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Sample records for indoor climate systems

  1. Multisensor System for Isotemporal Measurements to Assess Indoor Climatic Conditions in Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Eliseo; Guijarro, Enrique; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Balasch, Sebastián; Hospitaler, Antonio; Torres, Antonio G.

    2012-01-01

    The rearing of poultry for meat production (broilers) is an agricultural food industry with high relevance to the economy and development of some countries. Periodic episodes of extreme climatic conditions during the summer season can cause high mortality among birds, resulting in economic losses. In this context, ventilation systems within poultry houses play a critical role to ensure appropriate indoor climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a multisensor system to evaluate the design of the ventilation system in broiler houses. A measurement system equipped with three types of sensors: air velocity, temperature and differential pressure was designed and built. The system consisted in a laptop, a data acquisition card, a multiplexor module and a set of 24 air temperature, 24 air velocity and two differential pressure sensors. The system was able to acquire up to a maximum of 128 signals simultaneously at 5 second intervals. The multisensor system was calibrated under laboratory conditions and it was then tested in field tests. Field tests were conducted in a commercial broiler farm under four different pressure and ventilation scenarios in two sections within the building. The calibration curves obtained under laboratory conditions showed similar regression coefficients among temperature, air velocity and pressure sensors and a high goodness fit (R2 = 0.99) with the reference. Under field test conditions, the multisensor system showed a high number of input signals from different locations with minimum internal delay in acquiring signals. The variation among air velocity sensors was not significant. The developed multisensor system was able to integrate calibrated sensors of temperature, air velocity and differential pressure and operated succesfully under different conditions in a mechanically-ventilated broiler farm. This system can be used to obtain quasi-instantaneous fields of the air velocity and temperature, as well as differential

  2. Multisensor system for isotemporal measurements to assess indoor climatic conditions in poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Eliseo; Guijarro, Enrique; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Balasch, Sebastián; Hospitaler, Antonio; Torres, Antonio G

    2012-01-01

    The rearing of poultry for meat production (broilers) is an agricultural food industry with high relevance to the economy and development of some countries. Periodic episodes of extreme climatic conditions during the summer season can cause high mortality among birds, resulting in economic losses. In this context, ventilation systems within poultry houses play a critical role to ensure appropriate indoor climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a multisensor system to evaluate the design of the ventilation system in broiler houses. A measurement system equipped with three types of sensors: air velocity, temperature and differential pressure was designed and built. The system consisted in a laptop, a data acquisition card, a multiplexor module and a set of 24 air temperature, 24 air velocity and two differential pressure sensors. The system was able to acquire up to a maximum of 128 signals simultaneously at 5 second intervals. The multisensor system was calibrated under laboratory conditions and it was then tested in field tests. Field tests were conducted in a commercial broiler farm under four different pressure and ventilation scenarios in two sections within the building. The calibration curves obtained under laboratory conditions showed similar regression coefficients among temperature, air velocity and pressure sensors and a high goodness fit (R(2) = 0.99) with the reference. Under field test conditions, the multisensor system showed a high number of input signals from different locations with minimum internal delay in acquiring signals. The variation among air velocity sensors was not significant. The developed multisensor system was able to integrate calibrated sensors of temperature, air velocity and differential pressure and operated successfully under different conditions in a mechanically-ventilated broiler farm. This system can be used to obtain quasi-instantaneous fields of the air velocity and temperature, as well as

  3. Changes in airborne fungi from the outdoors to indoor air; large HVAC systems in nonproblem buildings in two different climates.

    PubMed

    Kemp, P C; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Esposito, B; Lysek, G; Murray, F

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the changes in occurrence and distribution of airborne fungi as they are transported in the airstream from the outdoor air through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to the indoor air. To better understand this, airborne fungi were analyzed in the HVAC systems of two large office buildings in different climate zones. Fungal samples were taken in each of the walk-in chambers of the HVAC systems using a six-stage Andersen Sampler with malt extract agar. Results showed that fungal species changed with different locations in the HVAC systems. The outdoor air intake produced the greatest filtration effect for both the counts and species of outdoor air fungi. The colony forming unit (CFU) counts and species diversity was further reduced in the air directly after the filters. The cooling coils also had a substantial filtration effect. However, in room air the CFU counts were double and the mixture of fungal species was different from the air leaving the HVAC system at the supply air outlet in most locations. Diffusion of outdoor air fungi to the indoors did not explain the changes in the mixture of airborne fungi from the outdoor air to the indoor air, and some of the fungi present in the indoor air did not appear to be transported indoors by the HVAC systems.

  4. Adapting Buildings for Indoor Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change presents many challenges, including the production of severe weather events. These events and efforts to minimize their effects through weatherization can adversely affect indoor environments.

  5. Probabilistic modeling of the indoor climates of residential buildings using EnergyPlus

    DOE PAGES

    Buechler, Elizabeth D.; Pallin, Simon B.; Boudreaux, Philip R.; ...

    2017-04-25

    The indoor air temperature and relative humidity in residential buildings significantly affect material moisture durability, HVAC system performance, and occupant comfort. Therefore, indoor climate data is generally required to define boundary conditions in numerical models that evaluate envelope durability and equipment performance. However, indoor climate data obtained from field studies is influenced by weather, occupant behavior and internal loads, and is generally unrepresentative of the residential building stock. Likewise, whole-building simulation models typically neglect stochastic variables and yield deterministic results that are applicable to only a single home in a specific climate. The

  6. Carbonyl compounds indoors in a changing climate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Formic acid, acetic acid and formaldehyde are important compounds in the indoor environment because of the potential for these acids to degrade calcareous materials (shells, eggs, tiles and geological specimens), paper and corrode or tarnish metals, especially copper and lead. Carbonyl sulfide tarnishes both silver and copper encouraging the formation of surface sulfides. Results Carbonyls are evolved more quickly at higher temperatures likely in the Cartoon Gallery at Knole, an important historic house near Sevenoaks in Kent, England where the study is focused. There is a potential for higher concentrations to accumulate. However, it may well be that in warmer climates they will be depleted more rapidly if ventilation increases. Conclusions Carbonyls are likely to have a greater impact in the future. PMID:22439648

  7. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  8. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations☆

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures’ responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 °C, 13.8 °C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings PMID:22071034

  9. Exploring the consequences of climate change for indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaroff, William W.

