calculations were done for an example of a finishing pig unit with 1000 animal places. The model presented used 30 min values of the outdoor parameters temperature and humidity, collected over a 2-year period, as input. The projected environment inside the livestock building was compared with recommended values. The duration of condensation on the inside surfaces was also calculated.

  12. 47 CFR 15.517 - Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (1) Indoor UWB devices, by the nature of their design, must be capable of operation only indoors. The... system shall transmit only when the intentional radiator is sending information to an associated...

  13. A novel wireless local positioning system for airport (indoor) security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekavat, Seyed A.; Tong, Hui; Tan, Jindong

    2004-09-01

    A novel wireless local positioning system (WLPS) for airport (or indoor) security is introduced. This system is used by airport (indoor) security guards to locate all of, or a group of airport employees or passengers within the airport area. WLPS consists of two main parts: (1) a base station that is carried by security personnel; hence, introducing dynamic base station (DBS), and (2) a transponder (TRX) that is mounted on all people (including security personnel) present at the airport; thus, introducing them as active targets. In this paper, we (a) draw a futuristic view of the airport security systems, and the flow of information at the airports, (b) investigate the techniques of extending WLPS coverage area beyond the line-of-sight (LoS), and (c) study the performance of this system via standard transceivers, and direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems with and without antenna arrays and conventional beamforming (BF).

  14. An Indoor Navigation System for the Visually Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Luis A.; Vasquez, Francisco; Ochoa, Sergio F.

    2012-01-01

    Navigation in indoor environments is highly challenging for the severely visually impaired, particularly in spaces visited for the first time. Several solutions have been proposed to deal with this challenge. Although some of them have shown to be useful in real scenarios, they involve an important deployment effort or use artifacts that are not natural for blind users. This paper presents an indoor navigation system that was designed taking into consideration usability as the quality requirement to be maximized. This solution enables one to identify the position of a person and calculates the velocity and direction of his movements. Using this information, the system determines the user's trajectory, locates possible obstacles in that route, and offers navigation information to the user. The solution has been evaluated using two experimental scenarios. Although the results are still not enough to provide strong conclusions, they indicate that the system is suitable to guide visually impaired people through an unknown built environment. PMID:22969398

  15. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  16. A Tagless Indoor Localization System Based on Capacitive Sensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Ramezani Akhmareh, Alireza; Lazarescu, Mihai Teodor; Bin Tariq, Osama; Lavagno, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Accurate indoor person localization is essential for several services, such as assisted living. We introduce a tagless indoor person localization system based on capacitive sensing and localization algorithms that can determine the location with less than 0.2 m average error in a 3 m × 3 m room and has recall and precision better than 70%. We also discuss the effects of various noise types on the measurements and ways to reduce them using filters suitable for on-sensor implementation to lower communication energy consumption. We also compare the performance of several standard localization algorithms in terms of localization error, recall, precision, and accuracy of detection of the movement trajectory. PMID:27618049

  17. A Tagless Indoor Localization System Based on Capacitive Sensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani Akhmareh, Alireza; Lazarescu, Mihai Teodor; Bin Tariq, Osama; Lavagno, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Accurate indoor person localization is essential for several services, such as assisted living. We introduce a tagless indoor person localization system based on capacitive sensing and localization algorithms that can determine the location with less than 0.2 m average error in a 3 m × 3 m room and has recall and precision better than 70%. We also discuss the effects of various noise types on the measurements and ways to reduce them using filters suitable for on-sensor implementation to lower communication energy consumption. We also compare the performance of several standard localization algorithms in terms of localization error, recall, precision, and accuracy of detection of the movement trajectory. PMID:27618049

  18. D Modelling of AN Indoor Space Using a Rotating Stereo Frame Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    Sophisticated indoor design and growing development in urban architecture make indoor spaces more complex. And the indoor spaces are easily connected to public transportations such as subway and train stations. These phenomena allow to transfer outdoor activities to the indoor spaces. Constant development of technology has a significant impact on people knowledge about services such as location awareness services in the indoor spaces. Thus, it is required to develop the low-cost system to create the 3D model of the indoor spaces for services based on the indoor models. In this paper, we thus introduce the rotating stereo frame camera system that has two cameras and generate the indoor 3D model using the system. First, select a test site and acquired images eight times during one day with different positions and heights of the system. Measurements were complemented by object control points obtained from a total station. As the data were obtained from the different positions and heights of the system, it was possible to make various combinations of data and choose several suitable combinations for input data. Next, we generated the 3D model of the test site using commercial software with previously chosen input data. The last part of the processes will be to evaluate the accuracy of the generated indoor model from selected input data. In summary, this paper introduces the low-cost system to acquire indoor spatial data and generate the 3D model using images acquired by the system. Through this experiments, we ensure that the introduced system is suitable for generating indoor spatial information. The proposed low-cost system will be applied to indoor services based on the indoor spatial information.

  19. Pilot climate data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A usable data base, the Pilot climate Data System (PCDS) is described. The PCDS is designed to be an interactive, easy-to-use, on-line generalized scientific information system. It efficiently provides uniform data catalogs; inventories, and access method, as well as manipulation and display tools for a large assortment of Earth, ocean and atmospheric data for the climate-related research community. Researchers can employ the PCDS to scan, manipulate, compare, display, and study climate parameters from diverse data sets. Software features, and applications of the PCDS are highlighted.

  20. Performance study for indoor visible light communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuo

    The field of Optical Wireless Communications (OWC) has seen rapid development during the recent years. This growing popularity is due to several characteristics of considerable importance to consumer electronics products, such as large bandwidth that is also not having spectrum regulations imposed, low cost, and license free operation. As a branch of OWC, visible light communication (VLC) systems have their own unique advantages, with several new technologies, products and patents having been developed during since the end of last century. In this research, a VLC system for indoor application is proposed. In this work, we focus on reducing cost, and for that, we had to make appropriate selection of system's components, e.g. modulation, coding, filtering. Our objective was to achieve acceptable bit error rate (BER) performance for indoor use, with a low cost system. Through our research we met this objective. Our designs were evaluated through computer simulations. The acquired results proved the suitability of the proposed schemes and the performance's degree of dependency on several parameters such as distance, incidence angle and irradiance angle. A software tool was created allowing easy assessment of the communication system. It is using a user friendly GUI through which the user enters the system's parameters and the system outputs the corresponding BER value.

  1. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  2. Experimental Study of RF Energy Transfer System in Indoor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, S.-E.; Proynov, P. P.; Stark, B. H.; Hilton, G. S.; Craddock, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a multi-transmitter, 2.43 GHz Radio-Frequency (RF) wireless power transfer (WPT) system for powering on-body devices. It is shown that under typical indoor conditions, the received power range spans several orders of magnitude from microwatts to milliwatts. A body-worn dual-polarised rectenna (rectifying antenna) is presented, designed for situations where the dominant polarization is unpredictable, as is the case for the on-body sensors. Power management circuitry is demonstrated that optimally loads the rectenna even under highly intermittent conditions, and boosts the voltage to charge an on-board storage capacitor.

  3. Ubiquitous Indoor Geolocation: a Case Study of Jewellery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikparvar, B.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.; Azari, P.

    2014-10-01

    Addressing and geolocation for indoor environments are important fields of research in the recent years. The problem of finding location of objects in indoor spaces is proposed to solve in two ways. The first, is to assign coordinates to objects and second is to divide space into cells and detect the presence or absence of objects in each cell to track them. In this paper the second approach is discussed by using Radio Frequency Identification technology to identify and track high value objects in jewellery retail industry. In Ubiquitous Sensor Networks, the reactivity or proactivity of the environment are important issues. Reactive environments wait for a request to response to it. Instead, in proactive spaces, the environment acts in advance to deal with an expected action. In this research, a geo-sensor network containing RFID readers, tags, and antennas which continuously exchange radio frequency signal streams is proposed to manage and monitor jewellery galleries ubiquitously. The system is also equipped with a GIS representation which provides a more user-friendly system to manage a jewellery gallery.

  4. Climate data management system

    SciTech Connect

    Drach, R

    1999-07-13

    The Climate Data Management System is an object-oriented data management system, specialized for organizing multidimensional, gridded data used in climate analysis and simulation. The building blocks of CDMS are variables, container classes, structural classes, and links. All gridded data stored in CDMS is associated with variables. The container objects group variables and structural objects. Variables are defined in terms of structural objects. Most CDMS objects can have attributes, which are scalar or one-dimensional metadata items. Attributes which are stored in the database, that is are persistent, are called external attributes. Some attributes are internal; they are associated with an object but do not appear explicitly in the database.

  5. Optical Indoor Positioning System Based on TFT Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gőzse, István

    2015-01-01

    A novel indoor positioning system is presented in the paper. Similarly to the camera-based solutions, it is based on visual detection, but it conceptually differs from the classical approaches. First, the objects are marked by LEDs, and second, a special sensing unit is applied, instead of a camera, to track the motion of the markers. This sensing unit realizes a modified pinhole camera model, where the light-sensing area is fixed and consists of a small number of sensing elements (photodiodes), and it is the hole that can be moved. The markers are tracked by controlling the motion of the hole, such that the light of the LEDs always hits the photodiodes. The proposed concept has several advantages: Apart from its low computational demands, it is insensitive to the disturbing ambient light. Moreover, as every component of the system can be realized by simple and inexpensive elements, the overall cost of the system can be kept low. PMID:26712753

  6. Power Management Integrated Circuit for Indoor Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vipul

    In today's world, power dissipation is a main concern for battery operated mobile devices. Key design decisions are being governed by power rather than area/delay because power requirements are growing more stringent every year. Hence, a hybrid power management system is proposed, which uses both a solar panel to harvest energy from indoor lighting and a battery to power the load. The system tracks the maximum power point of the solar panel and regulates the battery and microcontroller output load voltages through the use of an on-chip switched-capacitor DC-DC converter. System performance is verified through simulation at the 180nm technology node and is made to be integrated on-chip with 0.25 second startup time, 79% efficiency, --8/+14% ripple on the load, an average 1micro A of quiescent current (3.7micro W of power) and total on-chip area of 1.8mm2 .

  7. HVAC SYSTEMS AS A TOOL IN CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Although significant progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption of HVAC systems, their effect on indoor a...

  8. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  9. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  10. Indoor infrared wireless communication system based on Ethernet network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Gong, Mali; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Haitao; Yan, Ping; Jin, Wei; Jiang, Feng; Meng, Yu; Zou, Shanshan

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, we present an infrared wireless indoor communication system that bases on Ethernet network. The bit rate of Ethernet is 10Mbps, but after Manchester coding, in the physical layer the actual bit rate is 20Mbps. In our designs, the transmitter uses laser diodes (LDs). The transmitter consists of differential input circuit, LD driver circuit. The receiver consists of a coated truncated spherical concentrator whose field of view (FOV) is 40 degree, a large area Si PIN photo-detector followed by transimpedance amplifier, second-stage amplifier, low-pass filter (LPF), high-pass filter (HPF), limiting amplifier and differential output circuit. The network is constructed as a base-terminals configuration and two transit wavelengths are used for base and terminals respectively to avoid collision. Experimental testing was conducted in a room with size 5m × 5m × 3m and the network could work well.

  11. Indoor visual positioning system using LED and mobile phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yingkui; Shi, Zhengfa; Wang, Yuqi

    2016-01-01

    An indoor visual positioning system is proposed, which using four or more LED ceiling lamps and a mobile phone. A 4*4 photodiode array is attached to the mobile phone to receive the three-dimensional coordinates of the LED lamps via visible light communication, and the front camera of the mobile phone is used to receive the high resolution image of the LED lamps. The mobile phone's three-dimensional coordinates can be determined by matching the spot information and three-dimensional coordinates of the LED lamps with the image information provided by the mobile phone. An improved collinear equation model is proposed to build the mapping relationship between the three-dimensional coordinates of the LED lamps and the image information acquired by the front camera. A semi-physical simulation has been conducted and analyzed. The positioning scheme is proved to be valid and the positioning accuracy is up to decimeter level.

  12. 47 CFR 15.517 - Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emission limit, following the procedures described in § 15.521. (f) UWB systems operating under the... necessity to operate with a fixed indoor infrastructure, e.g., a transmitter that must be connected to the... considered to operate indoors provided the emissions are directed towards the ground. (5) A...

  13. Indoor air pollution by different heating systems: coal burning, open fireplace and central heating.

    PubMed

    Moriske, H J; Drews, M; Ebert, G; Menk, G; Scheller, C; Schöndube, M; Konieczny, L

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of indoor air pollution by different heating systems in private homes are described. Sixteen homes, 7 with coal burning, 1 with open fireplace (wood burning) and 8 with central heating have been investigated. We measured the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and sedimented dust in indoor air, of total suspended particulates, heavy metals and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were taken during winter (heating period) and during summer (non-heating period). Generally, we found higher indoor air pollution in homes with coal burning and open fireplace than in homes with central heating. Especially, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, sedimented dust and of some heavy metals were higher. In one case, we found also high indoor air pollution in a home with central heating. This apartment is on the ground floor of a block of flats, and the central heating system in the basement showed a malfunctioning of the exhaust system.

  14. The climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, M.; Prodi, F.

    2015-08-01

    An overview of what we know about the climate of the planet Earth up to 5.5 millions of years from now is presented first, with the air temperature in proximity to the surface as the main, and more feasible, parameter to be followed. The behavior of this parameter exhibits a distinct periodicity with more internal fluctuations. This overview prompts us to a description of the physical basis of the climate system, capable of explaining such fluctuations. The system is the star-planet, initially described as a lamp-billiard ball simple system. Astronomical causes affect the distance lamp-billiard ball (star-planet) and the ball (Earth) rotation axis orientation, while astronomical causes affect the intensity of radiation emitted from the lamp (Sun). The complication introduced by the atmosphere is then explained, essentially through the triatomic gas molecules, aerosol and clouds. Atmospheric composition affects incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared one. The compartments relevant for climate definition are examined: lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere including vegetation and humans. However due to space limitations the interactions between the different compartments are not treated here and we restrict ourselves to the treatment of the atmosphere.

  15. [Indoor pollution].

    PubMed

    Tarsitani, G

    1995-01-01

    The Author reports more important phases from the beginning of housing to now: the indoor pollution time. Shelter is a basic need; humans require protection against the elements, somewhere to store and prepare the food, and a secure place to raise offspring; but indoor environment is not always safe. It has been known since Hippocrates' time that housing conditions affect health. Today situation starts from the enormous growth of urbanization. At 1888 in Italy first legislation on health, including healthy building, has been issued. The prevention policies were based on local hygiene regulations. At present housing programmes of who stress the problem in consideration too of the great part of time that, in industrialized Countries, we all pass at home, in the indoor environment. Following the general introduction the Author relates on the features of indoor climate, that may be identical that out of doors, or may be modified by heating, cooling, humidification and ventilation. Larger commentaries are reported on indoor pollution and its increasing by modern technology producing several new hazards. Physical, chemical and biological indoor air pollutants, with their principal sources and health damages associated, are analyzed. In conclusion the author shows some data from a research on indoor pollution in the houses of Rome.

  16. Indoor climate and moisture durability performances of houses with unvented attic roof constructions in a mixed-humid climate.

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B.; Boudreaux, Philip R.; Jackson, Roderick K.

    2014-10-01

    A sealed or unvented attic is an energy-efficient envelope component that can reduce the amount of energy a house consumes for space conditioning if the air handler and/or ducts are located in the attic. The attic is typically sealed by using spray foam on the underside of the roof deck and covering the soffit, ridge and gable vents to minimize air leakage from the attic to the outside. This approach can save up to 10% in space-conditioning energy when ducts are located in the attic (DOE 2013). Past research done by ORNL and Florida Solar Energy Center suggests that in more hot, humid climates, an unvented attic could potentially create a more humid, uncomfortable living environment than a vented attic (Colon 2011, Boudreaux, Pallin et al. 2013). Research showed that controlling the higher indoor humidity could reduce the energy savings from the sealed, unvented attic, which in turn would decrease the energy savings payback. Research also showed that the roof assembly (5.5 inches of open-cell foam, 1inch of closed-cell foam, OSB, felt paper, and asphalt shingles) stored moisture, thus acting as a moisture buffer. During the fall and winter, the roof assembly stored moisture and during the spring and summer it released moisture. This phenomenon is not seen in a vented attic, in which the air exchange rate to the outside is greater and, in the winter, helps to dehumidify the attic air. It was also seen that in a vented attic, the direction of water vapor diffusion is on average from the attic to the interior of the house. Air leakage from the attic to the interior also occurs during more of the year in a house with an unvented attic than in one with a vented attic. These discoveries show that the moisture dynamics in a house with an unvented attic are much different from those in a house with a vented attic. This study reports on a series of computer model investigations completed to determine the key variables impacting indoor comfort and the durability of roof

  17. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    ?Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy.

  18. ODINS: On-Demand Indoor Navigation System RFID Based.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federico; Masciadri, Andrea; Salice, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an On-Demand Indoor Navigation System (ODINS) based on RFID technology. ODINS is a distributed infrastructure where a set of information points (Fixed Stations - FS) provides the direction to a user who has to reach the destination point he/she has previously selected. ODINS system is proposed for residencies hosting people with mild cognitive disabilities and elderly but it can be also applied to structures where people could be disoriented. The destination is configured at some reception points or it is a predefined (e.g. the bed room or a selected "safe" point). The destination is associated with a RFID disposable bracelet assigned to her/him. The path is algorithmically computed and spread to all FSs. Every time the user is disoriented, she/he can search for the closest FS that displays the right directition. FSs should be located in strategic positions and provide a user-friendly interface such as bright arrows. The complexity is "system-side" making ODINS usable for everyone.

  19. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  20. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  1. Exploitation of Semantic Building Model in Indoor Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjomshoaa, A.; Shayeganfar, F.; Tjoa, A. Min

    2009-04-01

    There are many types of indoor and outdoor navigation tools and methodologies available. A majority of these solutions are based on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and instant video and image processing. These approaches are ideal for open world environments where very few information about the target location is available, but for large scale building environments such as hospitals, governmental offices, etc the end-user will need more detailed information about the surrounding context which is especially important in case of people with special needs. This paper presents a smart indoor navigation solution that is based on Semantic Web technologies and Building Information Model (BIM). The proposed solution is also aligned with Google Android's concepts to enlighten the realization of results. Keywords: IAI IFCXML, Building Information Model, Indoor Navigation, Semantic Web, Google Android, People with Special Needs 1 Introduction Built environment is a central factor in our daily life and a big portion of human life is spent inside buildings. Traditionally the buildings are documented using building maps and plans by utilization of IT tools such as computer-aided design (CAD) applications. Documenting the maps in an electronic way is already pervasive but CAD drawings do not suffice the requirements regarding effective building models that can be shared with other building-related applications such as indoor navigation systems. The navigation in built environment is not a new issue, however with the advances in emerging technologies like GPS, mobile and networked environments, and Semantic Web new solutions have been suggested to enrich the traditional building maps and convert them to smart information resources that can be reused in other applications and improve the interpretability with building inhabitants and building visitors. Other important issues that should be addressed in building navigation scenarios are location tagging and end-user communication

  2. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  3. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system. PMID:22319282

  4. Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Yeh, Shuo-Ju; Liu, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The main approach for a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system is based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements, and the fingerprinting method is utilized to determine the user position by matching the RSS values with the pre-surveyed RSS database. To build a RSS fingerprint database is essential for an RSS based indoor positioning system, and building such a RSS fingerprint database requires lots of time and effort. As the range of the indoor environment becomes larger, labor is increased. To provide better indoor positioning services and to reduce the labor required for the establishment of the positioning system at the same time, an indoor positioning system with an appropriate spatial interpolation method is needed. In addition, the advantage of the RSS approach is that the signal strength decays as the transmission distance increases, and this signal propagation characteristic is applied to an interpolated database with the Kriging algorithm in this paper. Using the distribution of reference points (RPs) at measured points, the signal propagation model of the Wi-Fi access point (AP) in the building can be built and expressed as a function. The function, as the spatial structure of the environment, can create the RSS database quickly in different indoor environments. Thus, in this paper, a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system based on the Kriging fingerprinting method is developed. As shown in the experiment results, with a 72.2% probability, the error of the extended RSS database with Kriging is less than 3 dBm compared to the surveyed RSS database. Importantly, the positioning error of the developed Wi-Fi indoor positioning system with Kriging is reduced by 17.9% in average than that without Kriging. PMID:26343673

  5. Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Yeh, Shuo-Ju; Liu, Ya-Wen

    2015-08-28

    The main approach for a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system is based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements, and the fingerprinting method is utilized to determine the user position by matching the RSS values with the pre-surveyed RSS database. To build a RSS fingerprint database is essential for an RSS based indoor positioning system, and building such a RSS fingerprint database requires lots of time and effort. As the range of the indoor environment becomes larger, labor is increased. To provide better indoor positioning services and to reduce the labor required for the establishment of the positioning system at the same time, an indoor positioning system with an appropriate spatial interpolation method is needed. In addition, the advantage of the RSS approach is that the signal strength decays as the transmission distance increases, and this signal propagation characteristic is applied to an interpolated database with the Kriging algorithm in this paper. Using the distribution of reference points (RPs) at measured points, the signal propagation model of the Wi-Fi access point (AP) in the building can be built and expressed as a function. The function, as the spatial structure of the environment, can create the RSS database quickly in different indoor environments. Thus, in this paper, a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system based on the Kriging fingerprinting method is developed. As shown in the experiment results, with a 72.2% probability, the error of the extended RSS database with Kriging is less than 3 dBm compared to the surveyed RSS database. Importantly, the positioning error of the developed Wi-Fi indoor positioning system with Kriging is reduced by 17.9% in average than that without Kriging.

  6. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  7. A miniature shoe-mounted orientation determination system for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking. PMID:27370490

  8. A miniature shoe-mounted orientation determination system for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

  9. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, Mark D.; Robinson, David G.; Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.; Peterson, Kara J.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Desilets, Darin Maurice; Reinert, Rhonda Karen

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  10. Indoor radon

    SciTech Connect

    Rabkin, M.A.; Bodansky, D.

    1988-12-31

    The first awareness of radon as a health hazard came from observations of increased lung cancer incidence among uranium and other miners. During the past decade there has been increasing recognition of the importance of radon in the indoor environment as well. Extrapolations from radon exposures in mines to those in homes indicate that radon will cause a significant number of lung cancer deaths among the general population if its effects are linearly proportional to the magnitude of the exposure. For example, in the United States roughly 5000 to 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year are now attributed to indoor radon. Consistent with this, the effective dose equivalent from indoor radon is larger than the dose from any other radiation source for most people in temperate climates. Radon is a noble gas and can diffuse freely through the air. The most important isotope of radon, Rn-222, is produced in the alpha-particle decay of Ra-226, which is present in all soil and rock as a product of the U-238 decay series. In consequence, radon is present in both the outdoor and indoor environments, primarily due to its escape from the soil into the open air or into houses. The indoor concentrations are usually much higher than the outdoor concentrations, because the radon that enters into houses escapes relatively slowly. 120 refs., 12 tabs.

  11. Design and optimization of indoor optical wireless positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, Mark H.; Guerrero, Daniel; Jin, Xian; Hristovski, Blago A.; Chaves, Hugo A. L. F.; Klukas, Richard; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2016-03-01

    Optical wireless (OW) technologies are an emerging field utilizing optical sources to replace existing radio wavelength technologies. The vast majority of work in OW focuses on communication; however, one smaller emerging field is indoor OW positioning. This emerging field essentially aims to replace GPS indoors. One of the primary competing methods in indoor OW positioning is angle-of-arrival (AOA). AOA positioning uses the received vectors from several optical beacons to triangulate its position. The reliability of this triangulation is fundamentally based on two aspects: the geometry of the optical receiver's location compared to the optical beacon locations, and the ability for the optical receiver to resolve the incident vectors correctly. The optical receiver is quantified based on the standard deviation of the azimuthal and polar angles that define the measured vector. The quality of the optical beacon geometry is quantified using dilution of precision (DOP). This proceeding discusses the AOA standard deviation of an ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV) lens along with the DOP characteristics for several optical beacon geometries. The optical beacon geometries used were simple triangle, square, and hexagon optical beacon geometries. To assist the implementation of large optical beacon geometries it is proposed to use both frequency and wavelength division multiplexing. It is found that with an ultra-wide FOV lens, coupled with the appropriately sized optical beacon geometry, allow for high accuracy positioning over a large area. The results of this work will enable reliable OW positioning deployments.

  12. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-01

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations. PMID:23927534

  13. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-01

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations.

  14. Hybrid daylight/light-emitting diode illumination system for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Aiming; Qiu, Peng; Cai, Jinlin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwei

    2014-03-20

    A hybrid illumination method using both daylight and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for indoor lighting is presented in this study. The daylight can be introduced into the indoor space by a panel-integration system. The daylight part and LEDs are combined within a specific luminaire that can provide uniform illumination. The LEDs can be turned on and dimmed through closed-loop control when the daylight illuminance is inadequate. We simulated the illumination and calculated the indoor lighting efficiency of our hybrid daylight and LED lighting system, and compared this with that of LED and fluorescent lighting systems. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid daylight/LED illumination method is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems, under the same lighting conditions and lighting time; the method has hybrid lighting average energy savings of T5 66.28%, and that of the LEDs is 41.62%.

  15. Hybrid daylight/light-emitting diode illumination system for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Aiming; Qiu, Peng; Cai, Jinlin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwei

    2014-03-20

    A hybrid illumination method using both daylight and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for indoor lighting is presented in this study. The daylight can be introduced into the indoor space by a panel-integration system. The daylight part and LEDs are combined within a specific luminaire that can provide uniform illumination. The LEDs can be turned on and dimmed through closed-loop control when the daylight illuminance is inadequate. We simulated the illumination and calculated the indoor lighting efficiency of our hybrid daylight and LED lighting system, and compared this with that of LED and fluorescent lighting systems. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid daylight/LED illumination method is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems, under the same lighting conditions and lighting time; the method has hybrid lighting average energy savings of T5 66.28%, and that of the LEDs is 41.62%. PMID:24663465

  16. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  17. Effect of interferences on indoor visible light car-to-car communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Young; Park, Bong-Seok; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Kim, So Eun; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Chung Ghiu

    2016-04-01

    We report the effect of interferences on visible light car-to-car communication system. The interferences from floor reflections and fluorescent lamps are taken into account for indoor car-to-car visible light communication (VLC) systems. The system is composed of a white LED lamp as a VLC transmitter and a photo-receiver with an appropriate optical filter as a VLC receiver. The signal power distribution patterns are measured and analyzed at a transmission distance, considering the positions of the transmitter and receiver. Generally, the light from fluorescent lamps in indoor environment affects the DC level of the received signal power, which is more significant at higher receiver positions. The measurements show that the indoor VLC communication performance can be varied depending on floor reflections. Also, the fluorescent ceiling illuminations affect the DC level change of the received VLC signal waveforms.

  18. The Performance Analysis of AN Indoor Mobile Mapping System with Rgb-D Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, G. J.; Chiang, K. W.; Chu, C. H.; Chen, Y. L.; El-Sheimy, N.; Habib, A.

    2015-08-01

    Over the years, Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs) have been widely applied to urban mapping, path management and monitoring and cyber city, etc. The key concept of mobile mapping is based on positioning technology and photogrammetry. In order to achieve the integration, multi-sensor integrated mapping technology has clearly established. In recent years, the robotic technology has been rapidly developed. The other mapping technology that is on the basis of low-cost sensor has generally used in robotic system, it is known as the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). The objective of this study is developed a prototype of indoor MMS for mobile mapping applications, especially to reduce the costs and enhance the efficiency of data collection and validation of direct georeferenced (DG) performance. The proposed indoor MMS is composed of a tactical grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the Kinect RGB-D sensor and light detection, ranging (LIDAR) and robot. In summary, this paper designs the payload for indoor MMS to generate the floor plan. In first session, it concentrates on comparing the different positioning algorithms in the indoor environment. Next, the indoor plans are generated by two sensors, Kinect RGB-D sensor LIDAR on robot. Moreover, the generated floor plan will compare with the known plan for both validation and verification.

  19. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design. PMID:26694387

  20. Mobile Robot Self-Localization System Using Single Webcam Distance Measurement Technology in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, I-Hsum; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Wei-Yen; Su, Shun-Feng; Lai, To-Wen

    2014-01-01

    A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS) and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS) have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment. PMID:24473282

  1. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N.; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design. PMID:26694387

  2. Mobile robot self-localization system using single webcam distance measurement technology in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Hsum; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Wei-Yen; Su, Shun-Feng; Lai, To-Wen

    2014-01-01

    A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS) and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS) have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment. PMID:24473282

  3. Mobile robot self-localization system using single webcam distance measurement technology in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Hsum; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Wei-Yen; Su, Shun-Feng; Lai, To-Wen

    2014-01-27

    A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS) and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS) have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment.

  4. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N; Li, Jia

    2015-12-14

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design.

  5. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  6. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  7. Indoor positioning system using WLAN channel estimates as fingerprints for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Erick; Akopian, David

    2015-03-01

    With the growing integration of location based services (LBS) such as GPS in mobile devices, indoor position systems (IPS) have become an important role for research. There are several IPS methods such as AOA, TOA, TDOA, which use trilateration for indoor location estimation but are generally based on line-of-sight. Other methods rely on classification such as fingerprinting which uses WLAN indoor signals. This paper re-examines the classical WLAN fingerprinting accuracy which uses received signal strength (RSS) measurements by introducing channel estimates for improvements in the classification of indoor locations. The purpose of this paper is to improve existing classification algorithms used in fingerprinting by introducing channel estimates when there are a low number of APs available. The channel impulse response, or in this case the channel estimation from the receiver, should characterize a complex indoor area which usually has multipath, thus providing a unique signature for each location which proves useful for better pattern recognition. In this experiment, channel estimates are extracted from a Software-Defined Radio (SDR) environment, thus exploiting the benefits of SDR from a NI-USRP model and LabVIEW software. Measurements are taken from a known building, and several scenarios with one and two access points (APs) are used in this experiment. Also, three granularities in distance between locations are analyzed. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as the algorithm for pattern recognition of different locations based on the samples taken from RSS and channel estimation coefficients.

  8. Validity and reliability of a radio positioning system for tracking athletes in indoor and outdoor team sports.

    PubMed

    Sathyan, Thuraiappah; Shuttleworth, Richard; Hedley, Mark; Davids, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Radio-frequency local positioning systems (LPS) have the potential to provide accurate location information about sport players for performance analysis, making available for study the emergent nature of interpersonal coordination and collective decision-making behaviour among players in both indoor and outdoor sports. However, no available publications have validated the performance of LPS for indoor sports. The objective of this study was to validate the performance of an LPS in an indoor venue and to compare it to performance observed in an outdoor venue using static and dynamic measurements. Our results showed that the absolute positioning errors obtained from the static measurements of the LPS were comparable for both indoor and outdoor venues, with mean errors of 12.1 cm outdoors and 11.9 cm indoors. From the dynamic measurements, we analysed the relative position error and the distance estimation performance of the system. The 90th-percentile relative position errors were 28 cm for the indoor venue versus 18 cm for the outdoor venue. On average, the LPS overestimated the distance travelled, and the performance was similar for both indoor and outdoor venues. On a linear course, the mean errors of the distance estimates were 2.2% of the total distance indoors and 1.3% outdoors, and on a nonlinear course, they were 2.7% indoors and 3.2% outdoors.

  9. Indoor anti-occlusion visible light positioning systems based on particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Meng; Huang, Zhitong; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ruqi; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-04-01

    As one of the most popular categories of mobile services, a rapid growth of indoor location-based services has been witnessed over the past decades. Indoor positioning methods based on Wi-Fi, radio-frequency identification or Bluetooth are widely commercialized; however, they have disadvantages such as low accuracy or high cost. An emerging method using visible light is under research recently. The existed visible light positioning (VLP) schemes using carrier allocation, time allocation and multiple receivers all have limitations. This paper presents a novel mechanism using particle filtering in VLP system. By this method no additional devices are needed and the occlusion problem in visible light would be alleviated which will effectively enhance the flexibility for indoor positioning.

  10. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Indoor Navigation System for Visually Impaired People

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Sala, Alejandro Santos; Losilla, Fernando; Sánchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation is a challenging task for visually impaired people. Although there are guidance systems available for such purposes, they have some drawbacks that hamper their direct application in real-life situations. These systems are either too complex, inaccurate, or require very special conditions (i.e., rare in everyday life) to operate. In this regard, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology has been shown to be effective for indoor positioning, providing a high level of accuracy and low installation complexity. This paper presents SUGAR, an indoor navigation system for visually impaired people which uses UWB for positioning, a spatial database of the environment for pathfinding through the application of the A* algorithm, and a guidance module. The interaction with the user takes place using acoustic signals and voice commands played through headphones. The suitability of the system for indoor navigation has been verified by means of a functional and usable prototype through a field test with a blind person. In addition, other tests have been conducted in order to show the accuracy of different relevant parts of the system. PMID:26703610

  11. Neural computing thermal comfort index PMV for the indoor environment intelligent control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Yifei

    2013-03-01

    Providing indoor thermal comfort and saving energy are two main goals of indoor environmental control system. An intelligent comfort control system by combining the intelligent control and minimum power control strategies for the indoor environment is presented in this paper. In the system, for realizing the comfort control, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is designed as the control goal, and with chastening formulas of PMV, it is controlled to optimize for improving indoor comfort lever by considering six comfort related variables. On the other hand, a RBF neural network based on genetic algorithm is designed to calculate PMV for better performance and overcoming the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation better. The formulas given in the paper are presented for calculating the expected output values basing on the input samples, and the RBF network model is trained depending on input samples and the expected output values. The simulation result is proved that the design of the intelligent calculation method is valid. Moreover, this method has a lot of advancements such as high precision, fast dynamic response and good system performance are reached, it can be used in practice with requested calculating error.

  12. HyMoTrack: A Mobile AR Navigation System for Complex Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gerstweiler, Georg; Vonach, Emanuel; Kaufmann, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Navigating in unknown big indoor environments with static 2D maps is a challenge, especially when time is a critical factor. In order to provide a mobile assistant, capable of supporting people while navigating in indoor locations, an accurate and reliable localization system is required in almost every corner of the building. We present a solution to this problem through a hybrid tracking system specifically designed for complex indoor spaces, which runs on mobile devices like smartphones or tablets. The developed algorithm only uses the available sensors built into standard mobile devices, especially the inertial sensors and the RGB camera. The combination of multiple optical tracking technologies, such as 2D natural features and features of more complex three-dimensional structures guarantees the robustness of the system. All processing is done locally and no network connection is needed. State-of-the-art indoor tracking approaches use mainly radio-frequency signals like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth for localizing a user. In contrast to these approaches, the main advantage of the developed system is the capability of delivering a continuous 3D position and orientation of the mobile device with centimeter accuracy. This makes it usable for localization and 3D augmentation purposes, e.g. navigation tasks or location-based information visualization. PMID:26712755

  13. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  14. HyMoTrack: A Mobile AR Navigation System for Complex Indoor Environments.

    PubMed

    Gerstweiler, Georg; Vonach, Emanuel; Kaufmann, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Navigating in unknown big indoor environments with static 2D maps is a challenge, especially when time is a critical factor. In order to provide a mobile assistant, capable of supporting people while navigating in indoor locations, an accurate and reliable localization system is required in almost every corner of the building. We present a solution to this problem through a hybrid tracking system specifically designed for complex indoor spaces, which runs on mobile devices like smartphones or tablets. The developed algorithm only uses the available sensors built into standard mobile devices, especially the inertial sensors and the RGB camera. The combination of multiple optical tracking technologies, such as 2D natural features and features of more complex three-dimensional structures guarantees the robustness of the system. All processing is done locally and no network connection is needed. State-of-the-art indoor tracking approaches use mainly radio-frequency signals like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth for localizing a user. In contrast to these approaches, the main advantage of the developed system is the capability of delivering a continuous 3D position and orientation of the mobile device with centimeter accuracy. This makes it usable for localization and 3D augmentation purposes, e.g. navigation tasks or location-based information visualization. PMID:26712755

  15. Climate Observing Systems: Data System Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T. R.

    2001-12-01

    Existing observing and data systems have provided considerable information about past climate variations and changes. The recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Research Council, and the USGCRP National Assessment of Climate Variability and Change are testaments to a vast array of knowledge. These reports also expose some serious deficiencies in our ability to discern past climate variations and change which lead to substantial uncertainties in key climate state, climate feedback, and climate forcing variables. How significant are these uncertainties? For climate trends that have our highest confidence, like the change in mean global surface temperature, the 95 percent confidence intervals amount to about two-thirds of the calculated change. With such large uncertainties it is exceedingly difficult to discern accelerated changes. For other variables, especially variables related to climate feedbacks and forcings (with exceptions for long-lived and well-mixed greenhouse gases like CO2 or CH4) or climate and weather extremes, we often have little or no information to discern trends or cannot objectively assess confidence intervals. Do we know how to reduce existing uncertainties? First and foremost, a climate observation oversight and monitoring capability is needed that tracks the gathering of the data, the processing system, and the performance of the observations, especially time-dependent biases. An organized capability does not now exist, but could be developed at a new and/or existing centers. This center(s) should then have the means and influence to fix problems and be able to establish requirements for new in-situ and satellite observing including related data systems. Such a capability should complement the following: (1) Climate observations from both space-based and in-situ platforms that are taken in ways that address climate needs and adhere to the ten principles outlined by the NRC (1999 Adequacy of Climate

  16. Two women with multiple disabilities sharing an acoustic orientation system and traveling together to indoor destinations.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, G E; Mantini, M

    1998-12-01

    This study assessed whether two women with total blindness and profound intellectual disability could share an acoustic orientation system and travel together simultaneously to common indoor destinations to perform occupational and vocational activities. The orientation system provided acoustic cues which indicated the direction to the destinations. Analysis of data indicated that the women were successful in sharing the system and could reach the destinations independently. PMID:10052076

  17. PERCEPT Indoor Navigation System for the Blind and Visually Impaired: Architecture and Experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Gandhi, Siddhesh; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    We introduce PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT will improve the quality of life and health of the visually impaired community by enabling independent living. Using PERCEPT, blind users will have independent access to public health facilities such as clinics, hospitals, and wellness centers. Access to healthcare facilities is crucial for this population due to the multiple health conditions that they face such as diabetes and its complications. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multistory building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows orientation and mobility principles. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces, especially in healthcare and wellness facilities. PMID:23316225

  18. Development of a New Low-Cost Indoor Mapping System - System Design, System Calibration and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.; Tschirschwitz, F.

    2016-06-01

    For mapping of building interiors various 2D and 3D indoor surveying systems are available today. These systems essentially differ from each other by price and accuracy as well as by the effort required for fieldwork and post-processing. The Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of HafenCity University (HCU) Hamburg has developed, as part of an industrial project, a lowcost indoor mapping system, which enables systematic inventory mapping of interior facilities with low staffing requirements and reduced, measurable expenditure of time and effort. The modelling and evaluation of the recorded data take place later in the office. The indoor mapping system of HCU Hamburg consists of the following components: laser range finder, panorama head (pan-tilt-unit), single-board computer (Raspberry Pi) with digital camera and battery power supply. The camera is pre-calibrated in a photogrammetric test field under laboratory conditions. However, remaining systematic image errors are corrected simultaneously within the generation of the panorama image. Due to cost reasons the camera and laser range finder are not coaxially arranged on the panorama head. Therefore, eccentricity and alignment of the laser range finder against the camera must be determined in a system calibration. For the verification of the system accuracy and the system calibration, the laser points were determined from measurements with total stations. The differences to the reference were 4-5mm for individual coordinates.

  19. Indoor positioning system using WLAN multipath signals as fingerprints for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anirban; Akopian, David

    2014-02-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has eventually become a common positioning technology. While GPS enabled many applications, satellite signals have yet to overcome many obstacles to enable indoor positioning. Meanwhile, due to the wide deployment of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) in recent years, WLAN positioning algorithms have become popular for mobile device positioning in indoor environments. The most accurate WLAN positioning algorithms exploit the so-called fingerprinting concept which consists of two stages. In the offline stage (training), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) from a set of available Access Points (AP) is measured for a number of reference locations and stored in a database. Due to the availability of many APs and the complex structure of indoor environments, this information is distinctive for each reference location and thus is called a position fingerprint. In the online stage (testing), a mobile device receives RSSIs from the APs and their fingerprint is compared to the fingerprints that are stored in the database for a best possible match. WLAN fingerprinting can provide high accuracy in indoor environments when there are many APs which ensure fingerprint uniqueness. This paper provides a novel approach to use WLAN multipath signals as possible fingerprints for positioning algorithms for applications with lower number of access points. The paper provides an initial study.

  20. Pedestrian mobile mapping system for indoor environments based on MEMS IMU and range camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haala, N.; Fritsch, D.; Peter, M.; Khosravani, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes an approach for the modeling of building interiors based on a mobile device, which integrates modules for pedestrian navigation and low-cost 3D data collection. Personal navigation is realized by a foot mounted low cost MEMS IMU, while 3D data capture for subsequent indoor modeling uses a low cost range camera, which was originally developed for gaming applications. Both steps, navigation and modeling, are supported by additional information as provided from the automatic interpretation of evacuation plans. Such emergency plans are compulsory for public buildings in a number of countries. They consist of an approximate floor plan, the current position and escape routes. Additionally, semantic information like stairs, elevators or the floor number is available. After the user has captured an image of such a floor plan, this information is made explicit again by an automatic raster-to-vector-conversion. The resulting coarse indoor model then provides constraints at stairs or building walls, which restrict the potential movement of the user. This information is then used to support pedestrian navigation by eliminating drift effects of the used low-cost sensor system. The approximate indoor building model additionally provides a priori information during subsequent indoor modeling. Within this process, the low cost range camera Kinect is used for the collection of multiple 3D point clouds, which are aligned by a suitable matching step and then further analyzed to refine the coarse building model.

  1. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... as conditions caused by outdoor impacts (such as climate change). Many reports and studies indicate that the following ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup Home Remodel Indoor airPLUS Mold Radon ...

  2. Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural…

  3. HVAC systems as emission sources affecting indoor air quality: A critical review. Final report, September 1993-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, S.; Burge, H.

    1995-02-01

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ tests, longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, and laboratory studies. Based on the available literature, several HVAC components are cited fairly frequently as emission sources, and there is broad agreement regarding their significance. IAQ problems appear to be exacerbated by dust accumulation and by the presence of fibrous insulation. Other problems include entrainment, migration, and infiltration of indoor and outdoor contaminants that are distributed to indoor spaces by the HVAC system.