    2013-03-01

    Climate change will affect the concentrations of air pollutants in buildings. The resulting shifts in human exposure may influence public health. Changes can be anticipated because of altered outdoor pollution and also owing to changes in buildings effected in response to changing climate. Three classes of factors govern indoor pollutant levels in occupied spaces: (a) properties of pollutants; (b) building factors, such as the ventilation rate; and (c) occupant behavior. Diversity of indoor conditions influences the public health significance of climate change. Potentially vulnerable subpopulations include not only the young and the infirm but also those who lack resources to respond effectively to changing conditions. Indoor air pollutant levels reflect the sum of contributions from indoor sources and from outdoor pollutants that enter with ventilation air. Pollutant classes with important indoor sources include the byproducts of combustion, radon, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Outdoor pollutants of special concern include particulate matter and ozone. To ensure good indoor air quality it is important first to avoid high indoor emission rates for all pollutants and second to ensure adequate ventilation. A third factor is the use of air filtration or air cleaning to achieve further improvements where warranted. Reprinted with permission from Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health (2011) by the National Academy of Sciences, Courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

  10. The effect of thermal mass on indoor comfort with evaporative cooling systems in semi-arid climates

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.

    1996-10-01

    The use of evaporative cooling systems in California climates were investigated. Different levels of thermal mass were used in identical test building modules, similar in size and shape but different in construction material. The result showed significant differences in comfort performance between modules and also varied operating modes. Due to the evaporative cooling system and the two test buildings, the daytime operation of evaporative coolers has the best performance in terms of energy and comfort.

  11. An assessment of indoor geolocation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progri, Ilir Fiqiri

    2003-10-01

    Currently there is a need to design, develop, and deploy autonomous and portable indoor geolocation systems to fulfil the needs of military, civilian, governmental and commercial customers where GPS and GLONASS signals are not available due to the limitations of both GPS and GLONASS signal structure designs. The goal of this dissertation is (1) to introduce geolocation systems; (2) to classify the state of the art geolocation systems; (3) to identify the issues with the state of the art indoor geolocation systems; and (4) to propose and assess four WPI indoor geolocation systems. It is assessed that the current GPS and GLONASS signal structures are inadequate to overcome two main design concerns; namely, (1) the near-far effect and (2)the multipath effect. We propose four WPI indoor geolocation systems as an alternative solution to near-far and multipath effects. The WPI indoor geolocation systems are (1) a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system, (2) a DSSS/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system, (3) a DSSS/OFDM/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system, and (4) an OFDM/FDMA indoor geolocation system. Each system is researched, discussed, and analyzed based on its principle of operation, its transmitter, the indoor channel, and its receiver design and issues associated with obtaining an observable to achieve indoor navigation. Our assessment of these systems concludes the following. First, a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system is inadequate to neither overcome the near-far effect not mitigate cross-channel interference due to the multipath. Second, a DSSS/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system is a potential candidate for indoor positioning, with data rate up to 3.2 KBPS, pseudorange error, less than to 2 m and phase error less than 5 mm. Third, a DSSS/OFDM/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system is a potential candidate to achieve similar or better navigation accuracy than a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system and data rate up to 5 MBPS. Fourth, an OFDM/FDMA indoor geolocation

  12. Indoor climate problems in day institutions for children. Practical, Administrative and policy perspectives.

    PubMed

    Steensberg, J

    1985-01-01

    Based on case material from the late 1970s and early 1980s from the Institution of Medical Officers of Health covering a Danish county some examples of practical indoor climate problems in day institutions for children are given. Insufficient ventilation of premises is probably the single most important factor in the development of indoor climate problems. An effective cleaning generally improves the indoor air. The study particularly illustrates the administrative and policy perspectives of the decision making process. Those that make decisions on indoor climate problems unfortunately seem to favour a narrow definition of health, i.e. the absence of overt disease; and they are not always aware that the relationship between indoor climate factors and health effects cannot be proven in an absolute sense. Experts on the scientific aspects are needed but their statements are influenced by personal values and their perception of the reasonable balance between health protection and social costs. One of the main factors influencing the indoor climate situation in Danish day institutions for children has been the lack of an adequate regulatory framework; and the central administration and responsible ministers have failed to use the already existing legislative powers to prevent problems. Decision making in cases on the indoor climate of institutions should be accelerated; we cannot wait for proof before taking preventive measures. The indoor air of institutions is a "public good" to the same extent as the ambient air and the responsible authorities have an obligation to regulate accordingly. When building regulations prove insufficient other central authorities must support local decision makers with more specific directions. Testing of building materials, hazard rating and an approval system is needed. Guidelines on indoor climate requirements for public institutions should be developed. In countries with a built-up system of child institutions and a decreasing birth

  13. An indoor mesocosm system to study the effect of climate change on the late winter and spring succession of Baltic Sea phyto- and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ulrich; Aberle, Nicole; Engel, Anja; Hansen, Thomas; Lengfellner, Kathrin; Sandow, Marcel; Wohlers, Julia; Zöllner, Eckart; Riebesell, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    An indoor mesocosm system was set up to study the response of phytoplankton and zooplankton spring succession to winter and spring warming of sea surface temperatures. The experimental temperature regimes consisted of the decadal average of the Kiel Bight, Baltic Sea, and three elevated regimes with 2 degrees C, 4 degrees C, and 6 degrees C temperature difference from that at baseline. While the peak of the phytoplankton spring bloom was accelerated only weakly by increasing temperatures (1.4 days per degree Celsius), the subsequent biomass minimum of phytoplankton was accelerated more strongly (4.25 days per degree Celsius). Phytoplankton size structure showed a pronounced response to warming, with large phytoplankton being more dominant in the cooler mesocosms. The first seasonal ciliate peak was accelerated by 2.1 days per degree Celsius and the second one by 2.0 days per degree Celsius. The over-wintering copepod populations declined faster in the warmer mesocosm, and the appearance of nauplii was strongly accelerated by temperature (9.2 days per degree Celsius). The strong difference between the acceleration of the phytoplankton peak and the acceleration of the nauplii could be one of the "Achilles heels" of pelagic systems subject to climate change, because nauplii are the most starvation-sensitive life cycle stage of copepods and the most important food item of first-feeding fish larvae.

  14. A VLES/T-RANS approach to indoor climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenjeres, S.; Hanjalic, K.; Gunarjo, S. B.

    2001-11-01

    Demands for better design, control and optimization of indoor climate, particularly in complex and special buildings (occupied residential and office space, atria, hospitals, auditoriums) impose requirements for accurate predictions of air movement, temperature, turbulence and concentration distributions in space and time. A time-dependent RANS (T-RANS) approach is proposed for accurate prediction of flow, scalar transport and wall heat and mass transfer in complex building space. The method resolves in time and space the large-scale coherent motion which is the major carrier of momentum heat and species, whereas the residual ("subscale") turbulence is modelled by an algebraic RANS type stress/flux model. The method is especially advantageous for predicting flows driven or affected by thermal buoyancy, for which the conventional eddy-viscosity/diffusivity RANS models and gradient transport hypotheses are known to fail even in simple generic configurations. The approach was validated in a series of buoyancy-driven flows for which experimental, DNS and LES data are available. Examples of full-scale application to be presented include numerical simulations of real occupied and furnished residential space. The simulation showed that the T-RANS approach can be used as a reliable tool for a variety of applications such as optimization of of heating and ventilation system, indoor quality, safety measures related to smoke and fire spreading, as well as wall heat and mass transfer.

  15. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  16. Climate Change, Indoor Environment and Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  17. Spatial Database Modeling for Indoor Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotlib, Dariusz; Gnat, Miłosz

    2013-12-01

    For many years, cartographers are involved in designing GIS and navigation systems. Most GIS applications use the outdoor data. Increasingly, similar applications are used inside buildings. Therefore it is important to find the proper model of indoor spatial database. The development of indoor navigation systems should utilize advanced teleinformation, geoinformatics, geodetic and cartographical knowledge. The authors present the fundamental requirements for the indoor data model for navigation purposes. Presenting some of the solutions adopted in the world they emphasize that navigation applications require specific data to present the navigation routes in the right way. There is presented original solution for indoor data model created by authors on the basis of BISDM model. Its purpose is to expand the opportunities for use in indoor navigation.

  18. NFC Internal: An Indoor Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Ozdenizci, Busra; Coskun, Vedat; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability. PMID:25825976

  19. NFC internal: an indoor navigation system.

    PubMed

    Ozdenizci, Busra; Coskun, Vedat; Ok, Kerem

    2015-03-27

    Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability.

  20. The correlation between indoor and in soil radon concentrations in a desert climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khateeb, H. M.; Aljarrah, K. M.; Alzoubi, F. Y.; Alqadi, M. K.; Ahmad, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the levels and the correlation between indoor and in soil radon concentration in a desert climate. The measurements are carried out, in Jordan desert in AlMafraq district, using the passive integrated technique. An intelligent automated tracks counting system, modified recently by our group, is used to estimate the overlapping tracks and to decrease the counting percentage error. Results show that radon concentration in soil expands from 4.09 to 11.30 kBq m-3, with an average of 7.53 kBq m-3. Indoor radon concentrations vary from 20.2 Bq m-3 in the AlMafraq city to 46.7 Bq m-3 in Housha village and with an average of 29.6 Bq m-3. All of individual indoor radon concentrations are lower than the limit (100 Bq m-3) recommended by WHO except two dwellings in Housha village which found being higher than this limit. A moderate linear correlation (R2=0.66) was observed between indoor and in soil radon concentrations in the investigated region. Our results showed that an in soil radon measurement can be a satisfactory predictor for indoor radon potential.

  1. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  2. Indoor climate and air quality . Review of current and future topics in the field of ISB study group 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppe, P.; Martinac, Ivo

    In industrialized countries about 90% of the time is spent indoors. The ambient parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature and humidity, air velocity, and radiant heat exchange within an enclosure. In assessing the thermal environment, one needs to consider all ambient parameters, the insulating properties of the occupants' clothing, and the activity level of the occupants by means of heat balance models of the human body. Apart from thermal parameters, air quality (measured and perceived) is also of importance for well-being and health in indoor environments. Pollutant levels are influenced by both outdoor concentrations and by indoor emissions. Indoor levels can thus be lower (e.g. in the case of ozone and SO2) or higher (e.g. for CO2 and formaldehyde) than outdoor levels. Emissions from cooking play an important role, especially in developing countries. The humidity of the ambient air has a wide range of effects on the energy and water balance of the body as well as on elasticity, air quality perception, build-up of electrostatic charge and the formation or mould. However, its effect on the indoor climate is often overestimated. While air-handling systems are commonly used for achieving comfortable indoor climates, their use has also been linked to a variety of problems, some of which have received attention within the context of ''sick building syndrome''.

  3. Skin complaints in buildings with indoor climate problems

    SciTech Connect

    Stenberg, B. )

    1989-01-01

    The Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a combination of both common and unspecific symptoms. Few studies have been published with detailed descriptions of clinical findings. One of the few dermatological references with a close relation to sick buildings is the so-called low humidity occupational dermatoses. Since 1982, an increasing number of outpatients from building with indoor climate problems have been investigated at the Department of Dermatology in Umea, Sweden. The most common findings regarding work-related diseases have been seborrheic dermatitis, facial erythema, periorbital eczema, rosacea, urticaria, and itching folliculitis. It is suggested that physical, chemical, and psychological factors are of importance in producing these symptoms.

  4. EPA Research Funding Aims to Improve Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Harvard College is one of only nine institutions that will share nearly $8 million from the US Environmental Protection Agency to study how climate change affects indoor air quality and the resulting health effects.

  5. Modelling of Indoor Environments Using Lindenmayer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, M.

    2017-09-01

    Documentation of the "as-built" state of building interiors has gained a lot of interest in the recent years. Various data acquisition methods exist, e.g. the extraction from photographed evacuation plans using image processing or, most prominently, indoor mobile laser scanning. Due to clutter or data gaps as well as errors during data acquisition and processing, automatic reconstruction of CAD/BIM-like models from these data sources is not a trivial task. Thus it is often tried to support reconstruction by general rules for the perpendicularity and parallelism which are predominant in man-made structures. Indoor environments of large, public buildings, however, often also follow higher-level rules like symmetry and repetition of e.g. room sizes and corridor widths. In the context of reconstruction of city city elements (e.g. street networks) or building elements (e.g. façade layouts), formal grammars have been put to use. In this paper, we describe the use of Lindenmayer systems - which originally have been developed for the computer-based modelling of plant growth - to model and reproduce the layout of indoor environments in 2D.

  6. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  7. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-12-04

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters.

  8. Visual navigation system for autonomous indoor blimps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Mario F.; de Souza Coelho, Lucio

    1999-07-01

    Autonomous dirigibles - aerial robots that are a blimp controlled by computer based on information gathered by sensors - are a new and promising research field in Robotics, offering several original work opportunities. One of them is the study of visual navigation of UAVs. In the work described in this paper, a Computer Vision and Control system was developed to perform automatically very simple navigation task for a small indoor blimp. The vision system is able to track artificial visual beacons - objects with known geometrical properties - and from them a geometrical methodology can extract information about orientation of the blimp. The tracking of natural landmarks is also a possibility for the vision technique developed. The control system uses that data to keep the dirigible on a programmed orientation. Experimental results showing the correct and efficient functioning of the system are shown and have your implications and future possibilities discussed.