  4. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  5. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  6. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James D.; Tuttle, Steven C.; Nelson, Morgan C.; Bradshaw, Rebecca K.; Hoybjerg, Taylor G.; Johnson, Julene B.; Kruman, Bryce A.; Orton, Taylor S.; Cook, Ryan B.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Weber, K. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan–Apr) and summer (July–Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  7. Gaussian mixture sigma-point particle filter for optical indoor navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weizhi; Gu, Wenjun; Chen, Chunyi; Chowdhury, M. I. S.; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    With the fast growing and popularization of smart computing devices, there is a rise in demand for accurate and reliable indoor positioning. Recently, systems using visible light communications (VLC) technology have been considered as candidates for indoor positioning applications. A number of researchers have reported that VLC-based positioning systems could achieve position estimation accuracy in the order of centimeter. This paper proposes an Indoors navigation environment, based on visible light communications (VLC) technology. Light-emitting-diodes (LEDs), which are essentially semiconductor devices, can be easily modulated and used as transmitters within the proposed system. Positioning is realized by collecting received-signal-strength (RSS) information on the receiver side, following which least square estimation is performed to obtain the receiver position. To enable tracking of user's trajectory and reduce the effect of wild values in raw measurements, different filters are employed. In this paper, by computer simulations we have shown that Gaussian mixture Sigma-point particle filter (GM-SPPF) outperforms other filters such as basic Kalman filter and sequential importance-resampling particle filter (SIR-PF), at a reasonable computational cost.

  8. Received signal strength recovery in green WLAN indoor positioning system using singular value thresholding.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Xu, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    Green WLAN is a promising technique for accessing future indoor Internet services. It is designed not only for high-speed data communication purposes but also for energy efficiency. The basic strategy of green WLAN is that all the access points are not always powered on, but rather work on-demand. Though powering off idle access points does not affect data communication, a serious asymmetric matching problem will arise in a WLAN indoor positioning system due to the fact the received signal strength (RSS) readings from the available access points are different in their offline and online phases. This asymmetry problem will no doubt invalidate the fingerprint algorithm used to estimate the mobile device location. Therefore, in this paper we propose a green WLAN indoor positioning system, which can recover RSS readings and achieve good localization performance based on singular value thresholding (SVT) theory. By solving the nuclear norm minimization problem, SVT recovers not only the radio map, but also online RSS readings from a sparse matrix by sensing only a fraction of the RSS readings. We have implemented the method in our lab and evaluated its performances. The experimental results indicate the proposed system could recover the RSS readings and achieve good localization performance.

  9. Cabin air quality: indoor pollutants and climate during intercontinental flights with and without tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, T; Norbäck, D

    2002-12-01

    The aim was to determine cabin air quality and in-flight exposure for cabin attendants of specific pollutants during intercontinental flights. Measurements of air humidity, temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2), respirable particles, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde were performed during 26 intercontinental flights with Boeing 767-300 with and without tobacco smoking onboard. The mean temperature in cabin was 22.2 degrees C (range 17.4-26.8 degrees C), and mean relative air humidity was 6% (range 1-27%). The CO2 concentration during cruises was below the recommended limit of 1000 ppm during 96% of measured time. Mean indoor concentration of NO2 and O3, were 14.1 and 19.2 micrograms/m3, with maximum values of 37 and 66 micrograms/m3, respectively. The concentration of formaldehyde was below the detection limit (< 5 micrograms/m3), in most samples (77%), and the maximum value was 15 micrograms/m3. The mean concentration of respirable particles in the rear part of the aircraft (AFT galley area) was much higher (49 micrograms/m3) during smoking as compared with non-smoking conditions (3 micrograms/m3) (P < 0.001), with maximum values of 253 and 7 micrograms/m3. In conclusion, air humidity is very low on intercontinental flights, and the large variation of temperature shows a need for better temperature control. Tobacco smoking onboard leads to a significant pollution of respirable particles, particularly in the rear part of the cabin. The result supports the view that despite the high air exchange rate and efficient air filtration, smoking in commercial aircraft leads to a significant pollution and should be prohibited.

  10. Pigment Degradation in Oil Paint Induced by Indoor Climate: Comparison of Visual and Computational Backscattered Electron Images.

    PubMed

    Keune, Katrien; Kramer, Rick P; Huijbregts, Zara; Schellen, Henk L; Stappers, Marc H L; van Eikema Hommes, Margriet H

    2016-04-01

    For the first time the degradation of lead white pigment in mature oil paint has been used as an internal marker for the degree of saponification and hence chemical degradation of oil paint. Computational image analysis of the backscattered electron images quantified the degree of the intact lead white pigment versus the nonpigmented and lead-rich areas (degraded lead white) in the paint layers. This new methodology was applied to a series of paint samples taken from four painted wall hangings (dated 1778), which makes it possible to study the influence of indoor climate on chemical degradation of aged oil paintings. The visual interpretation and computational image analysis of the backscattered electron images revealed clear trends. The highest degree of lead white degradation in the room was found in samples from the north wall close to the windows, whereas degradation diminished further away from the window. Lead white from the south wall was less degraded, but showed a similar trend as in the paintings on the north wall. These results imply a strong relationship between chemical degradation of paint and location of the paint in the room. PMID:26891673

  11. Pigment Degradation in Oil Paint Induced by Indoor Climate: Comparison of Visual and Computational Backscattered Electron Images.

    PubMed

    Keune, Katrien; Kramer, Rick P; Huijbregts, Zara; Schellen, Henk L; Stappers, Marc H L; van Eikema Hommes, Margriet H

    2016-04-01

    For the first time the degradation of lead white pigment in mature oil paint has been used as an internal marker for the degree of saponification and hence chemical degradation of oil paint. Computational image analysis of the backscattered electron images quantified the degree of the intact lead white pigment versus the nonpigmented and lead-rich areas (degraded lead white) in the paint layers. This new methodology was applied to a series of paint samples taken from four painted wall hangings (dated 1778), which makes it possible to study the influence of indoor climate on chemical degradation of aged oil paintings. The visual interpretation and computational image analysis of the backscattered electron images revealed clear trends. The highest degree of lead white degradation in the room was found in samples from the north wall close to the windows, whereas degradation diminished further away from the window. Lead white from the south wall was less degraded, but showed a similar trend as in the paintings on the north wall. These results imply a strong relationship between chemical degradation of paint and location of the paint in the room.

  12. Indoor air quality of a museum in a subtropical climate: the Oscar Niemeyer museum in Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Carneiro, Barbara H B; Paralovo, Sarah L; Campos, Vania P; Tavares, Tania M; Evangelista, Heitor; Van Grieken, Rene; Godoi, Ana F L

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of damage to indoor cultural heritage, in particular by pollutants, is nowadays a major and growing concern for curators and conservators. Nevertheless, although many museums have been widely investigated in Europe, the effects of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in museums under tropical and subtropical climates and with different economic realities are still unclear. An important portion of the world's cultural heritage is currently in tropical countries where both human and financial resources for preserving museum collections are limited. Hence, our aim is to assess the damage that can be caused to the artwork by pollution in hot and humid environments, where air quality and microclimatic condition differences can cause deterioration. As a case study, particulate matter as well as gases were collected at the Oscar Niemeyer Museum (MON) in Curitiba, Brazil, where large modern and contemporary works of art are displayed. NO2, SO2, O3, Acetic Acid, Formic Acids and BTEX, in the ambient air, were sampled by means of passive diffusive sampling and their concentrations were determined by IC or GC-MS. The particulate matter was collected in bulk form and analyzed with the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and aethalometer. The chemical compositions of individual particles were quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis. The gaseous and particulate matter levels were then compared with the concentrations obtained for the same pollutants in other museums, located in places with different climates, and with some reference values provided by international cultural heritage conservation centers. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could contribute to the chemical reactions taking place on the surfaces of artifacts and which could potentially cause irreversible damage to the

  13. Accuracy Evaluation for a Precise Indoor Multi-Camera Pose Estimation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, C.; Tuttas, S.; Hoegner, L.; Eder, K.; Stilla, U.

    2011-04-01

    Pose estimation is used for different applications like indoor positioning, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), industrial measurement and robot calibration. For industrial applications several approaches dealing with the subject of pose estimation employ photogrammetric methods. Cameras which observe an object from a given point of view are utilized as well as cameras which are firmly mounted on the object that is to be oriented. Since it is not always possible to create an environment that the camera can observe the object, we concentrate on the latter option. A camera system shall be developed which is flexibly applicable in an indoor environment, and can cope with different occlusion situations, varying distances and density of reference marks. For this purpose in a first step a conception has been designed and a test scenario was created to evaluate different camera configurations and reference mark distributions. Both issues, the theoretical concept as well as the experimental setup are subject of this document.

  14. Evaluation of Dicarbonyls Generated in a Simulated Indoor Air Environment Using an In Vitro Exposure System

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Jackson, Laurel G.; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been increasing awareness regarding the potential impact of indoor air pollution on health. Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or oxygenated organic compounds formed from indoor chemistry has been suggested to contribute to adverse health effects. These studies use an in vitro monitoring system called VitroCell, to assess chemicals found in the indoor air environment. The structurally similar dicarbonyls diacetyl, 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and methyl glyoxal were selected for use in this system. The VitroCell module was used to determine whether these dicarbonyls were capable of inducing inflammatory cytokine expression by exposed pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Increases in the relative fold change in messenger RNA expression of the inflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were identified following exposure to diacetyl, 4-OPA, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and methyl glyoxal when compared to a clean air control. Consistent results were observed when the protein levels of these cytokines were analyzed. Exposure to 4-OPA significantly elevated IL-8, IL-6, GM-CSF, and TNF-α while glutaraldehyde caused significant elevations in IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. IL-6 and IL-8 were also significantly elevated after exposure to diacetyl, glyoxal, and methyl glyoxal. These studies suggest that exposure to structurally similar oxygenated reaction products may be contributing to some of the health effects associated with indoor environments and may provide an in vitro method for identification and characterization of these potential hazards. PMID:20200221

  15. Indoor Positioning - An Ad-Hoc Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Rainer

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of an automatic, low-cost system that exploits current or near future wireless communications technology to enable continuous tracking of the location of devices in all environments. The development of such a wireless sensor network involves system design, digital signal processing, protocol development, extraction of ranges and localisation. This paper focuses on the user requirements, system architecture and network positioning. The user requirements are presented with a focus on applications in geodesy. A high level strategy for the positioning function is presented based on an ad-hoc geodetic network positioning method including issues of accuracy, quality and reliability of the node positions. Results show that it is possible to achieve a position deviation that is of the size of the ranging error.

  16. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems–Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Li, H.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens’ activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  17. Integration of Thermal Indoor Conditions into Operational Heat Health Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppe, C.; Becker, P.; Pfafferott, J.

    2009-09-01

    The 2003 heat wave in Western Europe with altogether 35,000 to 50,000 deaths in Europe, several thousands of which occurred in Germany, has clearly pointed out the danger arising from long periods with high heat load. As a consequence, Germany, as many other European countries, has started to implement a Heat Health Warning System (HHWS). The German HHWS is based on the ‘Perceived Temperature'. The 'Perceived Temperature' is determined through a heat budget model of the human organism which includes the main thermophysiologically relevant mechanisms of heat exchange with the atmosphere. The most important meteorological ambience parameters included in the model are air temperature, humidity, wind speed and radiation fluxes in the short-wave and long-wave ranges. In addition to using a heat budget model for the assessment of the thermal load, the German HHWS also takes into account that the human body reacts in different ways to its thermal environment due to physiological adaptation (short-term acclimatisation) and short-term behavioural adaptation. The restriction of such an approach, like the majority of approaches used to issue heat warnings, is that the threshold for a warning is generally derived from meteorological observations and that warnings are issued on the basis of weather forecasts. Both, the observed data and the weather forecasts are only available for outside conditions. The group of people who are most at risk of suffering from a heat wave, however, are the elderly and frail who mainly stay inside. The indoor situation, which varies largely from the conditions outside, is not taken into account by most of the warning systems. To overcome this limitation the DWD, in co-operation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, has developed a model which simulates the thermal conditions in the indoor environment. As air-conditioning in private housing in Germany is not very common, the thermal indoor conditions depend on the outside

  18. Vision-based position measurement system for indoor mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, M.J.; Dickerson, S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses a stand-alone position measurement system for mobile nuclear waste management robots traveling in warehouses. The task is to provide two-dimensional position information to help the automated guided vehicle (AGV) guide itself along the aisle`s centerline and mark the location of defective barrels containing low-level radiation. The AGV is 0.91 m wide and must travel along straight aisles 1.12 m wide and up to 36 m long. Radioactive testing limits the AGV`s speed to 25 mm/s. The design objectives focus on cost, power consumption, accuracy, and robustness.

  19. Observations of the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, Piers J.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of the climate system are critical for model validation and initialization, and also for monitoring in case of "surprises." Presently. we are still benefiting from data provided by the international fleet of Earth Observing satellites launched from the late 1990's onwards as well as from the longer-term record provided hy the operational meteorological satellites. However, we could be facing some data gaps in the near term in some critical areas. In situ measurements continue to be vital and, while they may be augmented hy future satellite measurements, will continue to be irreplaceable.

  20. A MISO UCA beamforming dimmable LED system for indoor positioning.

    PubMed

    Taparugssanagorn, Attaphongse; Siwamogsatham, Siwaruk; Pomalaza-Ráez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The use of a multiple input single output (MISO) transmit beamforming system using dimmable light emitting arrays (LEAs) in the form of a uniform circular array (UCA) of transmitters is proposed in this paper. With this technique, visible light communications between a transmitter and a receiver (LED reader) can be achieved with excellent performance and the receiver's position can be estimated. A hexagonal lattice alignment of LED transmitters is deployed to reduce the coverage holes and the areas of overlapping radiation. As a result, the accuracy of the position estimation is better than when using a typical rectangular grid alignment. The dimming control is done with pulse width modulation (PWM) to obtain an optimal closed loop beamforming and minimum energy consumption with acceptable lighting. PMID:24481234

  1. Indoor pollution by organic emissions from textile floor coverings: Climate test chamber studies under static conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollinger, S.; Levsen, K.; Wünsch, G.

    The emission of organic compounds from textile floor coverings was studied in a climate test chamber under static conditions (zero air exchange) in order to test the parameters which influence such chamber experiments, i.e. the temperature, the humidity and the adsorption on the walls. While depending on the volatility and the polarity of the compound, the equilibrium concentrations increase in part substantially with increasing temperature, the humidity has little impact on the observed concentrations. The chamber walls represent an important sink for polar and less volatile compounds, although this sink does not influence the equilibrium concentrations. Ten textile floor coverings have been tested (7 of which had a polyamide pile and a styrene-butadiene rubber backing). Ninety-nine compounds have been identified. The equilibrium concentrations of 20 compounds have been determined. These equilibrium concentrations do not depend on the sample size, the sample loading nor on wall effects, in contrast to the dynamic method, where these parameters play an important role.

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  3. A critical analysis of climatic influences on indoor radon concentrations: Implications for seasonal correction.

    PubMed

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J; Crockett, Robin G M; Denman, Antony R; Phillips, Paul S

    2015-10-01

    Although statistically-derived national Seasonal Correction Factors (SCFs) are conventionally used to convert sub-year radon concentration measurements to an annual mean, it has recently been suggested that external temperature could be used to derive local SCFs for short-term domestic measurements. To validate this approach, hitherto unanalysed radon and temperature data from an environmentally-stable location were analysed. Radon concentration and internal temperature were measured over periods totalling 1025 days during an overall period of 1762 days, the greatest continuous sampling period being 334 days, with corresponding meteorological data collected at a weather station 10 km distant. Mean daily, monthly and annual radon concentrations and internal temperatures were calculated. SCFs derived using monthly mean radon concentration, external temperature and internal-external temperature-difference were cross-correlated with each other and with published UK domestic SCF sets. Relatively good correlation exists between SCFs derived from radon concentration and internal-external temperature difference but correlation with external temperature, was markedly poorer. SCFs derived from external temperature correlate very well with published SCF tabulations, confirming that the complexity of deriving SCFs from temperature data may be outweighed by the convenience of using either of the existing domestic SCF tabulations. Mean monthly radon data fitted to a 12-month sinusoid showed reasonable correlation with many of the annual climatic parameter profiles, exceptions being atmospheric pressure, rainfall and internal temperature. Introducing an additional 6-month sinusoid enhanced correlation with these three parameters, the other correlations remaining essentially unchanged. Radon latency of the order of months in moisture-related parameters suggests that the principal driver for radon is total atmospheric moisture content rather than relative humidity. PMID:26093853

  4. A critical analysis of climatic influences on indoor radon concentrations: Implications for seasonal correction.

    PubMed

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J; Crockett, Robin G M; Denman, Antony R; Phillips, Paul S

    2015-10-01

    Although statistically-derived national Seasonal Correction Factors (SCFs) are conventionally used to convert sub-year radon concentration measurements to an annual mean, it has recently been suggested that external temperature could be used to derive local SCFs for short-term domestic measurements. To validate this approach, hitherto unanalysed radon and temperature data from an environmentally-stable location were analysed. Radon concentration and internal temperature were measured over periods totalling 1025 days during an overall period of 1762 days, the greatest continuous sampling period being 334 days, with corresponding meteorological data collected at a weather station 10 km distant. Mean daily, monthly and annual radon concentrations and internal temperatures were calculated. SCFs derived using monthly mean radon concentration, external temperature and internal-external temperature-difference were cross-correlated with each other and with published UK domestic SCF sets. Relatively good correlation exists between SCFs derived from radon concentration and internal-external temperature difference but correlation with external temperature, was markedly poorer. SCFs derived from external temperature correlate very well with published SCF tabulations, confirming that the complexity of deriving SCFs from temperature data may be outweighed by the convenience of using either of the existing domestic SCF tabulations. Mean monthly radon data fitted to a 12-month sinusoid showed reasonable correlation with many of the annual climatic parameter profiles, exceptions being atmospheric pressure, rainfall and internal temperature. Introducing an additional 6-month sinusoid enhanced correlation with these three parameters, the other correlations remaining essentially unchanged. Radon latency of the order of months in moisture-related parameters suggests that the principal driver for radon is total atmospheric moisture content rather than relative humidity.

  5. An adaptive localization system for outdoor/indoor navigation for autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacis, E. B.; Sights, B.; Ahuja, G.; Kogut, G.; Everett, H. R.

    2006-05-01

    Many envisioned applications of mobile robotic systems require the robot to navigate in complex urban environments. This need is particularly critical if the robot is to perform as part of a synergistic team with human forces in military operations. Historically, the development of autonomous navigation for mobile robots has targeted either outdoor or indoor scenarios, but not both, which is not how humans operate. This paper describes efforts to fuse component technologies into a complete navigation system, allowing a robot to seamlessly transition between outdoor and indoor environments. Under the Joint Robotics Program's Technology Transfer project, empirical evaluations of various localization approaches were conducted to assess their maturity levels and performance metrics in different exterior/interior settings. The methodologies compared include Markov localization, global positioning system, Kalman filtering, and fuzzy-logic. Characterization of these technologies highlighted their best features, which were then fused into an adaptive solution. A description of the final integrated system is discussed, including a presentation of the design, experimental results, and a formal demonstration to attendees of the Unmanned Systems Capabilities Conference II in San Diego in December 2005.

  6. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qinglin; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Pan, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy. PMID:26690170

  7. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qinglin; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Pan, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy. PMID:26690170

  8. Reactions among indoor pollutants.

    PubMed

    Weschler, C J

    2001-09-13

    This paper reviews recent studies in the field of "indoor chemistry"--reactions among indoor pollutants. Advances have occurred in a number of areas. A mouse bioassay procedure has shown that ozone/terpene reactions produce products that are more irritating than their precursors, although the agents responsible for the deleterious effects remain to be determined. Indoor ozone/terpene reactions have been demonstrated to produce hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, sub-micron particles, and ultrafine particles. New analytical techniques such as LC/MS and thermal desorption mass spectrometry have greatly improved our knowledge of the condensed-phase species associated with such particles. Indeed, the latter approach has identified a number of short-lived or thermally labile species, including organic hydroperoxides, peroxy-hemiacetals, and secondary ozonides, which would be missed by more conventional techniques. Investigators are making inroads into the poorly understood area of indoor heterogeneous chemistry. Systems studied include ozone/HVAC components, ozone/paint, and ozone/carpets. Another heterogeneous process that has been further examined is the indoor formation of nitrous acid through NO2/surface chemistry. Emissions from indoor sources that contribute to, or are altered by, indoor chemistry have also received attention. Researchers have expanded our awareness of reactive chemicals that can emanate from wood coatings and other products commonly used indoors. In a related vein, a number of recent investigations have shown that emissions from materials can be significantly altered by indoor chemistry. On the theoretical side, an outdoor atmospheric chemistry model has been modified for use as an indoor air model, the effects of ventilation rates on indoor chemistry have been simulated, and initial steps have been taken in applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to indoor chemistry.

  9. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a PMID:9769764

  10. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  11. IMPACT OF AN INDOOR COOK STOVE INTERVENTION ON MEASURES OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Approximately three billion people use inefficient and poorly-vented indoor cook stoves, which can result in high indoor air pollution concentrations. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular effects of indoor biomass burning. Methods: In this pilot s...

  12. Improvement in the Geofencing Service Interface Using Indoor Positioning Systems and Mobile Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, M.

    2013-11-01

    The current state of location-based services provides spatial information delivery for mobile users based on position data taken from GPS sensors. However, sometimes the spatial information delivery service includes unwanted information. In particular, push-based or passive information delivery has a high probability that users receive unwanted information. We propose a new spatial information delivery to improve the integrity of spatial information delivery. We conducted an experiment using an Indoor Messaging System and an accelerometer, and concluded that our methodology can detect user behavior without accessing personal information and reduce the amount of spam information.

  13. A mobile indoor positioning system based on iBeacon technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xin-Yu; Ho, Te-Wei; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Zui-Shen; Yang, Bey-Jing; Lai, Feipei

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency in the emergency room, the goal of this research is to implement a mobile-based indoor positioning system using mobile applications (APP) with the iBeacon solution based on the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology. We use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) based localization method to estimate the patients' locations. Our positioning algorithm achieves 97.22% (95% Confidence Interval = 95.90% - 98.55%) accuracy of classification. As the result, our mechanism is reliable enough to satisfy the need for medical staff to track the locations of their patients. PMID:26737407

  14. A mobile indoor positioning system based on iBeacon technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xin-Yu; Ho, Te-Wei; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Zui-Shen; Yang, Bey-Jing; Lai, Feipei

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency in the emergency room, the goal of this research is to implement a mobile-based indoor positioning system using mobile applications (APP) with the iBeacon solution based on the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology. We use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) based localization method to estimate the patients' locations. Our positioning algorithm achieves 97.22% (95% Confidence Interval = 95.90% - 98.55%) accuracy of classification. As the result, our mechanism is reliable enough to satisfy the need for medical staff to track the locations of their patients.

  15. High-speed duplex optical wireless communication system for indoor personal area networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2010-11-22

    In this paper a new hybrid wireless access system incorporating high bandwidth line-of-sight free space optical wireless and radio frequency localization is proposed and demonstrated. This system is capable of supporting several gigabits/second up-stream and down-stream data transmission and ideally suited for high bandwidth indoor applications such as personal area networks. A radio frequency signal is used to achieve localization of subscribers, offering limited mobility to subscribers within a practical office scenario. Even with the modest transmitted power of 5 dBm, we demonstrate satisfactory performance of bit error rates better than 10(-9) over the entire room in the presence of strong background light. Using simulations, the effectiveness of the proposed system architecture is investigated and the key performance trade-offs identified. Proof-of-concept experiments have also been carried out to validate simulation model, and initial experimental results successfully demonstrate the feasibility of the system capable of supporting 2.5 Gbps over a 1-2 m optical wireless link (limited by the length of the sliding rail used in the experiment) with a 45 degrees diffused beam in an indoor environment for the first time.

  16. On Calibrating the Sensor Errors of a PDR-Based Indoor Localization System

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Kun-Chan; Shih, Wen-Yuah

    2013-01-01

    Many studies utilize the signal strength of short-range radio systems (such as WiFi, ultrasound and infrared) to build a radio map for indoor localization, by deploying a large number of beacon nodes within a building. The drawback of such an infrastructure-based approach is that the deployment and calibration of the system are costly and labor-intensive. Some prior studies proposed the use of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) for indoor localization, which does not require the deployment of beacon nodes. In a PDR system, a small number of sensors are put on the pedestrian. These sensors (such as a G-sensor and gyroscope) are used to estimate the distance and direction that a user travels. The effectiveness of a PDR system lies in its success in accurately estimating the user's moving distance and direction. In this work, we propose a novel waist-mounted based PDR that can measure the user's step lengths with a high accuracy. We utilize vertical acceleration of the body to calculate the user's change in height during walking. Based on the Pythagorean Theorem, we can then estimate each step length using this data. Furthermore, we design a map matching algorithm to calibrate the direction errors from the gyro using building floor plans. The results of our experiment show that we can achieve about 98.26% accuracy in estimating the user's walking distance, with an overall location error of about 0.48 m. PMID:23575036

  17. High-speed duplex optical wireless communication system for indoor personal area networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2010-11-22

    In this paper a new hybrid wireless access system incorporating high bandwidth line-of-sight free space optical wireless and radio frequency localization is proposed and demonstrated. This system is capable of supporting several gigabits/second up-stream and down-stream data transmission and ideally suited for high bandwidth indoor applications such as personal area networks. A radio frequency signal is used to achieve localization of subscribers, offering limited mobility to subscribers within a practical office scenario. Even with the modest transmitted power of 5 dBm, we demonstrate satisfactory performance of bit error rates better than 10(-9) over the entire room in the presence of strong background light. Using simulations, the effectiveness of the proposed system architecture is investigated and the key performance trade-offs identified. Proof-of-concept experiments have also been carried out to validate simulation model, and initial experimental results successfully demonstrate the feasibility of the system capable of supporting 2.5 Gbps over a 1-2 m optical wireless link (limited by the length of the sliding rail used in the experiment) with a 45 degrees diffused beam in an indoor environment for the first time. PMID:21164867

  18. On calibrating the sensor errors of a PDR-based indoor localization system.

    PubMed

    Lan, Kun-Chan; Shih, Wen-Yuah

    2013-01-01

    Many studies utilize the signal strength of short-range radio systems (such as WiFi, ultrasound and infrared) to build a radio map for indoor localization, by deploying a large number of beacon nodes within a building. The drawback of such an infrastructure-based approach is that the deployment and calibration of the system are costly and labor-intensive. Some prior studies proposed the use of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) for indoor localization, which does not require the deployment of beacon nodes. In a PDR system, a small number of sensors are put on the pedestrian. These sensors (such as a G-sensor and gyroscope) are used to estimate the distance and direction that a user travels. The effectiveness of a PDR system lies in its success in accurately estimating the user's moving distance and direction. In this work, we propose a novel waist-mounted based PDR that can measure the user's step lengths with a high accuracy. We utilize vertical acceleration of the body to calculate the user's change in height during walking. Based on the Pythagorean Theorem, we can then estimate each step length using this data. Furthermore, we design a map matching algorithm to calibrate the direction errors from the gyro using building floor plans. The results of our experiment show that we can achieve about 98.26% accuracy in estimating the user's walking distance, with an overall location error of about 0.48 m.

  19. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  20. Indoor weather related to the energy consumption of air conditioned classroom: Monitoring system for energy efficient building plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattanongphisat, W.; Suwannakom, A.; Harfield, A.

    2016-08-01

    The current research aims to investigate the relation of indoor weather to energy consumption of air conditioned classroom by design and construct the indoor weather and energy monitoring systems. In this research, a combined temperature and humidity sensor in conjunction with a microcontroller was constructed for the indoor weather monitoring system. The wire sensor network for the temperature-humidity sensor nodes is the Controller Area Network (CAN). Another part is using a nonintrusive method where a wireless current transformer sending the signal to the data collection box then transmitted by the radio frequency to the computer where the Ethernet application software was installed for the energy monitoring system. The results show that the setting air temperature, outdoor ambient temperature and operating time impact to the energy consumption of the air conditioned classroom.

  1. Study of Climate Responsive Passive Design Features in Traditional Hill Architecture of Khyah Village in Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India for Indoor Thermal Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.

    2013-03-01

    Vernacular architecture of any settlement is characterized by architecture and construction methods developed by the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, to provide thermal comfort to users in extreme outdoor uncomfortable climatic conditions, by using locally available building materials and by adopting construction technology which both were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will highlight the climate-responsiveness in the traditional architecture of Khyah village in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh, having sub-tropical climatic condition. The plan of individual house, the cluster of houses and the overall settlement itself has been evolved from a process of understanding the local geo-climatic conditions which causes discomfort in both cold winter and hot summer months. Hence, the house plans were kept compact, thick adobe bricks were used for walls, pitched roof with attic and roof-covering of slate were employed and small window openings were provided with heavy timber shutter—all as a mean to retain indoor heat during cold winter months and also to prevent excessive heat-loss and heat-gains. The paper will also attempt to bring out the adaptive synchronized dynamic interactions between the various activities of inhabitants and their spatial environment, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the physical survey of this traditional hill settlement.

  2. Indoor Navigation by People with Visual Impairment Using a Digital Sign System

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Beckmann, Paul J.; Tjan, Bosco S.; Havey, Gary; Kramer, Kevin; Rolkosky, David; Gage, Rachel; Chen, Muzi; Puchakayala, Sravan; Rangarajan, Aravindhan

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for adaptive technology to enhance indoor wayfinding by visually-impaired people. To address this need, we have developed and tested a Digital Sign System. The hardware and software consist of digitally-encoded signs widely distributed throughout a building, a handheld sign-reader based on an infrared camera, image-processing software, and a talking digital map running on a mobile device. Four groups of subjects—blind, low vision, blindfolded sighted, and normally sighted controls—were evaluated on three navigation tasks. The results demonstrate that the technology can be used reliably in retrieving information from the signs during active mobility, in finding nearby points of interest, and following routes in a building from a starting location to a destination. The visually impaired subjects accurately and independently completed the navigation tasks, but took substantially longer than normally sighted controls. This fully functional prototype system demonstrates the feasibility of technology enabling independent indoor navigation by people with visual impairment. PMID:24116156

  3. Indoor Localization Algorithms for an Ambulatory Human Operated 3D Mobile Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, N; Zakhor, A

    2013-12-03

    Indoor localization and mapping is an important problem with many applications such as emergency response, architectural modeling, and historical preservation. In this paper, we develop an automatic, off-line pipeline for metrically accurate, GPS-denied, indoor 3D mobile mapping using a human-mounted backpack system consisting of a variety of sensors. There are three novel contributions in our proposed mapping approach. First, we present an algorithm which automatically detects loop closure constraints from an occupancy grid map. In doing so, we ensure that constraints are detected only in locations that are well conditioned for scan matching. Secondly, we address the problem of scan matching with poor initial condition by presenting an outlier-resistant, genetic scan matching algorithm that accurately matches scans despite a poor initial condition. Third, we present two metrics based on the amount and complexity of overlapping geometry in order to vet the estimated loop closure constraints. By doing so, we automatically prevent erroneous loop closures from degrading the accuracy of the reconstructed trajectory. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified using both controlled and real-world data. The end-to-end system performance is evaluated using 100 surveyed control points in an office environment and obtains a mean accuracy of 10 cm. Experimental results are also shown on three additional datasets from real world environments including a 1500 meter trajectory in a warehouse sized retail shopping center.

  4. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-11-30

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015.

  5. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  6. Indoor navigation by people with visual impairment using a digital sign system.

    PubMed

    Legge, Gordon E; Beckmann, Paul J; Tjan, Bosco S; Havey, Gary; Kramer, Kevin; Rolkosky, David; Gage, Rachel; Chen, Muzi; Puchakayala, Sravan; Rangarajan, Aravindhan

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for adaptive technology to enhance indoor wayfinding by visually-impaired people. To address this need, we have developed and tested a Digital Sign System. The hardware and software consist of digitally-encoded signs widely distributed throughout a building, a handheld sign-reader based on an infrared camera, image-processing software, and a talking digital map running on a mobile device. Four groups of subjects-blind, low vision, blindfolded sighted, and normally sighted controls-were evaluated on three navigation tasks. The results demonstrate that the technology can be used reliably in retrieving information from the signs during active mobility, in finding nearby points of interest, and following routes in a building from a starting location to a destination. The visually impaired subjects accurately and independently completed the navigation tasks, but took substantially longer than normally sighted controls. This fully functional prototype system demonstrates the feasibility of technology enabling independent indoor navigation by people with visual impairment.

  7. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  8. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  9. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D; Hadley, Donald L; Armstrong, Peter R; Buck, John W; Hoopes, Bonnie L

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly ''demo'' accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a ''hands on'' review of the prototype system's capability.

  10. Weather Climate Interactions and Extreme Events in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The most pronounced local impacts of climate change would occur in association with extreme weather events superimposed on the altered climate. Thus a major thrust of recent efforts in the climate community has been to assess how extreme regional events such as cold air outbreaks, heat waves, tropical cyclones, floods, droughts, and severe weather might change with the climate. Many of these types of events are poorly simulated in climate models because of insufficient spatial resolution and insufficient quality parameterization of sub grid scale convection and radiation processes. This talk summarizes examples selected from those discussed below of how weather and climate events can be interconnected so that the physics of natural climate and weather phenomena depend on each other, thereby complicating our ability to simulate extreme events. A major focus of the chapter is on the Madden Julian oscillation (MJO), which is associated with alternating eastward-moving planetary scale regions of enhanced and suppressed moist deep convection favoring warm pool regions in the tropics. The MJO modulates weather events around the world and influences the evolution of interannual climate variability. We first discuss how the MJO evolves together with the seasonal cycle, the El Niño/southern oscillation (ENSO), and the extratropical circulation, then continue with a case study illustration of how El Niño is intrinsically coupled to intraseasonal and synoptic weather events such as the MJO and westerly wind bursts. This interconnectedness in the system implies that modeling many types of regional extreme weather events requires more than simply downscaling coarse climate model signals to nested regional models because extreme outcomes in a region can depend on poorly simulated extreme weather in distant parts of the world. The authors hope that an improved understanding of these types of interactions between signals across scales of time and space will ultimately yield

  11. Weather Climate Interactions and Extreme Events in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The most pronounced local impacts of climate change would occur in association with extreme weather events superimposed on the altered climate. Thus a major thrust of recent efforts in the climate community has been to assess how extreme regional events such as cold air outbreaks, heat waves, tropical cyclones, floods, droughts, and severe weather might change with the climate. Many of these types of events are poorly simulated in climate models because of insufficient spatial resolution and insufficient quality parameterization of sub grid scale convection and radiation processes. This talk summarizes examples selected from those discussed below of how weather and climate events can be interconnected so that the physics of natural climate and weather phenomena depend on each other, thereby complicating our ability to simulate extreme events. A major focus of the chapter is on the Madden Julian oscillation (MJO), which is associated with alternating eastward-moving planetary scale regions of enhanced and suppressed moist deep convection favoring warm pool regions in the tropics. The MJO modulates weather events around the world and influences the evolution of interannual climate variability. We first discuss how the MJO evolves together with the seasonal cycle, the El Niño/southern oscillation (ENSO), and the extratropical circulation, then continue with a case study illustration of how El Niño is intrinsically coupled to intraseasonal and synoptic weather events such as the MJO and westerly wind bursts. This interconnectedness in the system implies that modeling many types of regional extreme weather events requires more than simply downscaling coarse climate model signals to nested regional models because extreme outcomes in a region can depend on poorly simulated extreme weather in distant parts of the world. The authors hope that an improved understanding of these types of interactions between signals across scales of time and space will ultimately yield

  12. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  13. Effect of optimal Lambertian order for cellular indoor optical wireless communication and positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dehao; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Zhong, Wen-De; Khalighi, Mohammad-Ali; Minh, Hoa Le; Chen, Chen; Zvanovec, Stanislav; Boucouvalas, Anthony C.

    2016-06-01

    We propose and analyze an optimized Lambertian order (OLO) of light-emitting diode for both indoor cellular optical wireless communication and positioning systems. We carry out analysis for the system consisting of a Lambertian source and a tilted optical receiver, and develop an expression for OLO for four-, six-, and nine-cell configurations. We investigate the channel characteristics including the optical path loss, impulse response, transmission bandwidth, and positioning accuracy for the proposed systems with and without OLO, showing that there is a significant improvement in the transmission bandwidth as well as the positioning accuracy when employing OLO. For example, for a four-cell configuration with the optimum Lambertian order, 99% of cumulative distribution function of the estimation errors is within the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) accuracy of 6.7 to 26.7 cm, compared to the CRB accuracy of 12.8 to 29.7 cm for the Lambertian order of m=1.

  14. a New Ubiquitous-Based Indoor Positioning System with Minimum Extra Hardware Using Smart Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassany Pazoky, S.; Chehreghan, A.; Sadeghi Niaraki, A.; Abbaspour, R. Ali

    2014-10-01

    Knowing the position has been an ambition in many areas such as science, military, business, etc. GPS was the realization of this wish in 1970s. Technological advances such as ubiquitous computing, as a conquering perspective, requires any service to work for any user, any place, anytime, and via any network. As GPS cannot provide services in indoor environments, many scientists began to develop indoor positioning systems (IPS). Smart phones penetrating our everyday lives were a great platform to host IPS applications. Sensors in smart phones were another big motive to develop IPS applications. Many researchers have been working on the topic developing various applications. However, the applications introduced lack simplicity. In other words, they need to install a step counter or smart phone on the ankle, which makes it awkward and inapplicable in many situations. In the current study, a new IPS methodology is introduced using only the usual embedded sensors in the smart phones. The robustness of this methodology cannot compete with those of the aforementioned approaches. The price paid for simplicity was decreasing robustness and complicating the methods and formulations. However, methods or tricks to harness the errors to an acceptable range are introduced as the future works.

  15. Indoor Confined Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Daniel L; Kroll, Lee Anne K

    2015-07-01

    Indoor confined feedlots offer advantages that make them desirable in northern climates where high rainfall and snowfall occur. These facilities increase the risk of certain health risks, including lameness and tail injuries. Closed confinement can also facilitate the rapid spread of infectious disease. Veterinarians can help to manage these health risks by implementing management practices to reduce their occurrence.

  16. Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bitz, Cecilia M.; Shell, K. M.; Gent, P. R.; Bailey, D. A.; Danabasoglu, G.; Armour, K. C.; Holland, M. M.; Kiehl, J. T.

    2012-05-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) is 3.20°C for 1° horizontal resolution in each component. This is about a half degree Celsius higher than in the previous version (CCSM3). The transient climate sensitivity of CCSM4 at 1° resolution is 1.72°C, which is about 0.2°C higher than in CCSM3. These higher climate sensitivities in CCSM4 cannot be explained by the change to a preindustrial baseline climate. We use the radiative kernel technique to show that from CCSM3 to CCSM4, the global mean lapse-rate feedback declines in magnitude, and the shortwave cloud feedback increases. These twomore » warming effects are partially canceled by cooling due to slight decreases in the global mean water-vapor feedback and longwave cloud feedback from CCSM3 to CCSM4. A new formulation of the mixed-layer, slab ocean model in CCSM4 attempts to reproduce the SST and sea ice climatology from an integration with a full-depth ocean, and it is integrated with a dynamic sea ice model. These new features allow an isolation of the influence of ocean dynamical changes on the climate response when comparing integrations with the slab ocean and full-depth ocean. The transient climate response of the full-depth ocean version is 0.54 of the equilibrium climate sensitivity when estimated with the new slab ocean model version for both CCSM3 and CCSM4. We argue the ratio is the same in both versions because they have about the same zonal mean pattern of change in ocean surface heat flux, which broadly resembles the zonal mean pattern of net feedback strength.« less

  17. Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, Cecilia M.; Shell, K. M.; Gent, P. R.; Bailey, D. A.; Danabasoglu, G.; Armour, K. C.; Holland, M. M.; Kiehl, J. T.

    2012-05-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) is 3.20°C for 1° horizontal resolution in each component. This is about a half degree Celsius higher than in the previous version (CCSM3). The transient climate sensitivity of CCSM4 at 1° resolution is 1.72°C, which is about 0.2°C higher than in CCSM3. These higher climate sensitivities in CCSM4 cannot be explained by the change to a preindustrial baseline climate. We use the radiative kernel technique to show that from CCSM3 to CCSM4, the global mean lapse-rate feedback declines in magnitude, and the shortwave cloud feedback increases. These two warming effects are partially canceled by cooling due to slight decreases in the global mean water-vapor feedback and longwave cloud feedback from CCSM3 to CCSM4. A new formulation of the mixed-layer, slab ocean model in CCSM4 attempts to reproduce the SST and sea ice climatology from an integration with a full-depth ocean, and it is integrated with a dynamic sea ice model. These new features allow an isolation of the influence of ocean dynamical changes on the climate response when comparing integrations with the slab ocean and full-depth ocean. The transient climate response of the full-depth ocean version is 0.54 of the equilibrium climate sensitivity when estimated with the new slab ocean model version for both CCSM3 and CCSM4. We argue the ratio is the same in both versions because they have about the same zonal mean pattern of change in ocean surface heat flux, which broadly resembles the zonal mean pattern of net feedback strength.

  18. Indoor location-aware medical systems for smart homecare and telehealth monitoring: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Fendy; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of current progress in the application of state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems for telecare and telehealth monitoring. This review is the first in the literature that provides a comprehensive discussion on how existing wireless indoor positioning systems can benefit the development of home-based care systems. More specifically, this review provides an in-depth comparative study of how both system users and medical practitioners can get benefit from indoor positioning technologies; e.g. for real-time monitoring of patients suffering chronic cardiovascular conditions, general monitoring of activities of daily living (ADLs), fall detection systems for the elderly as well as indoor navigation systems for those suffering from visual impairments. Furthermore, it also details various aspects worth considering when choosing a certain technology for a specific healthcare application; e.g. the spatial precision demanded by the application, trade-offs between unobtrusiveness and complexity, and issues surrounding compliance and adherence with the use of wearable tags. Beyond the current state-of-the-art, this review also rigorously discusses several research opportunities and the challenges associated with each.

  19. Web Information Systems for Monitoring and Control of Indoor Air Quality at Subway Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gi Heung; Choi, Gi Sang; Jang, Joo Hyoung

    In crowded subway stations indoor air quality (IAQ) is a key factor for ensuring the safety, health and comfort of passengers. In this study, a framework for web-based information system in VDN environment for monitoring and control of IAQ in subway stations is suggested. Since physical variables that describing IAQ need to be closely monitored and controlled in multiple locations in subway stations, concept of distributed monitoring and control network using wireless media needs to be implemented. Connecting remote wireless sensor network and device (LonWorks) networks to the IP network based on the concept of VDN can provide a powerful, integrated, distributed monitoring and control performance, making a web-based information system possible.