  9. Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

    2006-05-01

    Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

  10. Energy system contributions in indoor rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo Cássio de Moraes; Franchini, Emerson; Kokubun, Eduardo; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin

    2007-10-01

    The present study cross-sectionally investigated the influence of training status, route difficulty and upper body aerobic and anaerobic performance of climbers on the energetics of indoor rock climbing. Six elite climbers (EC) and seven recreational climbers (RC) were submitted to the following laboratory tests: (a) anthropometry, (b) upper body aerobic power, and (c) upper body Wingate test. On another occasion, EC subjects climbed an easy, a moderate, and a difficult route, whereas RC subjects climbed only the easy route. The fractions of the aerobic (W(AER)), anaerobic alactic (W(PCR)) and anaerobic lactic (W[La(-)]) systems were calculated based on oxygen uptake, the fast component of excess post-exercise oxygen uptake, and changes in net blood lactate, respectively. On the easy route, the metabolic cost was significantly lower in EC [40.3 (6.5) kJ] than in RC [60.1 (8.8) kJ] (P < 0.05). The respective contributions of the W (AER), W (PCR), and W[La(-)] systems in EC were: easy route = 41.5 (8.1), 41.1 (11.4) and 17.4% (5.4), moderate route = 45.8 (8.4), 34.6 (7.1) and 21.9% (6.3), and difficult route = 41.9 (7.4), 35.8 (6.7) and 22.3% (7.2). The contributions of the W (AER), W (PCR), and W[La(-)] systems in RC subjects climbing an easy route were 39.7 (5.0), 34.0 (5.8), and 26.3% (3.8), respectively. These results indicate that the main energy systems required during indoor rock climbing are the aerobic and anaerobic alactic systems. In addition, climbing economy seems to be more important for the performance of these athletes than improved energy metabolism.

  11. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  12. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations. PMID:25938199

  13. Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems in Educational Facilities: Guidelines for Hot, Humid Climates. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, J. David; DuBose, George

    This manual addresses the errors that occur during new construction that subsequently contribute to indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in newly constructed buildings in hot and humid climates, and offers guidelines for preventing them during the design and construction phases. It defines the roles and responsibilities of the design team, the…

  14. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  15. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  16. Climate system modeling program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Climate System Modeling Project is a component activity of NSF's Climate Modeling, Analysis and Prediction Program, supported by the Atmospheric Sciences Program, Geosciences Directorate. Its objective is to accelerate progress toward reliable prediction of global and regional climate changes in the decades ahead. CSMP operates through workshops, support for post-docs and graduate students and other collaborative activities designed to promote interdisciplinary and strategic work in support of the overall objective (above) and specifically in three areas, (1) Causes of interdecadal variability in the climate system, (2) Interactions of regional climate forcing with global processes, and (3) Scientific needs of climate assessment.

  17. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang; Lu, Chung-Yen

    2016-12-02

    Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O₃), airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO₂, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan's Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA). However, elevated PM10 and PM2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations.

  18. Indoor climate, psychosocial work environment and symptoms in open-plan offices.

    PubMed

    Pejtersen, J; Allermann, L; Kristensen, T S; Poulsen, O M

    2006-10-01

    To study the indoor climate, the psychosocial work environment and occupants' symptoms in offices a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was made in 11 naturally and 11 mechanically ventilated office buildings. Nine of the buildings had mainly cellular offices; five of the buildings had mainly open-plan offices, whereas eight buildings had a mixture of cellular, multi-person and open-plan offices. A total of 2301 occupants, corresponding to a response rate of 72%, completed a retrospective questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised questions concerning environmental perceptions, mucous membrane irritation, skin irritation, central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and psychosocial factors. Occupants in open-plan offices are more likely to perceive thermal discomfort, poor air quality and noise and they more frequently complain about CNS and mucous membrane symptoms than occupants in multi-person and cellular offices. The association between psychosocial factors and office size was weak. Open-plan offices may not be suited for all job types. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Open-plan offices may be a risk factor for adverse environmental perceptions and symptoms.

  19. Steady-state balance model to calculate the indoor climate of livestock buildings, demonstrated for finishing pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauberger, G.; Piringer, M.; Petz, E.

    The indoor climate of livestock buildings is of importance for the well-being and health of animals and their production performance (daily weight gain, milk yield etc). By using a steady-state model for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the CO2 and odour mass flows, the indoor climate of mechanically ventilated livestock buildings can be calculated. These equations depend on the livestock (number of animals and how they are kept), the insulation of the building and the characteristics of the ventilation system (ventilation rate). Since the model can only be applied to animal houses where the ventilation systems are mechanically controlled (this is the case for a majority of finishing pig units), the calculations were done for an example of a finishing pig unit with 1000 animal places. The model presented used 30 min values of the outdoor parameters temperature and humidity, collected over a 2-year period, as input. The projected environment inside the livestock building was compared with recommended values. The duration of condensation on the inside surfaces was also calculated.

  20. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2015-01-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements at the nearest weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10°N) to the Arctic (64°N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor, airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. Our results suggest that, depending on the measure, season, and location, outdoor weather measurements can be reliably used to represent indoor exposures and that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor exposure than temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, absolute measures of water vapor should be examined in conjunction with other measures (e.g. temperature, relative humidity) in studies of the effect of weather and climate on human health. PMID:26054827

  1. A Robust Crowdsourcing-Based Indoor Localization System.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Baoding; Li, Qingquan; Mao, Qingzhou; Tu, Wei

    2017-04-14

    WiFi fingerprinting-based indoor localization has been widely used due to its simplicity and can be implemented on the smartphones. The major drawback of WiFi fingerprinting is that the radio map construction is very labor-intensive and time-consuming. Another drawback of WiFi fingerprinting is the Received Signal Strength (RSS) variance problem, caused by environmental changes and device diversity. RSS variance severely degrades the localization accuracy. In this paper, we propose a robust crowdsourcing-based indoor localization system (RCILS). RCILS can automatically construct the radio map using crowdsourcing data collected by smartphones. RCILS abstracts the indoor map as the semantics graph in which the edges are the possible user paths and the vertexes are the location where users may take special activities. RCILS extracts the activity sequence contained in the trajectories by activity detection and pedestrian dead-reckoning. Based on the semantics graph and activity sequence, crowdsourcing trajectories can be located and a radio map is constructed based on the localization results. For the RSS variance problem, RCILS uses the trajectory fingerprint model for indoor localization. During online localization, RCILS obtains an RSS sequence and realizes localization by matching the RSS sequence with the radio map. To evaluate RCILS, we apply RCILS in an office building. Experiment results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of RCILS.

  2. A Robust Crowdsourcing-Based Indoor Localization System

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Baoding; Li, Qingquan; Mao, Qingzhou; Tu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    WiFi fingerprinting-based indoor localization has been widely used due to its simplicity and can be implemented on the smartphones. The major drawback of WiFi fingerprinting is that the radio map construction is very labor-intensive and time-consuming. Another drawback of WiFi fingerprinting is the Received Signal Strength (RSS) variance problem, caused by environmental changes and device diversity. RSS variance severely degrades the localization accuracy. In this paper, we propose a robust crowdsourcing-based indoor localization system (RCILS). RCILS can automatically construct the radio map using crowdsourcing data collected by smartphones. RCILS abstracts the indoor map as the semantics graph in which the edges are the possible user paths and the vertexes are the location where users may take special activities. RCILS extracts the activity sequence contained in the trajectories by activity detection and pedestrian dead-reckoning. Based on the semantics graph and activity sequence, crowdsourcing trajectories can be located and a radio map is constructed based on the localization results. For the RSS variance problem, RCILS uses the trajectory fingerprint model for indoor localization. During online localization, RCILS obtains an RSS sequence and realizes localization by matching the RSS sequence with the radio map. To evaluate RCILS, we apply RCILS in an office building. Experiment results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of RCILS. PMID:28420108

  3. Indoor Tanning

    MedlinePlus

    ... UV radiation causes wrinkles and age spots. The theory that adding red light to an indoor tanning ... any use of indoor tanning systems. For More Information To learn more about the risks of tanning, ...