  20. Angular and RMS delay spread modeling in view of THz indoor communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priebe, Sebastian; Jacob, Martin; Kürner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Future wireless communication systems will most likely be operated at carrier frequencies above 300 GHz, where the indoor radio channel behaves entirely differently compared to legacy radio communication frequencies. Being highly relevant for system performance evaluations and channel modeling, the spatial as well as the temporal dispersions are studied for a representative office wireless LAN scenario in this paper. Ray tracing serves as the means for the accurate simulation of the THz radio wave propagation. Simple stochastic models are derived to approximate and reproduce the distance-dependent behavior of the angular spread as well as of the RMS delay spread. Based on the results, the maximum symbol rates achievable without any intersymbol interference are quantified and can be shown to reach up to several 100 GSymbols/s provided that highly directive antennas are used.

  1. Impact of simulated climate and building features on the penetration of toxic gases from the ambient into the indoor environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is a combination of experimental results and analysis of formaldehyde penetration across a residential building envelope with the objective of developing an understanding of the factors that govern indoor air concentrations of air toxics and to provide linkages betw...

  2. Indoor coverage improvement of MB-OFDM UWB signals with radio over POF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lethien, Christophe; Loyez, Christophe; Vilcot, Jean-Pierre; Clavier, Laurent; Bocquet, Michael; Rolland, Paul Alain

    2009-12-01

    A radio over fiber system using the fluorinated based polymer multimode fibers (PMMF) is presented in this paper for the enhancement of the indoor coverage of the multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband standard (MB-OFDM UWB) inside a building. A preliminary part related the cost analysis owing to glass and polymer multimode fiber deployment inside a fiber network is reported. The study of the physical properties of the polymer optical fibers (core diameter, numerical aperture, differential mode delays, modal bandwidth…) is firstly performed in order to effectively exhibit the potentialities and the robustness of such fibers to be used in a low cost radio over fiber system. The DMD measurements of four fluorinated based polymer optical fiber are reported. The designed system operates at 850 nm with commercial off the shelf (COTS) devices combined to the intensity modulation/direct detection technique. The opportunity of using polymer fibers and COTS components to improve the indoor coverage of the MB-OFDM UWB standard is so reported by the measurement of the Error Vector Magnitude or the Relative Constellation Error variation as a function of the system parameters (RF power, optical attenuation, fiber length…) as well as the compliance of the eye diagram with the mask testing. By the way, the transmission performance of both 200 and 480 Mbps signals is demonstrated over up to 200 m link length of polymer multimode fibers: transmission penalties are quantified by relative constellation error with values under the standard requirements. A comparative study with classical OM2 50 μm based glass multimode fiber having the same bandwidth/length product than the PMMF is done.

  3. Unobtrusive measurement of indoor energy expenditure using an infrared sensor-based activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bosun; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an unobtrusive energy expenditure (EE) measurement system using an infrared (IR) sensor-based activity monitoring system to measure indoor activities and to estimate individual quantitative EE. IR-sensor activation counts were measured with a Bluetooth-based monitoring system and the standard EE was calculated using an established regression equation. Ten male subjects participated in the experiment and three different EE measurement systems (gas analyzer, accelerometer, IR sensor) were used simultaneously in order to determine the regression equation and evaluate the performance. As a standard measurement, oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured by a portable metabolic system (Metamax 3X, Cortex, Germany). A single room experiment was performed to develop a regression model of the standard EE measurement from the proposed IR sensor-based measurement system. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were done to compare the performance of the IR system with that of the Actigraph system. We determined that our proposed IR-based EE measurement system shows a similar correlation to the Actigraph system with the standard measurement system. PMID:19035796

  4. A geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial modeling approach to assessing indoor radon potential at local level.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Joey Y; Laćan, Igor; Liu, Kai-Shen; Waldman, Jed

    2006-04-01

    This study integrates residential radon data from previous studies in Southern California (USA), into a geographic information system (GIS) linked with statistical techniques. A difference (p<0.05) is found in the indoor radon in residences grouped by radon-potential zones. Using a novel Monte Carlo approach, we found that the mean distance from elevated-radon residences (concentration>74 Bq m(-3)) to epicenters of large (> 4 Richter) earthquakes was smaller (p<0.0001) than the average residence-to-epicenter distance, suggesting an association between the elevated indoor-radon and seismic activities.

  5. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-30

    This progress report covers the period July 1, 1994 through September 30, 1994, and summarizes continuing work on developing deloyable covers for indoor swimming pools. This work includes design and development of motor controllers to deploy and roll up pool covers, reels, cover material of polyethylene and foam filled laminates, and plans for field deployment of a system, where energy savings can be monitored.

  6. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

  7. strange beta: An assistance system for indoor rock climbing route setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C.; Becker, L.; Bradley, E.

    2012-03-01

    This paper applies the mathematics of chaos to the task of designing indoor rock-climbing routes. Chaotic variation has been used to great advantage on music and dance, but the challenges here are quite different, beginning with the representation. We present a formalized system for transcribing rock climbing problems and then describe a variation generator that is designed to support human route-setters in designing new and interesting climbing problems. This variation generator, termed strange beta, uses chaos to introduce novelty. We validated this approach with a large blinded study in a commercial climbing gym, in cooperation with experienced climbers and expert route setters. The results show that strange beta can help a human setter produce routes that are at least as good as, and in some cases better than, those produced in the traditional manner.

  8. Indoor air quality impacts of residential HVAC systems. Phase 2.a report: Baseline and preliminary simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Emmerich, S.J.; Persily, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    NIST is performing whole building airflow and contaminant dispersal computer simulations with the program CONTAM93 to assess the ability of modifications of central forced-air heating and cooling systems to control pollutant sources relevant to the residential environment. The report summarizes the results of Phase II.A of this project, which consisted of three major efforts: baseline simulations of contaminant levels without indoor air quality (IAQ) controls, design of the IAQ control retrofits, and preliminary simulations of contaminant levels with the IAQ control retrofits. In Phase II.B of the study, all of the baseline cases will be modified to incorporate the IAQ control retrofits. The retrofit results will then be compared to the baseline results to evaluate the effectiveness of the retrofits.

  9. Strange beta: an assistance system for indoor rock climbing route setting.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C; Becker, L; Bradley, E

    2012-03-01

    This paper applies the mathematics of chaos to the task of designing indoor rock-climbing routes. Chaotic variation has been used to great advantage on music and dance, but the challenges here are quite different, beginning with the representation. We present a formalized system for transcribing rock climbing problems and then describe a variation generator that is designed to support human route-setters in designing new and interesting climbing problems. This variation generator, termed strange beta, uses chaos to introduce novelty. We validated this approach with a large blinded study in a commercial climbing gym, in cooperation with experienced climbers and expert route setters. The results show that strange beta can help a human setter produce routes that are at least as good as, and in some cases better than, those produced in the traditional manner. PMID:22463006

  10. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-25

    This is a progress report for the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994, for a project to develop cover systems for indoor swimming pools with the objective of reducing energy consumption. Effort has included evaluation of cover materials, development of brakes to tension deployment ropes, better limit of motion switches, reel systems, drive systems for the take up spool, and drive tensioning systems.

  11. Management system, organizational climate and performance relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Seven aerospace firms were investigated to determine if a relationship existed among management systems, organizational climate, and organization performance. Positive relationships were found between each of these variables, but a statistically significant relationship existed only between the management system and organizational climate. The direction and amount of communication and the degree of decentralized decision-making, elements of the management system, also had a statistically significant realtionship with organization performance.

  12. A Spatial Division Clustering Method and Low Dimensional Feature Extraction Technique Based Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yun; Zhang, Zhongzhao; Meng, Weixiao; Ma, Lin; Wang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    Indoor positioning systems based on the fingerprint method are widely used due to the large number of existing devices with a wide range of coverage. However, extensive positioning regions with a massive fingerprint database may cause high computational complexity and error margins, therefore clustering methods are widely applied as a solution. However, traditional clustering methods in positioning systems can only measure the similarity of the Received Signal Strength without being concerned with the continuity of physical coordinates. Besides, outage of access points could result in asymmetric matching problems which severely affect the fine positioning procedure. To solve these issues, in this paper we propose a positioning system based on the Spatial Division Clustering (SDC) method for clustering the fingerprint dataset subject to physical distance constraints. With the Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine techniques, SDC can achieve higher coarse positioning accuracy than traditional clustering algorithms. In terms of fine localization, based on the Kernel Principal Component Analysis method, the proposed positioning system outperforms its counterparts based on other feature extraction methods in low dimensionality. Apart from balancing online matching computational burden, the new positioning system exhibits advantageous performance on radio map clustering, and also shows better robustness and adaptability in the asymmetric matching problem aspect. PMID:24451470

  13. A system-level simulator for indoor mmW SAR imaging and its applications.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Ocket, Ilja; Schreurs, Dominique; Nauwelaers, Bart

    2012-10-01

    Recently, the research interest in indoor active millimeter wave (mmW) imaging by applying the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technique is increasing. However, there is a lack of proper computer-aided design (CAD) tools at the system level, and almost all the R&D activities rely on experiments solely. The high cost of such a system stops many researchers from investigating such a fascinating research topic. Moreover, the experiment-oriented studies may blind the researchers to some details during the imaging process, since in most cases they are only interested in the readout from the receivers and do not know how the waves perform in reality. To bridge such a gap, we propose a modeling approach at mmW frequencies, which is able to simulate the physical process during SAR imaging. We are not going to discuss about advanced image reconstruction algorithms, since they have already been investigated intensively for decades. To distinguish from previous work, for the first time, we model the data acquisition process in a SAR imaging system successfully at mmW frequencies. We show how to perform some system-level studies based on such a simulator via a common PC, including the influence of reflectivity contrast between object and background, sampling step, and antenna's directivity on image quality. The simulator can serve system design purposes and it can be easily extended to THz frequencies.

  14. A practical indoor context-aware surveillance system with multi-Kinect sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; You, Ying; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we develop a novel practical application, which give scalable services to the end users when abnormal actives are happening. Architecture of the application has been presented consisting of network infrared cameras and a communication module. In this intelligent surveillance system we use Kinect sensors as the input cameras. Kinect is an infrared laser camera which its user can access the raw infrared sensor stream. We install several Kinect sensors in one room to track the human skeletons. Each sensor returns the body positions with 15 coordinates in its own coordinate system. We use calibration algorithms to calibrate all the body positions points into one unified coordinate system. With the body positions points, we can infer the surveillance context. Furthermore, the messages from the metadata index matrix will be sent to mobile phone through communication module. User will instantly be aware of an abnormal case happened in the room without having to check the website. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. And the application method introduced in this paper is not only to discourage the criminals and assist police in the apprehension of suspects, but also can enabled the end-users monitor the indoor environments anywhere and anytime by their phones.

  15. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  16. Integration of Directional Antennas in an RSS Fingerprinting-Based Indoor Localization System.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Quirós, Raúl; Martínez-Sala, Alejandro; Gómez-Tornero, José Luis; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-12-23

    In this paper, the integration of directional antennas in a room-level received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting-based indoor localization system (ILS) is studied. The sensor reader (SR), which is in charge of capturing the RSS to infer the tag position, can be attached to an omnidirectional or directional antenna. Unlike commonly-employed omnidirectional antennas, directional antennas can receive a stronger signal from the direction in which they are pointed, resulting in a different RSS distributions in space and, hence, more distinguishable fingerprints. A simulation tool and a system management software have been also developed to control the system and assist the initial antenna deployment, reducing time-consuming costs. A prototype was mounted in a real scenario, with a number of SRs with omnidirectional and directional antennas properly positioned. Different antenna configurations have been studied, evidencing a promising capability of directional antennas to enhance the performance of RSS fingerprinting-based ILS, reducing the number of required SRs and also increasing the localization success.

  17. A vision-based automated guided vehicle system with marker recognition for indoor use.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeisung; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon

    2013-08-07

    We propose an intelligent vision-based Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system using fiduciary markers. In this paper, we explore a low-cost, efficient vehicle guiding method using a consumer grade web camera and fiduciary markers. In the proposed method, the system uses fiduciary markers with a capital letter or triangle indicating direction in it. The markers are very easy to produce, manipulate, and maintain. The marker information is used to guide a vehicle. We use hue and saturation values in the image to extract marker candidates. When the known size fiduciary marker is detected by using a bird's eye view and Hough transform, the positional relation between the marker and the vehicle can be calculated. To recognize the character in the marker, a distance transform is used. The probability of feature matching was calculated by using a distance transform, and a feature having high probability is selected as a captured marker. Four directional signals and 10 alphabet features are defined and used as markers. A 98.87% recognition rate was achieved in the testing phase. The experimental results with the fiduciary marker show that the proposed method is a solution for an indoor AGV system.

  18. Integration of Directional Antennas in an RSS Fingerprinting-Based Indoor Localization System

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Quirós, Raúl; Martínez-Sala, Alejandro; Gómez-Tornero, José Luis; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the integration of directional antennas in a room-level received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting-based indoor localization system (ILS) is studied. The sensor reader (SR), which is in charge of capturing the RSS to infer the tag position, can be attached to an omnidirectional or directional antenna. Unlike commonly-employed omnidirectional antennas, directional antennas can receive a stronger signal from the direction in which they are pointed, resulting in a different RSS distributions in space and, hence, more distinguishable fingerprints. A simulation tool and a system management software have been also developed to control the system and assist the initial antenna deployment, reducing time-consuming costs. A prototype was mounted in a real scenario, with a number of SRs with omnidirectional and directional antennas properly positioned. Different antenna configurations have been studied, evidencing a promising capability of directional antennas to enhance the performance of RSS fingerprinting-based ILS, reducing the number of required SRs and also increasing the localization success. PMID:26703620

  19. Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging System Using Spread Spectrum and MEMS Technology for Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Laurent; Tiete, Jelmer; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Indoor localization of persons and objects poses a great engineering challenge. Previously developed localization systems demonstrate the use of wideband techniques in ultrasound ranging systems. Direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum ultrasound signals have been proven to achieve a high level of accuracy. A novel ranging method using the frequency hopping spread spectrum with finite impulse response filtering will be investigated and compared against the direct sequence spread spectrum. In the first setup, distances are estimated in a single-access environment, while in the second setup, two senders and one receiver are used. During the experiments, the micro-electromechanical systems are used as ultrasonic sensors, while the senders were implemented using field programmable gate arrays. Results show that in a single-access environment, the direct sequence spread spectrum method offers slightly better accuracy and precision performance compared to the frequency hopping spread spectrum. When two senders are used, measurements point out that the frequency hopping spread spectrum is more robust to near-far effects than the direct sequence spread spectrum. PMID:24553084

  20. A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeisung; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon

    2013-01-01

    We propose an intelligent vision-based Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system using fiduciary markers. In this paper, we explore a low-cost, efficient vehicle guiding method using a consumer grade web camera and fiduciary markers. In the proposed method, the system uses fiduciary markers with a capital letter or triangle indicating direction in it. The markers are very easy to produce, manipulate, and maintain. The marker information is used to guide a vehicle. We use hue and saturation values in the image to extract marker candidates. When the known size fiduciary marker is detected by using a bird's eye view and Hough transform, the positional relation between the marker and the vehicle can be calculated. To recognize the character in the marker, a distance transform is used. The probability of feature matching was calculated by using a distance transform, and a feature having high probability is selected as a captured marker. Four directional signals and 10 alphabet features are defined and used as markers. A 98.87% recognition rate was achieved in the testing phase. The experimental results with the fiduciary marker show that the proposed method is a solution for an indoor AGV system. PMID:23966180

  1. Designing coherent optical wireless systems for high speed indoor telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakis, Thomas; Kanakis, Panagiotis; Bogris, Adonis; Dalakas, Vasilis; Dede, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on several design issues of coherent optical wireless systems as a means of providing high data rate optical links in indoor environments enabling the realization of ultra-broadband wireless local area networks. We show how the performance specifications can be translated into signal-to-noise ratio requirements inside the coverage area, taking into account the laser phase noise mitigation scheme. We then discuss the power budget details using Gaussian beam optics incorporating the transceiver positioning and the optical systems used at the transmitter and receiver side. We also treat the influence of ambient light noise. We show that coherent optical wireless systems are characterized by excellent signal-to-noise performance enabling networking at very high data rates. Our results indicate that 2 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s data rates can be easily sustained at 3 m distances over a circular coverage area of 1 m radius using Class-1 lasers for the transmitter and the local oscillator. We also discuss the power gain compared to intensity modulated/direct detection optical wireless and show that it can be as high as 20 dB, especially near the edge of the coverage area.

  2. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  3. Hvac systems as a tool in controlling indoor air quality: A literature review. Final report, May-August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Samfield, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). One conclusion of the review is that HVAC systems very often contribute to the indoor air pollution because of (1) poor system maintenance, (2) overcrowding or the introduction of new pollution-generating sources with buildings, and (3) the location of outdoor air near ambient pollution sources. Another conclusion is that failure to trade off between energy conservation and employee productivity may result in increased IAQ problems. The report contents are based on literature survey covering the years 1988 through 1993, involving 60 references, 32 of which are cited in the report.

  4. Research on field of view of optical receiving antenna based on indoor visible light communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mingguang; Lan, Tian; Zhao, Tao; Zhang, Yilun; Cui, Zhenghua; Ni, Guoqiang

    2015-08-01

    Optical receiving antenna is usually positioned before the detector of an indoor visible light communication (VLC) system in order to collect more optical energy into the detector. Besides optical gain of the antenna, the field of view (FOV) plays also an important role to the performance of a VLC system. In this paper, the signal noise ratio (SNR) and inter-symbol interference (ISI) versus FOV of the antenna are simulated via Line-of-Sight (LOS) and non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) links within a room with a size of 5m × 5m × 3m. Results show that, the blind area appears while the FOV is less than 40 deg. and the SNR reduces as FOV increases and keeps small when FOV is more than 70 deg.. Furthermore, the average power of ISI rises with the increase of FOV, and the rising trend is relatively moderate when FOV is below 50 deg., while there is a rapid increase between 50 deg. and 70 deg. and finally tends to be stable after 70 deg. Therefore, it is practical to determine the FOV of the optical receiving antenna in the scope of 40 to 50 deg. based on the installment of LED lights on the ceiling here so as to avoid the blind area, attain high SNR, and reduce the influence of ISI. It is also worthwhile in practice to provide an identifiable evidence for the determination of FOV of the optical antenna.

  5. Monitoring of manufacturing processes in the automotive industry using indoor location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, LM; Belu, N.; Rachieru, N.; Mazăre, AG; Anghel, D.-C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method for locating the operators, equipment and parts using radio communications systems. Specifically there will be radio transceiver arranged in a network of active and passive radio receivers placed on personnel, equipment or parts. Based on a radio triangulation method, it is determined the location of the all resources and parts involved in manufacturing process. The transceivers communicate with each other via “routers” - also components of the network. Such a structure may extend over large distances even in indoor spaces where there are obstacles (walls between rooms). The location is done by determining the power of transmission signal for at least three end points. The receiver position is then transmitted over the network through routers, to a central server where all positions of the resources are centralized. Our solution is a non-invasive and low cost method for determining resource position in the factory. The system can be used for both resource planning production for current process more efficient and for further analysis of the movement of resources during previous processes with possible adjustments to the workspace and re-planning of resources for future processes.

  6. A WiMAX-Based Implementation of Network MIMO for Indoor Wireless Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, Sivarama; Huang, Howard; Lozano, Angel; Valenzuela, Reinaldo

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques can bring numerous benefits, such as higher spectral efficiency, to point-to-point wireless links. More recently, there has been interest in extending MIMO concepts to multiuser wireless systems. Our focus in this paper is on network MIMO, a family of techniques whereby each end user in a wireless access network is served through several access points within its range of influence. By tightly coordinating the transmission and reception of signals at multiple access points, network MIMO can transcend the limits on spectral efficiency imposed by cochannel interference. Taking prior information-theoretic analyses of network MIMO to the next level, we quantify the spectral efficiency gains obtainable under realistic propagation and operational conditions in a typical indoor deployment. Our study relies on detailed simulations and, for specificity, is conducted largely within the physical-layer framework of the IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX system. Furthermore, to facilitate the coordination between access points, we assume that a high-capacity local area network, such as Gigabit Ethernet, connects all the access points. Our results confirm that network MIMO stands to provide a multiple-fold increase in spectral efficiency under these conditions.

  7. Towards improved characterization of high-risk releases using heterogeneous indoor sensor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sreedharan, Priya; Sohn, Michael D.; Nazaroff, William W.; J. Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-06-30

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardous to building occupants. For an acutely toxic contaminant, the speed of the emergency response strongly influences the consequences to occupants. The design of a real time sensor system is made challenging both by the urgency and complex nature of the event, and by the imperfect sensors and models available to describe it. In this research, we use Bayesian modeling to combine information from multiple types of sensors to improve the characterization of a release. We discuss conceptual and algorithmic considerations for selecting and fusing information from disparate sensors. To explore system performance, we use both real tracer gas data from experiments in a three story building, along with synthetic data, including information from door position sensors. The added information from door position sensors is found to be useful for many scenarios, but not always. We discuss the physical conditions and design factors that affect these results, such as the influence of the door positions on contaminant transport. We highlight potential benefits of multisensor data fusion, challenges in realizing those benefits, and opportunities for further improvement.

  8. The Community Climate System Model: CCSM3

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W D; Blackmon, M; Bitz, C; Bonan, G; Bretherton, C S; Carton, J A; Chang, P; Doney, S; Hack, J J; Kiehl, J T; Henderson, T; Large, W G; McKenna, D; Santer, B D; Smith, R D

    2004-12-27

    A new version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) has been developed and released to the climate community. CCSM3 is a coupled climate model with components representing the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface connected by a flux coupler. CCSM3 is designed to produce realistic simulations over a wide range of spatial resolutions, enabling inexpensive simulations lasting several millennia or detailed studies of continental-scale climate change. This paper will show results from the configuration used for climate-change simulations with a T85 grid for atmosphere and land and a 1-degree grid for ocean and sea-ice. The new system incorporates several significant improvements in the scientific formulation. The enhancements in the model physics are designed to reduce or eliminate several systematic biases in the mean climate produced by previous editions of CCSM. These include new treatments of cloud processes, aerosol radiative forcing, land-atmosphere fluxes, ocean mixed-layer processes, and sea-ice dynamics. There are significant improvements in the sea-ice thickness, polar radiation budgets, equatorial sea-surface temperatures, ocean currents, cloud radiative effects, and ENSO teleconnections. CCSM3 can produce stable climate simulations of millenial duration without ad hoc adjustments to the fluxes exchanged among the component models. Nonetheless, there are still systematic biases in the ocean-atmosphere fluxes in western coastal regions, the spectrum of ENSO variability, the spatial distribution of precipitation in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the continental precipitation and surface air temperatures. We conclude with the prospects for extending CCSM to a more comprehensive model of the Earth's climate system.

  9. Climate change impacts on food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Food system includes biophysical factors (climate, land and water), human environments (production technologies and food consumption, distribution and marketing), as well as the dynamic interactions within them. Climate change affects agriculture and food systems in various ways. Agricultural production can be influenced directly by climatic factors such as mean temperature rising, change in rainfall patterns, and more frequent extreme events. Eventually, climate change could cause shift of arable land, alteration of water availability, abnormal fluctuation of food prices, and increase of people at risk of malnutrition. This work aims to evaluate how climate change would affect agricultural production biophysically and how these effects would propagate to social factors at the global level. In order to model the complex interactions between the natural and social components, a Global Optimization model of Agricultural Land and Water resources (GOALW) is applied to the analysis. GOALW includes various demands of human society (food, feed, other), explicit production module, and irrigation water availability constraint. The objective of GOALW is to maximize global social welfare (consumers' surplus and producers' surplus).Crop-wise irrigation water use in different regions around the world are determined by the model; marginal value of water (MVW) can be obtained from the model, which implies how much additional welfare benefit could be gained with one unit increase in local water availability. Using GOALW, we will analyze two questions in this presentation: 1) how climate change will alter irrigation requirements and how the social system would buffer that by price/demand adjustment; 2) how will the MVW be affected by climate change and what are the controlling factors. These results facilitate meaningful insights for investment and adaptation strategies in sustaining world's food security under climate change.

  10. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  11. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Adolescent Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Gery P.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Jones, Sherry Everett; O’Malley Olsen, Emily; Miyamoto, Justin N.; Michael, Shannon L.; Saraiya, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recently, several state indoor tanning laws, including age restrictions, were promulgated to reduce indoor tanning among minors. We examined the effects of these laws on adolescent indoor tanning. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 31 835). Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning among US high school students. Results. Female students in states with indoor tanning laws were less likely to engage in indoor tanning than those in states without any laws. We observed a stronger association among female students in states with systems access, parental permission, and age restriction laws than among those in states without any laws. We found no significant association among female students in states with only systems access and parental permission laws or among male students. Conclusions. Indoor tanning laws, particularly those including age restrictions, may be effective in reducing indoor tanning among female high school students, for whom rates are the highest. Such reductions have the potential to reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:24524515

  12. Bayesian based design of real-time sensor systems for high-risk indoor contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Sreedharan, Priya

    2007-01-01

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardousto building occupants. To respond effectively, the contaminant release must be quicklydetected and characterized to determine unobserved parameters, such as release locationand strength. Characterizing the release requires solving an inverse problem. Designinga robust real-time sensor system that solves the inverse problem is challenging becausethe fate and transport of contaminants is complex, sensor information is limited andimperfect, and real-time estimation is computationally constrained.This dissertation uses a system-level approach, based on a Bayes Monte Carloframework, to develop sensor-system design concepts and methods. I describe threeinvestigations that explore complex relationships among sensors, network architecture,interpretation algorithms, and system performance. The investigations use data obtainedfrom tracer gas experiments conducted in a real building. The influence of individual sensor characteristics on the sensor-system performance for binary-type contaminant sensors is analyzed. Performance tradeoffs among sensor accuracy, threshold level and response time are identified; these attributes could not be inferred without a system-level analysis. For example, more accurate but slower sensors are found to outperform less accurate but faster sensors. Secondly, I investigate how the sensor-system performance can be understood in terms of contaminant transport processes and the model representation that is used to solve the inverse problem. The determination of release location and mass are shown to be related to and constrained by transport and mixing time scales. These time scales explain performance differences among different sensor networks. For example, the effect of longer sensor response times is comparably less for releases with longer mixing time scales. The third investigation explores how information fusion from heterogeneous sensors may improve the sensor-system

  13. Measured Cooling Season Results Relating the Impact of Mechanical Ventilation on Energy, Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality in Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Eric; Amos, Bryan; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Widder, Sarah H.; Fonorow, Ken

    2014-08-22

    Conference Paper for ACEEE Summer Study in Buildings discussing results to date of a project evaluating the impact of ventialtion on energy use, comfort, durability, and cost in the hot humid climate.

  14. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy.

  15. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  16. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  17. a Framework of Cognitive Indoor Navigation Based on Characteristics of Indoor Spatial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, R.; Arikawa, M.

    2015-05-01

    People are easy to get confused in indoor spatial environment. Thus, indoor navigation systems on mobile devices are expected in a wide variety of application domains. Limited by the accuracy of indoor positioning, indoor navigating systems are not common in our society. However, automatic positioning is not all about location-based services (LBS), other factors, such as good map design and user interfaces, are also important to satisfy users of LBS. Indoor spatial environment and people's indoor spatial cognition are different than those in outdoor environment, which asks for different design of LBS. This paper introduces our design methods of indoor navigation system based on the characteristics of indoor spatial environment and indoor spatial cognition.

  18. A Bluetooth/PDR Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes two schemes for indoor positioning by fusing Bluetooth beacons and a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) technique to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. As to the PDR approach, a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm is used to improve the positioning accuracy. According to pedestrians’ different walking patterns such as walking or running, this paper makes a comparative analysis of multiple step length calculation models to determine a linear computation model and the relevant parameters. In consideration of the deviation between the real heading and the value of the orientation sensor, a heading estimation method with real-time compensation is proposed, which is based on a Kalman filter with map geometry information. The corrected heading can inhibit the positioning error accumulation and improve the positioning accuracy of PDR. Moreover, this paper has implemented two positioning approaches integrated with Bluetooth and PDR. One is the PDR-based positioning method based on map matching and position correction through Bluetooth. There will not be too much calculation work or too high maintenance costs using this method. The other method is a fusion calculation method based on the pedestrians’ moving status (direct movement or making a turn) to determine adaptively the noise parameters in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) system. This method has worked very well in the elimination of various phenomena, including the “go and back” phenomenon caused by the instability of the Bluetooth-based positioning system and the “cross-wall” phenomenon due to the accumulative errors caused by the PDR algorithm. Experiments performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building in the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus showed that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve a 2-meter precision. PMID:26404277

  19. A Bluetooth/PDR Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Chunyan

    2015-09-25

    This paper proposes two schemes for indoor positioning by fusing Bluetooth beacons and a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) technique to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. As to the PDR approach, a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm is used to improve the positioning accuracy. According to pedestrians' different walking patterns such as walking or running, this paper makes a comparative analysis of multiple step length calculation models to determine a linear computation model and the relevant parameters. In consideration of the deviation between the real heading and the value of the orientation sensor, a heading estimation method with real-time compensation is proposed, which is based on a Kalman filter with map geometry information. The corrected heading can inhibit the positioning error accumulation and improve the positioning accuracy of PDR. Moreover, this paper has implemented two positioning approaches integrated with Bluetooth and PDR. One is the PDR-based positioning method based on map matching and position correction through Bluetooth. There will not be too much calculation work or too high maintenance costs using this method. The other method is a fusion calculation method based on the pedestrians' moving status (direct movement or making a turn) to determine adaptively the noise parameters in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) system. This method has worked very well in the elimination of various phenomena, including the "go and back" phenomenon caused by the instability of the Bluetooth-based positioning system and the "cross-wall" phenomenon due to the accumulative errors caused by the PDR algorithm. Experiments performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building in the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus showed that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve a 2-meter precision.

  20. A Bluetooth/PDR Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes two schemes for indoor positioning by fusing Bluetooth beacons and a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) technique to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. As to the PDR approach, a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm is used to improve the positioning accuracy. According to pedestrians' different walking patterns such as walking or running, this paper makes a comparative analysis of multiple step length calculation models to determine a linear computation model and the relevant parameters. In consideration of the deviation between the real heading and the value of the orientation sensor, a heading estimation method with real-time compensation is proposed, which is based on a Kalman filter with map geometry information. The corrected heading can inhibit the positioning error accumulation and improve the positioning accuracy of PDR. Moreover, this paper has implemented two positioning approaches integrated with Bluetooth and PDR. One is the PDR-based positioning method based on map matching and position correction through Bluetooth. There will not be too much calculation work or too high maintenance costs using this method. The other method is a fusion calculation method based on the pedestrians' moving status (direct movement or making a turn) to determine adaptively the noise parameters in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) system. This method has worked very well in the elimination of various phenomena, including the "go and back" phenomenon caused by the instability of the Bluetooth-based positioning system and the "cross-wall" phenomenon due to the accumulative errors caused by the PDR algorithm. Experiments performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building in the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus showed that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve a 2-meter precision. PMID:26404277

  1. Stereoscopic helmet mounted system for real time 3D environment reconstruction and indoor ego-motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, Giuseppe; Sequeira, Vitor M.; Sadka, Abdul

    2008-04-01

    A novel type of stereoscopic Helmet Mounted System for simultaneous user localization and mapping applications is described. This paper presents precise real time volume data reconstruction. The system is designed for users that need to explore and navigate in unprepared indoor environments without any support of GPS signal or environment preparation through preinstalled markers. Augmented Reality features in support of self-navigation can be interactively added by placing virtual markers in the desired positions in the world coordinate system. They can then be retrieved when the marker is back in the user field of view being used as visual alerts or for back path finding.

  2. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions.

    PubMed

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-03-11

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y(-1)), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y(-1). Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y(-1) could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient--measured in "total abatement calorie cost"--than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes.

  3. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    PubMed Central

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  4. A dual-adsorbent preconcentrator for a portable indoor-VOC microsensor system.

    PubMed

    Lu, C J; Zellers, E T

    2001-07-15

    The development and testing of a miniature dual-adsorbent preconcentrator for a microsensor-based analytical system designed to determine complex volatile organic chemical (VOC) mixtures encountered in indoor working environments at low part-per-billion levels is described. Candidate adsorbents were screened for thermal-desorption bandwidth and breakthrough volume against 20 volatile organic vapors and subsets thereof as a function of several relevant variables. A glass capillary (1.1 mm i.d.) packed with 3.4 mg of Carbopack X and 1.2 mg of Carboxen 1000 provides sufficient capacity for a 1-L dry-air sample containing all 20 vapors at concentrations of 100 ppb as well as providing a composite half-height peak width of <3 s at a desorption temperature of 300 degrees C and a flow rate of 4 mL/min. Required adsorbent masses increase to 7.0 and 1.5 mg, respectively, for the same mixture at component concentrations of 1 ppm. Vapor breakthrough volumes for the Carbopack X are unaffected by humidity from 0 to 100%RH, but those for the Carboxen 1000 are significantly reduced, requiring an additional 0.9 mg of the latter to avoid premature breakthrough at the 100 ppb level. Good peak shapes, efficient chromatographic separation of preconcentrated sample mixture components, and detection limits in the low-parts-per-billion range using an integrated surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor are achieved. Preconcentrator design and operating parameters are considered in terms of the vapor bed-residence times and breakthrough volumes in the context of the modified Wheeler equation.

  5. A dual-adsorbent preconcentrator for a portable indoor-VOC microsensor system.

    PubMed

    Lu, C J; Zellers, E T

    2001-07-15

    The development and testing of a miniature dual-adsorbent preconcentrator for a microsensor-based analytical system designed to determine complex volatile organic chemical (VOC) mixtures encountered in indoor working environments at low part-per-billion levels is described. Candidate adsorbents were screened for thermal-desorption bandwidth and breakthrough volume against 20 volatile organic vapors and subsets thereof as a function of several relevant variables. A glass capillary (1.1 mm i.d.) packed with 3.4 mg of Carbopack X and 1.2 mg of Carboxen 1000 provides sufficient capacity for a 1-L dry-air sample containing all 20 vapors at concentrations of 100 ppb as well as providing a composite half-height peak width of <3 s at a desorption temperature of 300 degrees C and a flow rate of 4 mL/min. Required adsorbent masses increase to 7.0 and 1.5 mg, respectively, for the same mixture at component concentrations of 1 ppm. Vapor breakthrough volumes for the Carbopack X are unaffected by humidity from 0 to 100%RH, but those for the Carboxen 1000 are significantly reduced, requiring an additional 0.9 mg of the latter to avoid premature breakthrough at the 100 ppb level. Good peak shapes, efficient chromatographic separation of preconcentrated sample mixture components, and detection limits in the low-parts-per-billion range using an integrated surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor are achieved. Preconcentrator design and operating parameters are considered in terms of the vapor bed-residence times and breakthrough volumes in the context of the modified Wheeler equation. PMID:11476247

  6. The climate system as a ticking clock

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-09-14

    Climate researchers are picking up a more or less regular 2-year beat to the global climate system - one that seems to be heard from every quarter. The most recently discovered example of this climatic ticking - and perhaps the most intriguing - comes from the very core of El Nino. Researchers have found that some aspects of this cycle of alternating warm and relatively cold waters along the equatorial Pacific have a tendency to repeat every 2 years. The overlying winds pulsate at the same pace, as do the globe-girdling effects of the El Nino cycle, from winter warmth in Alaska to heavy rains in Peru and drought in Australia. The climatic ticking in the tropical Pacific is hardly as reliable as the changing of the seasons. Sometimes it is muted, and occasionally it skips a beat. But some researchers nevertheless see hope of using it in the prediction of El Nino and its global effects. In any case, climate researchers are eager to determine what makes El Nino tick. The answer could be an underlying pacemaker of this crucial atmospheric cycle.

  7. A Depth Video Sensor-Based Life-Logging Human Activity Recognition System for Elderly Care in Smart Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Ahmad; Kamal, Shaharyar; Kim, Daijin

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR) realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital. PMID:24991942

  8. A depth video sensor-based life-logging human activity recognition system for elderly care in smart indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Ahmad; Kamal, Shaharyar; Kim, Daijin

    2014-07-02

    Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR) realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital.

  9. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Paciorek, Chritopher J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and/or factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system (GIS), and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households. As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3–4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 – 2005. Elemental carbon concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally-located ambient monitor. The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM2.5 was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO2 with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO2 and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in the

  10. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Lisa K; Clougherty, Jane E; Paciorek, Chritopher J; Wright, Rosalind J; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and/or factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system (GIS), and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households.As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 - 2005. Elemental carbon concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally-located ambient monitor.The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM(2.5) was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO(2) with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO(2) and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in

  11. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Lisa K; Clougherty, Jane E; Paciorek, Chritopher J; Wright, Rosalind J; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and/or factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system (GIS), and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households.As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 - 2005. Elemental carbon concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally-located ambient monitor.The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM(2.5) was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO(2) with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO(2) and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in

  12. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system, and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households. As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally located ambient monitor. The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM 2.5 was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO 2 with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50 m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO 2 and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in the

  13. Quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter for accurate indoor heading estimation using wearable multi-sensor system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xuebing; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Shengzhi; Wang, Guoping; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) has attracted numerous researchers due to its high reliability and independence. The heading estimation, as one of the most important parts of inertial navigation, has been a research focus in this field. Heading estimation using magnetometers is perturbed by magnetic disturbances, such as indoor concrete structures and electronic equipment. The MEMS gyroscope is also used for heading estimation. However, the accuracy of gyroscope is unreliable with time. In this paper, a wearable multi-sensor system has been designed to obtain the high-accuracy indoor heading estimation, according to a quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. The proposed multi-sensor system including one three-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, one three-axis magnetometer and one microprocessor minimizes the size and cost. The wearable multi-sensor system was fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for heading estimation experiments in our college building. The results show that the mean heading estimation errors are less 10° and 5° to multi-sensor system fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor UAV, respectively, compared to the reference path. PMID:25961384

  14. Quaternion-Based Unscented Kalman Filter for Accurate Indoor Heading Estimation Using Wearable Multi-Sensor System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xuebing; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Shengzhi; Wang, Guoping; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) has attracted numerous researchers due to its high reliability and independence. The heading estimation, as one of the most important parts of inertial navigation, has been a research focus in this field. Heading estimation using magnetometers is perturbed by magnetic disturbances, such as indoor concrete structures and electronic equipment. The MEMS gyroscope is also used for heading estimation. However, the accuracy of gyroscope is unreliable with time. In this paper, a wearable multi-sensor system has been designed to obtain the high-accuracy indoor heading estimation, according to a quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. The proposed multi-sensor system including one three-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, one three-axis magnetometer and one microprocessor minimizes the size and cost. The wearable multi-sensor system was fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for heading estimation experiments in our college building. The results show that the mean heading estimation errors are less 10° and 5° to multi-sensor system fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor UAV, respectively, compared to the reference path. PMID:25961384

  15. Quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter for accurate indoor heading estimation using wearable multi-sensor system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xuebing; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Shengzhi; Wang, Guoping; Liu, Sheng

    2015-05-07

    Inertial navigation based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) has attracted numerous researchers due to its high reliability and independence. The heading estimation, as one of the most important parts of inertial navigation, has been a research focus in this field. Heading estimation using magnetometers is perturbed by magnetic disturbances, such as indoor concrete structures and electronic equipment. The MEMS gyroscope is also used for heading estimation. However, the accuracy of gyroscope is unreliable with time. In this paper, a wearable multi-sensor system has been designed to obtain the high-accuracy indoor heading estimation, according to a quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. The proposed multi-sensor system including one three-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, one three-axis magnetometer and one microprocessor minimizes the size and cost. The wearable multi-sensor system was fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for heading estimation experiments in our college building. The results show that the mean heading estimation errors are less 10° and 5° to multi-sensor system fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor UAV, respectively, compared to the reference path.

  16. Pilot climate data system user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reph, M. G.; Treinish, L. A.; Bloch, L.

    1984-01-01

    Instructions for using the Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS), an interactive, scientific data management system for locating, obtaining, manipulating, and displaying climate-research data are presented. The PCDS currently provides this supoort for approximately twenty data sets. Figures that illustrate the terminal displays which a user sees when he/she runs the PCDS and some examples of the output from this system are included. The capabilities which are described in detail allow a user to perform the following: (1) obtain comprehensive descriptions of a number of climate parameter data sets and the associated sensor measurements from which they were derived; (2) obtain detailed information about the temporal coverage and data volume of data sets which are readily accessible via the PCDS; (3) extract portions of a data set using criteria such as time range and geographic location, and output the data to tape, user terminal, system printer, or online disk files in a special data-set-independent format; (4) access and manipulate the data in these data-set-independent files, performing such functions as combining the data, subsetting the data, and averaging the data; and (5) create various graphical representations of the data stored in the data-set-independent files.

  17. Indoor Map Acquisition System Using Global Scan Matching Method and Laser Range Scan Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisanaga, Satoshi; Kase, Takaaki

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is the latest technique for constructing indoor maps. In indoor environment, a localization method using the features of the walls as landmarks has been studied in the past. The past study has a drawback. It cannot localize in spaces surrounded by featureless walls or walls on which similar features are repeated. To overcome this drawback, we developed an accuracy localization method that ignores the features of the walls. We noted the fact that the walls in a building are aligned along only two orthogonal directions. By considering a specific wall to be a reference wall, the location of a robot was expressed by using the distance between the robot and the reference wall. We developed the robot in order to evaluate the mapping accuracy of our method and carried out an experiment to map a corridor (40m long) that contained featureless parts. The map obtained had a margin of error of less than 2%.

  18. Long-term measurement of indoor thermal environment and energy performance in a detached wooden house with passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Yoshimi; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Chikashi

    1998-07-01

    The indoor thermal environment, energy performance and energy consumption for a detached wooden house equipped with two passive solar systems, were investigated over a period of three years. The house with a floor area of 188 m{sup 2} was constructed in the autumn of 1993 in Sendai, Japan; and was well insulated and very airtight compared with other houses in Japan. There are six occupants. Heating equipment is comprises of a thermal storage space heater using night-time electricity and a vented firewood furnace on the first floor. Each room is ventilated all day by a central ventilation system. Two passive solar systems were incorporated: a concrete floor in the southern perimeter of the living room as a direct gain system, and an earth tube embedded around the circumference of the house to supply fresh air. The principal results obtained are as follows: (1) The indoor environment during the heating season was more thermally comfortable, compared with that or ordinary houses in Japan. (2) The concrete floor played a role of thermal storage, which absorbed and released heat for decreasing the fluctuation of room temperature. (3) The earth tube supplied air with lower temperature in the summer and higher temperature in the winter to the room, that the outdoor air temperature. This thermal performance did not decrease in spite of the long-term use. (4) The annual amount of energy consumption of this house was less than that of ordinary houses in the northern part of Japan.

  19. Network of Networks and the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, Jürgen; Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Donges, Jonathan; Donner, Reik; Malik, Nishant; Marwan, Norbert; Stolbova, Veronika

    2013-04-01

    Network of networks is a new direction in complex systems science. One can find such networks in various fields, such as infrastructure (power grids etc.), human brain or Earth system. Basic properties and new characteristics, such as cross-degree, or cross-betweenness will be discussed. This allows us to quantify the structural role of single vertices or whole sub-networks with respect to the interaction of a pair of subnetworks on local, mesoscopic, and global topological scales. Next, we consider an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This technique is then applied to 3-dimensional data of the climate system. We interpret different heights in the atmosphere as different networks and the whole as a network of networks. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. This concept is applied to Indian Monsoon data in order to characterize the regional occurrence of strong rain events and its impact on predictability. References: Arenas, A., A. Diaz-Guilera, J. Kurths, Y. Moreno, and C. Zhou, Phys. Reports 2008, 469, 93. Donges, J., Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Europhys. Lett. 2009, 87, 48007. Donner, R., Y. Zou, J. Donges, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 2010, 81, 015101(R ). Mokhov, I. I., D. A. Smirnov, P. I. Nakonechny, S. S. Kozlenko, E. P. Seleznev, and J. Kurths, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L00F04. Malik, N., B. Bookhagen, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Climate Dynamics, 2012, 39, 971. Donges, J., H. Schultz, N. Marwan, Y. Zou, J. Kurths, Eur. J. Phys. B 2011, 84, 635-651. Donges, J., R. Donner, M. Trauth, N. Marwan, H.J. Schellnhuber, and J. Kurths

  20. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Shifei; Atia, Mohamed M; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS) alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory. PMID:26389906

  1. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Shifei; Atia, Mohamed M; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-09-15

    This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS) alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory.

  2. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Shifei; Atia, Mohamed M.; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS) alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory. PMID:26389906

  3. Multi-modal low cost mobile indoor surveillance system on the Robust Artificial Intelligence-based Defense Electro Robot (RAIDER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Binu M.; Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    We present an autonomous system capable of performing security check routines. The surveillance machine, the Clearpath Husky robotic platform, is equipped with three IP cameras with different orientations for the surveillance tasks of face recognition, human activity recognition, autonomous navigation and 3D reconstruction of its environment. Combining the computer vision algorithms onto a robotic machine has given birth to the Robust Artificial Intelligencebased Defense Electro-Robot (RAIDER). The end purpose of the RAIDER is to conduct a patrolling routine on a single floor of a building several times a day. As the RAIDER travels down the corridors off-line algorithms use two of the RAIDER's side mounted cameras to perform a 3D reconstruction from monocular vision technique that updates a 3D model to the most current state of the indoor environment. Using frames from the front mounted camera, positioned at the human eye level, the system performs face recognition with real time training of unknown subjects. Human activity recognition algorithm will also be implemented in which each detected person is assigned to a set of action classes picked to classify ordinary and harmful student activities in a hallway setting.The system is designed to detect changes and irregularities within an environment as well as familiarize with regular faces and actions to distinguish potentially dangerous behavior. In this paper, we present the various algorithms and their modifications which when implemented on the RAIDER serves the purpose of indoor surveillance.

  4. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOEpatents

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  5. Comparison of the impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 and a cigarette on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Mitova, Maya I; Campelos, Pedro B; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine G; Maeder, Serge; Mottier, Nicolas; Rouget, Emmanuel G R; Tharin, Manuel; Tricker, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    The impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2) on indoor air quality was evaluated in an environmentally controlled room using ventilation conditions recommended for simulating "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" environments and was compared with smoking a lit-end cigarette (Marlboro Gold) under identical experimental conditions. The concentrations of eighteen indoor air constituents (respirable suspended particles (RSP) < 2.5 μm in diameter), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), solanesol, 3-ethenylpyridine, nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, isoprene, toluene, acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and combined oxides of nitrogen) were measured. In simulations evaluating THS 2.2, the concentrations of most studied analytes did not exceed the background concentrations determined when non-smoking panelists were present in the environmentally controlled room under equivalent conditions. Only acetaldehyde and nicotine concentrations were increased above background concentrations in the "Office" (3.65 and 1.10 μg/m(3)), "Residential" (5.09 and 1.81 μg/m(3)) and "Hospitality" (1.40 and 0.66 μg/m(3)) simulations, respectively. Smoking Marlboro Gold resulted in greater increases in the concentrations of acetaldehyde (58.8, 83.8 and 33.1 μg/m(3)) and nicotine (34.7, 29.1 and 34.6 μg/m(3)) as well as all other measured indoor air constituents in the "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" simulations, respectively. PMID:27311683

  6. Comparison of the impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 and a cigarette on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Mitova, Maya I; Campelos, Pedro B; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine G; Maeder, Serge; Mottier, Nicolas; Rouget, Emmanuel G R; Tharin, Manuel; Tricker, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    The impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2) on indoor air quality was evaluated in an environmentally controlled room using ventilation conditions recommended for simulating "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" environments and was compared with smoking a lit-end cigarette (Marlboro Gold) under identical experimental conditions. The concentrations of eighteen indoor air constituents (respirable suspended particles (RSP) < 2.5 μm in diameter), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), solanesol, 3-ethenylpyridine, nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, isoprene, toluene, acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and combined oxides of nitrogen) were measured. In simulations evaluating THS 2.2, the concentrations of most studied analytes did not exceed the background concentrations determined when non-smoking panelists were present in the environmentally controlled room under equivalent conditions. Only acetaldehyde and nicotine concentrations were increased above background concentrations in the "Office" (3.65 and 1.10 μg/m(3)), "Residential" (5.09 and 1.81 μg/m(3)) and "Hospitality" (1.40 and 0.66 μg/m(3)) simulations, respectively. Smoking Marlboro Gold resulted in greater increases in the concentrations of acetaldehyde (58.8, 83.8 and 33.1 μg/m(3)) and nicotine (34.7, 29.1 and 34.6 μg/m(3)) as well as all other measured indoor air constituents in the "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" simulations, respectively.

  7. VLC-Based Positioning System for an Indoor Environment Using an Image Sensor and an Accelerometer Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Phat; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it is believed that lighting and communication technologies are being replaced by high power LEDs, which are core parts of the visible light communication (VLC) system. In this paper, by taking advantages of VLC, we propose a novel design for an indoor positioning system using LEDs, an image sensor (IS) and an accelerometer sensor (AS) from mobile devices. The proposed algorithm, which provides a high precision indoor position, consists of four LEDs mounted on the ceiling transmitting their own three-dimensional (3D) world coordinates and an IS at an unknown position receiving and demodulating the signals. Based on the 3D world coordinates and the 2D image coordinate of LEDs, the position of the mobile device is determined. Compared to existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm only requires one IS. In addition, by using an AS, the mobile device is allowed to have arbitrary orientation. Last but not least, a mechanism for reducing the image sensor noise is proposed to further improve the accuracy of the positioning algorithm. A simulation is conducted to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27240383

  8. VLC-Based Positioning System for an Indoor Environment Using an Image Sensor and an Accelerometer Sensor.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Phat; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it is believed that lighting and communication technologies are being replaced by high power LEDs, which are core parts of the visible light communication (VLC) system. In this paper, by taking advantages of VLC, we propose a novel design for an indoor positioning system using LEDs, an image sensor (IS) and an accelerometer sensor (AS) from mobile devices. The proposed algorithm, which provides a high precision indoor position, consists of four LEDs mounted on the ceiling transmitting their own three-dimensional (3D) world coordinates and an IS at an unknown position receiving and demodulating the signals. Based on the 3D world coordinates and the 2D image coordinate of LEDs, the position of the mobile device is determined. Compared to existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm only requires one IS. In addition, by using an AS, the mobile device is allowed to have arbitrary orientation. Last but not least, a mechanism for reducing the image sensor noise is proposed to further improve the accuracy of the positioning algorithm. A simulation is conducted to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27240383

  9. VLC-Based Positioning System for an Indoor Environment Using an Image Sensor and an Accelerometer Sensor.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Phat; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it is believed that lighting and communication technologies are being replaced by high power LEDs, which are core parts of the visible light communication (VLC) system. In this paper, by taking advantages of VLC, we propose a novel design for an indoor positioning system using LEDs, an image sensor (IS) and an accelerometer sensor (AS) from mobile devices. The proposed algorithm, which provides a high precision indoor position, consists of four LEDs mounted on the ceiling transmitting their own three-dimensional (3D) world coordinates and an IS at an unknown position receiving and demodulating the signals. Based on the 3D world coordinates and the 2D image coordinate of LEDs, the position of the mobile device is determined. Compared to existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm only requires one IS. In addition, by using an AS, the mobile device is allowed to have arbitrary orientation. Last but not least, a mechanism for reducing the image sensor noise is proposed to further improve the accuracy of the positioning algorithm. A simulation is conducted to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  10. NAVIS-An UGV indoor positioning system using laser scan matching for large-area real-time applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Liu, Jinbing; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Laser scan matching with grid-based maps is a promising tool for real-time indoor positioning of mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). While there are critical implementation problems, such as the ability to estimate the position by sensing the unknown indoor environment with sufficient accuracy and low enough latency for stable vehicle control, further development work is necessary. Unfortunately, most of the existing methods employ heuristics for quick positioning in which numerous accumulated errors easily lead to loss of positioning accuracy. This severely restricts its applications in large areas and over lengthy periods of time. This paper introduces an efficient real-time mobile UGV indoor positioning system for large-area applications using laser scan matching with an improved probabilistically-motivated Maximum Likelihood Estimation (IMLE) algorithm, which is based on a multi-resolution patch-divided grid likelihood map. Compared with traditional methods, the improvements embodied in IMLE include: (a) Iterative Closed Point (ICP) preprocessing, which adaptively decreases the search scope; (b) a totally brute search matching method on multi-resolution map layers, based on the likelihood value between current laser scan and the grid map within refined search scope, adopted to obtain the global optimum position at each scan matching; and (c) a patch-divided likelihood map supporting a large indoor area. A UGV platform called NAVIS was designed, manufactured, and tested based on a low-cost robot integrating a LiDAR and an odometer sensor to verify the IMLE algorithm. A series of experiments based on simulated data and field tests with NAVIS proved that the proposed IMEL algorithm is a better way to perform local scan matching that can offer a quick and stable positioning solution with high accuracy so it can be part of a large area localization/mapping, application. The NAVIS platform can reach an updating rate of 12 Hz in a feature-rich environment and 2 Hz

  11. NAVIS-An UGV Indoor Positioning System Using Laser Scan Matching for Large-Area Real-Time Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jian.; Chen, Yuwei.; Jaakkola, Anttoni.; Liu, Jinbing.; Hyyppä, Juha.; Hyyppä, Hannu.

    2014-01-01

    Laser scan matching with grid-based maps is a promising tool for real-time indoor positioning of mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). While there are critical implementation problems, such as the ability to estimate the position by sensing the unknown indoor environment with sufficient accuracy and low enough latency for stable vehicle control, further development work is necessary. Unfortunately, most of the existing methods employ heuristics for quick positioning in which numerous accumulated errors easily lead to loss of positioning accuracy. This severely restricts its applications in large areas and over lengthy periods of time. This paper introduces an efficient real-time mobile UGV indoor positioning system for large-area applications using laser scan matching with an improved probabilistically-motivated Maximum Likelihood Estimation (IMLE) algorithm, which is based on a multi-resolution patch-divided grid likelihood map. Compared with traditional methods, the improvements embodied in IMLE include: (a) Iterative Closed Point (ICP) preprocessing, which adaptively decreases the search scope; (b) a totally brute search matching method on multi-resolution map layers, based on the likelihood value between current laser scan and the grid map within refined search scope, adopted to obtain the global optimum position at each scan matching; and (c) a patch-divided likelihood map supporting a large indoor area. A UGV platform called NAVIS was designed, manufactured, and tested based on a low-cost robot integrating a LiDAR and an odometer sensor to verify the IMLE algorithm. A series of experiments based on simulated data and field tests with NAVIS proved that the proposed IMEL algorithm is a better way to perform local scan matching that can offer a quick and stable positioning solution with high accuracy so it can be part of a large area localization/mapping, application. The NAVIS platform can reach an updating rate of 12 Hz in a feature-rich environment and 2 Hz

  12. NAVIS-An UGV indoor positioning system using laser scan matching for large-area real-time applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Liu, Jinbing; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2014-07-04

    Laser scan matching with grid-based maps is a promising tool for real-time indoor positioning of mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). While there are critical implementation problems, such as the ability to estimate the position by sensing the unknown indoor environment with sufficient accuracy and low enough latency for stable vehicle control, further development work is necessary. Unfortunately, most of the existing methods employ heuristics for quick positioning in which numerous accumulated errors easily lead to loss of positioning accuracy. This severely restricts its applications in large areas and over lengthy periods of time. This paper introduces an efficient real-time mobile UGV indoor positioning system for large-area applications using laser scan matching with an improved probabilistically-motivated Maximum Likelihood Estimation (IMLE) algorithm, which is based on a multi-resolution patch-divided grid likelihood map. Compared with traditional methods, the improvements embodied in IMLE include: (a) Iterative Closed Point (ICP) preprocessing, which adaptively decreases the search scope; (b) a totally brute search matching method on multi-resolution map layers, based on the likelihood value between current laser scan and the grid map within refined search scope, adopted to obtain the global optimum position at each scan matching; and (c) a patch-divided likelihood map supporting a large indoor area. A UGV platform called NAVIS was designed, manufactured, and tested based on a low-cost robot integrating a LiDAR and an odometer sensor to verify the IMLE algorithm. A series of experiments based on simulated data and field tests with NAVIS proved that the proposed IMEL algorithm is a better way to perform local scan matching that can offer a quick and stable positioning solution with high accuracy so it can be part of a large area localization/mapping, application. The NAVIS platform can reach an updating rate of 12 Hz in a feature-rich environment and 2 Hz

  13. Precambrian evolution of the climate system.

    PubMed

    Walker, J C

    1990-01-01

    Climate is an important environmental parameter of the early Earth, likely to have affected the origin and evolution of life, the composition and mineralogy of sedimentary rocks, and stable isotope ratios in sedimentary minerals. There is little observational evidence constraining Precambrian climates. Most of our knowledge is at present theoretical. Factors that must have affected the climate include reduced solar luminosity, enhanced rotation rate of the Earth, an area of land that probably increased with time, and biological evolution, particularly as it affected the composition of the atmosphere and the greenhouse effect. Cloud cover is a major uncertainty about the early Earth. Carbon dioxide and its greenhouse effect are the factors that have been most extensively studied. This paper presents a new examination of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon as they may have changed between an Archean Earth deficient in land, sedimentary rocks, and biological activity, and a Proterozoic Earth much like the modern Earth, but lacking terrestrial life and carbonate-secreting plankton. Results of a numerical simulation of this transition show how increasing biological activity could have drawn down atmospheric carbon dioxide by extracting sedimentary organic carbon from the system. Increasing area of continents could further have drawn down carbon dioxide by encouraging the accumulation of carbonate sediments. An attempt to develop a numerical simulation of the carbon cycles of the Precambrian raises questions about sources and sinks of marine carbon and alkalinity on a world without continents. More information is needed about sea-floor weathering processes.

  14. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenton, T.M.; Held, H.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S.; Kriegler, E. |; Hall, J.W.; Schellnhuber, H.J. |

    2008-02-12

    The term 'tipping point' commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here the authors introduce the term 'tipping element' to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. They critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and they assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then the authors explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  15. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-05-28

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building.

  16. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  17. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  18. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations. The traditional approach to climate model evaluation, which compares a single parameter at a time, identifies symptomatic model biases and errors but fails to diagnose the model problems. The model diagnosis process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. To address these challenges, we are developing a parallel, distributed web-service system that enables the physics-based multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks (i.e., Flask, Gunicorn, and Tornado). The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation and (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, and (4) the calculation of difference between two variables. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use

  19. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  20. Indoor Air '90: the 5th in a series of international conferences on the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Walkinshaw, D

    1992-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate: INDOOR AIR '90 continued a series of international scientific conferences begun in 1978 on a complex, interdisciplinary subject increasingly recognized to be of importance to human comfort, health and productivity, and having important implications for building design and furnishing, office equipment, appliances, cleaning, heating, ventilating, humidifying and air-conditioning. INDOOR AIR '90 constituted a week long program of 542 paper and poster presentations and forum discussions, 100 exhibits, and a public forum. This paper summarizes some of the highlights of this conference and links these to some of the studies reported at earlier INDOOR AIR Conference.

  1. Optimization of the Coverage and Accuracy of an Indoor Positioning System with a Variable Number of Sensors.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Perez, Francisco; Lazaro-Galilea, Jose Luis; Bravo, Ignacio; Gardel, Alfredo; Rodriguez, David

    2016-06-22

    This paper focuses on optimal sensor deployment for indoor localization with a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Our goal is to obtain an algorithm to deploy sensors taking the number of sensors, accuracy and coverage into account. Contrary to most works in the literature, we consider the presence of obstacles in the region of interest (ROI) that can cause occlusions between the target and some sensors. In addition, we aim to obtain all of the Pareto optimal solutions regarding the number of sensors, coverage and accuracy. To deal with a variable number of sensors, we add speciation and structural mutations to the well-known non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Speciation allows one to keep the evolution of sensor sets under control and to apply genetic operators to them so that they compete with other sets of the same size. We show some case studies of the sensor placement of an infrared range-difference indoor positioning system with a fairly complex model of the error of the measurements. The results obtained by our algorithm are compared to sensor placement patterns obtained with random deployment to highlight the relevance of using such a deployment algorithm.

  2. Optimization of the Coverage and Accuracy of an Indoor Positioning System with a Variable Number of Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Perez, Francisco; Lazaro-Galilea, Jose Luis; Bravo, Ignacio; Gardel, Alfredo; Rodriguez, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on optimal sensor deployment for indoor localization with a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Our goal is to obtain an algorithm to deploy sensors taking the number of sensors, accuracy and coverage into account. Contrary to most works in the literature, we consider the presence of obstacles in the region of interest (ROI) that can cause occlusions between the target and some sensors. In addition, we aim to obtain all of the Pareto optimal solutions regarding the number of sensors, coverage and accuracy. To deal with a variable number of sensors, we add speciation and structural mutations to the well-known non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Speciation allows one to keep the evolution of sensor sets under control and to apply genetic operators to them so that they compete with other sets of the same size. We show some case studies of the sensor placement of an infrared range-difference indoor positioning system with a fairly complex model of the error of the measurements. The results obtained by our algorithm are compared to sensor placement patterns obtained with random deployment to highlight the relevance of using such a deployment algorithm. PMID:27338414

  3. Development of a Pedestrian Indoor Navigation System Based on Multi-Sensor Fusion and Fuzzy Logic Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. C.; Chang, C. C.; Tsai, C. M.; Lin, S. Y.; Huang, S. C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a pedestrian indoor navigation system based on the multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The proposed navigation system is a self-contained dead reckoning navigation that means no other outside signal is demanded. In order to achieve the self-contained capability, a portable and wearable inertial measure unit (IMU) has been developed. Its adopted sensors are the low-cost inertial sensors, accelerometer and gyroscope, based on the micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS). There are two types of the IMU modules, handheld and waist-mounted. The low-cost MEMS sensors suffer from various errors due to the results of manufacturing imperfections and other effects. Therefore, a sensor calibration procedure based on the scalar calibration and the least squares methods has been induced in this study to improve the accuracy of the inertial sensors. With the calibrated data acquired from the inertial sensors, the step length and strength of the pedestrian are estimated by multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The developed multi-sensor fusion algorithm provides the amount of the walking steps and the strength of each steps in real-time. Consequently, the estimated walking amount and strength per step are taken into the proposed fuzzy logic estimation algorithm to estimates the step lengths of the user. Since the walking length and direction are both the required information of the dead reckoning navigation, the walking direction is calculated by integrating the angular rate acquired by the gyroscope of the developed IMU module. Both the walking length and direction are calculated on the IMU module and transmit to a smartphone with Bluetooth to perform the dead reckoning navigation which is run on a self-developed APP. Due to the error accumulating of dead reckoning navigation, a particle filter and a pre-loaded map of indoor environment have been applied to the APP of the proposed navigation system to extend its

  4. Indoorgml - a Standard for Indoor Spatial Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ki-Joune

    2016-06-01

    With recent progress of mobile devices and indoor positioning technologies, it becomes possible to provide location-based services in indoor space as well as outdoor space. It is in a seamless way between indoor and outdoor spaces or in an independent way only for indoor space. However, we cannot simply apply spatial models developed for outdoor space to indoor space due to their differences. For example, coordinate reference systems are employed to indicate a specific position in outdoor space, while the location in indoor space is rather specified by cell number such as room number. Unlike outdoor space, the distance between two points in indoor space is not determined by the length of the straight line but the constraints given by indoor components such as walls, stairs, and doors. For this reason, we need to establish a new framework for indoor space from fundamental theoretical basis, indoor spatial data models, and information systems to store, manage, and analyse indoor spatial data. In order to provide this framework, an international standard, called IndoorGML has been developed and published by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). This standard is based on a cellular notion of space, which considers an indoor space as a set of non-overlapping cells. It consists of two types of modules; core module and extension module. While core module consists of four basic conceptual and implementation modeling components (geometric model for cell, topology between cells, semantic model of cell, and multi-layered space model), extension modules may be defined on the top of the core module to support an application area. As the first version of the standard, we provide an extension for indoor navigation.

  5. Indoor radon.

    PubMed

    Polpong, P; Bovornkitti, S

    1998-01-01

    The naturally radioactive but chemically inert gas, radon, is formed from the radioactive decay of radium which is part of the uranium series. Radon gas, which has a half life of 3.8 days, must escape from soil particles through air-filled pores in order to enter the atmosphere following the decay of radium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies, depending on the place, time, height above the ground and meteorological conditions. It is thus an inescapable source of radiation exposure, both at home and at work. The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from indoor radon gas and its daughter products are of great concern worldwide. Noting of an excessive lung cancer risk among several groups of underground miners exposed to radon and its daughter products, studies on radon concentrations in the workplace and in dwellings have been conducted in many countries. The results have shown that the distribution of radon concentrations are approximately lognormal from which population weighted; the arithmetic mean of radon concentration of 40 Bq.m-3 has been adopted worldwide for dwellings and workplaces. The principal methods for reducing a high indoor radon concentration are: reducing the radon supply by reversing the pressure difference between the building and the soil; raising the resistance of the foundations to soil gas entry; removing the radon sources such as water or underlying soil; diluting the concentration by increasing the ventilation rate; and reducing the concentration of radon progeny by filtering and increasing the circulation of indoor air. Buildings which have a radon concentration higher than 200 Bq.m-3 should be investigated by the national authorities concerned; meanwhile, householders should be advised to take simple temporary precautions, such as increasing ventilation, until a permanent remedy can be effected. PMID:9470322

  6. Indoor radon.

    PubMed

    Polpong, P; Bovornkitti, S

    1998-01-01

    The naturally radioactive but chemically inert gas, radon, is formed from the radioactive decay of radium which is part of the uranium series. Radon gas, which has a half life of 3.8 days, must escape from soil particles through air-filled pores in order to enter the atmosphere following the decay of radium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies, depending on the place, time, height above the ground and meteorological conditions. It is thus an inescapable source of radiation exposure, both at home and at work. The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from indoor radon gas and its daughter products are of great concern worldwide. Noting of an excessive lung cancer risk among several groups of underground miners exposed to radon and its daughter products, studies on radon concentrations in the workplace and in dwellings have been conducted in many countries. The results have shown that the distribution of radon concentrations are approximately lognormal from which population weighted; the arithmetic mean of radon concentration of 40 Bq.m-3 has been adopted worldwide for dwellings and workplaces. The principal methods for reducing a high indoor radon concentration are: reducing the radon supply by reversing the pressure difference between the building and the soil; raising the resistance of the foundations to soil gas entry; removing the radon sources such as water or underlying soil; diluting the concentration by increasing the ventilation rate; and reducing the concentration of radon progeny by filtering and increasing the circulation of indoor air. Buildings which have a radon concentration higher than 200 Bq.m-3 should be investigated by the national authorities concerned; meanwhile, householders should be advised to take simple temporary precautions, such as increasing ventilation, until a permanent remedy can be effected.

  7. Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A&N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A&N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

  8. Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

  9. NASA's climate data system primer, version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Closs, James W.; Reph, Mary G.; Olsen, Lola M.

    1989-01-01

    This is a beginner's manual for NASA's Climate Data System (NCDS), an interactive scientific information management system that allows one to locate, access, manipulate, and display climate-research data. Additional information on the use of the system is available from the system itself.

  10. Fennec - The Saharan Climate System: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, R.; Parker, D. J.; Marsham, J. H.; McQuaid, J.; Brindley, H.; Todd, M. C.; Highwood, E. J.; Flamant, C.; Chaboureau, J.-P.; Kocha, C.; Saci, A.; Bechir, M.

    2012-04-01

    The central Sahara has one of the most extreme climates on Earth. During the northern summer months, a large low pressure system caused by intense solar heating develops over a huge, largely uninhabited expanse of northern Mali, southern Algeria and eastern Mauritania. Temperatures in the high 40s, with uplift of dry air through more than 5000m of the atmosphere, are routine in what is thought to be the deepest such layer on the planet. This large zone is also where the thickest layer of dust anywhere in the Earth's atmosphere is found. The atmospheric aerosol loading and thermodynamics over the Sahara are unique, and have major impacts on the climate of the whole North African sector, Europe and the Atlantic. Weather and climate prediction models show significant systematic errors over the Sahara desert manifested as differences in radiation reaching and leaving the surface, surface temperature, winds, dust and in representation of the boundary layer. Progress in understanding these features and errors is currently limited due to the lack of observations in the central Saharan region. Fennec is a large scale, multi-platform, extended duration observational campaign in the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) region. During the summer of 2011 a major campaign set about addressing the data deficiency of this important region. The campaign, which involved many more people than are indicated by the authorship of this abstract, featured the use of the instrumented BAe-146 and Falcon aircraft as well as supersite ground-stations both Algeria and Mauritania. The purpose of this overview is to describe the observational campaign, particularly as it relates to the effort to understand dust over the region.

  11. Gigabit-class optical wireless communication system at indoor distances (1.5 ÷ 4 m).

    PubMed

    Cossu, Giulio; Ali, Wajahat; Corsini, Raffaele; Ciaramella, Ernesto

    2015-06-15

    In this paper we experimentally realized bidirectional optical wireless communication (OWC) link using four channel visible LED board exploiting wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for the downlink and infrared LED for uplink. We achieved greater than 5 Gbit/s data rate at common indoor distance (1.5 to 4 m) for downlink and 1.5 Gbit/s for uplink using commercially available LEDs. We achieved these results after a careful choice of the LED emission wavelengths and the optical filter spectra. Moreover, we investigate the optimal LED working current and the optimal modulation depth. The bit error ratios of all the channels were maintained lower than the FEC limit (3.8·10(-3)).

  12. The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable…

  13. Indoor air quality impacts of residential hvac systems phase II.B report: IAQ control retrofit simulations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Emmerich, S.J.; Persily, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) performed a preliminary study of the potential for using central forced-air heating and cooling system modifications to control indoor air quality (IAQ) in residential buildings. The objective of this effort was to provide insight into the use of state-of-the-art IAQ models to evaluate such modifications, the potential of these modifications to mitigate residential IAQ problems, the pollutant sources they are most likely to impact, and their potential limitations. This study was not intended to determine definitively whether the IAQ control options studied are reliable and cost-effective. The report summarizes the results on Phase II.B of this project, which consisted of three main efforts: computer simulations of contaminant levels with IAQ control retrofits, evaluation of the effectiveness of the IAQ control retrofits, and development of recommendations for future research.

  14. Design and Implementation of a DSP-Based MIMO System Prototype for Real-Time Demonstration and Indoor Channel Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Raqibul; Gozali, Ran; Palat, Ramesh Chembil; Robert, Max; Newhall, William G.; Woerner, Brian D.; Reed, Jeffrey H.

    2005-12-01

    The design and implementation of the Virginia Tech Space-Time Advanced Radio (VT-STAR), a multiple antenna element space-time (ST) processing prototype testbed, is presented. The testbed is a research tool for comparing practical and theoretical performance metrics (e.g., throughput, link reliability) in different wireless channel conditions. The prototype builds around software-defined radio (SDR) concepts on a DSP platform and provides the flexibility to implement various forms of ST techniques. Different components of the system are described in detail, including the software implementation, I/O schemes with custom hardware, and data transfer mechanisms between the DSP and the host PC. Two different example realizations are presented, a real-time demonstration and an offline measurement tool. Finally, some representative measurement results obtained in indoor environments are presented. These results show VT-STAR to be a promising tool for performing MIMO experiments and generating channel measurements that can complement simulation studies in this area.

  15. State laws prohibiting sales to minors and indoor use of electronic nicotine delivery systems--United States, November 2014.

    PubMed

    Marynak, Kristy; Holmes, Carissa Baker; King, Brian A; Promoff, Gabbi; Bunnell, Rebecca; McAfee, Timothy

    2014-12-12

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other devices such as electronic hookahs, electronic cigars, and vape pens, are battery-powered devices capable of delivering aerosolized nicotine and additives to the user. Experimentation with and current use of e-cigarettes has risen sharply among youths and adults in the United States. Youth access to and use of ENDS is of particular concern given the potential adverse effects of nicotine on adolescent brain development. Additionally, ENDS use in public indoor areas might passively expose bystanders (e.g., children, pregnant women, and other nontobacco users) to nicotine and other potentially harmful constituents. ENDS use could have the potential to renormalize tobacco use and complicate enforcement of smoke-free policies. State governments can regulate the sales of ENDS and their use in indoor areas where nonusers might be involuntarily exposed to secondhand aerosol. To learn the current status of state laws regulating the sales and use of ENDS, CDC assessed state laws that prohibit ENDS sales to minors and laws that include ENDS use in conventional smoking prohibitions in indoor areas of private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Findings indicate that as of November 30, 2014, 40 states prohibited ENDS sales to minors, but only three states prohibited ENDS use in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Of the 40 states that prohibited ENDS sales to minors, 21 did not prohibit ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Three states had no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS sales to minors and no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. According to the Surgeon General, ENDS have the potential for public health harm or public health benefit. The possibility of public health benefit from ENDS could arise only if 1) current smokers use these devices to switch completely

  16. State laws prohibiting sales to minors and indoor use of electronic nicotine delivery systems--United States, November 2014.

    PubMed

    Marynak, Kristy; Holmes, Carissa Baker; King, Brian A; Promoff, Gabbi; Bunnell, Rebecca; McAfee, Timothy

    2014-12-12

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other devices such as electronic hookahs, electronic cigars, and vape pens, are battery-powered devices capable of delivering aerosolized nicotine and additives to the user. Experimentation with and current use of e-cigarettes has risen sharply among youths and adults in the United States. Youth access to and use of ENDS is of particular concern given the potential adverse effects of nicotine on adolescent brain development. Additionally, ENDS use in public indoor areas might passively expose bystanders (e.g., children, pregnant women, and other nontobacco users) to nicotine and other potentially harmful constituents. ENDS use could have the potential to renormalize tobacco use and complicate enforcement of smoke-free policies. State governments can regulate the sales of ENDS and their use in indoor areas where nonusers might be involuntarily exposed to secondhand aerosol. To learn the current status of state laws regulating the sales and use of ENDS, CDC assessed state laws that prohibit ENDS sales to minors and laws that include ENDS use in conventional smoking prohibitions in indoor areas of private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Findings indicate that as of November 30, 2014, 40 states prohibited ENDS sales to minors, but only three states prohibited ENDS use in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Of the 40 states that prohibited ENDS sales to minors, 21 did not prohibit ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Three states had no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS sales to minors and no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. According to the Surgeon General, ENDS have the potential for public health harm or public health benefit. The possibility of public health benefit from ENDS could arise only if 1) current smokers use these devices to switch completely

  17. Design of an indoor self-positioning system for the visually impaired--simulation with RFID and Bluetooth in a visible light communication system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohan; Makino, Hideo; Kobayashi, Suguru; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    After a public experiment of the indoor guidance system using FLC (fluorescent light communication), we found that FLC provides a promising medium for the installation of a guidance system for the visually impaired. However, precise self-positioning was not satisfactorily achieved. In this article, we propose a new self-positioning method, one that uses a combination of RFID (Radio-frequency identification), Bluetooth and FLC. We analyzed the situation and developed a model that combined the three communication modes. Then we performed a series of experiments and get some results in the first step.

  18. Climate change impact of biochar cook stoves in western Kenyan farm households: system dynamics model analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Thea; Nicholson, Charles F; Torres, Dorisel; Lehmann, Johannes

    2011-04-15

    Cook stoves that produce biochar as well as heat for cooking could help mitigate indoor air pollution from cooking fires and could enhance local soils, while their potential reductions in carbon (C) emissions and increases in soil C sequestration could offer access to C market financing. We use system dynamics modeling to (i) investigate the climate change impact of prototype and refined biochar-producing pyrolytic cook stoves and improved combustion cook stoves in comparison to conventional cook stoves; (ii) assess the relative sensitivity of the stoves' climate change impacts to key parameters; and (iii) quantify the effects of different climate change impact accounting decisions. Simulated reductions in mean greenhouse gas (GHG) impact from a traditional, 3-stone cook stove baseline are 3.50 tCO(2)e/household/year for the improved combustion stove and 3.69-4.33 tCO(2)e/household/year for the pyrolytic stoves, of which biochar directly accounts for 26-42%. The magnitude of these reductions is about 2-5 times more sensitive to baseline wood fuel use and the fraction of nonrenewable biomass (fNRB) of off-farm wood that is used as fuel than to soil fertility improvement or stability of biochar. Improved cookstoves with higher wood demand are less sensitive to changes in baseline fuel use and rely on biochar for a greater proportion of their reductions. PMID:21446727

  19. Climate change impact of biochar cook stoves in western Kenyan farm households: system dynamics model analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Thea; Nicholson, Charles F; Torres, Dorisel; Lehmann, Johannes

    2011-04-15

    Cook stoves that produce biochar as well as heat for cooking could help mitigate indoor air pollution from cooking fires and could enhance local soils, while their potential reductions in carbon (C) emissions and increases in soil C sequestration could offer access to C market financing. We use system dynamics modeling to (i) investigate the climate change impact of prototype and refined biochar-producing pyrolytic cook stoves and improved combustion cook stoves in comparison to conventional cook stoves; (ii) assess the relative sensitivity of the stoves' climate change impacts to key parameters; and (iii) quantify the effects of different climate change impact accounting decisions. Simulated reductions in mean greenhouse gas (GHG) impact from a traditional, 3-stone cook stove baseline are 3.50 tCO(2)e/household/year for the improved combustion stove and 3.69-4.33 tCO(2)e/household/year for the pyrolytic stoves, of which biochar directly accounts for 26-42%. The magnitude of these reductions is about 2-5 times more sensitive to baseline wood fuel use and the fraction of nonrenewable biomass (fNRB) of off-farm wood that is used as fuel than to soil fertility improvement or stability of biochar. Improved cookstoves with higher wood demand are less sensitive to changes in baseline fuel use and rely on biochar for a greater proportion of their reductions.

  20. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  1. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  2. The Community Climate System Model Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Peter R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Donner, Leo J.; Holland, Marika M.; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Jayne, Steve R.; Lawrence, David M.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Worley, Patrick; Yang, Zong-Liang; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-10-01

    The fourth version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) was recently completed and released to the climate community. This paper describes developments to all the CCSM components, and documents fully coupled pre-industrial control runs compared to the previous version, CCSM3. Using the standard atmosphere and land resolution of 1{sup o} results in the sea surface temperature biases in the major upwelling regions being comparable to the 1.4{sup o} resolution CCSM3. Two changes to the deep convection scheme in the atmosphere component result in the CCSM4 producing El Nino/Southern Oscillation variability with a much more realistic frequency distribution than the CCSM3, although the amplitude is too large compared to observations. They also improve the representation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, and the frequency distribution of tropical precipitation. A new overflow parameterization in the ocean component leads to an improved simulation of the deep ocean density structure, especially in the North Atlantic. Changes to the CCSM4 land component lead to a much improved annual cycle of water storage, especially in the tropics. The CCSM4 sea ice component uses much more realistic albedos than the CCSM3, and the Arctic sea ice concentration is improved in the CCSM4. An ensemble of 20th century simulations runs produce an excellent match to the observed September Arctic sea ice extent from 1979 to 2005. The CCSM4 ensemble mean increase in globally-averaged surface temperature between 1850 and 2005 is larger than the observed increase by about 0.4 C. This is consistent with the fact that the CCSM4 does not include a representation of the indirect effects of aerosols, although other factors may come into play. The CCSM4 still has significant biases, such as the mean precipitation distribution in the tropical Pacific Ocean, too much low cloud in the Arctic, and the latitudinal distributions of short-wave and long-wave cloud forcings.

  3. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  4. Office Building Occupant's Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... building ventilation systems; moisture and humidity; and occupant perceptions and susceptibilities. In addition, there are many other factors that affect comfort or perception of indoor air quality. Controlling indoor air quality ...

  5. Shelter and indoor air.

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, J A

    1990-01-01

    Improvements in outdoor air quality that were achieved through the implementation of the Clean Air Act accentuate the quality of the indoor air as an important, if not dominant, factor in the determination of the total population exposure to air contaminants. A number of developments are adding important new determinants of indoor air quality. Energy conservation strategies require reductions in infiltration of outdoor air into buildings. New materials introduced in the construction and in the maintenance of buildings are contributing new air contaminants into the building atmosphere. Larger buildings require more and more complex ventilation systems that are less and less under the individual control of the occupants. All of these factors contribute to the current reality that indoor air contains more pollutants, and often at higher concentrations, than outdoor air. Especially in the larger buildings, it will be necessary to assure that an adequate quantity of fresh air of acceptable quality is provided to each individual space, and that no new sources of pollutants are added to a space or a whole building without appropriate adjustments in the supply of fresh air. PMID:2401264

  6. Experimental investigation of analog and digital dimming techniques on photometric performance of an indoor Visible Light Communication (VLC) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Fahad; Kalavally, Vineetha; Bakaul, Masuduzzaman; Parthiban, R.

    2015-09-01

    For making commercial implementation of light emitting diode (LED) based visible light communication (VLC) systems feasible, it is necessary to incorporate it with dimming schemes which will provide energy savings, moods and increase the aesthetic value of the places using this technology. There are two general methods which are used to dim LEDs commonly categorized as analog and digital dimming. Incorporating fast data transmission with these techniques is a key challenge in VLC. In this paper, digital and analog dimming for a 10 Mb/s non return to zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) based VLC system is experimentally investigated considering both photometric and communicative parameters. A spectrophotometer was used for photometric analysis and a line of sight (LOS) configuration in the presence of ambient light was used for analyzing communication parameters. Based on the experimental results, it was determined that digital dimming scheme is preferable for use in indoor VLC systems requiring high dimming precision and data transmission at lower brightness levels. On the other hand, analog dimming scheme is a cost effective solution for high speed systems where dimming precision is insignificant.

  7. Design of a multi-sensor sonar system for indoor range measurement as a navigational aid for the blind.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Maroof H; Barreto, Armando

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the methodology for the design of a sonar-based ranging and guidance system. The intended application of the system is to help a blind person avoid obstacles as he/she navigates his/her environment. Six sonar transceivers are arranged radially on a headgear worn by the user. The transceivers detect discrete range data at discrete-time sampling instances. A panoramic map of the environment is generated from the discrete-space sensory data. The paper emphasizes the challenges faced during the measurement of omnidirectional ranging information in indoor environments. Situations have been identified where erroneous range readings are generated due to channel cross talk caused by echo bouncing off multiple surfaces. Several sonar control and measurement schemes were developed and tested to avoid these situations. The results and performance of these different control schemes are compared in this paper. A microcontroller-based system commands the sonar ping sequences, acquires the echo return times and computes the ranges. The set of range data is transmitted to a PC, which utilizes the information to build a spatialized audio map of the surrounding obstacles. The hardware and software layout for the system are described in this paper.

  8. The use of the information highway to explore climate variability with the Global Climate Perspectives System (GCPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.B.; Brinegar, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Current concerns over global and regional climate change fluctuations require development of a system that is capable of answering inquiries about the state of the climate from many sectors of society. Often however, when the general public is confronted with studies concerning climate change the results are presented as {open_quotes}global{close_quotes} averages. These averages can mask important regional changes which are {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} to understanding the climate system. The Global Climate Perspectives System (GCPS) system is being designed to examine regional to global scale climate changes by using station and gridded climate data.

  9. Characterization of a multi-user indoor positioning system based on low cost depth vision (Kinect) for monitoring human activity in a smart home.

    PubMed

    Sevrin, Loïc; Noury, Norbert; Abouchi, Nacer; Jumel, Fabrice; Massot, Bertrand; Saraydaryan, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of systems use indoor positioning for many scenarios such as asset tracking, health care, games, manufacturing, logistics, shopping, and security. Many technologies are available and the use of depth cameras is becoming more and more attractive as this kind of device becomes affordable and easy to handle. This paper contributes to the effort of creating an indoor positioning system based on low cost depth cameras (Kinect). A method is proposed to optimize the calibration of the depth cameras, to describe the multi-camera data fusion and to specify a global positioning projection to maintain the compatibility with outdoor positioning systems. The monitoring of the people trajectories at home is intended for the early detection of a shift in daily activities which highlights disabilities and loss of autonomy. This system is meant to improve homecare health management at home for a better end of life at a sustainable cost for the community.

  10. Characterization of a multi-user indoor positioning system based on low cost depth vision (Kinect) for monitoring human activity in a smart home.