  4. An indoor navigation system for the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Luis A; Vasquez, Francisco; Ochoa, Sergio F

    2012-01-01

    Navigation in indoor environments is highly challenging for the severely visually impaired, particularly in spaces visited for the first time. Several solutions have been proposed to deal with this challenge. Although some of them have shown to be useful in real scenarios, they involve an important deployment effort or use artifacts that are not natural for blind users. This paper presents an indoor navigation system that was designed taking into consideration usability as the quality requirement to be maximized. This solution enables one to identify the position of a person and calculates the velocity and direction of his movements. Using this information, the system determines the user's trajectory, locates possible obstacles in that route, and offers navigation information to the user. The solution has been evaluated using two experimental scenarios. Although the results are still not enough to provide strong conclusions, they indicate that the system is suitable to guide visually impaired people through an unknown built environment.

  5. An Indoor Navigation System for the Visually Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Luis A.; Vasquez, Francisco; Ochoa, Sergio F.

    2012-01-01

    Navigation in indoor environments is highly challenging for the severely visually impaired, particularly in spaces visited for the first time. Several solutions have been proposed to deal with this challenge. Although some of them have shown to be useful in real scenarios, they involve an important deployment effort or use artifacts that are not natural for blind users. This paper presents an indoor navigation system that was designed taking into consideration usability as the quality requirement to be maximized. This solution enables one to identify the position of a person and calculates the velocity and direction of his movements. Using this information, the system determines the user's trajectory, locates possible obstacles in that route, and offers navigation information to the user. The solution has been evaluated using two experimental scenarios. Although the results are still not enough to provide strong conclusions, they indicate that the system is suitable to guide visually impaired people through an unknown built environment. PMID:22969398

  6. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  7. Indoor localization system utilizing two visible light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Farag I. K.; Le-Minh, Hoa; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Dai, Xuewu; Tran, Son T.; Boucouvalas, Anthony C.; Liaw, Shien-Kuei

    2016-11-01

    Indoor positioning or localization based on visible light communications (VLC) is an emerging technology with wide applications. In conventional localization schemes, the trilateration technique is widely used with at least three separate lighting sources to determine the user's location. An indoor VLC positioning scheme based on the optical power distributions of only two light emitting diodes (LEDs) is reported for different environments. We have used two received signal strength indications to determine the user's position based on the LEDs configuration offering less complexity. We propose comprehensive mathematical models for the VLC localization system considering the noise and its impact on the user's location, and numerically evaluated it over a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). In addition, it is compared to the results with the exiting trilateration technique. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated with a reported accuracy of <20 cm for an SNR of >13 dB.

  8. Gigabit optical wireless communication system for indoor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2010-12-01

    In this paper a novel high bandwidth optical wireless communication system for indoor personal area networking applications with both ubiquitous coverage and mobility feature is proposed and tradeoffs are studied. Gigabit-per-second optical wireless communication system with limited mobility provided to users has been demonstrated by proof-of- concept experiments for the first time. It has also been shown that when incorporating with the WiFi-based localization system, our proposed system can provide high-speed error-free operation with mobility over the entire room.

  9. A Tagless Indoor Localization System Based on Capacitive Sensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani Akhmareh, Alireza; Lazarescu, Mihai Teodor; Bin Tariq, Osama; Lavagno, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Accurate indoor person localization is essential for several services, such as assisted living. We introduce a tagless indoor person localization system based on capacitive sensing and localization algorithms that can determine the location with less than 0.2 m average error in a 3 m × 3 m room and has recall and precision better than 70%. We also discuss the effects of various noise types on the measurements and ways to reduce them using filters suitable for on-sensor implementation to lower communication energy consumption. We also compare the performance of several standard localization algorithms in terms of localization error, recall, precision, and accuracy of detection of the movement trajectory. PMID:27618049

  10. Pilot climate data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A usable data base, the Pilot climate Data System (PCDS) is described. The PCDS is designed to be an interactive, easy-to-use, on-line generalized scientific information system. It efficiently provides uniform data catalogs; inventories, and access method, as well as manipulation and display tools for a large assortment of Earth, ocean and atmospheric data for the climate-related research community. Researchers can employ the PCDS to scan, manipulate, compare, display, and study climate parameters from diverse data sets. Software features, and applications of the PCDS are highlighted.

  11. Evaluations of indoor noise criteria systems based on human response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Erica E.; Wang, Lily M.

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this research is to examine human response to background noise, and relate results to indoor noise criteria. In previous work by the authors, subjects completed perception surveys, typing tasks, and proofreading tasks under typical heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) noise conditions. Results were correlated with commonly used indoor noise criteria systems including noise criteria (NC), room criteria (RC) and others. The findings suggested that the types of tasks used and the length of exposure can impact the results. To examine these two issues, the authors conducted a new study in which each test subject completed 38 total hours of testing over multiple days. Subjects were exposed to several background noise exposures over 20, 40, 80, and 240 minute trials. During the trials, subjects completed a variety of performance tasks and answered questions about their perception of the noise, the thermal environment, and various other factors. Findings from this study were used to determine optimum testing conditions for on-going research examining the effects of tonal or fluctuating background noise on performance, annoyance, and spectral perception. Results are being used to evaluate the effectiveness of commonly used indoor noise criteria systems. [Work supported by INCE and ASHRAE.

  12. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang; Lu, Chung-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O3), airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO2, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan’s Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA). However, elevated PM10 and PM2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations. PMID:27918460

  13. Air-Sense: indoor environment monitoring evaluation system based on ZigBee network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yang; Hu, Liang; Yang, Disheng; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    In the modern life, people spend most of their time indoors. However, indoor environmental quality problems have always been affecting people’s social activities. In general, indoor environmental quality is also related to our indoor activities. Since most of the organic irritants and volatile gases are colorless, odorless and too tiny to be seen, because we have been unconsciously overlooked indoor environment quality. Consequently, our body suffer a great health problem. In this work, we propose Air-Sense system which utilizes the platform of ZigBee Network to collect and detect the real-time indoor environment quality. What’s more, Air-Sense system can also provide data analysis, and visualizing the results of the indoor environment to the user.

  14. D Modelling of AN Indoor Space Using a Rotating Stereo Frame Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    Sophisticated indoor design and growing development in urban architecture make indoor spaces more complex. And the indoor spaces are easily connected to public transportations such as subway and train stations. These phenomena allow to transfer outdoor activities to the indoor spaces. Constant development of technology has a significant impact on people knowledge about services such as location awareness services in the indoor spaces. Thus, it is required to develop the low-cost system to create the 3D model of the indoor spaces for services based on the indoor models. In this paper, we thus introduce the rotating stereo frame camera system that has two cameras and generate the indoor 3D model using the system. First, select a test site and acquired images eight times during one day with different positions and heights of the system. Measurements were complemented by object control points obtained from a total station. As the data were obtained from the different positions and heights of the system, it was possible to make various combinations of data and choose several suitable combinations for input data. Next, we generated the 3D model of the test site using commercial software with previously chosen input data. The last part of the processes will be to evaluate the accuracy of the generated indoor model from selected input data. In summary, this paper introduces the low-cost system to acquire indoor spatial data and generate the 3D model using images acquired by the system. Through this experiments, we ensure that the introduced system is suitable for generating indoor spatial information. The proposed low-cost system will be applied to indoor services based on the indoor spatial information.

  15. THz channel characterization for future wireless gigabit indoor communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesiewicz, Radoslaw; Jemai, Jaouhar; Koch, Martin; Kurner, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Short range wireless communication systems are expanding at rapid rate, finding application in offices, congested urban areas and homes. Development of wireless local area networks is accompanied by a steady increase in the demand for ever higher data rates. This in turn entails the necessity to develop communication systems which operate at higher frequencies. Currently WLAN works at a few GHz, while systems operating at several ten GHz appear already feasible. It can be expected that wireless short-range communication networks will soon push towards the THz frequency range and that systems which handle high-density information and support wider bandwidth communications will be developed in a few years time. Since THz radiation is strongly absorbed by the atmosphere, working distances may be short and individual THz pico-cells may cover only single rooms or at most one building. For an indoor system of practical importance it must be robust against shadowing. Recently, flexible all-plastic mirrors, supporting specular reflections in the THz range have been demonstrated. They are cheap and easy to produce and can be used as frequency selective wall-paper to enhance the reflectivity of walls and hence facilitate non-line-of-sight communication in a THz cell. For this case the spatial and temporal characteristics of the indoor THz propagation channel in a room with randomly placed objects and moving people are derived with ray-tracing methodology and Monte Carlo simulations. Our simulations show that high-gain antennas will be needed for the realization of THz communication in indoor environments. Furthermore, indirect transmission paths between transmitter and receiver, supported by dielectric mirrors make the communication channel much more robust against shadowing.

  16. Florida State University Receives EPA Funding to Improve Understanding of the Effects of Climate Change on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that Florida State University in Tallahassee, Fla. has received a $500,000 grant to improve understanding of the effects of climate change on indoor air quality. The grant is a

  17. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  18. Comparison of the indoor air quality in mould damaged and reference buildings in a subarctic climate.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, A; Reponen, T; Husman, T; Nevalainen, A

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to search for objective parameters most relevant to indicate microbial problems of buildings in cold climate. Various indoor characteristics were compared in nine buildings with known history of moisture problems and visible mould (index) and in nine matched reference buildings. The concentrations of airborne viable fungal had a clear difference between the two groups of buildings. In this study, airborne concentrations of viable bacteria, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and the occurrence of house dust mites in these index buildings were compared with the levels of the pollutants in matched reference buildings. Fungal growth and flora on moist building materials were also studied. The concentrations of TVOC were slightly higher in the index buildings than in the reference buildings. However, the differences in the concentrations or appearance of any of the studied pollutants were not significant. These parameters do not seem to be relevant indicators of microbial growth or surrogates of microbial exposure. Thus, fungal concentration and composition of fungal genera in the air still seems to be the best indicator for moisture problems among the studied pollutants. In the moist building materials, some fungal genera, such as Ulocladium and Chaetophoma were detected that were not found in indoor air showing that building material samples give additional information on the microflora of the building.

  19. An indoor navigation system to support the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Riehle, T H; Lichter, P; Giudice, N A

    2008-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. A small portable personal navigation device that provides current position, useful contextual wayfinding information about the indoor environment and directions to a destination would greatly improve access and independence for people with low vision. This paper describes the construction of such a device which utilizes a commercial Ultra-Wideband (UWB) asset tracking system to support real-time location and navigation information. Human trials were conducted to assess the efficacy of the system by comparing target-finding performance between blindfolded subjects using the navigation system for real-time guidance, and blindfolded subjects who only received speech information about their local surrounds but no route guidance information (similar to that available from a long cane or guide dog). A normal vision control condition was also run. The time and distance traveled was measured in each trial and a point-back test was performed after goal completion to assess cognitive map development. Statistically significant differences were observed between the three conditions in time and distance traveled; with the navigation system and the visual condition yielding the best results, and the navigation system dramatically outperforming the non-guided condition.

  20. Climate data management system

    SciTech Connect

    Drach, R

    1999-07-13

    The Climate Data Management System is an object-oriented data management system, specialized for organizing multidimensional, gridded data used in climate analysis and simulation. The building blocks of CDMS are variables, container classes, structural classes, and links. All gridded data stored in CDMS is associated with variables. The container objects group variables and structural objects. Variables are defined in terms of structural objects. Most CDMS objects can have attributes, which are scalar or one-dimensional metadata items. Attributes which are stored in the database, that is are persistent, are called external attributes. Some attributes are internal; they are associated with an object but do not appear explicitly in the database.

  1. Canoe: An Autonomous Infrastructure-Free Indoor Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kai; Wu, Wenjia; Ye, Haibo; Yang, Ming; Ling, Zhen; Yu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated research in indoor navigation systems, a majority of which rely on adequate wireless signals and sources. Nonetheless, deploying such a system requires periodic site-survey, which is time consuming and labor intensive. To address this issue, in this paper we present Canoe, an indoor navigation system that considers shopping mall scenarios. In our system, we do not assume any prior knowledge, such as floor-plan or the shop locations, access point placement or power settings, historical RSS measurements or fingerprints, etc. Instead, Canoe requires only that the shop owners collect and publish RSS values at the entrances of their shops and can direct a consumer to any of these shops by comparing the observed RSS values. The locations of the consumers and the shops are estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. In doing this, the direction of the target shop relative to the current orientation of the consumer can be precisely computed, such that the direction that a consumer should move can be determined. We have conducted extensive simulations using a real-world dataset. Our experiments in a real shopping mall demonstrate that if 50% of the shops publish their RSS values, Canoe can precisely navigate a consumer within 30 s, with an error rate below 9%. PMID:28468291

  2. Canoe: An Autonomous Infrastructure-Free Indoor Navigation System.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kai; Wu, Wenjia; Ye, Haibo; Yang, Ming; Ling, Zhen; Yu, Wei

    2017-04-30

    The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated research in indoor navigation systems, a majority of which rely on adequate wireless signals and sources. Nonetheless, deploying such a system requires periodic site-survey, which is time consuming and labor intensive. To address this issue, in this paper we present Canoe, an indoor navigation system that considers shopping mall scenarios. In our system, we do not assume any prior knowledge, such as floor-plan or the shop locations, access point placement or power settings, historical RSS measurements or fingerprints, etc. Instead, Canoe requires only that the shop owners collect and publish RSS values at the entrances of their shops and can direct a consumer to any of these shops by comparing the observed RSS values. The locations of the consumers and the shops are estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. In doing this, the direction of the target shop relative to the current orientation of the consumer can be precisely computed, such that the direction that a consumer should move can be determined. We have conducted extensive simulations using a real-world dataset. Our experiments in a real shopping mall demonstrate that if 50% of the shops publish their RSS values, Canoe can precisely navigate a consumer within 30 s, with an error rate below 9%.