    PubMed

    Sevrin, Loïc; Noury, Norbert; Abouchi, Nacer; Jumel, Fabrice; Massot, Bertrand; Saraydaryan, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of systems use indoor positioning for many scenarios such as asset tracking, health care, games, manufacturing, logistics, shopping, and security. Many technologies are available and the use of depth cameras is becoming more and more attractive as this kind of device becomes affordable and easy to handle. This paper contributes to the effort of creating an indoor positioning system based on low cost depth cameras (Kinect). A method is proposed to optimize the calibration of the depth cameras, to describe the multi-camera data fusion and to specify a global positioning projection to maintain the compatibility with outdoor positioning systems. The monitoring of the people trajectories at home is intended for the early detection of a shift in daily activities which highlights disabilities and loss of autonomy. This system is meant to improve homecare health management at home for a better end of life at a sustainable cost for the community. PMID:26737415

  11. Integrated regional changes in arctic climate feedbacks: Implications for the global climate system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.; Wirth, C.; ,

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic is a key part of the global climate system because the net positive energy input to the tropics must ultimately be resolved through substantial energy losses in high-latitude regions. The Arctic influences the global climate system through both positive and negative feedbacks that involve physical, ecological, and human systems of the Arctic. The balance of evidence suggests that positive feedbacks to global warming will likely dominate in the Arctic during the next 50 to 100 years. However, the negative feedbacks associated with changing the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean might abruptly launch the planet into another glacial period on longer timescales. In light of uncertainties and the vulnerabilities of the climate system to responses in the Arctic, it is important that we improve our understanding of how integrated regional changes in the Arctic will likely influence the evolution of the global climate system. Copyright ?? 2006 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  12. Pilot climate data system: User's guide for charts subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    The use of the Pilot Climate Data System's (PCDS) CHARTS Subsystem is described. This facility is an interactive software system for the graphical production and enhancement of text and viewgraph displays.

  13. 15 Gbit/s indoor optical wireless systems employing fast adaptation and imaging reception in a realistic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaadi, Fuad E.

    2016-03-01

    Optical wireless systems are promising candidates for next-generation indoor communication networks. Optical wireless technology offers freedom from spectrum regulations and, compared to current radio-frequency networks, higher data rates and increased security. This paper presents a fast adaptation method for multibeam angle and delay adaptation systems and a new spot-diffusing geometry, and also considers restrictions needed for complying with eye safety regulations. The fast adaptation algorithm reduces the computational load required to reconfigure the transmitter in the case of transmitter and/or receiver mobility. The beam clustering approach enables the transmitter to assign power to spots within the pixel's field of view (FOV) and increases the number of such spots. Thus, if the power per spot is restricted to comply with eye safety standards, the new approach, in which more spots are visible within the FOV of the pixel, leads to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Simulation results demonstrate that the techniques proposed in this paper lead to SNR improvements that enable reliable operation at data rates as high as 15 Gbit/s. These results are based on simulation and not on actual measurements or experiments.

  14. D Reconstruction of Cultural Tourism Attractions from Indoor to Outdoor Based on Portable Four-Camera Stereo Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Z.; Li, C.; Zhong, S.; Liu, B.; Jiang, H.; Wen, X.

    2015-05-01

    Building the fine 3D model from outdoor to indoor is becoming a necessity for protecting the cultural tourism resources. However, the existing 3D modelling technologies mainly focus on outdoor areas. Actually, a 3D model should contain detailed descriptions of both its appearance and its internal structure, including architectural components. In this paper, a portable four-camera stereo photographic measurement system is developed, which can provide a professional solution for fast 3D data acquisition, processing, integration, reconstruction and visualization. Given a specific scene or object, it can directly collect physical geometric information such as positions, sizes and shapes of an object or a scene, as well as physical property information such as the materials and textures. On the basis of the information, 3D model can be automatically constructed. The system has been applied to the indooroutdoor seamless modelling of distinctive architecture existing in two typical cultural tourism zones, that is, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic minority villages in Sichuan Jiuzhaigou Scenic Area and Tujia ethnic minority villages in Hubei Shennongjia Nature Reserve, providing a new method and platform for protection of minority cultural characteristics, 3D reconstruction and cultural tourism.

  15. A National Program for Analysis of the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Arkin, Phil; Kalnay, Eugenia; Laver, James; Trenberth, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Perhaps the single greatest roadblock to fundamental advances in our understanding of climate variability and climate change is the lack of robust and unbiased long-term global observations of the climate system. Such observations are critical for the identification and diagnosis of climate variations, and provide the constraints necessary for developing and validating climate models. The first generation of reanalysis efforts, by using fixed analysis systems, eliminated the artificial climate signals that occurred in analyses generated at the operational numerical weather prediction centers. These datasets are now widely used by the scientific community in a variety of applications including atmosphere-ocean interactions, seasonal prediction, climate monitoring, the hydrological cycle, and a host of regional and other diagnostic studies. These reanalyses, however, had problems that made them sub-optimal or even unusable for some applications. Perhaps the most serious problem for climate applications was that, while the assimilation system remained fixed, changes in the observing systems did produce spurious changes in the perceived climate. The first generation reanalysis products also exposed problems with physical consistency of the products and the accurate representation of physical processes in the climate system. Examples are bias in the estimates of ocean surface fluxes, and inadequate representation of polar hydrology. In this talk, I will describe some initial plans for a national program on reananlysis. The program is envisioned to be part of an on-going activity to maintain, improve, and reprocess our record of climate observations. I will discuss various issues affecting the quality of reanalyses, with a special focus on those relevant to the ocean.

  16. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  17. Transitivity of the climate-vegetation system in a warm climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Port, U.; Claussen, M.

    2015-11-01

    To date, the transitivity of the global system has been analysed for late Quaternary (glacial, interglacial, and present-day) climate. Here, we extend this analysis to a warm, almost ice-free climate with a different configuration of continents. We use the Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology to analyse the stability of the climate system under early Eocene and pre-industrial conditions. We initialize the simulations by prescribing either dense forests or bare deserts on all continents. Starting with desert continents, an extended desert remains in central Asia in the early Eocene climate. Starting with dense forest coverage, the Asian desert is much smaller, while coastal deserts develop in the Americas which appear to be larger than in the simulations with initially bare continents. These differences can be attributed to differences in the large-scale tropical circulation. With initially forested continents, a stronger dipole in the 200 hPa velocity potential develops than in the simulation with initially bare continents. This difference prevails when vegetation is allowed to adjust to and interact with climate. Further simulations with initial surface conditions that differ in the region of the Asian desert only indicate that local feedback processes are less important in the development of multiple states. In the interglacial, pre-industrial climate, multiple states develop only in the Sahel region. There, local climate-vegetation interaction seems to dominate.

  18. A Systems Perspective on Responses to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    The science of climate change integrates many scientific fields to explain and predict the complex effects of greenhouse gas concentrations on the planet’s energy balance, weather patterns, and ecosystems as well as economic and social systems. A changing climate requires respons...

  19. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  20. Gauging the System: Trends in School Climate Measurement and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…

  1. Applying "Climate" system to teaching basic climatology and raising public awareness of climate change issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    While there is a strong demand for innovation in digital learning, available training programs in the environmental sciences have no time to adapt to rapid changes in the domain content. A joint group of scientists and university teachers develops and implements an educational environment for new learning experiences in basics of climatic science and its applications. This so-called virtual learning laboratory "Climate" contains educational materials and interactive training courses developed to provide undergraduate and graduate students with profound understanding of changes in regional climate and environment. The main feature of this Laboratory is that students perform their computational tasks on climate modeling and evaluation and assessment of climate change using the typical tools of the "Climate" information-computational system, which are usually used by real-life practitioners performing such kind of research. Students have an opportunity to perform computational laboratory works using information-computational tools of the system and improve skills of their usage simultaneously with mastering the subject. We did not create an artificial learning environment to pass the trainings. On the contrary, the main purpose of association of the educational block and computational information system was to familiarize students with the real existing technologies for monitoring and analysis of data on the state of the climate. Trainings are based on technologies and procedures which are typical for Earth system sciences. Educational courses are designed to permit students to conduct their own investigations of ongoing and future climate changes in a manner that is essentially identical to the techniques used by national and international climate research organizations. All trainings are supported by lectures, devoted to the basic aspects of modern climatology, including analysis of current climate change and its possible impacts ensuring effective links between

  2. Fennec - The Saharan Climate System: Project Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, Richard; Flamant, Cyrille; Parker, Doug; Marsham, Marsham; McQuaid, Jim; Brindley, Helen; Todd, Martin; Highwood, Ellie; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Kocha, Cecile; Bechir, Mohamed; Saci, Azzedine

    2013-04-01

    The central Sahara forms an important part of the global climate system. During the northern summer months, the Saharan Heat Low (SHL), caused by intense solar heating, develops over a huge, largely uninhabited expanse of northern Mali, southern Algeria and eastern Mauritania. Dry convection through more than 5000m of the atmosphere, is routine in what is thought to be the deepest such layer on the planet. The SHL also co-locates with the largest loadings of dust anywhere in the Earth's atmosphere, making for a complex yet crucial component of WAM. Much of what is known about the SHL derives from numerical models rather than observations although it is widely accepted that such models show significant systematic errors over the Sahara desert manifested as differences in radiation reaching and leaving the surface, surface temperature, winds, dust and in representation of the boundary layer. In an effort to address the observational deficit in the region, as well as to improve model performance, the Fennec project is a large scale, multi-platform, extended duration observational campaign in the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) region. During the summers of 2011and 2012 a major campaign set about addressing the data deficiency of this important region. The campaign, which involved many more people than are indicated by the authorship of this abstract, featured the use of the instrumented BAe-146 and Falcon aircraft as well as supersite ground-stations both Algeria and Mauritania. The purpose of this overview is to describe project aims, institutional involvement and key elements of the observational campaign, particularly as it relates to the effort to understand dust over the region.

  3. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  4. Ultrasound indoor positioning system based on a low-power wireless sensor network providing sub-centimeter accuracy.

    PubMed

    Medina, Carlos; Segura, José Carlos; De la Torre, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the TELIAMADE system, a new indoor positioning system based on time-of-flight (TOF) of ultrasonic signal to estimate the distance between a receiver node and a transmitter node. TELIAMADE system consists of a set of wireless nodes equipped with a radio module for communication and a module for the transmission and reception of ultrasound. The access to the ultrasonic channel is managed by applying a synchronization algorithm based on a time-division multiplexing (TDMA) scheme. The ultrasonic signal is transmitted using a carrier frequency of 40 kHz and the TOF measurement is estimated by applying a quadrature detector to the signal obtained at the A/D converter output. Low sampling frequencies of 17.78 kHz or even 12.31 kHz are possible using quadrature sampling in order to optimize memory requirements and to reduce the computational cost in signal processing. The distance is calculated from the TOF taking into account the speed of sound. An excellent accuracy in the estimation of the TOF is achieved using parabolic interpolation to detect of maximum of the signal envelope at the matched filter output. The signal phase information is also used for enhancing the TOF measurement accuracy. Experimental results show a root mean square error (rmse) less than 2 mm and a standard deviation less than 0.3 mm for pseudorange measurements in the range of distances between 2 and 6 m. The system location accuracy is also evaluated by applying multilateration. A sub-centimeter location accuracy is achieved with an average rmse of 9.6 mm. PMID:23486218

  5. Ultrasound Indoor Positioning System Based on a Low-Power Wireless Sensor Network Providing Sub-Centimeter Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Carlos; Segura, José Carlos; De la Torre, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the TELIAMADE system, a new indoor positioning system based on time-of-flight (TOF) of ultrasonic signal to estimate the distance between a receiver node and a transmitter node. TELIAMADE system consists of a set of wireless nodes equipped with a radio module for communication and a module for the transmission and reception of ultrasound. The access to the ultrasonic channel is managed by applying a synchronization algorithm based on a time-division multiplexing (TDMA) scheme. The ultrasonic signal is transmitted using a carrier frequency of 40 kHz and the TOF measurement is estimated by applying a quadrature detector to the signal obtained at the A/D converter output. Low sampling frequencies of 17.78 kHz or even 12.31 kHz are possible using quadrature sampling in order to optimize memory requirements and to reduce the computational cost in signal processing. The distance is calculated from the TOF taking into account the speed of sound. An excellent accuracy in the estimation of the TOF is achieved using parabolic interpolation to detect of maximum of the signal envelope at the matched filter output. The signal phase information is also used for enhancing the TOF measurement accuracy. Experimental results show a root mean square error (rmse) less than 2 mm and a standard deviation less than 0.3 mm for pseudorange measurements in the range of distances between 2 and 6 m. The system location accuracy is also evaluated by applying multilateration. A sub-centimeter location accuracy is achieved with an average rmse of 9.6 mm. PMID:23486218

  6. Advanced Indoor Module Light-Soaking Facility

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Osterwald, C.; Pruett, J.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the accelerated, indoor light-soaking test station is presented in this paper, along with data obtained for six modules that underwent exposure. The station comprises a climate-controlled chamber equipped with a solar simulator that allows 1-sun light intensity exposure. Concurrently, we monitor the electrical characteristics of multiple PV modules and exercise active control over their electrical bias using programmable electronic loads, interfaced to a data acquisition system that acquires power-tracking and current-voltage data. This capability allows us to the test different bias conditions and to cyclically alternate between them. Additionally, we can vary the light intensity and module temperatures to garner realistic temperature coefficients of module performance. Data obtained on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) modules are presented.

  7. A personal perspective on modelling the climate system

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Given their increasing relevance for society, I suggest that the climate science community itself does not treat the development of error-free ab initio models of the climate system with sufficient urgency. With increasing levels of difficulty, I discuss a number of proposals for speeding up such development. Firstly, I believe that climate science should make better use of the pool of post-PhD talent in mathematics and physics, for developing next-generation climate models. Secondly, I believe there is more scope for the development of modelling systems which link weather and climate prediction more seamlessly. Finally, here in Europe, I call for a new European Programme on Extreme Computing and Climate to advance our ability to simulate climate extremes, and understand the drivers of such extremes. A key goal for such a programme is the development of a 1 km global climate system model to run on the first exascale supercomputers in the early 2020s. PMID:27274686

  8. Rectification and precession signals in the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybers, P.; Wunsch, C.

    2003-10-01

    Precession of the equinoxes has no effect on the mean annual insolation, but does modulate the amplitude of the seasonal cycle. In a linear climate system, there would be no energy near the 21,000 year precession period. It is only when a non-linear mechanism rectifies the seasonal modulation that precession-period variability appears. Such rectification can arise from physical processes within the climate system, for example a dependence of ice cover only on summer maximum insolation. The possibility exists, however, that the seasonality inherent in many climate proxies will produce precession-period variability in the records independent of any precession-period variability in the climate. One must distinguish this instrumental effect from true climate responses. Careful examination of regions without seasonal cycles, for example the abyssal ocean, and the use of proxies with different seasonal responses, might permit separation of physical from instrumental effects.

  9. Massive MIMO-OFDM indoor visible light communication system downlink architecture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Tian; Li, Zening; Chen, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique is now used in most new broadband communication system, and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is also utilized within current 4th generation (4G) of mobile telecommunication technology. With MIMO and OFDM combined, visible light communication (VLC) system's diversity gain is increase, yet system capacity for dispersive channels is also enhanced. Moreover, with the emerging massive MIMO-OFDM VLC system, there are significant advantages than smaller systems' such as channel hardening, further increasing of energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE) based on law of large number. This paper addresses one of the major technological challenges, system architecture design, which was solved by semispherical beehive structure (SBS) receiver and so that diversity gain can be identified and applied in Massive MIMO VLC system. Simulation results shows that the proposed design clearly presents a spatial diversity over conventional VLC systems.

  10. Prediction of indoor radon concentrations in dwellings in the Oslo region - a model based on geographical information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerud, R.; Blaasaas, K.; Ganerød, G.; Daviknes, H. K.; Aune, E.; Claussen, B.

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to estimate the radon concentration inside each dwelling in the Oslo region, Norway. The model was based on indoor radon measurements from dwellings at predefined distances from the unmeasured dwellings. The results were evaluated by comparing them with actual indoor measurements, airborne gamma ray spectrometry measurements and bedrock geology. It is the first study to evaluate the reliability between estimated indoor radon in each dwelling with airborne measurements (eK, eTh and eU) and underlying geology around the house in a large population. A total of 28 396 indoor radon measurements showed that 42.2% of the dwellings had a radon value higher than the threshold limit of 100 Bq m-3. 18.9% of the dwellings were above the maximum action level of 200 Bq m-3. A positive correlation was found between indoor radon concentration, bedrock geology and airborne gamma measurements (Pearson correlation: eK: 0.42, eTh: 0.67 and eU: 0.65). Highest correlation was found in areas with alum shale (eU: 0.74). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) showed a good agreement between radon estimates from our method and radon estimates from the regression model with ICC values between 0.54 and 0.67.

  11. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  12. An overview of BCC climate system model development and application for climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tongwen; Song, Lianchun; Li, Weiping; Wang, Zaizhi; Zhang, Hua; Xin, Xiaoge; Zhang, Yanwu; Zhang, Li; Li, Jianglong; Wu, Fanghua; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Xueli; Chu, Min; Zhang, Jie; Fang, Yongjie; Wang, Fang; Lu, Yixiong; Liu, Xiangwen; Wei, Min; Liu, Qianxia; Zhou, Wenyan; Dong, Min; Zhao, Qigeng; Ji, Jinjun; Li, Laurent; Zhou, Mingyu

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC_CSM) and its four component models (atmosphere, land surface, ocean, and sea ice). Two recent versions are described: BCC_CSM1.1 with coarse resolution (approximately 2.8125°×2.8125°) and BCC_CSM1.1(m) with moderate resolution (approximately 1.125°×1.125°). Both versions are fully coupled climate-carbon cycle models that simulate the global terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycles and include dynamic vegetation. Both models well simulate the concentration and temporal evolution of atmospheric CO2 during the 20th century with anthropogenic CO2 emissions prescribed. Simulations using these two versions of the BCC_CSM model have been contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase five (CMIP5) in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). These simulations are available for use by both national and international communities for investigating global climate change and for future climate projections. Simulations of the 20th century climate using BCC_CSM1.1 and BCC_CSM1.1(m) are presented and validated, with particular focus on the spatial pattern and seasonal evolution of precipitation and surface air temperature on global and continental scales. Simulations of climate during the last millennium and projections of climate change during the next century are also presented and discussed. Both BCC_CSM1.1 and BCC_CSM1.1(m) perform well when compared with other CMIP5 models. Preliminary analyses indicate that the higher resolution in BCC_CSM1.1(m) improves the simulation of mean climate relative to BCC_CSM1.1, particularly on regional scales.

  13. The Earth's climate as a dynamical system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kaper, H.: Kwong, M.K.

    1992-10-01

    This report constitutes the proceedings of a two-day workshop on climate models which was held at Argonne National Laboratory, September 25 and 26, 1992. It contains the abstracts of the presentations and copies of the overhead transparencies used by the speakers.

  14. DataStreme Earth's Climate System: Building a Climate Literate Society through Effective Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Effective partnerships are key to increasing climate and overall environmental literacy. Financial support from NSF, NASA, and NOAA has allowed the American Meteorological Society (AMS) to offer DataStreme courses for almost 20 years. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and Earth's Climate System (ECS) are offered each fall and spring semester by Local Implementation Teams (LITs) across the country in coordination with AMS Education Program scientists and educators who develop instructional materials, provide logistical support to the LITs, and administer the project. A long-standing partnership with State University of New York's The College at Brockport gives teachers the opportunity to receive 3 tuition-free graduate credits upon successful completion of each DataStreme course and construction of a Plan of Action for educational peer-training. DataStreme ECS investigates the fundamental science of Earth's climate system, explores humans' impact on it, and identifies actions needed in response to climate change. The course provides participants with the knowledge to make informed climate decisions. In fact, according to a recent three-year study conducted by AMS, 98% of DataStreme ECS participants reported an increase in environmental literacy as a result of the course. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and ECS content has been improved because of AMS partnerships with NOAA and NASA. Specifically, hundreds of NASA and NOAA scientists and faculty from numerous institutions both domestic and abroad have contributed and reviewed DataStreme ECS content. Additional collaborations with Consortium for Ocean Leadership and the U.S. Ice Drilling Program greatly improved the course's paleoclimate content. Looking ahead, the Climate Resilience Toolkit from NOAA's Climate Program Office will further bolster the course this fall. These partnerships have resulted in a powerful, content-rich climate science course for K-12 teachers, building the foundation to a climate literate society.

  15. Urban Climate Map System for Dutch spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chao; Spit, Tejo; Lenzholzer, Sanda; Yim, Hung Lam Steve; Heusinkveld, Bert; van Hove, Bert; Chen, Liang; Kupski, Sebastian; Burghardt, René; Katzschner, Lutz

    2012-08-01

    Facing climate change and global warming, outdoor climatic environment is an important consideration factor for planners and policy makers because improving it can greatly contribute to achieve citizen's thermal comfort and create a better urban living quality for adaptation. Thus, the climatic information must be assessed systematically and applied strategically into the planning process. This paper presents a tool named Urban Climate Map System (UCMS) that has proven capable of helping compact cities to incorporate climate effects in planning processes in a systematic way. UCMS is developed and presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform in which the lessons learned and experience gained from interdisciplinary studies can be included. The methodology of UCMS of compact cities, the construction procedure, and the basic input factors - including the natural climate resources and planning data - are described. Some literatures that shed light on the applicability of UMCS are reported. The Municipality of Arnhem is one of Dutch compact urban areas and still under fast urban development and urban renewal. There is an urgent need for local planners and policy makers to protect local climate and open landscape resources and make climate change adaptation in urban construction. Thus, Arnhem is chosen to carry out a case study of UCMS. Although it is the first work of Urban Climatic Mapping in The Netherlands, it serves as a useful climatic information platform to local planners and policy makers for their daily on-going works. We attempt to use a quick method to collect available climatic and planning data and create an information platform for planning use. It relies mostly on literature and theoretical understanding that has been well practiced elsewhere. The effort here is to synergize the established understanding for a case at hand and demonstrate how useful guidance can still be made for planners and policy makers.

  16. Residential Dehumidification Systems Research for Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-02-01

    Twenty homes were tested and monitored in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, to evaluate the humidity control performance and operating cost of six integrated dehumidification and ventilation systems.

  17. Performance evaluation of an acoustic indoor localization system based on a fingerprinting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Nadia; Raoof, Kosai; Bouallegue, Ammar; Letourneur, Stephane; Zaibi, Sonia

    2014-12-01

    We present an acoustic location system that adopts the time of arrival of the path of maximum amplitude as a signature and estimates the target position through nonparametric kernel regression. The system was evaluated in experiments for two main configurations: a privacy-oriented configuration with code division multiple access operation and a centralized configuration with time division multiple access operation. The effects of the number and positions of sources on the performance of the privacy-oriented system was studied. Moreover, the effect of the number of fingerprint positions on the performance of both systems was investigated. Results showed that our privacy-oriented scheme provides an accuracy of 8.5 cm with 87% precision, whereas our centralized system provides an accuracy of 2.7 cm for 93% of measurements. A comparison between our privacy-oriented system and another acoustic location system based on code division multiple access operation and lateration was conducted on our test bench and revealed that the cumulative error distribution function of the fingerprint-based system is better than that of the lateration-based system. This result is similar to that found for Wi-Fi radio-based localization. However, our experiments are the first to demonstrate the detrimental effect that reverberation has on naive acoustic localization approaches.

  18. Use of an Acoustic Orientation System for Indoor Travel with a Spatially Disabled Blind Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, G. E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An acoustic orientation system was developed that employed a portable remote control device keyed to trigger audio tones from modules placed at key locations throughout the user's home and work environments. Results found that the system helped a blind subject to move and work successfully in both settings, and the subject found it easy and…

  19. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  20. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history, philosophy,…

  1. An Indoor Obstacle Detection System Using Depth Information and Region Growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsieh-Chang; Hsieh, Ching-Tang; Yeh, Cheng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an obstacle detection method that uses depth information to allow the visually impaired to avoid obstacles when they move in an unfamiliar environment. The system is composed of three parts: scene detection, obstacle detection and a vocal announcement. This study proposes a new method to remove the ground plane that overcomes the over-segmentation problem. This system addresses the over-segmentation problem by removing the edge and the initial seed position problem for the region growth method using the Connected Component Method (CCM). This system can detect static and dynamic obstacles. The system is simple, robust and efficient. The experimental results show that the proposed system is both robust and convenient. PMID:26512674

  2. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System.

    PubMed

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2015-12-24

    Around 50% of the world's population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m³, 350.7 μg/m³ and 16.8 μg/m³ respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m³, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m³ and 1.5 ng/m³, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants' concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system.

  3. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Around 50% of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m3, 350.7 μg/m3 and 16.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m3, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m3 and 1.5 ng/m3, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants’ concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system. PMID:26712773

  4. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System.

    PubMed

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Around 50% of the world's population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m³, 350.7 μg/m³ and 16.8 μg/m³ respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m³, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m³ and 1.5 ng/m³, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants' concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system. PMID:26712773

  5. INTRODUCTION: Focus on Climate Engineering: Intentional Intervention in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    Geoengineering techniques for countering climate change have been receiving much press recently as a `Plan B' if a global deal to tackle climate change is not agreed at the COP15 negotiations in Copenhagen this December. However, the field is controversial as the methods may have unforeseen consequences, potentially making temperatures rise in some regions or reducing rainfall, and many aspects remain under-researched. This focus issue of Environmental Research Letters is a collection of research articles, invited by David Keith, University of Calgary, and Ken Caldeira, Carnegie Institution, that present and evaluate different methods for engineering the Earth's climate. Not only do the letters in this issue highlight various methods of climate engineering but they also detail the arguments for and against climate engineering as a concept. Further reading Focus on Geoengineering at http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/subject/tag=geoengineering IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science is an open-access proceedings service available at www.iop.org/EJ/journal/ees Focus on Climate Engineering: Intentional Intervention in the Climate System Contents Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming David L Mitchell and William Finnegan Climate engineering and the risk of rapid climate change Andrew Ross and H Damon Matthews Researching geoengineering: should not or could not? Martin Bunzl Of mongooses and mitigation: ecological analogues to geoengineering H Damon Matthews and Sarah E Turner Toward ethical norms and institutions for climate engineering research David R Morrow, Robert E Kopp and Michael Oppenheimer On the possible use of geoengineering to moderate specific climate change impacts Michael C MacCracken The impact of geoengineering aerosols on stratospheric temperature and ozone P Heckendorn, D Weisenstein, S Fueglistaler, B P Luo, E Rozanov, M Schraner, L W Thomason and T Peter The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered

  6. Climate Change Impact Assessments for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of climate change impact assessments evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when assessing the potential impacts of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially impacted by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the assessment process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change assessments for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an impact assessment for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into impact assessments, and modification of international trade models for use in impact studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the assessment outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change impacts and an assessment product of potentially greater

  7. Validation of selected analytical methods using accuracy profiles to assess the impact of a Tobacco Heating System on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Nicolas; Tharin, Manuel; Cluse, Camille; Crudo, Jean-René; Lueso, María Gómez; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine G; Jaquier, Anne; Mitova, Maya I; Rouget, Emmanuel G R; Schaller, Mathieu; Solioz, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Studies in environmentally controlled rooms have been used over the years to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke on indoor air quality. As new tobacco products are developed, it is important to determine their impact on air quality when used indoors. Before such an assessment can take place it is essential that the analytical methods used to assess indoor air quality are validated and shown to be fit for their intended purpose. Consequently, for this assessment, an environmentally controlled room was built and seven analytical methods, representing eighteen analytes, were validated. The validations were carried out with smoking machines using a matrix-based approach applying the accuracy profile procedure. The performances of the methods were compared for all three matrices under investigation: background air samples, the environmental aerosol of Tobacco Heating System THS 2.2, a heat-not-burn tobacco product developed by Philip Morris International, and the environmental tobacco smoke of a cigarette. The environmental aerosol generated by the THS 2.2 device did not have any appreciable impact on the performances of the methods. The comparison between the background and THS 2.2 environmental aerosol samples generated by smoking machines showed that only five compounds were higher when THS 2.2 was used in the environmentally controlled room. Regarding environmental tobacco smoke from cigarettes, the yields of all analytes were clearly above those obtained with the other two air sample types. PMID:27343591

  8. Validation of selected analytical methods using accuracy profiles to assess the impact of a Tobacco Heating System on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Nicolas; Tharin, Manuel; Cluse, Camille; Crudo, Jean-René; Lueso, María Gómez; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine G; Jaquier, Anne; Mitova, Maya I; Rouget, Emmanuel G R; Schaller, Mathieu; Solioz, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Studies in environmentally controlled rooms have been used over the years to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke on indoor air quality. As new tobacco products are developed, it is important to determine their impact on air quality when used indoors. Before such an assessment can take place it is essential that the analytical methods used to assess indoor air quality are validated and shown to be fit for their intended purpose. Consequently, for this assessment, an environmentally controlled room was built and seven analytical methods, representing eighteen analytes, were validated. The validations were carried out with smoking machines using a matrix-based approach applying the accuracy profile procedure. The performances of the methods were compared for all three matrices under investigation: background air samples, the environmental aerosol of Tobacco Heating System THS 2.2, a heat-not-burn tobacco product developed by Philip Morris International, and the environmental tobacco smoke of a cigarette. The environmental aerosol generated by the THS 2.2 device did not have any appreciable impact on the performances of the methods. The comparison between the background and THS 2.2 environmental aerosol samples generated by smoking machines showed that only five compounds were higher when THS 2.2 was used in the environmentally controlled room. Regarding environmental tobacco smoke from cigarettes, the yields of all analytes were clearly above those obtained with the other two air sample types.

  9. Developing a National Climate Indicators System to Track Climate Changes, Impacts, Vulnerabilities, and Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, M. A.; Janetos, A. C.; Arndt, D.; Chen, R. S.; Pouyat, R.; Anderson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. Part of the vision, which is now under development, for the sustained National Climate Assessment (NCA) process is a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public with scientifically valid information that is useful to inform decision-making processes such as the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies in a particular sector or region. These indicators will be tracked as a part of ongoing assessment activities, with adjustments as necessary to adapt to changing conditions and understanding. The indicators will be reviewed and updated so that the system adapts to new information. The NCA indicator system is not intended to serve as a vehicle for documenting rigorous cause and effect relationships. It is reasonable, however, for it to serve as a guide to those factors that affect the evolution of variability and change in the climate system, the resources and sectors of concern that are affected by it, and how society chooses to respond. Different components of the end-to-end climate issue serve as categories within which to organize an end-to-end system of indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, Atmospheric Composition, Physical Climate Variability and Change, Sectors and Resources of Concern, and Adaptation and Mitigation Responses. This framing has several advantages. It can be used to identify the different components of the end-to-end climate issue that both decision-makers and researchers are interested in. It is independent of scale, and therefore allows the indicators themselves to be described at spatial

  10. Comments on Current Space Systems Observing the Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, L. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), which was established in 1992, has been effective in specifying the observations needed for climate studies, and advocating that these observations be made. As a result, there are essential climate variables being observed, particularly from space, and these have formed the basis for our ever-improving models of how the Earth system functions and the human impact on it. We cannot conclude, however, that the current observing system in space is adequate. Climate change is accelerating, and we need to ensure that our observations capture, with completeness and with proper resolution and cadence, the most important changes. Perhaps of most significance, we need to use observations from space to guide the mitigation and adaptation strategies on which at last our civilization seems prepared to embark. And we need to use our observations to educate particularly policy makers on the reality of climate change, so that none deny the need to act. COSPAR is determined to play its part in highlighting the need to strengthen the climate observing system and notably its research component. This is being accomplished through events like the present roundtable, through the work of its Scientific Commission A, its Task Group on GEO (where COSPAR is serving as a member of its Program Board), and by promoting among space agencies and policy-makers the recently released scientific roadmap on Integrated Earth System Science for the period 2016-2025.

  11. Investigations of the Climate System Response to Climate Engineering in a Hierarchy of Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Kelly E.

    Global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases is causing negative impacts on diverse ecological and human systems around the globe, and these impacts are projected to worsen as climate continues to warm. In the absence of meaningful greenhouse gas emissions reductions, new strategies have been proposed to engineer the climate, with the aim of preventing further warming and avoiding associated climate impacts. We investigate one such strategy here, falling under the umbrella of `solar radiation management', in which sulfate aerosols are injected into the stratosphere. We use a global climate model with a coupled mixed-layer depth ocean and with a fully-coupled ocean general circulation model to simulate the stabilization of climate by balancing increasing carbon dioxide with increasing stratospheric sulfate concentrations. We evaluate whether or not severe climate impacts, such as melting Arctic sea ice, tropical crop failure, or destabilization of the West Antarctic ice sheet, could be avoided. We find that while tropical climate emergencies might be avoided by use of stratospheric aerosol injections, avoiding polar emergencies cannot be guaranteed due to large residual climate changes in those regions, which are in part due to residual atmospheric circulation anomalies. We also find that the inclusion of a fully-coupled ocean is important for determining the regional climate response because of its dynamical feedbacks. The efficacy of stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections, and solar radiation management more generally, depends on its ability to be maintained indefinitely, without interruption from a variety of possible sources, such as technological failure, a breakdown in global cooperation, lack of funding, or negative unintended consequences. We next consider the scenario in which stratospheric sulfate injections are abruptly terminated after a multi- decadal period of implementation while greenhouse gas emissions have continued unabated

  12. Developing a System of National Climate Assessment Indicators to Track Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerabilities, and Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetos, A. C.; Kenney, M. A.; Chen, R. S.; Arndt, D.

    2012-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/). Part of the vision for the sustained National Climate Assessment (NCA) process is a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public with scientifically valid information that is useful to inform decision-making processes such as the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies in a particular sector or region. These indicators will be tracked as a part of ongoing assessment activities, with adjustments as necessary to adapt to changing conditions and understanding. The indicators will be reviewed and updated so that the system adapts to new information. The NCA indicator system is not intended to serve as a vehicle for documenting rigorous cause and effect relationships. It is reasonable, however, for it to serve as a guide to those factors that affect the evolution of variability and change in the climate system, the resources and sectors of concern that are affected by it, and how society chooses to respond. Different components of the end-to-end climate issue serve as categories within which to organize an end-to-end system of indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks Atmospheric Composition Physical Climate Variability and Change Sectors and Resources of Concern Adaptation and Mitigation Responses This framing has several advantages. It can be used to identify the different components of the end-to-end climate issue that both decision-makers and researchers are interested in. It is independent of scale, and therefore allows the indicators themselves to be described at

  13. Embedded DSP-based telehealth radar system for remote in-door fall detection.

    PubMed

    Garripoli, Carmine; Mercuri, Marco; Karsmakers, Peter; Jack Soh, Ping; Crupi, Giovanni; Vandenbosch, Guy A E; Pace, Calogero; Leroux, Paul; Schreurs, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Telehealth systems and applications are extensively investigated nowadays to enhance the quality-of-care and, in particular, to detect emergency situations and to monitor the well-being of elderly people, allowing them to stay at home independently as long as possible. In this paper, an embedded telehealth system for continuous, automatic, and remote monitoring of real-time fall emergencies is presented and discussed. The system, consisting of a radar sensor and base station, represents a cost-effective and efficient healthcare solution. The implementation of the fall detection data processing technique, based on the least-square support vector machines, through a digital signal processor and the management of the communication between radar sensor and base station are detailed. Experimental tests, for a total of 65 mimicked fall incidents, recorded with 16 human subjects (14 men and two women) that have been monitored for 320 min, have been used to validate the proposed system under real circumstances. The subjects' weight is between 55 and 90 kg with heights between 1.65 and 1.82 m, while their age is between 25 and 39 years. The experimental results have shown a sensitivity to detect the fall events in real time of 100% without reporting false positives. The tests have been performed in an area where the radar's operation was not limited by practical situations, namely, signal power, coverage of the antennas, and presence of obstacles between the subject and the antennas.

  14. Embedded DSP-based telehealth radar system for remote in-door fall detection.

    PubMed

    Garripoli, Carmine; Mercuri, Marco; Karsmakers, Peter; Jack Soh, Ping; Crupi, Giovanni; Vandenbosch, Guy A E; Pace, Calogero; Leroux, Paul; Schreurs, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Telehealth systems and applications are extensively investigated nowadays to enhance the quality-of-care and, in particular, to detect emergency situations and to monitor the well-being of elderly people, allowing them to stay at home independently as long as possible. In this paper, an embedded telehealth system for continuous, automatic, and remote monitoring of real-time fall emergencies is presented and discussed. The system, consisting of a radar sensor and base station, represents a cost-effective and efficient healthcare solution. The implementation of the fall detection data processing technique, based on the least-square support vector machines, through a digital signal processor and the management of the communication between radar sensor and base station are detailed. Experimental tests, for a total of 65 mimicked fall incidents, recorded with 16 human subjects (14 men and two women) that have been monitored for 320 min, have been used to validate the proposed system under real circumstances. The subjects' weight is between 55 and 90 kg with heights between 1.65 and 1.82 m, while their age is between 25 and 39 years. The experimental results have shown a sensitivity to detect the fall events in real time of 100% without reporting false positives. The tests have been performed in an area where the radar's operation was not limited by practical situations, namely, signal power, coverage of the antennas, and presence of obstacles between the subject and the antennas. PMID:25291803

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

  16. Stochastic Resonance and Global Synchronization In The Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganopolski, A.; Rahmstorf, S.; Calov, R.

    Paleoclimate data present strong evidences that during glacial age the climate sys- tem unlike recent 10,000 yr was characterized by strong variability on millennial time scale. Moreover, two the most pronounced types of variability, Dansgaard-Oeshger (D/O) oscillations and Heinrich events, were closely locked in time and the latter re- veal clear 1500 years pacing. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that peculiar timing and synchronism of different types of abrupt climate events during glacial age is a consequence of internal instability of the components of the climate system. In Ganopolski and Rahmstorf (2001) we proposed an explanation of D/O oscillations as a temporary state transitions triggered by a small-amplitude freshwater forcing in the high latitude North Atlantic, which causes rapid jumps of the thermohaline ocean cir- culation from the stable (cold) mode to the unstable (warm) mode. Such an excitable system is prone to stochastic resonance. In Ganopolski and Rahmstorf (2002) we have shown that when the climate system is driven by random noise of realistic amplitude, combined with a very weak climate cycle of 1500 yr, D/O oscillations result which are similar in time evolution and spatial patterns to those recorded in the Greenland ice core. In particularly, simulated warm events have preferred interspike intervals of 1500, 3000 and 4500 yr. Ice sheets alike thermohaline ocean circulation can be de- scribed as an excitable system. In Calov et al. (2002), using coupled climate-ice sheet mode, we simulated large-scale oscillations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet resembling Heinrich events in geographical pattern, amplitude and temporal evolution. Although, a typical period of simulated Heinrich events is controlled by climate forcing and in- ternal ice sheet dynamics, the precise timing of individual Heinrich events is locked to small-scale instabilities in the area of Hudson Strait. We speculate that in the real climate system such perturbations can

  17. A Web-based Geovisual Analytical System for Climate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Li, J.; Yang, C.; Schmidt, G. A.; Bambacus, M.; Cahalan, R.; Huang, Q.; Xu, C.; Noble, E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate studies involve petabytes of spatiotemporal datasets that are produced and archived at distributed computing resources. Scientists need an intuitive and convenient tool to explore the distributed spatiotemporal data. Geovisual analytical tools have the potential to provide such an intuitive and convenient method for scientists to access climate data, discover the relationships between various climate parameters, and communicate the results across different research communities. However, implementing a geovisual analytical tool for complex climate data in a distributed environment poses several challenges. This paper reports our efforts in developing a web-based geovisual analytical system to support the analysis of climate data generated by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) models. Using the ModelE developed by NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) as an example, we demonstrate that the system is able to 1) manage large volume datasets over the Internet, 2) visualize 3D/4D spatiotemporal data, 3) broker various spatiotemporal statistical analyses for climate research, and 4) support interactive data analysis and knowledge discovery. This research also provides an example of how to manage, disseminate, and analyze Big Data in the 21st century.

  18. Performance analysis of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing wireless system in additive white Gaussian noise and indoor multipath channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjha, Bilal; Zhou, Zhou; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    We have compared the bit error rate (BER) performance of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) and pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) optical wireless (OW) systems in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and indoor multipath frequency selective channel. Simulation and analytical results show that precoding schemes such as discrete Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, and Zadoff-Chu sequences do not affect the performance of the OW systems in the AWGN channel while they do reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM output signal. However, in a multipath indoor channel, using zero forcing frequency domain equalization precoding-based systems give better BER performance than their conventional counterparts. With additional clipping to further reduce the PAPR, precoding-based systems also show better BER performance compared to nonprecoded systems when clipped relative to the peak of nonprecoded systems. Therefore, precoding-based ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT systems offer better BER performance, zero signaling overhead, and low PAPR compared to conventional systems.

  19. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot. PMID:27483279

  20. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot.

  1. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot. PMID:27483279

  2. The Community Climate System Model Project from an Interagency Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D C; Bamzai, A; Fein, J; Patrinos, A; Leinen, M

    2005-06-16

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will publish its Fourth Assessment Report of the Scientific Basis of Climate Change (AR4). A significant portion of the AR4 will be the analysis of coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulations of the climate of the past century as well as scenarios of future climates under prescribed emission scenarios. Modeling groups worldwide have contributed to AR4, including three from the U.S., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) project, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Sciences, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This collection of model results is providing a wealth of new information that will be used to examine the state of climate science, the potential impacts from climate changes, and the policy consequences that they imply. Our focus here is on the CCSM project. Although it is centered at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the CCSM version 3 (CCSM3) was designed, developed, and applied in a uniquely distributed fashion with participation by many institutions. This model has produced some of the most scientifically complete and highest resolution simulations of climate change to date, thanks to the teamwork of many scientists and software engineers. Their contributions will become obvious as a steady stream of peer-reviewed publications appears in the scientific literature. Less obvious, however, is the largely hidden, unprecedented level of interagency cooperation and multi-institutional coordination that provided the direction and resources necessary to make the CCSM project successful. Contrary to the widely-held opinion that the US climate research effort in general, and the climate modeling effort in particular, is fragmented and disorganized (NRC 1998, 2001), the success of the CCSM project demonstrates that a uniquely US approach to model

  3. Climate information for public health: the role of the IRI climate data library in an integrated knowledge system.

    PubMed

    del Corral, John; Blumenthal, M Benno; Mantilla, Gilma; Ceccato, Pietro; Connor, Stephen J; Thomson, Madeleine C

    2012-09-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of climate variability and change on health outcomes. Protecting public health from the vagaries of climate requires new working relationships between the public health sector and the providers of climate data and information. The Climate Information for Public Health Action initiative at the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is designed to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use and demand appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of the climate. Significant challenges to building the capacity of health professionals to use climate information in research and decision-making include the difficulties experienced by many in accessing relevant and timely quality controlled data and information in formats that can be readily incorporated into specific analysis with other data sources. We present here the capacities of the IRI climate data library and show how we have used it to build an integrated knowledge system in the support of the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive decision-making with respect to health. Initiated as an aid facilitating exploratory data analysis for climate scientists, the IRI climate data library has emerged as a powerful tool for interdisciplinary researchers focused on topics related to climate impacts on society, including health.