  3. Indoor dynamic positioning system based on strapdown inertial navigation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, YaDong; Wu, Hong

    2011-11-01

    Strapdown inertial navigation technology, which is widely used in aerospace, is a navigation technology in which the gyros sensor and accelerometers sensor are rigidly attached to the body of the object. This article describes an application of strapdown inertial navigation technology in indoor dynamic positioning system. The hardware design of the node include the master controller, data collection, sensors, antenna and related peripheral circuit. Positioning algorithm, data acquisition and transmission are done by software programming based on the hardware circuit. The strapdown inertial navigation composed of the hardware and the software could calculate the position of the object. Simulation software(matlab) is used to confirm the correctness of the positioning algorithm which is implemented by software programming in the system. The system uses the wireless sensor network to expand the range of the positioning. The system of which the information transmission is reliable and the mobility is strongly can satisfy the requirements of the emergency.

  4. An indoor positioning technology in the BLE mobile payment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tiantian; Ding, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Mobile payment system for large supermarkets, the core function is through the BLE low-power Bluetooth technology to achieve the amount of payment in the mobile payment system, can through an indoor positioning technology to achieve value-added services. The technology by collecting Bluetooth RSSI, the fingerprint database of sampling points corresponding is established. To get Bluetooth module RSSI by the AP. Then, to use k-Nearest Neighbor match the value of the fingerprint database. Thereby, to help businesses find customers through the mall location, combined settlement amount of the customer's purchase of goods, to analyze customer's behavior. When the system collect signal strength, the distribution of the sampling points of RSSI is analyzed and the value is filtered. The system, used in the laboratory is designed to demonstrate the feasibility.

  5. Ubiquitous Indoor Geolocation: a Case Study of Jewellery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikparvar, B.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.; Azari, P.

    2014-10-01

    Addressing and geolocation for indoor environments are important fields of research in the recent years. The problem of finding location of objects in indoor spaces is proposed to solve in two ways. The first, is to assign coordinates to objects and second is to divide space into cells and detect the presence or absence of objects in each cell to track them. In this paper the second approach is discussed by using Radio Frequency Identification technology to identify and track high value objects in jewellery retail industry. In Ubiquitous Sensor Networks, the reactivity or proactivity of the environment are important issues. Reactive environments wait for a request to response to it. Instead, in proactive spaces, the environment acts in advance to deal with an expected action. In this research, a geo-sensor network containing RFID readers, tags, and antennas which continuously exchange radio frequency signal streams is proposed to manage and monitor jewellery galleries ubiquitously. The system is also equipped with a GIS representation which provides a more user-friendly system to manage a jewellery gallery.

  6. The Design and Implementation of Indoor Localization System Using Magnetic Field Based on Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Jiang, C.; Shi, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Sufficient signal nodes are mostly required to implement indoor localization in mainstream research. Magnetic field take advantage of high precision, stable and reliability, and the reception of magnetic field signals is reliable and uncomplicated, it could be realized by geomagnetic sensor on smartphone, without external device. After the study of indoor positioning technologies, choose the geomagnetic field data as fingerprints to design an indoor localization system based on smartphone. A localization algorithm that appropriate geomagnetic matching is designed, and present filtering algorithm and algorithm for coordinate conversion. With the implement of plot geomagnetic fingerprints, the indoor positioning of smartphone without depending on external devices can be achieved. Finally, an indoor positioning system which is based on Android platform is successfully designed, through the experiments, proved the capability and effectiveness of indoor localization algorithm.

  7. Design and Development of a Nearable Wireless System to Control Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Lighting Quality

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Galanos, Theodore; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2017-01-01

    The article describes the results of the project “open source smart lamp” aimed at designing and developing a smart object able to manage and control the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of the built environment. A first version of this smart object, built following a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, and techniques of additive manufacturing, allows the adjustment of the indoor thermal comfort quality (ICQ), by interacting directly with the air conditioner. As is well known, the IEQ is a holistic concept including indoor air quality (IAQ), indoor lighting quality (ILQ) and acoustic comfort, besides thermal comfort. The upgrade of the smart lamp bridges the gap of the first version of the device providing the possibility of interaction with the air exchange unit and lighting system in order to get an overview of the potential of a nearable device in the management of the IEQ. The upgraded version was tested in a real office equipped with mechanical ventilation and an air conditioning system. This office was occupied by four workers. The experiment is compared with a baseline scenario and the results show how the application of the nearable device effectively optimizes both IAQ and ILQ. PMID:28471398

  8. Design and Development of a Nearable Wireless System to Control Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Lighting Quality.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Galanos, Theodore; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2017-05-04

    The article describes the results of the project "open source smart lamp" aimed at designing and developing a smart object able to manage and control the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of the built environment. A first version of this smart object, built following a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, and techniques of additive manufacturing, allows the adjustment of the indoor thermal comfort quality (ICQ), by interacting directly with the air conditioner. As is well known, the IEQ is a holistic concept including indoor air quality (IAQ), indoor lighting quality (ILQ) and acoustic comfort, besides thermal comfort. The upgrade of the smart lamp bridges the gap of the first version of the device providing the possibility of interaction with the air exchange unit and lighting system in order to get an overview of the potential of a nearable device in the management of the IEQ. The upgraded version was tested in a real office equipped with mechanical ventilation and an air conditioning system. This office was occupied by four workers. The experiment is compared with a baseline scenario and the results show how the application of the nearable device effectively optimizes both IAQ and ILQ.

  9. Power Management Integrated Circuit for Indoor Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vipul

    In today's world, power dissipation is a main concern for battery operated mobile devices. Key design decisions are being governed by power rather than area/delay because power requirements are growing more stringent every year. Hence, a hybrid power management system is proposed, which uses both a solar panel to harvest energy from indoor lighting and a battery to power the load. The system tracks the maximum power point of the solar panel and regulates the battery and microcontroller output load voltages through the use of an on-chip switched-capacitor DC-DC converter. System performance is verified through simulation at the 180nm technology node and is made to be integrated on-chip with 0.25 second startup time, 79% efficiency, --8/+14% ripple on the load, an average 1micro A of quiescent current (3.7micro W of power) and total on-chip area of 1.8mm2 .