  4. Indoor winter fumigation of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies infested with Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) with formic acid is a potential control alternative in northern climates.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Robyn M; Currie, Robert W

    2004-04-01

    Formic acid treatment for the control of the ectoparasitic varroa mite, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, infesting honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies is usually carried out as an in-hive outdoor treatment. This study examined the use of formic acid on wintered colonies kept indoors at 5 degrees C from 24 November 1999 to 24 March 2000. Colonies were placed in small treatment rooms that were not treated (control) or fumigated at three different concentrations of formic acid: low (mean 11.9 +/- 1.2 ppm), medium (mean 25.8 +/- 1.4 ppm), or high (mean 41.2 +/- 3.3 ppm), for 48 h on 22-24 January 2000. Queen bee, worker bee, and varroa mite mortality were monitored throughout the winter, and tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), prevalence and mean abundance of nosema, Nosema apis Zander, spores were assessed. This study revealed that formic acid fumigation of indoor-wintered honey bees is feasible and effective. The highest concentration significantly reduced the mean abundance of varroa mites and nosema spores without increasing bee mortality. Tracheal mite prevalence did not change significantly at any concentration, although we did not measure mortality directly. The highest concentration treatment killed 33.3% of queens compared with 4.8% loss in the control. Repeated fumigation periods at high concentrations or extended fumigation at low concentrations may increase the efficacy of this treatment method and should be tested in future studies. An understanding of the cause of queen loss and methods to prevent it must be developed for this method to be generally accepted.

  5. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  6. Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhivov, A.M.; Rymkevich, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper. A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more than 200 restaurants in different US climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices. Four constant air volume HVAC systems wit h a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative US climates: cold (Minneapolis, MN); Maritime (Seattle, WA); moderate (Albuquerque, NM); hot-dry (Phoenix, AZ); and hot-humid (Miami, FL). For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout the year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows: Displacement air distribution allows for better indoor air quality in the breathing zone at the same outdoor air supply airflow rate due to contaminant stratification along the room height. The increase in outdoor air supply during the peak hours in Miami and Albuquerque results in an increase of both heating and cooling energy consumption. In other climates, the increase in outdoor air supply results in reduced cooling energy consumption. For the Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Seattle locations, the HVAC system operation with a variable outdoor air supply allows for a decrease in cooling consumption up to 50% and, in some cases, eliminates the use of refrigeration machines. The effect of temperature stratification on HVAC system parameters is the same for all locations; displacement ventilation systems result in decreased cooling energy consumption but increased heating consumption.

  7. Earth System Science Education Centered on Natural Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P. C.; Ladochy, S.; Patzert, W. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Several new courses and many educational activities related to climate change are available to teachers and students of all grade levels. However, not all new discoveries in climate research have reached the science education community. In particular, effective learning tools explaining natural climate change are scarce. For example, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a main cause of natural climate variability spanning decades. While most educators are familiar with the shorter-temporal events impacting climate, El Niño and La Niña, very little has trickled into the climate change curriculum on the PDO. We have developed two online educational modules, using an Earth system science approach, on the PDO and its role in climate change and variability. The first concentrates on the discovery of the PDO through records of salmon catch in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. We present the connection between salmon abundance in the North Pacific to changing sea surface temperature patterns associated with the PDO. The connection between sea surface temperatures and salmon abundance led to the discovery of the PDO. Our activity also lets students explore the role of salmon in the economy and culture of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska and the environmental requirements for salmon survival. The second module is based on the climate of southern California and how changes in the Pacific Ocean , such as the PDO and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation), influence regional climate variability. PDO and ENSO signals are evident in the long-term temperature and precipitation record of southern California. Students are guided in the module to discover the relationships between Pacific Ocean conditions and southern California climate variability. The module also provides information establishing the relationship between climate change and variability and the state's water, energy, agriculture, wildfires and forestry, air quality and health issues. Both modules will be

  8. Modeling lakes and reservoirs in the climate system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKay, M.D.; Neale, P.J.; Arp, C.D.; De Senerpont Domis, L. N.; Fang, X.; Gal, G.; Jo, K.D.; Kirillin, G.; Lenters, J.D.; Litchman, E.; MacIntyre, S.; Marsh, P.; Melack, J.; Mooij, W.M.; Peeters, F.; Quesada, A.; Schladow, S.G.; Schmid, M.; Spence, C.; Stokes, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling studies examining the effect of lakes on regional and global climate, as well as studies on the influence of climate variability and change on aquatic ecosystems, are surveyed. Fully coupled atmosphere-land surface-lake climate models that could be used for both of these types of study simultaneously do not presently exist, though there are many applications that would benefit from such models. It is argued here that current understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in freshwater systems is sufficient to begin to construct such models, and a path forward is proposed. The largest impediment to fully representing lakes in the climate system lies in the handling of lakes that are too small to be explicitly resolved by the climate model, and that make up the majority of the lake-covered area at the resolutions currently used by global and regional climate models. Ongoing development within the hydrological sciences community and continual improvements in model resolution should help ameliorate this issue.

  9. Climate Change and Malaria in Canada: A Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Berrang-Ford, L.; MacLean, J. D.; Gyorkos, Theresa W.; Ford, J. D.; Ogden, N. H.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change. PMID:19277107

  10. Rainwater catchment system design using simulated future climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Corey D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Arabi, Mazdak

    2015-10-01

    Rainwater harvesting techniques are used worldwide to augment potable water supply, provide water for small-scale irrigation practices, increase rainwater-use efficiency for sustained crop growth in arid and semi-arid regions, decrease urban stormwater flow volumes, and in general to relieve dependency on urban water resources cycles. A number of methods have been established in recent years to estimate reliability of rainwater catchment systems (RWCS) and thereby properly size the components (roof catchment area, storage tank size) of the system for a given climatic region. These methods typically use historical or stochastically-generated rainfall patterns to quantify system performance and optimally size the system, with the latter accounting for possible rainfall scenarios based on statistical relationships of historical rainfall patterns. To design RWCS systems that can sustainably meet water demand under future climate conditions, this paper introduces a method that employs climatic data from general circulation models (GCMs) to develop a suite of catchment area vs. storage size design curves that capture uncertainty in future climate scenarios. Monthly rainfall data for the 2010-2050 time period is statistically downscaled to daily values using a Markov chain algorithm, with results used only from GCMs that yield rainfall patterns that are statistically consistent with historical rainfall patterns. The process is demonstrated through application to two climatic regions of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) in the western Pacific, wherein the majority of the population relies on rainwater harvesting for potable water supply. Through the use of design curves, communities can provide household RWCS that achieve a certain degree of storage reliability. The method described herein can be applied generally to any geographic region. It can be used to first, assess the future performance of existing household systems; and second, to design or modify systems

  11. State of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayewski, P. A.; Meredith, M. P.; Summerhayes, C. P.; Turner, J.; Worby, A.; Barrett, P. J.; Casassa, G.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Bracegirdle, T.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.; Bromwich, D.; Campbell, H.; Hamilton, G. S.; Lyons, W. B.; Maasch, K. A.; Aoki, S.; Xiao, C.; van Ommen, Tas

    2009-03-01

    This paper reviews developments in our understanding of the state of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate and its relation to the global climate system over the last few millennia. Climate over this and earlier periods has not been stable, as evidenced by the occurrence of abrupt changes in atmospheric circulation and temperature recorded in Antarctic ice core proxies for past climate. Two of the most prominent abrupt climate change events are characterized by intensification of the circumpolar westerlies (also known as the Southern Annular Mode) between ˜6000 and 5000 years ago and since 1200-1000 years ago. Following the last of these is a period of major trans-Antarctic reorganization of atmospheric circulation and temperature between A.D. 1700 and 1850. The two earlier Antarctic abrupt climate change events appear linked to but predate by several centuries even more abrupt climate change in the North Atlantic, and the end of the more recent event is coincident with reorganization of atmospheric circulation in the North Pacific. Improved understanding of such events and of the associations between abrupt climate change events recorded in both hemispheres is critical to predicting the impact and timing of future abrupt climate change events potentially forced by anthropogenic changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Special attention is given to the climate of the past 200 years, which was recorded by a network of recently available shallow firn cores, and to that of the past 50 years, which was monitored by the continuous instrumental record. Significant regional climate changes have taken place in the Antarctic during the past 50 years. Atmospheric temperatures have increased markedly over the Antarctic Peninsula, linked to nearby ocean warming and intensification of the circumpolar westerlies. Glaciers are retreating on the peninsula, in Patagonia, on the sub-Antarctic islands, and in West Antarctica adjacent to the peninsula. The penetration of marine

  12. Hydroxyl radicals in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, Golam; Corsi, Richard; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David; Weschler, Charles J.

    Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations were estimated using a new indoor air quality model which employs the SAPRC-99 atmospheric chemistry model to simulate indoor homogenous reactions. Model results indicate that typical indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are lower than typical outdoor summertime urban hydroxyl radical levels of 5-10×10 6 molecules cm -3; however, indoor levels can be similar to or greater than typical nighttime outdoor hydroxyl radical levels of approximately 5×10 4 molecules cm -3. Effects of selected parameters on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are presented herein. Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are predicted to increase non-linearly with increasing outdoor ozone concentrations, indoor alkene emission rates, and air exchange rates. Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations decrease with increasing outdoor nitric oxide concentrations. Indoor temperature and indoor light intensity have moderate impacts on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations. Outdoor hydroxyl radical concentrations, outdoor nitrate (NO 3rad ) radical concentrations, outdoor hydroperoxy radical concentrations, and hydroxyl radical removal by indoor surfaces are predicted to have no appreciable impact on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations. Production of hydroxyl radicals in indoor environments appears to be controlled primarily by reactions of alkenes with ozone, and nitric oxide with hydroperoxy radical. Estimated indoor hydroxyl radical levels may potentially affect indoor air quality. Two examples are presented in which reactions of d-limonene and α-pinene with indoor hydroxyl radicals produce aldehydes, which may be of greater concern than the original compounds.

  13. Continental river routing for fully coupled climate system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Stephen Thomas

    Rivers have only recently been recognized as important components of, and have begun to appear in climate models. The inclusion of rivers and river transport algorithms completes the global water cycle, and allows additional applications for these models, (i.e. nutrient transport for biogeochemical modeling). In this study, several steps are taken toward the inclusion of rivers in climate models. The first steps were to develop global data layers of rivers and associated hydrological parameters. The river networks add a new dimension to the land surface component of these models: horizontal transport, typically neglected in global models. These data are necessary for horizontal transport of water and its associated heat, salinity, and nutrients, and is applicable to any global modeling effort. Surface hydrological conditions, (i.e. soil moisture and lakes), have been demonstrated as important factors in determining climatic conditions in global climate models. The inland surface waters affect climatic variables because of their difference from vegetated and bare soil surfaces. To demonstrate this, a second step in this research uses these data in a variety of sensitivity experiments to determine their impact on climate. These experiments investigated the effect of the additional surface water associated with rivers and a new lake coverage on climate. The inclusion of increased surface water alters circulation patterns across the globe, with larger effects in the winter for each hemisphere. The increased surface water coverage increased globally averaged air temperature, latent heat, specific humidity, cloud cover, and precipitation. These changes bring simulated global temperatures closer to observations. A third step in this research was to use the continental drainage basins data to deliver the runoff to the proper coastlines in a climate simulation, which involved interactions between all components of the Earth's climate system as they feedback and produce

  14. Climate observing system studies: An element of the NASA Climate Research Program: Workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Plans for NASA's efforts in climatology were discussed. Targets for a comprehensive observing system for the early 1990's were considered. A program to provide useful data in the near and mid-term, and a program to provide for a feasibility assessment of instruments and methods for the development of a long-term system were discussed. Climate parameters that cannot be measured from space were identified. Long-term calibration, intercomparison, standards, and ground truth were discussed.

  15. An Indoor Pedestrian Positioning Method Using HMM with a Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Algorithm in a WLAN Fingerprint System

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yepeng; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Shan; Bai, Yaxin

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm into a Hidden Markov Model. The fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm follows the rule that the RSSI fading has a positive correlation to the distance between the measuring point and the AP location even during a dynamic positioning measurement. Through this algorithm, we use the RSSI variation trend to replace the specific RSSI value to achieve a fuzzy positioning. The transition probability of the Hidden Markov Model is trained by the fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm with pedestrian trajectories. Using the Viterbi algorithm with the trained model, we can obtain a set of hidden location states. In our experiments, we demonstrate that, compared with the deterministic pattern matching algorithm, our method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and shows robust environmental adaptability. PMID:27618053

  16. An Indoor Pedestrian Positioning Method Using HMM with a Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Algorithm in a WLAN Fingerprint System.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yepeng; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Shan; Bai, Yaxin

    2016-09-08

    With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm into a Hidden Markov Model. The fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm follows the rule that the RSSI fading has a positive correlation to the distance between the measuring point and the AP location even during a dynamic positioning measurement. Through this algorithm, we use the RSSI variation trend to replace the specific RSSI value to achieve a fuzzy positioning. The transition probability of the Hidden Markov Model is trained by the fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm with pedestrian trajectories. Using the Viterbi algorithm with the trained model, we can obtain a set of hidden location states. In our experiments, we demonstrate that, compared with the deterministic pattern matching algorithm, our method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and shows robust environmental adaptability.

  17. An Indoor Pedestrian Positioning Method Using HMM with a Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Algorithm in a WLAN Fingerprint System.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yepeng; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Shan; Bai, Yaxin

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm into a Hidden Markov Model. The fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm follows the rule that the RSSI fading has a positive correlation to the distance between the measuring point and the AP location even during a dynamic positioning measurement. Through this algorithm, we use the RSSI variation trend to replace the specific RSSI value to achieve a fuzzy positioning. The transition probability of the Hidden Markov Model is trained by the fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm with pedestrian trajectories. Using the Viterbi algorithm with the trained model, we can obtain a set of hidden location states. In our experiments, we demonstrate that, compared with the deterministic pattern matching algorithm, our method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and shows robust environmental adaptability. PMID:27618053

  18. Guiding climate change adaptation within vulnerable natural resource management systems.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Douglas K; Sweeney, Susan M

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  19. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  20. Effects of changes in climate on landscape and regional processes, and feedbacks to the climate system.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    Biological and physical processes in the Arctic system operate at various temporal and spatial scales to impact large-scale feedbacks and interactions with the earth system. There are four main potential feedback mechanisms between the impacts of climate change on the Arctic and the global climate system: albedo, greenhouse gas emissions or uptake by ecosystems, greenhouse gas emissions from methane hydrates, and increased freshwater fluxes that could affect the thermohaline circulation. All these feedbacks are controlled to some extent by changes in ecosystem distribution and character and particularly by large-scale movement of vegetation zones. Indications from a few, full annual measurements of CO2 fluxes are that currently the source areas exceed sink areas in geographical distribution. The little available information on CH4 sources indicates that emissions at the landscape level are of great importance for the total greenhouse balance of the circumpolar North. Energy and water balances of Arctic landscapes are also important feedback mechanisms in a changing climate. Increasing density and spatial expansion of vegetation will cause a lowering of the albedo and more energy to be absorbed on the ground. This effect is likely to exceed the negative feedback of increased C sequestration in greater primary productivity resulting from the displacements of areas of polar desert by tundra, and areas of tundra by forest. The degradation of permafrost has complex consequences for trace gas dynamics. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, warming, will lead to a complete loss of the permafrost. Depending on local hydrological conditions this may in turn lead to a wetting or drying of the environment with subsequent implications for greenhouse gas fluxes. Overall, the complex interactions between processes contributing to feedbacks, variability over time and space in these processes, and insufficient data have generated considerable uncertainties in estimating the net

  1. Effects of changes in climate on landscape and regional processes, and feedbacks to the climate system.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    Biological and physical processes in the Arctic system operate at various temporal and spatial scales to impact large-scale feedbacks and interactions with the earth system. There are four main potential feedback mechanisms between the impacts of climate change on the Arctic and the global climate system: albedo, greenhouse gas emissions or uptake by ecosystems, greenhouse gas emissions from methane hydrates, and increased freshwater fluxes that could affect the thermohaline circulation. All these feedbacks are controlled to some extent by changes in ecosystem distribution and character and particularly by large-scale movement of vegetation zones. Indications from a few, full annual measurements of CO2 fluxes are that currently the source areas exceed sink areas in geographical distribution. The little available information on CH4 sources indicates that emissions at the landscape level are of great importance for the total greenhouse balance of the circumpolar North. Energy and water balances of Arctic landscapes are also important feedback mechanisms in a changing climate. Increasing density and spatial expansion of vegetation will cause a lowering of the albedo and more energy to be absorbed on the ground. This effect is likely to exceed the negative feedback of increased C sequestration in greater primary productivity resulting from the displacements of areas of polar desert by tundra, and areas of tundra by forest. The degradation of permafrost has complex consequences for trace gas dynamics. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, warming, will lead to a complete loss of the permafrost. Depending on local hydrological conditions this may in turn lead to a wetting or drying of the environment with subsequent implications for greenhouse gas fluxes. Overall, the complex interactions between processes contributing to feedbacks, variability over time and space in these processes, and insufficient data have generated considerable uncertainties in estimating the net

  2. Systems in peril: Climate change, agriculture and biodiversity in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocklin, Chris; Dibden, Jacqui

    2009-11-01

    This paper reflects on the interplay amongst three closely linked systems - climate, agriculture and biodiversity - in the Australian context. The advance of a European style of agriculture has imperilled Australian biodiversity. The loss and degradation of biodiversity has, in turn, had negative consequences for agriculture. Climate change is imposing new pressures on both agriculture and biodiversity. From a policy and management perspective, though, it is possible to envisage mitigation and adaptation responses that would alleviate pressures on all three systems (climate, agriculture, biodiversity). In this way, the paper seeks to make explicit the important connections between science and policy. The paper outlines the distinctive features of both biodiversity and agriculture in the Australian context. The discussion then addresses the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, followed by an overview of how climate change is impacting on both of these systems. The final section of the paper offers some commentary on current policy and management strategies that are targeted at mitigating the loss of biodiversity and which may also have benefits in terms of climate change.

  3. Projected climate change impacts to the North Sea marine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrum, Corinna

    2015-04-01

    Future climate change impacts to the North Sea marine system are driven by a combination of changes induced by the globally forced oceanic boundary conditions and the regional atmospheric and terrestrial changes. We reviewed the recent progress and the projected future change of the North Sea marine system as part of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA) and focussed on three major aspects, namely the change of (i) sea level, the (ii) hydrographic and circulation changes of the North Sea and the (iii) changes in lower trophic level dynamics, biogeochemistry and ocean acidification. In recent years more and more regional climate change assessments became available for the North Sea and new developments contributed important understanding on regional processes mediating climate change impacts in the North Sea. Important new knowledge on regional future sea level change was gained by improved understanding of processes contributing to global sea level rise during the last decade. Assessment of climate change impacts to hydrography, circulation and biogeochemistry has benefited from new and advanced downscaling methods. The large number of regional studies enables now a critical review of the current knowledge on climate change impacts on the North Sea and allows the identification of challenges, robust changes, uncertainties and specific recommendations for future research. The long term trends in the climate conditions are superposed on the natural modes of variability and separating these to give a clear anthropogenic climate change signal is one of the 'grand challenges' of climate change impact studies in marine regions and of particular relevance for North Sea. The impact of natural variability on future annual average steric sea level, sea surface temperature and ocean acidification is less dominant compared to the climate change signal and their projected changes for the North Sea, namely rising future sea level, increasing surface temperature and

  4. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  5. Your Indoor Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the July 24, 2007 edition of "ExchangeEveryday", readers were asked to submit great indoor space elements from their early childhood programs. Readers sent photographs and brief descriptions of creative elements of their indoor environments. A sampling of ideas are shown on this article.

  6. Terrestrial Biosphere Dynamics in the Climate System: Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J.; Whitlock, C.; Huntley, B.

    2002-12-01

    The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that climate change as large as is likely to occur in the next two centuries will drive change in the terrestrial biosphere that is both large and difficult to predict, or plan for. Many species, communities and ecosystems could experience rates of climate change, and "destination climates" that are unprecedented in their time on earth. The paleorecord also makes it clear that a wide range of possible climate system behavior, such as decades-long droughts, increases in large storm and flood frequency, and rapid sea level rise, all occurred repeatedly in the past, and for poorly understood reasons. These types of events, if they were to reoccur in the future, could have especially devastating impacts on biodiversity, both because their timing and spatial extent cannot be anticipated, and because the biota's natural defenses have been compromised by land-use, reductions in genetic flexibility, pollution, excess water utilization, invasive species, and other human influences. Vegetation disturbance (e.g., by disease, pests and fire) will undoubtedly be exacerbated by climate change (stress), but could also speed the rate at which terrestrial biosphere change takes place in the future. The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that major scientific challenges include an improved ability to model regional biospheric change, both past and future. This in turn will be a prerequisite to obtaining realistic estimates of future biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks, and thus to obtaining better assessments of future climate change. These steps will help generate the improved understanding of climate variability that is needed to manage global biodiversity. However, the most troubling message from the paleoenvironmental record is that unchecked anthropogenic climate change could make the Earth's 6th major mass extinction unavoidable.

  7. A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Boucher, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are intricately linked to the climate system and to the hydrologic cycle. The net effect of aerosols is to cool the climate system by reflecting sunlight. Depending on their composition, aerosols can also absorb sunlight in the atmosphere, further cooling the surface but warming the atmosphere in the process. These effects of aerosols on the temperature profile, along with the role of aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei, impact the hydrologic cycle, through changes in cloud cover, cloud properties and precipitation. Unravelling these feedbacks is particularly difficult because aerosols take a multitude of shapes and forms, ranging from desert dust to urban pollution, and because aerosol concentrations vary strongly over time and space. To accurately study aerosol distribution and composition therefore requires continuous observations from satellites, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. Increases in aerosol concentration and changes in their composition, driven by industrialization and an expanding population, may adversely affect the Earth's climate and water supply.

  8. Evaluation of passenger health risk assessment of sustainable indoor air quality monitoring in metro systems based on a non-Gaussian dynamic sensor validation method.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinJeong; Liu, Hongbin; Kim, Jeong Tai; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2014-08-15

    Sensor faults in metro systems provide incorrect information to indoor air quality (IAQ) ventilation systems, resulting in the miss-operation of ventilation systems and adverse effects on passenger health. In this study, a new sensor validation method is proposed to (1) detect, identify and repair sensor faults and (2) evaluate the influence of sensor reliability on passenger health risk. To address the dynamic non-Gaussianity problem of IAQ data, dynamic independent component analysis (DICA) is used. To detect and identify sensor faults, the DICA-based squared prediction error and sensor validity index are used, respectively. To restore the faults to normal measurements, a DICA-based iterative reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The comprehensive indoor air-quality index (CIAI) that evaluates the influence of the current IAQ on passenger health is then compared using the faulty and reconstructed IAQ data sets. Experimental results from a metro station showed that the DICA-based method can produce an improved IAQ level in the metro station and reduce passenger health risk since it more accurately validates sensor faults than do conventional methods.

  9. Indoor radio channel modeling and mitigation of fading effects using linear and circular polarized antennas in combination for smart home system at 868 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, S.; Welpot, M.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    The markets for smart home products and services are expected to grow over the next years, driven by the increasing demands of homeowners considering energy monitoring, management, environmental controls and security. Many of these new systems will be installed in existing homes and offices and therefore using radio based systems for cost reduction. A drawback of radio based systems in indoor environments are fading effects which lead to a high variance of the received signal strength and thereby to a difficult predictability of the encountered path loss of the various communication links. For that reason it is necessary to derive a statistical path loss model which can be used to plan a reliable and cost effective radio network. This paper presents the results of a measurement campaign, which was performed in six buildings to deduce realistic radio channel models for a high variety of indoor radio propagation scenarios in the short range devices (SRD) band at 868 MHz. Furthermore, a potential concept to reduce the variance of the received signal strength using a circular polarized (CP) patch antenna in combination with a linear polarized antenna in an one-to-one communication link is presented.

  10. Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Denman, Kenneth L.; Brasseur , Guy; Chidthaisong, Amnat; Ciais, Philippe; Cox, Peter M.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Hauglustaine, Didier; Heinze, Christoph; Holland, Elisabeth; Jacob , Daniel; Lohmann, Ulrike; Ramachandran, Srikanthan; Leite da Silva Dias, Pedro; Wofsy, Steven C.; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2007-10-01

    The Earth's climate is determined by a number of complex connected physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the atmosphere, land and ocean. The radiative properties of the atmosphere, a major controlling factor of the Earth's climate, are strongly affected by the biophysical state of the Earth's surface and by the atmospheric abundance of a variety of trace constituents. These constituents include long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), as well as other radiatively active constituents such as ozone and different types of aerosol particles. The composition of the atmosphere is determined by processes such as natural and anthropogenic emissions of gases and aerosols, transport at a variety of scales, chemical and microphysical transformations, wet scavenging and surface uptake by the land and terrestrial ecosystems, and by the ocean and its ecosystems. These processes and, more generally the rates of biogeochemical cycling, are affected by climate change, and involve interactions between and within the different components of the Earth system. These interactions are generally nonlinear and may produce negative or positive feedbacks to the climate system. An important aspect of climate research is to identify potential feedbacks and assess if such feedbacks could produce large and undesired responses to perturbations resulting from human activities. Studies of past climate evolution on different time scales can elucidate mechanisms that could trigger nonlinear responses to external forcing. The purpose of this chapter is to identify the major biogeochemical feedbacks of significance to the climate system, and to assess current knowledge of their magnitudes and trends. Specifically, this chapter will examine the relationships between the physical climate system and the land surface, the carbon cycle, chemically reactive atmospheric gases and aerosol particles. It also

  11. An automated, semi-continuous system for measuring indoor radon progeny activity-weighted size distributions, d sub p : 0. 5--500 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chih-Shan; Hopke, P.K.; Ramamurthi, M.

    1990-05-01

    A system for the detection and measurement of indoor radon progeny activity-weighted size distributions (particle size, d{sub p} > 0.5 nm) and concentration levels has been developed. The system is microcomputer-controlled and involves a combination of multiple wire screen (Graded Screen Array) sampler-detector units operated in parallel. The radioactivity sampled in these units permits the estimation of the radon progeny activity-weighted size distributions and concentration levels on a semi-continuous basis. This paper presents details of the system and describes various stages in the development of the system. Results of field measurements in a residential environment are presented to illustrate the resolution, sensitivity and capabilities of the measurement system. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A Standardized Evaluation System for Decadal Climate Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadow, C.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-12-01

    The evaluation of decadal prediction systems is a scientific challenge as well as a technical challenge in the climate research. The major project MiKlip (www.fona-miklip.de) for medium-term climate prediction funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) has the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal forecasts on climate and weather. The model system to be developed will be novel in several aspects, with great challenges for the methodology development. This concerns especially the determination of the initial conditions, the inclusion into the model of processes relevant to decadal predictions, the increase of the spatial resolution through regionalisation, the improvement or adjustment of statistical post-processing, and finally the synthesis and validation of the entire model system. Therefore, a standardized evaluation system will be part of the MiKlip system to validate it - developed by the project 'Integrated data and evaluation system for decadal scale prediction' (INTEGRATION). The presentation gives an overview of the different linkages of such a project, shows the different development stages and gives an outlook for users and possible end users in climate service. The technical interface combines all projects inside of MiKlip and invites them to participate in a common evaluation system. The system design and the validation strategy from a standalone tool in the beginning to a user friendly web based system using GRID technologies to an integrated part of the operational MiKlip system for industry and society will give the opportunity to enhance the MiKlip strategy. First results of different possibilities of such a system will be shown to present the scientific background through Taylor diagrams, ensemble skill scores and e.g. climatological means to show the usability and possibilities of MiKlip and the INTEGRATION project.

  13. Controls on the Archean climate system investigated with a global climate model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2014-03-01

    The most obvious means of resolving the faint young Sun paradox is to invoke large quantities of greenhouse gases, namely, CO2 and CH4. However, numerous changes to the Archean climate system have been suggested that may have yielded additional warming, thus easing the required greenhouse gas burden. Here, we use a three-dimensional climate model to examine some of the factors that controlled Archean climate. We examine changes to Earth's rotation rate, surface albedo, cloud properties, and total atmospheric pressure following proposals from the recent literature. While the effects of increased planetary rotation rate on surface temperature are insignificant, plausible changes to the surface albedo, cloud droplet number concentrations, and atmospheric nitrogen inventory may each impart global mean warming of 3-7 K. While none of these changes present a singular solution to the faint young Sun paradox, a combination can have a large impact on climate. Global mean surface temperatures at or above 288 K could easily have been maintained throughout the entirety of the Archean if plausible changes to clouds, surface albedo, and nitrogen content occurred.

  14. Controls on the Archean climate system investigated with a global climate model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2014-03-01

    The most obvious means of resolving the faint young Sun paradox is to invoke large quantities of greenhouse gases, namely, CO2 and CH4. However, numerous changes to the Archean climate system have been suggested that may have yielded additional warming, thus easing the required greenhouse gas burden. Here, we use a three-dimensional climate model to examine some of the factors that controlled Archean climate. We examine changes to Earth's rotation rate, surface albedo, cloud properties, and total atmospheric pressure following proposals from the recent literature. While the effects of increased planetary rotation rate on surface temperature are insignificant, plausible changes to the surface albedo, cloud droplet number concentrations, and atmospheric nitrogen inventory may each impart global mean warming of 3-7 K. While none of these changes present a singular solution to the faint young Sun paradox, a combination can have a large impact on climate. Global mean surface temperatures at or above 288 K could easily have been maintained throughout the entirety of the Archean if plausible changes to clouds, surface albedo, and nitrogen content occurred. PMID:24621308

  15. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) created the first version of the Community Climate Model (CCM) in 1983 as a global atmosphere model. It was improved in 1994 when NCAR, with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), developed and incorporated a Climate System Model (CSM) that included atmosphere, land surface, ocean, and sea ice. As the capabilities of the model grew, so did interest in its applications and changes in how it would be managed. A workshop in 1996 set the future management structure, marked the beginning of the second phase of the model, a phase that included full participation of the scientific community, and also saw additional financial support, including support from the Department of Energy. In recognition of these changes, the model was renamed to the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). It began to function as a model with the interactions of land, sea, and air fully coupled, providing computer simulations of Earth's past climate, its present climate, and its possible future climate. The CCSM website at http://www2.cesm.ucar.edu/ describes some of the research that has been done since then: A 300-year run has been performed using the CSM, and results from this experiment have appeared in a special issue of theJournal of Climate, 11, June, 1998. A 125-year experiment has been carried out in which carbon dioxide was described to increase at 1% per year from its present concentration to approximately three times its present concentration. More recently, the Climate of the 20th Century experiment was run, with carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols prescribed to evolve according to our best knowledge from 1870 to the present. Three scenarios for the 21st century were developed: a "business as usual" experiment, in which greenhouse gases are assumed to increase with no economic constraints; an experiment using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Scenario A1; and a "policy

  16. Development and validation of the multidimensional motivational climate observation system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan; Tessier, Damien; Tzioumakis, Yannis; Quested, Eleanor; Appleton, Paul; Sarrazin, Philippe; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Duda, Joan L

    2015-02-01

    This article outlines the development and validation of the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System (MMCOS). Drawing from an integration of the dimensions of the social environment emphasized within achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (as assumed within Duda's [2013] conceptualization of "empowering" and "disempowering" climates), the MMCOS was developed to enable an objective assessment of the coach-created motivational environment in sport. Study 1 supported the initial validity and reliability of the newly developed observation system. Study 2 further examined the interobserver reliability and factorial structure of the MMCOS. Study 3 explored the predictive validity of the observational system in relation to athletes' reported basic psychological need satisfaction. Overall, the results of these studies provide preliminary support for the inter- and intraobserver reliability, as well as factorial and predictive validity of the MMCOS. Suggestions for the use of this observational system in future research in sport are provided.

  17. The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, Jinwon

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model has been under development since 1991. The unique system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post- processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow model, and (4) a suite of crop response models. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. This three-component version of RCSM has been tested, validated, and successfully used for operational quantitative precipitation forecasts and seasonal water resource studies over the southwestern US. We are currently implementation and validating the fourth component, the Decision Support system for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). A description of the UC-LLNL RCSM and some recent results are presented.

  18. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects, we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.

  19. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  20. Modeling Arctic Climate with a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, J. J.; Duvivier, A.; Hughes, M.; Roberts, A.; Brunke, M.; Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J.; Maslowski, W.; Nijssen, B.; Osinski, R.; Zeng, X.

    2013-12-01

    A new regional Earth system model of the Arctic, the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), has recently been developed. The initial version of this model includes atmosphere (WRF), ocean (POP), sea ice (CICE), and land (VIC) component models coupled with the NCAR CESM CPL7 coupler. The model is configured to run on a large pan-Arctic domain that includes all sea ice covered waters in the Northern Hemisphere and all Arctic Ocean draining land areas. Results from multi-decadal (1989 to present) simulations with RASM will be presented and will focus on the model's representation of atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface climate, emphasizing both strengths and weaknesses of the current model climate and comparisons with atmosphere-only WRF simulations. Results from the model show both areas of improvement and degraded results relative to stand-alone WRF. Improvement in the coupled model climate are related to more physically realistic representation of coupled processes such as energy transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere through leads in the sea ice during winter. Degraded results come from feedbacks in model component biases, such as atmospheric circulation biases resulting in incorrect local sea ice cover that then result in large local atmospheric temperature biases. The issue of spectral nudging in a coupled regional climate model system as well as other lessons learned during the development of RASM will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with future plans for RASM.

  1. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system. PMID:26690174

  2. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system.

  3. Safeguarding indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, K.; Wesolowski, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    California has created and implemented the first state program devoted exclusively to the investigation of nonindustrial indoor air quality. The program is responsible for promoting and conducting research on the determining factors of healthful indoor environments and is structured to obtain information about emission sources, ventilation effects, indoor concentrations, human activity patterns, exposures, health risks, control measures and public policy options. Data are gathered by a variety of methods, including research conducted by staff members, review of the available scientific literature, participation in technical meetings, contractual agreements with outside agencies, cooperative research projects with other groups and consultation with experts. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  4. The Milankovitch theory and climate sensitivity. I - Equilibrium climate model solutions for the present surface conditions. II - Interaction between the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and the climate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1988-01-01

    A seasonal climate model was developed to test the climate sensitivity and, in particular, the Milankovitch (1941) theory. Four climate model versions were implemented to investigate the range of uncertainty in the parameterizations of three basic feedback mechanisms: the ice albedo-temperature, the outgoing long-wave radiation-temperature, and the eddy transport-meridional temperature gradient. It was found that the differences between the simulation of the present climate by the four versions were generally small, especially for annually averaged results. The climate model was also used to study the effect of growing/shrinking of a continental ice sheet, bedrock sinking/uplifting, and sea level changes on the climate system, taking also into account the feedback effects on the climate of the building of the ice caps.

  5. Regional Water System Vulnerabilities and Strengths for Unavoidable Climate Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.; Palaniappan, M.; Christian-Smith, J.; Cooley, H.

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of options are available to help water systems prepare and adapt for unavoidable climate impacts, but these options vary depending on region, climatic conditions, economic status, and technical infrastructure in place. Drawing on case studies from the United States, India, and elsewhere, and from both urban and agricultural water systems, risks to water supply and quality are evaluated and summarized and categories of responses to help improve the effectiveness of adaptation policies are reviewed. Among the issues to be discussed are characteristics unique to developing country cities, such as the predominance of informal actors in the water sector. The formal, or government sector, which often exclusively manages water access and distribution in developed country cities, is only one among many players in the water sector in developing country cities. Informal access to water includes direct access by individuals through private groundwater systems, private water markets using vendors or sales of bottled water, and rainwater harvesting systems on individual homes. In this environment, with already existing pressures on water availability and use, the impacts of climate change on water will be strongly felt. This complicates planning for water supply and demand and risks increasing already prevalent water insecurity, especially for urban poor. In wealthier countries, any planning for water-related climate impacts tends to take the form of "business as usual" responses, such as efforts to expand supply with new infrastructure, manage demand through conservation programs, or simply put off addressing the problem to the next generation of managers and users. These approaches can be effective, but also risk missing unusual, non-linear, or threshold impacts. Examples of more informed and innovative efforts to substantively address climate change risks will be presented.

  6. Precambrian evolution of the climate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James C. G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a new examination of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon as they may have changed between an Archean Earth deficient in land, sedimentary rocks, and biological activity, and a Proterozoic Earth much like the modern Earth, but lacking terrestrial life and carbonate-secreting plankton. Results of a numerical simulation of this transition show how increasing biological activity could have drawn down atmospheric carbon dioxide by extracting sedimentary organic carbon from the system. Increasing area of continents could further have drawn down carbon dioxide by encouraging the accumulation of carbonate sediments. An attempt to develop a numerical simulation of the carbon cycles of the Precambrian raises questions about sources and sinks of marine carbon and alkalinity on a world without continents. More information is needed about sea-floor weathering processes.

  7. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific missions increasingly need to show the monetary value of knowledge advances in budget-constrained environments. For example, suppose a climate science mission promises to yield decisive information on the rate of human caused global warming within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) creates a standard yardstick for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, setting uncertainty in climate sensitivity to a truncated Roe and Baker (2007) distribution, setting discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate mitigation response DICE Optimal, and a strong response scenario (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we are on the BAU emissions scenario, and that we would switch to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on the uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain that it happens depends, in addition, on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can shorten the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. Our results (Cooke et al. 2013

  8. Emissions from heated indoor dust.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ellen Katrine; Bjørseth, Olav; Syversen, Tore; Mathiesen, Mette

    2002-02-01

    Settled indoor dust was collected from a university building, and the fine fraction was heated in the temperature range of 50-250 degrees C. Emissions of compounds were analysed and identified in a system consisting of a thermal desorption unit coupled to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The heating took place in both an oxidative (air) and an inert (He) atmosphere. The results indicate that oxidation of adsorbed compounds occurred, as well as decomposition of the dust itself. The emission in air started somewhere between 150 and 200 degrees C, with aldehydes and ketones as the main compounds. When heated in the inert atmosphere, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were emitted at temperatures above 150 degrees C. These compounds were not found in the air system, probably due to oxidation. Based on the obtained results we recommend that the temperature of hot surfaces in indoor environments should be kept below 150 degrees C to avoid oxidation of indoor dust and minimise the emissions.

  9. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-15

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

  10. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems.

    PubMed

    Pertl, A; Mostbauer, P; Obersteiner, G

    2010-01-01

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO(2).

  11. Big Data and Data Models for Climate System Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillmore, D. W.; Habermann, T.; Goedecke, W. B.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-decade satellite missions, such as the NASA CERES mission designed to place observational constraints on the distribution of reflected solar radiation and emitted thermal radiation, present a significant challenge both in the analysis of heterogeneous Big Data and in data continuity. The NASA CERES EBAF dataset is a part of a broader effort to increase the usability of satellite observational data for the climate modeling community. Issues of accessibility, consistency, and reproducibility are paramount. Here we describe the transformation of CERES measurements from source to high level data products intended for direct use by the climate community. At each stage we examine data storage and processing patterns, metadata and potential challenges in reproducibility. The spatial distribution of net energy uptake and transport in the climate system, and its evolution over interannual and decadal time scales, is fundamental to the development of Earth system models. The workflow begins with the CERES footprint radiance seen by a polar orbiter, to the conversion of radiance to radiometric fluxes based on scene identification from MODIS and VIIRS imagery, followed by diurnal interpolation through the use of geostationary satellite imagery and eventually to the creation of high level gridded data products, the ultimate being the Energy Balanced and Filled flux product for direct comparison to climate models. Based on this CERES case study we try to anticipate future questions the may arise in the context of these massive satellite data collections, and what new data models may facilitate future data analysis.

  12. Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  13. Indoor environment program - 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  14. NASA's Earth Observing System: The Transition from Climate Monitoring to Climate Change Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Herring, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Earth's 4.5 billion year history is a study in change. Natural geological forces have been rearranging the surface features and climatic conditions of our planet since its beginning. There is scientific evidence that some of these natural changes have not only led to mass extinctions of species (e.g., dinosaurs), but have also severely impacted human civilizations. For instance, there is evidence that a relatively sudden climate change caused a 300-year drought that contributed to the downfall of Akkadia, one of the most powerful empires in the Middle-East region around 2200 BC. More recently, the "little ice age" from 1200-1400 AD forced the Vikings to abandon Greenland when temperatures there dropped by about 1.5 C, rendering it too difficult to grow enough crops to sustain the population. Today, there is compelling scientific evidence that human activities have attained the magnitude of a geological force and are speeding up the rate of global change. For example, carbon dioxide levels have risen 30 percent since the industrial revolution and about 40 percent of the world's land surface has been transformed by humans. We don't understand the cause-and-effect relationships among Earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere well enough to predict what, if any, impacts these rapid changes will have on future climate conditions. We need to make many measurements all over the world, over a long period of time, in order to assemble the information needed to construct accurate computer models that will enable us to forecast climate change. In 1988, the Earth System Sciences Committee, sponsored by NASA, issued a report calling for an integrated, long-term strategy for measuring the vital signs of Earth's climate system. The report urged that the measurements must all be intimately coupled with focused process studies, they must facilitate development of Earth system models, and they must be stored in an information system that ensures open access to consistent, long-term data

  15. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  16. QUANTIFYING INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing awareness that indoor molds/fungi may be connected to such conditions as asthma, allergies, hemorrhaging, chronic rhinosinusitis, memory loss, and a symptom complex called sick-building-syndrome. In addition, molds cause frequently fatal nosocomical infections. ...

  17. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... cover windows with blankets at night. Monitor Body Temperature Infants less than one year old should never ... infants and try to maintain a warm indoor temperature. If the temperature cannot be maintained, make temporary ...

  18. Does the public deserve free access to climate system science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorov, Ivo

    2010-05-01

    Some time ago it was the lack of public access to medical research data that really stirred the issue and gave inertia for legislation and a new publishing model that puts tax payer-funded medical research in the hands of those who fund it. In today's age global climate change has become the biggest socio-economic challenge, and the same argument resonates: climate affects us all and the publicly-funded science quantifying it should be freely accessible to all stakeholders beyond academic research. Over the last few years the ‘Open Access' movement to remove as much as possible subscription, and other on-campus barriers to academic research has rapidly gathered pace, but despite significant progress, the climate system sciences are not among the leaders in providing full access to their publications and data. Beyond the ethical argument, there are proven and tangible benefits for the next generation of climate researchers to adapt the way their output is published. Through the means provided by ‘open access', both data and ideas can gain more visibility, use and citations for the authors, but also result in a more rapid exchange of knowledge and ideas, and ultimately progress towards a sought solution. The presentation will aim to stimulate discussion and seek progress on the following questions: Should free access to climate research (& data) be mandatory? What are the career benefits of using ‘open access' for young scientists? What means and methods should, or could, be incorporated into current European graduate training programmes in climate research, and possible ways forward?

  19. The ATOMMS Radio Occultation Climate Remote Sensing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Otarola, A. C.; Ward, D.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Walden, L.

    2012-12-01

    Increasingly complex computer models approximate the climate system and make predictions about how climate will change. In order to make informed decisions about what to do about climate change, one must know how trustworthy these predictions are. Assessing the accuracy of the models and their predictions can only come from comparing models with observations of the real climate. Therefore, we must have observations that precisely and unambiguously determine the state of the climate system, and they must do so independently from the atmospheric models they are being compared against. While this is a very basic point of logic, it is quite difficult to achieve in practice because of the difficulties and limitations of the observations. For this purpose we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) that is a cross between GPS radio occultation and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Unlike GPS which uses wavelengths that minimize interaction with the atmosphere, ATOMMS actively probes water vapor and other absorption lines at cm and mm wavelengths in an occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature and water vapor. During each occultation, ATOMMS measures the changes in signal amplitude and frequency caused by passage through the atmosphere relative to the amplitude and frequency measured less than 100 seconds earlier when the signal path was above the atmosphere. As such, the ATOMMS observations are inherently self-calibrating. Furthermore, unlike the inherently ambiguous and non-unique atmospheric profiles retrieved from thermal radiance measurements, the atmospheric profiles retrieved from occultations are unique. The expected accuracy of individual ATOMMS profiles of water vapor, temperature and pressure heights is approximately 1%, 0.4K and 10 m respectively with 200 m or better vertical resolution. Performance in cloudy areas will be within a factor of 2 of

  20. Raising Climate Literacy of K-12 Teachers with Datastreme Earth's Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) DataStreme Project is a free professional development program for in-service K-12 teachers, in which they gain considerable subject matter content and confidence in Earth science instruction. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and Earth's Climate System (ECS) are offered each fall and spring semester by Local Implementation Teams (LITs) across the country in coordination with a team of AMS Education Program scientists and educators who develop instructional materials, provide logistical support to the LITs, and administer the project. The 3-member LITs mentor about 8 teachers and in some instances an emergency manager, per semester through a given DataStreme course. Teachers may receive 3 tuition-free graduate credits through State University of New York's The College at Brockport upon completion of each DataStreme course. DataStreme is in close alignment with A Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Investigating the scientific basis of the workings of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and climate system follows the cross-cutting theme of the Framework and the NGSS and is the cornerstone of the DataStreme courses. In particular, DataStreme ECS explores the fundamental science of Earth's climate system and addresses the societal impacts relevant to today's teachers and students. The course utilizes resources from respected organizations, such as the IPCC and U.S. Global Change Research Program. Key to the NGSS is that students learn disciplinary core ideas in the context of science and engineering practices. In order for the students to learn in this way, the AMS believes that it is important to train the teachers in this context. DataStreme ECS emphasizes investigation of real-word and current NASA and NOAA data. Participants also are made aware of NASA's EdGCM, a research-grade Global Climate Model where they can explore various future climate scenarios in the same way that actual

  1. An investigation of the potential causes for the seasonal and annual variations in indoor radon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barazza, F; Gfeller, W; Palacios, M; Murith, C

    2015-11-01

    Indoor radon concentrations exhibit strong variations on short and long timescales. Besides human influences, meteorological factors significantly affect the radon concentrations indoors as well as outdoors. In this article, long-term measurements showing strong annual variations are presented, which take a very similar course in different buildings located in largely separated regions in Switzerland. Also, seasonal variations can be very significant. In general, variations in indoor radon levels can primarily be attributed to human influences. On the other hand, specific weather conditions can have a significant impact on indoor radon levels. In order to further investigate the connection between indoor radon levels and meteorological factors, a measuring campaign has been started in two buildings located in two different regions in Switzerland exhibiting different climatic characteristics. Preliminary results of these investigations are presented, which provide evidence for correlations between indoor radon levels and in particular outdoor temperatures, contributing to seasonal and annual as well as short-term variations in indoor radon concentrations.

  2. Data management support for selected climate data sets using the climate data access system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reph, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    The functional capabilities of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Climate Data Access System (CDAS), an interactive data storage and retrieval system, and the archival data sets which this system manages are discussed. The CDAS manages several climate-related data sets, such as the First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment (FGGE) Level 2-b and Level 3-a data tapes. CDAS data management support consists of three basic functions: (1) an inventory capability which allows users to search or update a disk-resident inventory describing the contents of each tape in a data set, (2) a capability to depict graphically the spatial coverage of a tape in a data set, and (3) a data set selection capability which allows users to extract portions of a data set using criteria such as time, location, and data source/parameter and output the data to tape, user terminal, or system printer. This report includes figures that illustrate menu displays and output listings for each CDAS function.

  3. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events

  4. Vulnerability of bank filtration systems to climate change.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, C; Lorenzen, G; Hülshoff, I; Grützmacher, G; Ronghang, M; Pekdeger, A

    2011-01-15

    Bank filtration (BF) is a well established and proven natural water treatment technology, where surface water is infiltrated to an aquifer through river or lake banks. Improvement of water quality is achieved by a series of chemical, biological and physical processes during subsurface passage. This paper aims at identifying climate sensitive factors affecting bank filtration performance and assesses their relevance based on hypothetical 'drought' and 'flood' climate scenarios. The climate sensitive factors influencing water quantity and quality also have influence on substance removal parameters such as redox conditions and travel time. Droughts are found to promote anaerobic conditions during bank filtration passage, while flood events can drastically shorten travel time and cause breakthrough of pathogens, metals, suspended solids, DOC and organic micropollutants. The study revealed that only BF systems comprising an oxic to anoxic redox sequence ensure maximum removal efficiency. The storage capacity of the banks and availability of two source waters renders BF for drinking water supply less vulnerable than surface water or groundwater abstraction alone. Overall, BF is vulnerable to climate change although anthropogenic impacts are at least as important.

  5. Modeling Feedbacks Between Water and Vegetation in the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Not only is water essential for life on earth, but life itself affects the global hydrologic cycle and consequently the climate of the planet. Whether the global feedbacks between life and the hydrologic cycle tend to stabilize the climate system about some equilibrium level is difficult to assess. We use a global climate model to examine how the presence of vegetation can affect the hydrologic cycle in a particular region. A control for the present climate is compared with a model experiment in which the Sahara Desert is replaced by vegetation in the form of trees and shrubs common to the Sahel region. A second model experiment is designed to identify the separate roles of two different effects of vegetation, namely the modified albedo and the presence of roots that can extract moisture from deeper soil layers. The results show that the presence of vegetation leads to increases in precipitation and soil moisture in western Sahara. In eastern Sahara, the changes are less clear. The increase in soil moisture is greater when the desert albedo is replaced by the vegetation albedo than when both the vegetation albedo and roots are added. The effect of roots is to withdraw water from deeper layers during the dry season. One implication of this study is that the insertion of vegetation into the Sahara modifies the hydrologic cycle so that the vegetation is more likely to persist than initially.

  6. The Aerosol-Monsoon Climate System of Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kyu-Myong, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In Asian monsoon countries such as China and India, human health and safety problems caused by air-pollution are worsening due to the increased loading of atmospheric pollutants stemming from rising energy demand associated with the rapid pace of industrialization and modernization. Meanwhile, uneven distribution of monsoon rain associated with flash flood or prolonged drought, has caused major loss of human lives, and damages in crop and properties with devastating societal impacts on Asian countries. Historically, air-pollution and monsoon research are treated as separate problems. However a growing number of recent studies have suggested that the two problems may be intrinsically intertwined and need to be studied jointly. Because of complexity of the dynamics of the monsoon systems, aerosol impacts on monsoons and vice versa must be studied and understood in the context of aerosol forcing in relationship to changes in fundamental driving forces of the monsoon climate system (e.g. sea surface temperature, land-sea contrast etc.) on time scales from intraseasonal variability (weeks) to climate change ( multi-decades). Indeed, because of the large contributions of aerosols to the global and regional energy balance of the atmosphere and earth surface, and possible effects of the microphysics of clouds and precipitation, a better understanding of the response to climate change in Asian monsoon regions requires that aerosols be considered as an integral component of a fully coupled aerosol-monsoon system on all time scales. In this paper, using observations and results from climate modeling, we will discuss the coherent variability of the coupled aerosol-monsoon climate system in South Asia and East Asia, including aerosol distribution and types, with respect to rainfall, moisture, winds, land-sea thermal contrast, heat sources and sink distributions in the atmosphere in seasonal, interannual to climate change time scales. We will show examples of how elevated

  7. Integrated Information Systems Across the Weather-Climate Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.; Nierenberg, C.; Trtanj, J.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for well-organized (integrated) end-to-end research-based information has been highlighted in several National Academy studies, in IPCC Reports (such as the SREX and Fifth Assessment) and by public and private constituents. Such information constitutes a significant component of the "environmental intelligence" needed to address myriad societal needs for early warning and resilience across the weather-climate continuum. The next generation of climate research in service to the nation requires an even more visible, authoritative and robust commitment to scientific integration in support of adaptive information systems that address emergent risks and inform longer-term resilience strategies. A proven mechanism for resourcing such requirements is to demonstrate vision, purpose, support, connection to constituencies, and prototypes of desired capabilities. In this presentation we will discuss efforts at NOAA, and elsewhere, that: Improve information on how changes in extremes in key phenomena such as drought, floods, and heat stress impact management decisions for resource planning and disaster risk reduction Develop regional integrated information systems to address these emergent challenges, that integrate observations, monitoring and prediction, impacts assessments and scenarios, preparedness and adaptation, and coordination and capacity-building. Such systems, as illustrated through efforts such as NIDIS, have strengthened the integration across the foundational research enterprise (through for instance, RISAs, Modeling Analysis Predictions and Projections) by increasing agility for responding to emergent risks. The recently- initiated Climate Services Information System, in support of the WMO Global Framework for Climate Services draws on the above models and will be introduced during the presentation.

  8. Assessing the Future Climate Change in Amazon Basin as Derived from the PRECIS Regional Climate Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. M.; Marengo, J. A.; Fu, R.

    2014-12-01

    A number of extreme climate events, such as severe droughts occurred in 2005 and 2010, and impacts from multiple anthropogenic sources, including deforestation, in the Amazon basin have caused widespread socio-ecological stresses and may contribute as a positive feedback to the global climate change. Climate variability and change over the Amazon basin pose significant challenges for society. This is the case when uncertainties in projections of regional climate changes exist. To assess the climate projections and possible changes in the dry season (strength and duration) over Amazon, we have conducted a suite of experiments using the PRECIS regional climate modeling system driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the PRECIS model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods. In additional, we have used one of the new LU scenarios (for 2050) developed within AMAZALERT Project to assess its effects on climate over the Amazon basin relative to the standard PRECIS simulation.

  9. Multi-model vs mixed-physics ensemble of climate runs: implications for climate change impacts in cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Domínguez, Marta; Gaertner, Miguel Angel

    2010-05-01

    This work compares the uncertainty of impact projections of climate change on agriculture when using climate ensembles built with different criteria. Two ensembles based on Regional Climate Models were used: a multi-model ensemble of 5 RCMs at 50 x 50 km of resolution and a mixed-physics ensemble of 5 different parameterizations of the RCM PROMES. Both ensembles of climate were used to run crop simulations. A crop model was used for simulating growth and development of irrigated wheat across main agricultural areas of Spain. These simulations extended the work done in Ruiz-Ramos et al. (2009) for maize, including contrasting growing seasons in the uncertainty analysis. The simulations considered 10 years of control climate and 10 years of A2 IPCC SRES scenario, for the five members of both ensembles of climate. Uncertainties analysis focused on the degree of coincidence on the sign of impact of crop yield projections, and on the magnitude of impacts when comparing projections from ensemble members. The results allowed for evaluating the contribution of RCM parameterizations to uncertainty generated through the modelling chain from climate to impacts. They also provided insights about the constraints and proper use of different sorts of ensembles of climate for evaluating agricultural impacts of climate change. References Ruiz-Ramos M, Domínguez M, and Gaertner MA, 2009. Contribution of changes in RCM parameterizations to uncertainties in the projections of climate change impacts in cropping systems. Geophysical Research Abstracts,Vol. 11, EGU2009-7773.

  10. Linkages between the Urban Environment and Earth's Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). Though urban areas are local in scale, human activity in urban environments has impacts at local, to global scale by changing atmospheric composition; impacting components of the water cycle; and modifying the carbon cycle 2nd ecosystems. For example, urban dwellers are undoubtedly familiar with "high" ozone pollution days, flash flooding in city streets, or heat stress on summer days. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s weather, oceans, and land work together and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. This paper highlights some of the major and current issues involving interactions between urban environments and the Earth's climate system. It also captures some of the most current thinking and findings of the authors and key experts in the field.

  11. Climate change adaptation for the US National Wildlife Refuge System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, Brad; Scott, J. Michael; Adamcik, Robert S.; Ashe, Daniel; Czech, Brian; Fischman, Robert; Gonzalez, Patrick; Lawler, Joshua J.; McGuire, A. David; Pidgorna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1903, the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) has grown to 635 units and 37 Wetland Management Districts in the United States and its territories. These units provide the seasonal habitats necessary for migratory waterfowl and other species to complete their annual life cycles. Habitat conversion and fragmentation, invasive species, pollution, and competition for water have stressed refuges for decades, but the interaction of climate change with these stressors presents the most recent, pervasive, and complex conservation challenge to the NWRS. Geographic isolation and small unit size compound the challenges of climate change, but a combined emphasis on species that refuges were established to conserve and on maintaining biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health provides the NWRS with substantial latitude to respond. Individual symptoms of climate change can be addressed at the refuge level, but the strategic response requires system-wide planning. A dynamic vision of the NWRS in a changing climate, an explicit national strategic plan to implement that vision, and an assessment of representation, redundancy, size, and total number of units in relation to conservation targets are the first steps toward adaptation. This adaptation must begin immediately and be built on more closely integrated research and management. Rigorous projections of possible futures are required to facilitate adaptation to change. Furthermore, the effective conservation footprint of the NWRS must be increased through land acquisition, creative partnerships, and educational programs in order for the NWRS to meet its legal mandate to maintain the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the system and the species and ecosystems that it supports.

  12. Climate change adaptation for the US National Wildlife Refuge System.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Brad; Scott, J Michael; Adamcik, Robert; Ashe, Daniel; Czech, Brian; Fischman, Robert; Gonzalez, Patrick; Lawler, Joshua; McGuire, A David; Pidgorna, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Since its establishment in 1903, the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) has grown to 635 units and 37 Wetland Management Districts in the United States and its territories. These units provide the seasonal habitats necessary for migratory waterfowl and other species to complete their annual life cycles. Habitat conversion and fragmentation, invasive species, pollution, and competition for water have stressed refuges for decades, but the interaction of climate change with these stressors presents the most recent, pervasive, and complex conservation challenge to the NWRS. Geographic isolation and small unit size compound the challenges of climate change, but a combined emphasis on species that refuges were established to conserve and on maintaining biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health provides the NWRS with substantial latitude to respond. Individual symptoms of climate change can be addressed at the refuge level, but the strategic response requires system-wide planning. A dynamic vision of the NWRS in a changing climate, an explicit national strategic plan to implement that vision, and an assessment of representation, redundancy, size, and total number of units in relation to conservation targets are the first steps toward adaptation. This adaptation must begin immediately and be built on more closely integrated research and management. Rigorous projections of possible futures are required to facilitate adaptation to change. Furthermore, the effective conservation footprint of the NWRS must be increased through land acquisition, creative partnerships, and educational programs in order for the NWRS to meet its legal mandate to maintain the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the system and the species and ecosystems that it supports.

  13. Indoor Microgravity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secco, Richard A.; Sukara, Reynold E.

    2016-04-01

    There are many lab exercises for upper-level school students and freshman undergraduates to measure the value of the local acceleration due to gravity (g) near Earth's surface. In these exercises, the value of g is usually taken to be constant. The approach is often based on measuring the period of a pendulum that is inversely proportional to the square root of g. Traditional measurements of the period of a simple or inclined pendulum involve use of a stopwatch to measure the time required to complete a number of oscillations, but other more sophisticated measurement techniques for greater accuracy, such as a photogate timing system, measuring the time-dependent tension on the string, or using a stepper motor connected to a conical pendulum have been described. Using video imaging, the mechanics of objects dropped from some height has also been used to determine g. In physics courses where physical principles are applied to Earth problems, however, the goal is usually to measure a change in a potential field, such as Earth's gravitational field, in order to determine anomalous subsurface characteristics. In this paper, we describe an indoor exercise to measure the local change in g resulting from a large anomalous mass near the observation location.

  14. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  15. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-06

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality.

  16. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality. PMID:26561823

  17. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F.; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality. PMID:26561823

  18. Climate Ocean Modeling on a Beowulf Class System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, B. N.; Chao, Y.; Wang, P.; Bondarenko, M.

    2000-01-01

    With the growing power and shrinking cost of personal computers. the availability of fast ethernet interconnections, and public domain software packages, it is now possible to combine them to build desktop parallel computers (named Beowulf or PC clusters) at a fraction of what it would cost to buy systems of comparable power front supercomputer companies. This led as to build and assemble our own sys tem. specifically for climate ocean modeling. In this article, we present our experience with such a system, discuss its network performance, and provide some performance comparison data with both HP SPP2000 and Cray T3E for an ocean Model used in present-day oceanographic research.

  19. High Resolution River Routing in the Community Climate System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branstetter, M. L.; Erickson, D. J.; Drake, J.; Allen, M.

    2009-12-01

    The current version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM uses half degree resolution river routing within the land component of CCSM. We present a scaling approach and status on a project to produce a much higher resolution data set for river routing to go along with higher resolution land cover data sets for the Community Land Model CLM in order to take advantage of the increasing computational power now available. The new higher resolution data set is based on the Hydrosheds and Hydro1K datasets from USGS. The flow directions are used to generate basins so that the computational load can be distributed among processors by basins to minimize the parallel communication necessary. The code modifications will make the river component more scalable and efficient. The higher resolution models enable detailed study of climatic effects from human induced land cover/land use changes such as the deployment of biofuel crops for energy production.

  20. High resolution river routing in the Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J; Drake, John B

    2009-12-01

    The current version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM uses half degree resolution river routing within the land component of CCSM. We present a scaling approach and status on a project to produce a much higher resolution data set for river routing to go along with higher resolution land cover data sets for the Community Land Model CLM in order to take advantage of the increasing computational power now available. The new higher resolution data set is based on the Hydrosheds and Hydro1K datasets from USGS. The flow directions are used to generate basins so that the computational load can be distributed among processors by basins to minimize the parallel communication necessary. The code modifications will make the river component more scalable and efficient. The higher resolution models enable detailed study of climatic effects from human induced land cover/land use changes such as the deployment of biofuel crops for energy production.

  1. Parallelizing Climate Data Management System, version 3 (CDMS3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D.; Williams, D. N.; Painter, J.; Doutriaux, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Climate Data Management System is an object-oriented data management system, specialized for organizing multidimensional, gridded data used in climate analyses for data observation and simulation. The basic unit of computation in CDMS3 is the variable, which consist of a multidimensional array that represents climate information in four dimensions corresponding to: time, pressure levels, latitudes, and longitudes. As model become more precise in their computation, the volume of data generated becomes bigger and difficult to handle due to the limit of computational resources. Model today can produce data a time frequency of one hourly, three hourly, or six hourly for spatial footprint close to satellite data used run models. The amount of time for scientists to analyze the data and retrieve useful information is more and more unmanageable. Parallelizing libraries such as CMDS3 would ease the burden of working with such big datasets. Multiple approaches of parallelizing are possible. The most obvious one is embarrassingly parallel or pleasingly parallel programming where each computer node processes one file at a time. A more challenging approach is to send a piece of the data to each node for computation and each node will save the results at its right place in a file as a slab of data. This is possible with Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). A final approach would be the use of Open Multi-Processing API (OpenMP) where a master thread is split in multiple threads for different sections of the main code. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. This poster bring to light each benefit of these methods and seek to find an optimal solution to compute climate data analyses in a efficient fashion using one or a mixtures of these parallelized methods.

  2. Indoor vs Outdoor Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, R. C.

    2009-05-01

    Research in mineral physics is essential for interpreting observational data from many other disciplines in the Earth Sciences, from geodynamics to seismology to geochemistry to petrology to geomagnetism to planetary science, and extending also to materials science and climate studies. The field of high-pressure mineral physics is highly interdisciplinary. Mineral physicists do not always study minerals nor use only physics; they study the science of materials which comprise the Earth and other planets and employ the concepts and techniques from chemistry, physics, materials science, and even biology. Observations from geochemistry and geophysics studies lead to the development of petrologic, seismic and geodynamical models of the Earth's deep interior. The goal of mineral physics is to interpret such models in terms of variations of pressure, temperature, mineralogy/crystallography, and/or chemical composition with depth. The discovery in 2004 of the post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3 at pressures in excess of 120 GPa and high temperatures has led to an explosion of both complimentary experimental and theoretical work in mineral physics and remarkable synergy between mineral physics and the disciplines of seismology, geodynamics and geochemistry. Similarly, the observation of high-spin to low-spin transitions in Fe-bearing minerals at high pressures has important implications for the lower mantle of the Earth. We focus in this talk on the use of experimental physical acoustics to conduct "indoor seismology" experiments to measure sound wave velocities of minerals under the pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's mantle. This field of research has a long history dating back at least to the studies of Francis Birch in the 1950s. The techniques include ultrasonic interferometry, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, and Brillouin spectroscopy. Many of these physical acoustic experiments are now performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation sources at

  3. Intersects between Land, Energy, Water and the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Skaggs, R.; Wilson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change affects water, and land resources, and with growing human activity, each of these sectors relies increasingly on the others for critical resources. Events such as drought across the South Central U.S. during 2011 demonstrate that climatic impacts within each of these sectors can cascade through interactions between sectors. Energy, water, and land resources are each vulnerable to impacts on either of the other two sectors. For example, energy systems inherently require land and water. Increased electricity demands to contend with climate change can impose additional burdens on overly subscribed water resources. Within this environment, energy systems compete for water with agriculture, human consumption, and other needs. In turn, climate driven changes in landscape attributes and land use affect water quality and availability as well as energy demands. Diminishing water quality and availability impose additional demands for energy to access and purify water, and for land to store and distribute water. In some situations, interactions between water, energy, and land resources make options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions vulnerable to climate change. Energy options such as solar power or biofuel use can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions as well as U.S. dependence on foreign resources. As a result, the U.S. is expanding renewable energy systems. Advanced technology such as carbon dioxide capture with biofuels may offer a means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere. But as with fossil fuels, renewable energy sources can impose significant demands for water and land. For example, solar power mayrequire significant land to site facilities and water for cooling or to produce steam. Raising crops to produce biofuels uses arable land and water that might otherwise be available for food production. Thus, warmer and drier climate can compromise these renewable energy resources, and drought can stress water supplies creating competition between energy

  4. Complex systems approach to fire dynamics and climate change impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, S.

    2012-04-01

    I present some recent advances in complex systems theory as a contribution to understanding fire regimes and forecasting their response to a changing climate, qualitatively and quantitatively. In many regions of the world, fire sizes have been found to follow, approximately, a power-law frequency distribution. As noted by several authors, this distribution also arises in the "forest fire" model used by physicists to study mechanisms that give rise to scale invariance (the power law is a scale-invariant distribution). However, this model does not give and does not pretend to give a realistic description of fire dynamics. For example, it gives no role to weather and climate. Pueyo (2007) developed a variant of the "forest fire" model that is also simple but attempts to be more realistic. It also results into a power law, but the parameters of this distribution change through time as a function of weather and climate. Pueyo (2007) observed similar patterns of response to weather in data from boreal forest fires, and used the fitted response functions to forecast fire size distributions in a possible climate change scenario, including the upper extreme of the distribution. For some parameter values, the model in Pueyo (2007) displays a qualitatively different behavior, consisting of simple percolation. In this case, fire is virtually absent, but megafires sweep through the ecosystem a soon as environmental forcings exceed a critical threshold. Evidence gathered by Pueyo et al. (2010) suggests that this is realistic for tropical rainforests (specifically, well-conserved upland rainforests). Some climate models suggest that major tropical rainforest regions are going to become hotter and drier if climate change goes ahead unchecked, which could cause such abrupt shifts. Not all fire regimes are well described by this model. Using data from a tropical savanna region, Pueyo et al. (2010) found that the dynamics in this area do not match its assumptions, even though fire

  5. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  6. A Floor-Map-Aided WiFi/Pseudo-Odometry Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Hu, Andong; Liu, Chunyan; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for indoor positioning by fusing floor map, WiFi and smartphone sensor data to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. A topology-constrained K nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm based on a floor map layout provides the coordinates required to integrate WiFi data with pseudo-odometry (P-O) measurements simulated using a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach. One method of further improving the positioning accuracy is to use a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm, as proposed by the authors. The “go and back” phenomenon caused by incorrect matching of the reference points (RPs) of a WiFi algorithm is eliminated using an adaptive fading-factor-based extended Kalman filter (EKF), taking WiFi positioning coordinates, P-O measurements and fused heading angles as observations. The “cross-wall” problem is solved based on the development of a floor-map-aided particle filter algorithm by weighting the particles, thereby also eliminating the gross-error effects originating from WiFi or P-O measurements. The performance observed in a field experiment performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building on the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus confirms that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve meter-level positioning. PMID:25811224

  7. Experimental investigation of the formaldehyde removal mechanisms in a dynamic botanical filtration system for indoor air purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Pei, Jingjing; Zhang, Jensen S

    2014-09-15

    Botanical filtration has been proved to be effective for indoor gas pollutant removal. To understand the roles of different transport, storage and removal mechanism by a dynamic botanical air filter, a series of experimental investigations were designed and conducted in this paper. Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) plants was selected for test, and its original soil or activated/pebbles root bed was used in different test cases. It was found that flowing air through the root bed with microbes dynamically was essential to obtain meaningful formaldehyde removal efficiency. For static potted plant as normally place in rooms, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), which is often used to quantify the air cleaning ability of portable air cleaners, was only ∼ 5.1m(3)/h per m(2) bed, while when dynamically with air flow through the bed, the CADR increased to ∼ 233 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. The calculated CADR due to microbial activity is ∼ 108 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. Moisture in the root bed also played an important role, both for maintaining a favorable living condition for microbes and for absorbing water-soluble compounds such as formaldehyde. The role of the plant was to introduce and maintain a favorable microbe community which effectively degraded the volatile organic compounds adsorbed or absorbed by the root bed. The presence of the plant increased the removal efficiency by a factor of two based on the results from the bench-scale root bed experiments.

  8. Experimental investigation of the formaldehyde removal mechanisms in a dynamic botanical filtration system for indoor air purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Pei, Jingjing; Zhang, Jensen S

    2014-09-15

    Botanical filtration has been proved to be effective for indoor gas pollutant removal. To understand the roles of different transport, storage and removal mechanism by a dynamic botanical air filter, a series of experimental investigations were designed and conducted in this paper. Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) plants was selected for test, and its original soil or activated/pebbles root bed was used in different test cases. It was found that flowing air through the root bed with microbes dynamically was essential to obtain meaningful formaldehyde removal efficiency. For static potted plant as normally place in rooms, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), which is often used to quantify the air cleaning ability of portable air cleaners, was only ∼ 5.1m(3)/h per m(2) bed, while when dynamically with air flow through the bed, the CADR increased to ∼ 233 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. The calculated CADR due to microbial activity is ∼ 108 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. Moisture in the root bed also played an important role, both for maintaining a favorable living condition for microbes and for absorbing water-soluble compounds such as formaldehyde. The role of the plant was to introduce and maintain a favorable microbe community which effectively degraded the volatile organic compounds adsorbed or absorbed by the root bed. The presence of the plant increased the removal efficiency by a factor of two based on the results from the bench-scale root bed experiments. PMID:25164387

  9. A floor-map-aided WiFi/pseudo-odometry integration algorithm for an indoor positioning system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Hu, Andong; Liu, Chunyan; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for indoor positioning by fusing floor map, WiFi and smartphone sensor data to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. A topology-constrained K nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm based on a floor map layout provides the coordinates required to integrate WiFi data with pseudo-odometry (P-O) measurements simulated using a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach. One method of further improving the positioning accuracy is to use a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm, as proposed by the authors. The "go and back" phenomenon caused by incorrect matching of the reference points (RPs) of a WiFi algorithm is eliminated using an adaptive fading-factor-based extended Kalman filter (EKF), taking WiFi positioning coordinates, P-O measurements and fused heading angles as observations. The "cross-wall" problem is solved based on the development of a floor-map-aided particle filter algorithm by weighting the particles, thereby also eliminating the gross-error effects originating from WiFi or P-O measurements. The performance observed in a field experiment performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building on the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus confirms that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve meter-level positioning. PMID:25811224

  10. A floor-map-aided WiFi/pseudo-odometry integration algorithm for an indoor positioning system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Hu, Andong; Liu, Chunyan; Li, Xin

    2015-03-24

    This paper proposes a scheme for indoor positioning by fusing floor map, WiFi and smartphone sensor data to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. A topology-constrained K nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm based on a floor map layout provides the coordinates required to integrate WiFi data with pseudo-odometry (P-O) measurements simulated using a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach. One method of further improving the positioning accuracy is to use a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm, as proposed by the authors. The "go and back" phenomenon caused by incorrect matching of the reference points (RPs) of a WiFi algorithm is eliminated using an adaptive fading-factor-based extended Kalman filter (EKF), taking WiFi positioning coordinates, P-O measurements and fused heading angles as observations. The "cross-wall" problem is solved based on the development of a floor-map-aided particle filter algorithm by weighting the particles, thereby also eliminating the gross-error effects originating from WiFi or P-O measurements. The performance observed in a field experiment performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building on the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus confirms that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve meter-level positioning.

  11. Climatic controls on arid continental basin margin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Amy; Clarke, Stuart; Richards, Philip; Milodowski, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Alluvial fans are both dominant and long-lived within continental basin margin systems. As a result, they commonly interact with a variety of depositional systems that exist at different times in the distal extent of the basin as the basin evolves. The deposits of the distal basin often cycle between those with the potential to act as good aquifers and those with the potential to act as good aquitards. The interactions between the distal deposits and the basin margin fans can have a significant impact upon basin-scale fluid flow. The fans themselves are commonly considered as relatively homogeneous, but their sedimentology is controlled by a variety of factors, including: 1) differing depositional mechanisms; 2) localised autocyclic controls; 3) geometrical and temporal interactions with deposits of the basin centre; and, 4) long-term allocyclic climatic variations. This work examines the basin margin systems of the Cutler Group sediments of the Paradox Basin, western U.S.A and presents generalised facies models for the Cutler Group alluvial fans as well as for the zone of interaction between these fans and the contemporaneous environments in the basin centre, at a variety of scales. Small-scale controls on deposition include climate, tectonics, base level and sediment supply. It has been ascertained that long-term climatic alterations were the main control on these depositional systems. Models have been constructed to highlight how both long-term and short-term alterations in the climatic regime can affect the sedimentation in the basin. These models can be applied to better understand similar, but poorly exposed, alluvial fan deposits. The alluvial fans of the Brockram Facies, northern England form part of a once-proposed site for low-level nuclear waste decommissioning. As such, it is important to understand the sedimentology, three-dimensional geometry, and the proposed connectivity of the deposits from the perspective of basin-scale fluid flow. The developed

  12. Indoor racquet sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Silko, G J; Cullen, P T

    1994-08-01

    Family physicians can care for most patients injured while participating in indoor racquet sports. However, patients with injuries to the eye usually require ophthalmologic referral. The most common injuries that occur in persons participating in indoor racquet sports include contusions, sprains and strains, lacerations, eye injuries, bursitis and tendinitis. Musculoskeletal injuries that merit special consideration include lateral epicondylitis, DeQuervain's tenosynovitis, wrist intersection syndrome, patellar pain syndrome, meniscal injuries, Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis. The family physician plays a critical role in providing patients with information about preventive measures.

  13. Assessment of climate change effects on Canada's National Park system.

    PubMed

    Suffling, Roger; Scott, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated for Canada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonal temperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050 and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems and people. Important, widespread changes relate to marine and freshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern and upward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combined East coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosion and deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic uplift negates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individual parks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migrate lakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroy the fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. For example: we could not form conclusions about glacial mass balance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for the East Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty.

  14. Assessment of climate change effects on Canada's National Park system.

    PubMed

    Suffling, Roger; Scott, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated for Canada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonal temperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050 and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems and people. Important, widespread changes relate to marine and freshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern and upward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combined East coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosion and deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic uplift negates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individual parks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migrate lakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroy the fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. For example: we could not form conclusions about glacial mass balance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for the East Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty. PMID:11878639

  15. Climates of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries Simulated by the NCAR Climate System Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Aiguo; Wigley, T. M. L.; Boville, B. A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Buja, L. E.

    2001-02-01

    The Climate System Model, a coupled global climate model without `flux adjustments' recently developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, was used to simulate the twentieth-century climate using historical greenhouse gas and sulfate aerosol forcing. This simulation was extended through the twenty-first century under two newly developed scenarios, a business-as-usual case (ACACIA-BAU, CO2 710 ppmv in 2100) and a CO2 stabilization case (STA550, CO2 540 ppmv in 2100). Here we compare the simulated and observed twentieth-century climate, and then describe the simulated climates for the twenty-first century. The model simulates the spatial and temporal variations of the twentieth-century climate reasonably well. These include the rapid rise in global and zonal mean surface temperatures since the late 1970s, the precipitation increases over northern mid- and high-latitude land areas, ENSO-induced precipitation anomalies, and Pole-midlatitude oscillations (such as the North Atlantic oscillation) in sea level pressure fields. The model has a cold bias (2°-6°C) in surface air temperature over land, overestimates of cloudiness (by 10%-30%) over land, and underestimates of marine stratus clouds to the west of North and South America and Africa.The projected global surface warming from the 1990s to the 2090s is 1.9°C under the BAU scenario and 1.5°C under the STA550 scenario. In both cases, the midstratosphere cools due to the increase in CO2, whereas the lower stratosphere warms in response to recovery of the ozone layer. As in other coupled models, the surface warming is largest at winter high latitudes (5.0°C from the 1990s to the 2090s) and smallest (1.0°C) over the southern oceans, and is larger over land areas than ocean areas. Globally averaged precipitation increases by 3.5% (3.0%) from the 1990s to the 2090s in the BAU (STA550) case. In the BAU case, large precipitation increases (up to 50%) occur over northern mid- and high latitudes and over

  16. Continental Heat Gain in the Global Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerdon, J. E.; Beltrami, H.; Pollack, H. N.; Huang, S.

    2001-12-01

    Observed increases in 20th century surface-air temperatures are one consequence of a net energy flux into all major components of the Earth climate system including the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and lithosphere. Levitus et al. [2001] have estimated the heat gained by the atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere as 18.2x1022 J, 6.6x1021 J, and 8.1x1021 J, respectively, over the past half-century. However the heat gain of the lithosphere via a heat flux across the solid surface of the continents (30% of the Earth's surface) was not addressed in the Levitus analysis. Here we calculate that final component of Earth's changing energy budget, using ground-surface temperature reconstructions for the continents [Huang et al., 2000]. These reconstructions have shown a warming of at least 0.5 K in the 20th century and were used to determine the flux estimates presented here. In the last half-century, the interval of time considered by Levitus et al., there was an average flux of 40 mW/m2 across the land surface into the subsurface, leading to 9.2x1021 J absorbed by the ground. This amount of heat is significantly less than the energy transferred into the oceans, but of the same magnitude as the energy absorbed by the atmosphere or cryosphere. The heat inputs into all the major components of the climate system - atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere - conservatively sum to more than 20x1022 J during the last half-century, and reinforce the conclusion that the warming in this interval has been truly global. Huang, S., Pollack, H.N., and Shen, P.-Y. 2000. Temperature trends over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures. Nature. 403. 756-758 Levitus, S., Antonov, J., Wang, J., Delworth, T. L., Dixon, K. and Broccoli, A. 2001. Anthropogenic warming of the Earth's climate system. Science, 292, 267-270

  17. A New Paradigm for Assessing the Role of Agriculture in the Climate System and in Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pielke, Roger A., Sr.; Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Chase, Thomas N.; Marshall, Curtis H.; Matsui, Toshihisa; Niyogi, Dev

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the diverse climate forcings that impact agricultural systems, and contrasts the current paradigm of using global models downscaled to agricultural areas (a top-down approach) with a new paradigm that first assesses the vulnerability of agricultural activities to the spectrum of environmental risk including climate (a bottom-up approach). To illustrate the wide spectrum of climate forcings, regional climate forcings are presented including land-use/land-cover change and the influence of aerosols on radiative and biogeochemical fluxes and cloud/precipitation processes, as well as how these effects can be teleconnected globally. Examples are presented of the vulnerability perspective, along with a small survey of the perceived drought impacts in a local area, in which a wide range of impacts for the same precipitation deficits are found. This example illustrates why agricultural assessments of risk to climate change and variability and of other environmental risks should start with a bottom-up perspective.

  18. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  19. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  20. Significance of indoor environment for the development of allergic symptoms in children followed up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, D; Andersson, K; Fagerlund, I; Kjellman, N I

    1996-11-01

    The development of symptoms possibly related to allergy or other forms of hypersensitivity was studied in a group of 638 children on two occasions: when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. Standardized questions were used to collect basic information about the child, technical characteristics of the home, and the mother's perception of the indoor climate. All reported exposure factors were analyzed in relation to the child's symptoms at 18 months of age, by logistic regression techniques. A family history of atopy was associated with a high incidence of most of the investigated symptoms. Attendance at a day nursery before 18 months of age increased the risk of recurrent colds and the need for several courses of treatment with antibiotics. If the mother smoked, the children more often suffered from protracted coughing episodes. If the child has a sibling, the risk of developing a wheeze, repeated colds, and the need for antibiotic treatment increased. No building factors, such as size of the home, heating and ventilation system, type of foundation, dampness, or presence of wall-to-wall carpets, showed a significant correlation to symptoms reported in the children. However, if the mothers reported symptoms that are often connected with "sick buildings", the children more often had eczema, dry skin, or reactions to food. The mothers' complaints about indoor air quality and climate and mucous membrane symptoms were significantly related to the type of building and presence of condensation on the windows in winter, a finding which may indicate that indoor climate factors also have some effect on the health of the children. This study reports the prevalences of symptoms until the age of 18 months. At this age, the allergic manifestations are usually nonspecific, and follow-up examinations to 4-5 years of age are needed before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the development of atopic diseases due to indoor climate factors. PMID:8947336

  1. Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Yanhong; Chu, Zheng; Mu, Jia; Zhao, Qian

    Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 2010 in Northeast China. Three one-grade zones of cropping systems were divided by heat, water, topography and crop-type, including the semi-arid areas of the northeast and northwest (III), the one crop area of warm-cool plants in semi-humid plain or hilly regions of the northeast (IV), and the two crop area in irrigated farmland in the Huanghuaihai Plain (VI). An agro-ecological zone model was used to calculate climatic potential productivities. The effects of adjusting cropping systems on climate resource utilization in Northeast China under the A1B scenario were assessed. The results indicated that from 1981 to 2100 in the III, IV and VI areas, the planting boundaries of different cropping systems in Northeast China obviously shifted toward the north and the east based on comprehensively considering the heat and precipitation resources. However, due to high temperature stress, the climatic potential productivity of spring maize was reduced in the future. Therefore, adjusting the cropping system is an effective way to improve the climatic potential productivity and climate resource utilization. Replacing the one crop in one year model (spring maize) by the two crops in one year model (winter wheat and summer maize) significantly increased the total climatic potential productivity and average utilization efficiencies. During the periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, the average total climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize increased by 9.36%, 11.88% and 12.13% compared to that of spring maize

  2. Data Visualization and Analysis for Climate Studies using NASA Giovanni Online System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Leptoukh, Gregory; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    With many global earth observation systems and missions focused on climate systems and the associated large volumes of observational data available for exploring and explaining how climate is changing and why, there is an urgent need for climate services. Giovanni, the NASA GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd ANalysis Infrastructure, is a simple to use yet powerful tool for analysing these data for research on global warming and climate change, as well as for applications to weather. air quality, agriculture, and water resources,

  3. Climate Model Datasets on Earth System Grid II (ESG II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Earth System Grid (ESG) is a project that combines the power and capacity of supercomputers, sophisticated analysis servers, and datasets on the scale of petabytes. The goal is to provide a seamless distributed environment that allows scientists in many locations to work with large-scale data, perform climate change modeling and simulation,and share results in innovative ways. Though ESG is more about the computing environment than the data, still there are several catalogs of data available at the web site that can be browsed or search. Most of the datasets are restricted to registered users, but several are open to any access.

  4. Managing Risks? Early Warning Systems for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitati, A. M.; Zommers, Z. A.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems are a tool with which to minimize risks posed by climate related hazards. Although great strides have been made in developing early warning systems most deal with one hazard, only provide short-term warnings and do not reach the most vulnerable. This presentation will review research results of the United Nations Environment Programme's CLIM-WARN project. The project seeks to identify how governments can better communicate risks by designing multi-hazard early warning systems that deliver actionable warnings across timescales. Household surveys and focus group discussions were conducted in 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso in order to identify relevant climate related hazards, current response strategies and early warning needs. Preliminary results show significant variability in both risks and needs within and between countries. For instance, floods are more frequent in rural western parts of Kenya. Droughts are frequent in the north while populations in urban areas face a range of hazards - floods, droughts, disease outbreaks - that sometimes occur simultaneously. The majority of the rural population, especially women, the disabled and the elderly, do not have access to modern media such as radio, television, or internet. While 55% of rural populace never watches television, 64% of urban respondents watch television on a daily basis. Communities have different concepts of how to design warning systems. It will be a challenge for national governments to create systems that accommodate such diversity yet provide standard quality of service to all. There is a need for flexible and forward-looking early warning systems that deliver broader information about risks. Information disseminated through the system could not only include details of hazards, but also long-term adaptation options, general education, and health information, thus increasingly both capabilities and response options.

  5. Impact of climate change on electricity systems and markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramowli, Shankar N.

    Climate change poses a serious threat to human welfare. There is now unequivocal scientific evidence that human actions are the primary cause of climate change. The principal climate forcing factor is the increasing accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) due to combustion of fossil fuels for transportation and electricity generation. Generation of electricity account for nearly one-third of the greenhouse (GHG) emissions globally (on a CO2-equivalent basis). Any kind of economy-wide mitigation or adaptation effort to climate change must have a prominent focus on the electric power sector. I have developed a capacity expansion model for the power sector called LP-CEM (Linear Programming based Capacity Expansion Model). LP-CEM incorporates both the long-term climate change effects and the state/regional-level macroeconomic trends. This modeling framework is demonstrated for the electric power system in the Northeast region of United States. Some of the methodological advances introduced in this research are: the use of high-resolution temperature projections in a power sector capacity expansion model; the incorporation of changes in sectoral composition of electricity demand over time; the incorporation of the effects of climate change and variability on both the demand and supply-side of power sector using parameters estimated in the literature; and an inter-model coupling link with a macroeconomic model to account for price elasticity of demand and other effects on the broader macro-economy. LP-CEM-type models can be of use to state/regional level policymakers to plan for future mitigation and adaptation measures for the electric power sector. From the simulation runs, it is shown that scenarios with climate change effects and with high economic growth rates have resulted in higher capacity addition, optimal supply costs, wholesale/retail prices and total ratepayers' costs. LP-CEM is also adapted to model the implications of the proposed Clean Power Plan

  6. Sea Ice in the NCEP Climate Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Grumbine, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice is known to play a significant role in the global climate system. For a weather or climate forecast system (CFS), it is important that the realistic distribution of sea ice is represented. Sea ice prediction is challenging; sea ice can form or melt, it can move with wind and/or ocean current; sea ice interacts with both the air above and ocean underneath, it influences by, and has impact on the air and ocean conditions. NCEP has developed coupled CFS (version 2, CFSv2) and carried out CFS reanalysis (CFSR), which includes a coupled model with the NCEP global forecast system, a land model, an ocean model (GFDL MOM4), and a sea ice model. In this work, we present the NCEP coupled model, the CFSv2 sea ice component that includes a dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model and a simple "assimilation" scheme, how sea ice has been assimilated in CFSR, the characteristics of the sea ice from CFSR and CFSv2, and the improvements of sea ice needed for future CFS (version 3) and the CFSR.

  7. Indoor ozone/terpene reactions as a source of indoor particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Shields, Helen C.

    This paper reports effects of reactions between ozone and selected terpenes on the concentrations and size distributions of airborne particles in a typical indoor setting. The studies were conducted in adjacent, identical offices. In the first set of experiments, known concentrations of ozone and a selected terpene (either d-limonene, α-terpinene, or a terpene-based cleaner whose major constituent is α-pinene) were deliberately introduced into one of the offices while the other office served as a control. Subsequent particle formation and redistribution were monitored with an eight-channel optical particle counter. Particle formation was observed in each terpene system, but was greatest in the case of d-limonene. The number of particles in the 0.1-0.2 μm diameter size range was as much as 20 times larger in the office with deliberately supplemented ozone and d-limonene than in the office serving as the control. The concentration differences in the larger size ranges developed with time, indicating the importance of coagulation and condensation processes in this indoor environment. In the second set of experiments, d-limonene was deliberately introduced into one of the offices, but ozone was not supplemented in either office; instead, the indoor ozone concentrations were those that happened to be present (primarily as a consequence of outdoor-to-indoor transport). In the office that contained supplemental d-limonene, the concentrations of the 0.1-0.2 μm particles tracked those of indoor ozone (the limiting reagent) and were as much as 10 times greater than levels measured in the comparable office that did not contain supplemental d-limonene. The results demonstrate that ozone/ terpene reactions can be a significant source of sub-micron particles in indoor settings, and further illustrate the potential for reactions among commonly occurring indoor pollutants to markedly influence indoor environments.

  8. Late Cretaceous Climate, Vegetation and Ocean Interactions: AN Earth System Approach to Modeling AN Extreme Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deconto, Robert Michael

    The Campanian age of the Late Cretaceous was warm, with no evidence for permanent or seasonal sea ice at high latitudes. Sea level was high, creating extensive epicontinental and shallow shelf seas. Very low meridional thermal gradients existed in the oceans and on land. Campanian (80 Ma) climate and vegetation have been simulated using GENESIS (Global ENvironmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems) Version 2.0 and EVE (Equilibrium Vegetation Ecology model), developed by the Climate Change Research section of the Climate and Global Dynamics division at NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research). GENESIS is a comprehensive Earth system model, requiring high resolution (2^circ by 2^circ) solid earth boundary condition data as input for paleoclimate simulations. Boundary condition data define certain prescribed global fields such as the distribution of land-sea-ice, topography, orographic roughness, and soil texture, as well as atmospheric chemistry, the solar constant, and orbital parameters that define the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation. A comprehensive, high resolution paleogeography has been reconstructed for the Campanian. The paleogeography, based on a new global plate tectonic model, provides the framework for the solid earth boundary conditions used in the paleoclimate simulation. Because terrestrial ecosystems influence global climate by affecting the exchange of energy, water and momentum between the land surface and the atmosphere, the distribution of global vegetation should be included in pre-Quaternary paleoclimate simulations. However, reconstructing global vegetation distributions from the fossil record is difficult. EVE predicts the equilibrium state of plant community structure as a function of climate and fundamental ecological principles. The model has been modified to reproduce a vegetation distribution based on life forms that existed in the Late Cretaceous. EVE has been applied as a fully interactive component

  9. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    PubMed

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices.

  10. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    PubMed

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. PMID:23683987

  11. Climate-induced tree mortality: Earth system consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Henry D.; Macalady, Alison K.; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Saleska, Scott; Huxman, Travis E.; McDowell, Nathan G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and the Earth system. Terrestrial ecosystems and, in particular, forests exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets [Bonan, 2008; Chapin et al., 2008].According to new research, tree mortality associated with elevated temperatures and drought has the potential to rapidly alter forest ecosystems, potentially affecting feedbacks to the Earth system [Allen et al., 2010]. Several lines of recent research demonstrate how tree mortality rates in forests may be sensitive to climate change—particularly warming and drying. This emerging consequence of global change has important effects on Earth system processes (Figure 1).

  12. Recent trends in energy flows through the Arctic climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Michael; Haimberger, Leo

    2016-04-01

    While Arctic climate change can be diagnosed in many parameters, a comprehensive assessment of long-term changes and low frequency variability in the coupled Arctic energy budget still remains challenging due to the complex physical processes involved and the lack of observations. Here we draw on strongly improved observational capabilities of the past 15 years and employ observed radiative fluxes from CERES along with state-of-the-art atmospheric as well as coupled ocean-ice reanalyses to explore recent changes in energy flows through the Arctic climate system. Various estimates of ice volume and ocean heat content trends imply that the energy imbalance of the Arctic climate system was >1 Wm-2 during the 2000-2015 period, where most of the extra heat warmed the ocean and a comparatively small fraction was used to melt sea ice. The energy imbalance was partly fed by enhanced oceanic heat transports into the Arctic, especially in the mid 2000s. Seasonal trends of net radiation show a very clear signal of the ice-albedo feedback. Stronger radiative energy input during summer means increased seasonal oceanic heat uptake and accelerated sea ice melt. In return, lower minimum sea ice extent and higher SSTs lead to enhanced heat release from the ocean during fall season. These results are consistent with modeling studies finding an enhancement of the annual cycle of surface energy exchanges in a warming Arctic. Moreover, stronger heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in fall tend to warm the arctic boundary layer and reduce meridional temperature gradients, thereby reducing atmospheric energy transports into the polar cap. Although the observed results are a robust finding, extended high-quality datasets are needed to reliably separate trends from low frequency variability.

  13. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  14. A smart indoor air quality sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jin

    2006-03-01

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) has an important impact on public health. Currently, the indoor air pollution, caused by gas, particle, and bio-aerosol pollutants, is considered as the top five environmental risks to public health and has an estimated cost of $2 billion/year due to medical cost and lost productivity. Furthermore, current buildings are especially vulnerable for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent contamination because the central air conditioning and ventilation system serve as a nature carrier to spread the released agent from one location to the whole indoor environment within a short time period. To assure the IAQ and safety for either new or existing buildings, real time comprehensive IAQ and CBW measurements are needed. With the development of new sensing technologies, economic and reliable comprehensive IAQ and CBW sensors become promising. However, few studies exist that examine the design and evaluation issues related to IAQ and CBW sensor network. In this paper, relevant research areas including IAQ and CBW sensor development, demand control ventilation, indoor CBW sensor system design, and sensor system design for other areas such as water system protection, fault detection and diagnosis, are reviewed and summarized. Potential research opportunities for IAQ and CBW sensor system design and evaluation are discussed.

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Anuj; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  16. Evaluation on Thermal Behavior of a Green Roof Retrofit System Installed on Experimental Building in Composite Climate of Roorkee, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Deoliya, Rajesh; Chani, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Green roofs not only provide cooling by shading, but also by transpiration of water through the stomata. However, the evidence for green roofs providing significant air cooling remains limited. No literature investigates the thermal performance of prefab brick panel roofing technology with green roof. Hence, the aim of this research is to investigate the thermal behavior of an experimental room, built at CSIR-Central Building Research Institute (CBRI) campus, Roorkee, India using such roofing technology during May 2013. The study also explores the feasibility of green roof with grass carpets that require minimum irrigation, to assess the expected indoor thermal comfort improvements by doing real-time experimental studies. The results show that the proposed green roof system is suitable for reducing the energy demand for space cooling during hot summer, without worsening the winter energy performance. The cost of proposed retrofit system is about Rs. 1075 per m2. Therefore, green roofs can be used efficiently in retrofitting existing buildings in India to improve the micro-climate on building roofs and roof insulation, where the additional load carrying capacity of buildings is about 100-130 kg/m2.

  17. Climate-driven population divergence in sex-determining systems.

    PubMed

    Pen, Ido; Uller, Tobias; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Harts, Anna; While, Geoffrey M; Wapstra, Erik

    2010-11-18

    Sex determination is a fundamental biological process, yet its mechanisms are remarkably diverse. In vertebrates, sex can be determined by inherited genetic factors or by the temperature experienced during embryonic development. However, the evolutionary causes of this diversity remain unknown. Here we show that live-bearing lizards at different climatic extremes of the species' distribution differ in their sex-determining mechanisms, with temperature-dependent sex determination in lowlands and genotypic sex determination in highlands. A theoretical model parameterized with field data accurately predicts this divergence in sex-determining systems and the consequence thereof for variation in cohort sex ratios among years. Furthermore, we show that divergent natural selection on sex determination across altitudes is caused by climatic effects on lizard life history and variation in the magnitude of between-year temperature fluctuations. Our results establish an adaptive explanation for intra-specific divergence in sex-determining systems driven by phenotypic plasticity and ecological selection, thereby providing a unifying framework for integrating the developmental, ecological and evolutionary basis for variation in vertebrate sex determination.

  18. The Mars climate for a photovoltaic system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on the climatic conditions on Mars are very desirable for the design of photovoltaic systems for establishing outposts on the Martian surface. The distribution of solar insolation (global, direct and diffuse) and ambient temperature is addressed. This data are given at the Viking lander's locations and can also be used, to a first approximation, for other latitudes. The insolation data is based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. The ambient temperature (diurnal and yearly distribution) is based on direct measurements with a thermocouple at 1.6 m above the ground at the Viking lander locations. The insolation and ambient temperature information are short term data. New information about Mars may be forthcoming in the future from new analysis of previously collected data or from future flight missions. The Mars climate data for photovoltaic system operation will thus be updated accordingly.

  19. Organic compounds in indoor air—their relevance for perceived indoor air quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkoff, Peder; Nielsen, Gunnar D.

    It is generally believed that indoor air pollution, one way or another may cause indoor air complaints. However, any association between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations and increase of indoor climate complaints, like the sick-building syndrome symptoms, is not straightforward. The reported symptom rates of, in particular, eye and upper airway irritation cannot generally be explained by our present knowledge of common chemically non-reactive VOCs measured indoors. Recently, experimental evidence has shown those chemical reactions between ozone (either with or without nitrogen dioxide) and unsaturated organic compounds (e.g. from citrus and pine oils) produce strong eye and airway irritating species. These have not yet been well characterised by conventional sampling and analytical techniques. The chemical reactions can occur indoors, and there is indirect evidence that they are associated with eye and airway irritation. However, many other volatile and non-volatile organic compounds have not generally been measured which could equally well have potent biological effects and cause an increase of complaint rates, and posses a health/comfort risk. As a consequence, it is recommended to use a broader analytical window of organic compounds than the classic VOC window as defined by the World Health Organisation. It may include hitherto not yet sampled or identified intermediary species (e.g., radicals, hydroperoxides and ionic compounds like detergents) as well as species deposited onto particles. Additionally, sampling strategies including emission testing of building products should carefully be linked to the measurement of organic compounds that are expected, based on the best available toxicological knowledge, to have biological effects at indoor concentrations.

  20. Aerosols, Clouds, and Precipitation as Scale Interactions in the Climate System and Controls on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Leo

    Clouds are major regulators of atmospheric energy flows. Their character depends on atmospheric composition, dynamics, and thermodynamic state. Clouds can assume organized structures whose scales are planetary, while processes important for determining basic properties occur on the scale of microns. The range of processes, scales, and interactions among them has precluded the development of concise theories for the role of clouds in climate, and limitations in modeling clouds in complex climate models remain among the key uncertainties in understanding and projecting climate change. The distribution function of vertical velocities (updraft speeds) in clouds is an important control on climate forcing by clouds and possibly a strong correlate with climate sensitivity. (Climate forcing refers to the change in Earth's energy balance as atmospheric composition changes, in particular, due to human activity. Climate sensitivity is defined here as the equilibrium change in globally averaged annual surface temperature as a result of doubled carbon dioxide.) Vertical velocities are central because they determine the thermodynamic environment governing phase changes of water, with both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena important. The spatial and temporal spectra of relevant vertical velocities includes scales both numerically resolved by climate models and below their resolution limit. The latter implies a requirement to parameterize these smaller scale motions in models. The scale dependence of vertical velocities and emerging observational constraints on their distribution provide new opportunities for representing aerosols, clouds, and precipitation in climate models. Success in doing so could provide important breakthroughs in understanding both climate forcing and sensitivity.

  1. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. PMID:25770744

  2. WSN system design by using an innovative neural network model to perform thermals forecasting in a urban canyon scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuseppina, Nicolosi; Salvatore, Tirrito

    2015-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) were studied by researchers in order to manage Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) indoor systems. WSN can be useful specially to regulate indoor confort in a urban canyon scenario, where the thermal parameters vary rapidly, influenced by outdoor climate changing. This paper shows an innovative neural network approach, by using WSN data collected, in order to forecast the indoor temperature to varying the outdoor conditions based on climate parameters and boundary conditions typically of urban canyon. In this work more attention will be done to influence of traffic jam and number of vehicles in queue.

  3. Building integration of photovoltaic systems in cold climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Candanedo, José A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents some of the research activities on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems developed by the Solar and Daylighting Laboratory at Concordia University. BIPV systems offer considerable advantages as compared to stand-alone PV installations. For example, BIPV systems can play a role as essential components of the building envelope. BIPV systems operate as distributed power generators using the most widely available renewable source. Since BIPV systems do not require additional space, they are especially appropriate for urban environments. BIPV/Thermal (BIPV/T) systems may use exterior air to extract useful heat from the PV panels, cooling them and thereby improving their electric performance. The recovered thermal energy can then be used for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) heating, supporting the utilization of BIVP/T as an appropriate technology for cold climates. BIPV and BIPV/T systems are the subject of several ongoing research and demonstration projects (in both residential and commercial buildings) led by Concordia University. The concept of integrated building design and operation is at the centre of these efforts: BIPV and BIPV/T systems must be treated as part of a comprehensive strategy taking into account energy conservation measures, passive solar design, efficient lighting and HVAC systems, and integration of other renewable energy systems (solar thermal, heat pumps, etc.). Concordia Solar Laboratory performs fundamental research on heat transfer and modeling of BIPV/T systems, numerical and experimental investigations on BIPV and BIPV/T in building energy systems and non-conventional applications (building-attached greenhouses), and the design and optimization of buildings and communities.

  4. Radioactivity in the indoor building environment in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Natasa; Bikit, Istvan; Vesković, Miroslav; Krmar, Miodrag; Mrđa, Dusan; Forkapić, Sofija; Hansman, Jan; Nikolov, Jovana; Bikit, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of activity concentrations of radionuclides in building materials and radon in indoor space is important in the assessment of population exposures, as most individuals spend 80 % of their time indoors. This paper presents the results of activity concentration measurements of: radon emanated from the soil, radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil, indoor radon in the city of Novi Sad (the capital city of Vojvodina) using charcoal canisters and indoor radon in the Vojvodina region using alpha-track detectors and the radioactivity of some building materials. Influences of floor level, space under the rooms, boarding, and the heating system on indoor radon accumulation in the Vojvodina province, situated in the northern part of Serbia, are also presented in this paper. The total effective dose and the activity concentration index are calculated applying the dose criteria recommended by the European Union for building materials.

  5. Three Connected Climate Education Interactives: Carbon Cycle, Earth System Energy Flows, and Climate Change Impacts/Adaptations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai'i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and focus on adaptation strategies that can increase resiliency with respect to climate change impacts. Unfortunately the vast majority of the science texts used in schools come from the US mainland and feature contexts that do not relate to the lives of Pacific island students. The curricular materials also tend to be older and to have very weak climate science content, especially with respect to tropical islands and climate change. In collaboration with public broadcast station WGBH, PCEP has developed three climate education interactives that sequentially provide an introduction to key climate change education concepts. The first in the series focuses on the global carbon cycle and connects increased atmospheric CO2 with rising global temperatures. The second analyzes Earth system energy flows to explain the key role of the increased greenhouse effect. The third focuses on four climate change impacts (higher temperatures, rising sea level, changes in precipitation, and ocean acidification), and adaptation strategies to increase resiliency of local ecosystems and human systems. While the interactives have a Pacific island visual and text perspective, they are broadly applicable for other education audiences. Learners can use the interactives to engage with the basic science concepts, and then apply the climate change impacts to their own contexts.

  6. When Poor Indoor Air Causes a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    An air quality problem originating with a steam leak in an improperly maintained heating system resulted in unanticipated expenses of $420,000 for the Lakeview (Michigan) School District. Indoor air quality complaints require immediate investigation and action; clear communication to parents, staff, and media representatives; competent…

  7. An empirical system for probabilistic seasonal climate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Jonathan; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Hawkins, Ed; Suckling, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Preparing for episodes with risks of anomalous weather a month to a year ahead is an important challenge for governments, non-governmental organisations, and private companies and is dependent on the availability of reliable forecasts. The majority of operational seasonal forecasts are made using process-based dynamical models, which are complex, computationally challenging and prone to biases. Empirical forecast approaches built on statistical models to represent physical processes offer an alternative to dynamical systems and can provide either a benchmark for comparison or independent supplementary forecasts. Here, we present a simple empirical system based on multiple linear regression for producing probabilistic forecasts of seasonal surface air temperature and precipitation across the globe. The global CO2-equivalent concentration is taken as the primary predictor; subsequent predictors, including large-scale modes of variability in the climate system and local-scale information, are selected on the basis of their physical relationship with the predictand. The focus given to the climate change signal as a source of skill and the probabilistic nature of the forecasts produced constitute a novel approach to global empirical prediction. Hindcasts for the period 1961-2013 are validated against observations using deterministic (correlation of seasonal means) and probabilistic (continuous rank probability skill scores) metrics. Good skill is found in many regions, particularly for surface air temperature and most notably in much of Europe during the spring and summer seasons. For precipitation, skill is generally limited to regions with known El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections. The system is used in a quasi-operational framework to generate empirical seasonal forecasts on a monthly basis.

  8. A global empirical system for probabilistic seasonal climate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, J. M.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Hawkins, E.; Suckling, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    Preparing for episodes with risks of anomalous weather a month to a year ahead is an important challenge for governments, non-governmental organisations, and private companies and is dependent on the availability of reliable forecasts. The majority of operational seasonal forecasts are made using process-based dynamical models, which are complex, computationally challenging and prone to biases. Empirical forecast approaches built on statistical models to represent physical processes offer an alternative to dynamical systems and can provide either a benchmark for comparison or independent supplementary forecasts. Here, we present a simple empirical system based on multiple linear regression for producing probabilistic forecasts of seasonal surface air temperature and precipitation across the globe. The global CO2-equivalent concentration is taken as the primary predictor; subsequent predictors, including large-scale modes of variability in the climate system and local-scale information, are selected on the basis of their physical relationship with the predictand. The focus given to the climate change signal as a source of skill and the probabilistic nature of the forecasts produced constitute a novel approach to global empirical prediction. Hindcasts for the period 1961-2013 are validated against observations using deterministic (correlation of seasonal means) and probabilistic (continuous rank probability skill scores) metrics. Good skill is found in many regions, particularly for surface air temperature and most notably in much of Europe during the spring and summer seasons. For precipitation, skill is generally limited to regions with known El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections. The system is used in a quasi-operational framework to generate empirical seasonal forecasts on a monthly basis.

  9. Nevada Monitoring System to Assess Climate Variability and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, D. A.; Arnone, J.; Biondi, F.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; Saito, L.; Young, M.; Riddle, B.; Strachan, S. D.; Bird, B.; McCurdy, G.; Lyles, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Nevada System of Higher Education (University of Nevada Las Vegas, University of Nevada Reno and the Desert Research Institute) was awarded a multiyear NSF EPSCoR grant to support infrastructure associated with regional climate change research. The overall project is comprised of 5 components: education, cyberinfrastructure, policy, climate modeling and water/ecology. The water and ecology components are using their infrastructure funding for the assessment of climate variability and change on ecosystem function and hydrologic services. A series of 10 m tall towers are under construction and are being equipped with a wide array of sensors to monitor atmospheric, soil and plant parameters over time. The towers are located within the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts in two transects; the Mojave Desert transect is located in the southern Nevada Sheep Mountain Range and the Great Basin transect is located in the east central Nevada Snake Mountain Range. The towers are centrally positioned in well-defined vegetation zones. In southern Nevada these zones are represented by the following plant species: Creosote/Bursage (Creosotebush scrub zone); Blackbrush/Joshua Tree (Blackbrush zone); Pinyon/ Juniper (pygmy conifer zone), Ponderosa Pine (montane zone) and Bristlecone Pine (subalpine zone). The Snake Mountain transect incorporates the eastern and western valleys on both sides of the mountain range. The vegetation zones are represented by: Greasewood and mixed shrub (salt desert zone); Big Sage (sagebrush zone); Pinyon/Juniper (pygmy conifer zone); White/Douglas Fir, Ponderosa Pine and Aspen (montane zone); and Bristlecone/Limber Pine and Engelmann Spruce (subalpine zone). We are currently in the third year of funding with a goal of having the majority of towers fully operational by winter 2010. In close collaboration with our cyberinfrastructure component team, all data acquired from the transect monitoring stations will be made available to other researchers and the

  10. Autonomic and Climatic Impacts on the Dutch Coastal Groundwater System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    Half of the Netherlands is located below sea level and still land subsidence is taking place. As saline groundwater is found within a couple of meters below ground surface, salinization of the freshwater resources is taking place. Above mentioned process together with anthropogenic activities like groundwater exploitation and differentiated water level management is called the autonomic process. As a consequence, salt seepage affects the quality of surface water and reduces the freshwater volume necessary for drinking, environmental, industrial and agricultural purposes. Apart from this autonomic process, the Dutch delta will be jeopardized by climate change due to two effects: sea level rise and a combination of changing precipitation and evapotranspiration. Calculations with a regional density dependent 3D model for the coastal province of Zuid-Holland show increasing piezometric heads for all implemented climate scenarios due to sea level rise. This will, however, only happen at areas less than 10-20 km from the coastline or large rivers. Up to 5 km from the coast, the piezometric heads will increase with more than 50% of the sea level rise. In the inland areas, land subsidence causes decreasing piezometric heads. Salinization of the groundwater system will take place in most parts of the Dutch delta. Around the islands of Zuid-Holland, the main cause for salinization is sea level rise. The autonomic process on the other hand dominates the salinization of the polders. Due to increasing piezometric heads and salinization, the salt seepage will increase up to 20% for inland polders and up to 75% for coastal polders. The effects of the changes in recharge and evapotranspiration are small in general and depend on the climate scenario and area. Adaptive and mitigative activities like land reclamation offshore and desalinization of saline groundwater show some positive effects on the chloride concentrations of the groundwater. Nevertheless, this cannot reverse the

  11. Effect of ventilation systems and air filters on decay rates of particles produced by indoor sources in an occupied townhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Wallace, Lance A.; Emmerich, Steven J.

    Several studies have shown the importance of particle losses in real homes due to deposition and filtration; however, none have quantitatively shown the impact of using a central forced air fan and in-duct filter on particle loss rates. In an attempt to provide such data, we measured the deposition of particles ranging from 0.3 to 10 μm in an occupied townhouse and also in an unoccupied test house. Experiments were run with three different sources (cooking with a gas stove, citronella candle, pouring kitty litter), with the central heating and air conditioning (HAC) fan on or off, and with two different types of in-duct filters (electrostatic precipitator and ordinary furnace filter). Particle size, HAC fan operation, and the electrostatic precipitator had significant effects on particle loss rates. The standard furnace filter had no effect. Surprisingly, the type of source (combustion vs. mechanical generation) and the type of furnishings (fully furnished including carpet vs. largely unfurnished including mostly bare floor) also had no measurable effect on the deposition rates of particles of comparable size. With the HAC fan off, average deposition rates varied from 0.3 h -1 for the smallest particle range (0.3-0.5 μm) to 5.2 h -1 for particles greater than 10 μm. Operation of the central HAC fan approximately doubled these rates for particles <5 μm, and increased rates by 2 h -1 for the larger particles. An in-duct electrostatic precipitator increased the loss rates compared to the fan-off condition by factors of 5-10 for particles <2.5 μm, and by a factor of 3 for 2.5-5.0 μm particles. In practical terms, use of the central fan alone could reduce indoor particle concentrations by 25-50%, and use of an in-duct ESP could reduce particle concentrations by 55-85% compared to fan-off conditions.

  12. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  13. Exposure to Air Ions in Indoor Environments: Experimental Study with Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Panny, Michael; Tappler, Peter; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been a scientific debate about the potential effects of air ions on biological tissues, wellbeing and health. Effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system as well as on mental health have been described. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this topic. In an experimental indoor setting we conducted a double-blind cross-over trial to determine if higher levels of air ions, generated by a special wall paint, affect cognitive performance, wellbeing, lung function, and cardiovascular function. Twenty healthy non-smoking volunteers (10 female, 10 male) participated in the study. Levels of air ions, volatile organic compounds and indoor climate factors were determined by standardized measurement procedures. Air ions affected the autonomous nervous system (in terms of an increase of sympathetic activity accompanied by a small decrease of vagal efferent activity): In the test room with higher levels of air ions (2194/cm3 vs. 1038/cm3) a significantly higher low to high frequency ratio of the electrocardiography (ECG) beat-to-beat interval spectrogram was found. Furthermore, six of nine subtests of a cognitive performance test were solved better, three of them statistically significant (verbal factor, reasoning, and perceptual speed), in the room with higher ion concentration. There was no influence of air ions on lung function and on wellbeing. Our results indicate slightly activating and cognitive performance enhancing effects of a short-term exposure to higher indoor air ion concentrations. PMID:26569277

  14. Exposure to Air Ions in Indoor Environments: Experimental Study with Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Panny, Michael; Tappler, Peter; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been a scientific debate about the potential effects of air ions on biological tissues, wellbeing and health. Effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system as well as on mental health have been described. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this topic. In an experimental indoor setting we conducted a double-blind cross-over trial to determine if higher levels of air ions, generated by a special wall paint, affect cognitive performance, wellbeing, lung function, and cardiovascular function. Twenty healthy non-smoking volunteers (10 female, 10 male) participated in the study. Levels of air ions, volatile organic compounds and indoor climate factors were determined by standardized measurement procedures. Air ions affected the autonomous nervous system (in terms of an increase of sympathetic activity accompanied by a small decrease of vagal efferent activity): In the test room with higher levels of air ions (2194/cm³ vs. 1038/cm³) a significantly higher low to high frequency ratio of the electrocardiography (ECG) beat-to-beat interval spectrogram was found. Furthermore, six of nine subtests of a cognitive performance test were solved better, three of them statistically significant (verbal factor, reasoning, and perceptual speed), in the room with higher ion concentration. There was no influence of air ions on lung function and on wellbeing. Our results indicate slightly activating and cognitive performance enhancing effects of a short-term exposure to higher indoor air ion concentrations.

  15. Human Performance: Does Indoor Environmental Quality Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, E. Ken

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that the primary objective of every school must be an indoor environment that creates a sense of wellbeing in order to facilitate learning (e.g., adequate space, good lighting, friendly conditions, an inviting exterior, a consistent climate/temperature, traffic control and parking, and sanitary conditions), noting that the messages sent to…

  16. Integrated web system of geospatial data services for climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Georeferenced datasets are currently actively used for modeling, interpretation and forecasting of climatic and ecosystem changes on different spatial and temporal scales. Due to inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets as well as their huge size (up to tens terabytes for a single dataset) a special software supporting studies in the climate and environmental change areas is required. An approach for integrated analysis of georefernced climatological data sets based on combination of web and GIS technologies in the framework of spatial data infrastructure paradigm is presented. According to this approach a dedicated data-processing web system for integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced climatological and meteorological data is being developed. It is based on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and involves many modern solutions such as object-oriented programming model, modular composition, and JavaScript libraries based on GeoExt library, ExtJS Framework and OpenLayers software. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Agreement #14.613.21.0037.

  17. Climate system modeling on massively parallel systems: LDRD Project 95-ERP-47 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mirin, A.A.; Dannevik, W.P.; Chan, B.; Duffy, P.B.; Eltgroth, P.G.; Wehner, M.F.

    1996-12-01

    Global warming, acid rain, ozone depletion, and biodiversity loss are some of the major climate-related issues presently being addressed by climate and environmental scientists. Because unexpected changes in the climate could have significant effect on our economy, it is vitally important to improve the scientific basis for understanding and predicting the earth`s climate. The impracticality of modeling the earth experimentally in the laboratory together with the fact that the model equations are highly nonlinear has created a unique and vital role for computer-based climate experiments. However, today`s computer models, when run at desired spatial and temporal resolution and physical complexity, severely overtax the capabilities of our most powerful computers. Parallel processing offers significant potential for attaining increased performance and making tractable simulations that cannot be performed today. The principal goals of this project have been to develop and demonstrate the capability to perform large-scale climate simulations on high-performance computing systems (using methodology that scales to the systems of tomorrow), and to carry out leading-edge scientific calculations using parallelized models. The demonstration platform for these studies has been the 256-processor Cray-T3D located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our plan was to undertake an ambitious program in optimization, proof-of-principle and scientific study. These goals have been met. We are now regularly using massively parallel processors for scientific study of the ocean and atmosphere, and preliminary parallel coupled ocean/atmosphere calculations are being carried out as well. Furthermore, our work suggests that it should be possible to develop an advanced comprehensive climate system model with performance scalable to the teraflops range. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  18. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This final report is an account of the principal activities of Lof Energy Systems, Inc. in a two-year project funded by the Energy Related Inventions Program (ERIP) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary objective has been the development of a fully practical and economical system for saving energy in indoor swimming pools by use of motorized covers. The goal is wide-spread use of a fully developed product, in institutional swimming pools. Four major tasks, depicted in the accompanying Performance Schedule, have been completed, and one other has been initiated and its completion committed. Principal accomplishments have been the selection and improvement of cover materials and designs, lengthening and strengthening of reels and improvements in motorized components and their control, design and installation of pool covers in full scale demonstration and evaluation of fully developed commercial system, preparation and dissemination of manuals and reports, finalization of arrangements for Underwriters Laboratory certification of products, and final report preparation and submission. Of greatest significance has been the successful demonstration of the fully developed system and the verification and reporting by an energy consultant of the large savings resulting from pool cover use. Probably the best evidence of success of the DOE-ERIP project in advancing this invention to a commercial stage is its acceptance for sale by the Lincoln Equipment Company, a national distributor of swimming pool supplies and equipment. A copy of the relevant page in the Lincoln catalog is included in this report as Annex A. Representatives of that company now offer Tof motorized pool cover systems to their pool owner customers. In addition to the plans for securing UL certification the company expects to continue making design improvements that can increase system reliability, durability, and cost-effectiveness.

  19. Causes and prevention of symptom complaints in office buildings:Distilling the experience of indoor environmental qualityinvestigators

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark J.; Diamond, Richard C.; Fisk, William J.; Brennan,Terry; Hathon, Lee; Odom, J. David; Offermann, Francis J.; Turk, BradleyH.; Wallingford, Kenneth M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop empirically based recommendations for practical strategies, suitable for use by those who own, lease, or manage office space, to prevent building-related symptoms in office buildings. Ideas from six experienced building investigators were gathered and prioritized in a multi-day workshop. The top ranked problems identified were, in priority order: excessive building moisture, inadequate outdoor air, dust on indoor surfaces, indoor gases and odors, inadequate thermal control, and inadequate attention by management to indoor environments. The highest priority strategies recommended for preventing building-related symptoms were: managing water at building exteriors, operating ventilation systems per design intent, providing at least minimum ventilation rates, and maintaining indoor temperatures at 72 F {+-} 2{sup o}. Findings in the scientific literature were generally consistent with these recommendations. IEQ investigators showed considerable agreement on the most important causes of symptom complaints in office buildings and the key methods for preventing these problems. Despite the range of climates in which they worked, the investigators agreed that the highest priority prevention strategy was managing water at building exteriors. These recommendations, generally consistent with available research findings, provide useful practical guidelines for those who own, manage or maintain office buildings. The empirical knowledge of practitioners offers more guidance here for choosing health-protective strategies than current science, although efficacy of these empirically based strategies generally has not been confirmed.

  20. Climate Impacts of Potential Vegetation versus Current Day MODIS Land Cover in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.; Chase, T. N.

    2007-12-01

    Numerous studies have used General Circulation Models to investigate the possible climate impacts that human development has had through transforming the world from natural ecosystems to one dominated by cultivation, grazing, pastures and urban landscapes. In recent climate sensitivity studies we have found that the global representation of vegetation and soils, as well as the surface hydrology in the Community Land Model (CLM) has large impacts on the climate simulated in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). Therefore to investigate the climate impacts of land cover change in CCSM we have developed new potential vegetation land surface parameters for CLM that are consistent with our current day MODIS land surface parameters. The new parameters use the potential vegetation biome mapping of Ramankutty and Foley, (1999), with the spatial heterogeneity and temporal phenology of plant functional types (PFTs) extrapolated from the MODIS parameters of current day remnant natural biomes. The potential vegetation parameters replace land use, predominantly cropping, with natural tree, shrub and grass PFTs, resulting in substantially higher leaf area index (LAI) and stem area index (SAI) over much of the world. The climate impacts of the potential vegetation parameters are assessed through climate sensitivity studies with the CCSM compared to the climate simulated with the current day MODIS parameters. The main impact of the potential vegetation on the climate simulated in CCSM is an overall cooling from increased latent heat flux, with mixed impacts from albedo changes. This is consistent with previous GCM studies where surface hydrology dominates the forcing from land cover change, but is opposite to studies where the surface albedo is the dominate change. The strong dominance of surface hydrology in changes with the potential vegetation parameters underscores the importance of providing realistic hydrology and land cover in CCSM sensitivity experiments.

  1. Fast adjustment of the climate system to changes in atmospheric CO2 and solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.; Bala, G.

    2011-12-01

    A key issue in the study of global climate change is the climate response to external forcing. When radiative forcing is applied to the climate system, the climate system starts to respond, resulting in changes in temperature and other fields. A new quasi-equilibrium climate state is achieved when the global mean net energy balance at the top-of-atmosphere returns to zero. The adjustment of the climate system is governed by different processes on different timescales. Within days to months, the climate system adjusts mainly to the imposed forcing and the change of land surface temperature. On longer timescale of years to centuries, when the ocean temperature starts to respond, changes in sea surface temperature exert a strong control on the adjustment of the climate system. By performing ensemble simulations using Hadley Center climate model, HadCM3L, we investigate climate system response to the applied forcing in the forms of additional atmospheric carbon dioxide and an increase in solar insolation. Both carbon dioxide and solar forcing affects the Earth's radiation balance and carbon dioxide also affects the climate system through its impact on plant stomata. We focus on the daily evolution of climate response within a timescale of one month over land and oceans. We will provide a mechanistic understanding of why increasing atmospheric CO2 causes a reduction in global-mean precipitation in the absence of sea surface temperature change. We will also discuss the adjustment of radiative forcing and the usefulness in radiative forcing as a predictor of equilibrium climate change. A discussion of the climate response from daily to millennium timescale will also be presented.

  2. Location-adaptive transmission for indoor visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-yue; Wang, Lang; Chi, Xue-fen

    2016-01-01

    A location-adaptive transmission scheme for indoor visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, the symbol error rate ( SER) of less than 10-3 should be guaranteed. And the scheme is realized by the variable multilevel pulse-position modulation (MPPM), where the transmitters adaptively adjust the number of time slots n in the MPPM symbol according to the position of the receiver. The purpose of our scheme is to achieve the best data rate in the indoor different locations. The results show that the location-adaptive transmission scheme based on the variable MPPM is superior in the indoor VLC system.

  3. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  4. Indoor air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A major contribution of the pediatrician is to help families rank the multitude of pollutants according to their known risk for child health. Elimination of household smoking and completely effective venting of indoor heating devices are beneficial to all and mandatory in homes of allergic children. Acute releases of NO/sub 2/ by gas ranges and ovens may be a significant factor in an increased incidence of respiratory infection, especially in children under two years. Despite intensive investigation, immunosuppressive and other health effects have not been defined for indoor levels of PBBs, PCBs, and related halogenated hydrocarbons. The analytic ability to determine nanomolar concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals opens a Pandora's box of inquiry. New methods, particularly immunologic, are urgently needed to quantitate the dose response to multiple combinations of chemicals and determine their significance for the health of the tight-box generation of children. 136 references.

  5. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  6. Nonlinear problems of complex natural systems: Sun and climate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bershadskii, A

    2013-01-13

    The universal role of the nonlinear one-third subharmonic resonance mechanism in generation of strong fluctuations in complex natural dynamical systems related to global climate is discussed using wavelet regression detrended data. The role of the oceanic Rossby waves in the year-scale global temperature fluctuations and the nonlinear resonance contribution to the El Niño phenomenon have been discussed in detail. The large fluctuations in the reconstructed temperature on millennial time scales (Antarctic ice core data for the past 400,000 years) are also shown to be dominated by the one-third subharmonic resonance, presumably related to the Earth's precession effect on the energy that the intertropical regions receive from the Sun. The effects of galactic turbulence on the temperature fluctuations are also discussed. PMID:23185052

  7. Neural network-based multiuser detection for SDMA-OFDM system over IEEE 802.11n indoor wireless local area network channel models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen Bagadi, Kala; Das, Susmita

    2013-10-01

    Space division multiple access - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based wireless communication has the potential to offer high-spectral efficiency, system performance and capacity. This article proposes an efficient blind multiuser detection (MUD) scheme using artificial neural network models such as the radial basis function. The proposed MUD technique is consistently outperforming the existing minimum mean square error and minimum bit error rate (MBER) MUDs with the performance close to the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) detector. Besides that, the computational complexity of the proposed one is comparatively lower than both the MBER and ML detectors. Further, it can also outperform MBER MUD in the overload scenario, where the number of users is more than that of the number of receiving antennas simulation-based study showing BER performance and complexity are carried out to prove the efficiency of the proposed techniques. This analysis is carried through the IEEE 802.11n standard channel models, which are designed for indoor wireless local area network applications of bandwidth up to 100 MHz at frequencies 2 and 5 GHz.

  8. Indoor Environment Program 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Much of this energy can be saved by reducing buildings` air infiltration and ventilation, since the heat load associated with these processes is about 13 quads per year. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants that originate indoors, reducing ventilation can cause undesirable side effects such as lowering indoor air quality and adversely affecting the health, comfort and productivity of building occupants. The purpose of this research is to increase the energy efficiency of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The research explores energy use and efficiency of buildings; building ventilation and infiltration; the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and exposure and risk assessment for indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}. The Program also conducts multidisciplinary studies on relationships between occupant health and comfort symptoms and factors within a building`s environment. Air infiltration and ventilation rates are measured and modeled for residential and commercial buildings in order to understand energy transport and thermal losses from various components of building shells and ventilation systems. Methods for reducing energy losses are based on these studies. The effectiveness of various ventilation systems for pollutant removal is also investigated. Methods for characterizing ventilation and building energy use are developed for experimental and applied uses.

  9. Indoor Environment Program 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Much of this energy can be saved by reducing buildings' air infiltration and ventilation, since the heat load associated with these processes is about 13 quads per year. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants that originate indoors, reducing ventilation can cause undesirable side effects such as lowering indoor air quality and adversely affecting the health, comfort and productivity of building occupants. The purpose of this research is to increase the energy efficiency of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The research explores energy use and efficiency of buildings; building ventilation and infiltration; the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and exposure and risk assessment for indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO[sub x]. The Program also conducts multidisciplinary studies on relationships between occupant health and comfort symptoms and factors within a building's environment. Air infiltration and ventilation rates are measured and modeled for residential and commercial buildings in order to understand energy transport and thermal losses from various components of building shells and ventilation systems. Methods for reducing energy losses are based on these studies. The effectiveness of various ventilation systems for pollutant removal is also investigated. Methods for characterizing ventilation and building energy use are developed for experimental and applied uses.

  10. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

  11. Selecting HVAC Systems for Schools To Balance the Needs for Indoor Air Quality, Energy Conservation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.; Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    Although poor air quality in a school can have multiple causes, the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system plays a major role. Suggestions that architects, facilities managers, school board members, and administrators can use in selecting HVAC systems are discussed. Focus is on the performance criteria for classroom systems, and…

  12. Indoor Radon Measurement in Van

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Dogan, I.; Celebi, N.

    2007-04-01

    In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor rad