  10. Optical Indoor Positioning System Based on TFT Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gőzse, István

    2015-01-01

    A novel indoor positioning system is presented in the paper. Similarly to the camera-based solutions, it is based on visual detection, but it conceptually differs from the classical approaches. First, the objects are marked by LEDs, and second, a special sensing unit is applied, instead of a camera, to track the motion of the markers. This sensing unit realizes a modified pinhole camera model, where the light-sensing area is fixed and consists of a small number of sensing elements (photodiodes), and it is the hole that can be moved. The markers are tracked by controlling the motion of the hole, such that the light of the LEDs always hits the photodiodes. The proposed concept has several advantages: Apart from its low computational demands, it is insensitive to the disturbing ambient light. Moreover, as every component of the system can be realized by simple and inexpensive elements, the overall cost of the system can be kept low. PMID:26712753

  11. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  12. 47 CFR 15.517 - Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems. 15.517 Section 15.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.517 Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems. (a) Operation...

  13. 47 CFR 15.517 - Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems. 15.517 Section 15.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.517 Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems. (a) Operation...

  14. HVAC SYSTEMS AS A TOOL IN CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Although significant progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption of HVAC systems, their effect on indoor a...

  15. Pseudorange error analysis for precise indoor positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola, Marek; Bezoušek, Pavel

    2017-05-01

    There is a currently developed system of a transmitter indoor localization intended for fire fighters or members of rescue corps. In this system the transmitter of an ultra-wideband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signal position is determined by the time difference of arrival method. The position measurement accuracy highly depends on the directpath signal time of arrival estimation accuracy which is degraded by severe multipath in complicated environments such as buildings. The aim of this article is to assess errors in the direct-path signal time of arrival determination caused by multipath signal propagation and noise. Two methods of the direct-path signal time of arrival estimation are compared here: the cross correlation method and the spectral estimation method.

  16. Multisensor system for toxic gases detection generated on indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, C. M.; Monsalve, P. A. G.; Mosquera, C. J.

    2016-11-01

    This work describes a wireless multisensory system for different toxic gases detection generated on indoor environments (i.e., Underground coal mines, etc.). The artificial multisensory system proposed in this study was developed through a set of six chemical gas sensors (MQ) of low cost with overlapping sensitivities to detect hazardous gases in the air. A statistical parameter was implemented to the data set and two pattern recognition methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) were used for feature selection. The toxic gases categories were classified with a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) in order to validate the results previously obtained. The tests were carried out to verify feasibility of the application through a wireless communication model which allowed to monitor and store the information of the sensor signals for the appropriate analysis. The success rate in the measures discrimination was 100%, using an artificial neural network where leave-one-out was used as cross validation method.

  17. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  18. Indoor air quality inspection and analysis system based on gas sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Mingjiang; Fan, Binwen

    2017-08-01

    A detection and analysis system capable of measuring the concentration of four major gases in indoor air is designed. It uses four gas sensors constitute a gas sensor array, to achieve four indoor gas concentration detection, while the detection of data for further processing to reduce the cross-sensitivity between the gas sensor to improve the accuracy of detection.

  19. Indoor air pollution by different heating systems: coal burning, open fireplace and central heating.

    PubMed

    Moriske, H J; Drews, M; Ebert, G; Menk, G; Scheller, C; Schöndube, M; Konieczny, L

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of indoor air pollution by different heating systems in private homes are described. Sixteen homes, 7 with coal burning, 1 with open fireplace (wood burning) and 8 with central heating have been investigated. We measured the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and sedimented dust in indoor air, of total suspended particulates, heavy metals and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were taken during winter (heating period) and during summer (non-heating period). Generally, we found higher indoor air pollution in homes with coal burning and open fireplace than in homes with central heating. Especially, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, sedimented dust and of some heavy metals were higher. In one case, we found also high indoor air pollution in a home with central heating. This apartment is on the ground floor of a block of flats, and the central heating system in the basement showed a malfunctioning of the exhaust system.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of PERCEPT indoor navigation system for visually impaired users.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce qualitative and quantitative evaluation of PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multi-story building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows Orientation and Mobility principles. These results encourage us to generalize the solution to large indoor spaces and test it with significantly larger visually impaired population in diverse settings. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces.

  1. Indoor climate and moisture durability performances of houses with unvented attic roof constructions in a mixed-humid climate.

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B.; Boudreaux, Philip R.; Jackson, Roderick K.

    2014-10-01

    A sealed or unvented attic is an energy-efficient envelope component that can reduce the amount of energy a house consumes for space conditioning if the air handler and/or ducts are located in the attic. The attic is typically sealed by using spray foam on the underside of the roof deck and covering the soffit, ridge and gable vents to minimize air leakage from the attic to the outside. This approach can save up to 10% in space-conditioning energy when ducts are located in the attic (DOE 2013). Past research done by ORNL and Florida Solar Energy Center suggests that in more hot, humid climates, an unvented attic could potentially create a more humid, uncomfortable living environment than a vented attic (Colon 2011, Boudreaux, Pallin et al. 2013). Research showed that controlling the higher indoor humidity could reduce the energy savings from the sealed, unvented attic, which in turn would decrease the energy savings payback. Research also showed that the roof assembly (5.5 inches of open-cell foam, 1inch of closed-cell foam, OSB, felt paper, and asphalt shingles) stored moisture, thus acting as a moisture buffer. During the fall and winter, the roof assembly stored moisture and during the spring and summer it released moisture. This phenomenon is not seen in a vented attic, in which the air exchange rate to the outside is greater and, in the winter, helps to dehumidify the attic air. It was also seen that in a vented attic, the direction of water vapor diffusion is on average from the attic to the interior of the house. Air leakage from the attic to the interior also occurs during more of the year in a house with an unvented attic than in one with a vented attic. These discoveries show that the moisture dynamics in a house with an unvented attic are much different from those in a house with a vented attic. This study reports on a series of computer model investigations completed to determine the key variables impacting indoor comfort and the durability of roof

  2. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  3. A Robust Indoor Autonomous Positioning System Using Particle Filter Based on ISM Band Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Mitsuru; Sashima, Akio; Suzuki, Keiji; Kurumatani, Koichi

    In the field of the ubiquitous computing, positioning systems which can provide users' location information have paid attention as an important technical element which can be applied to various services, for example, indoor navigation services, evacuation services, market research services, guidance services, and so on. A lot of researchers have proposed various outdoor and indoor positioning systems. In this paper, we deal with indoor positioning systems. Many conventional indoor positioning systems use expensive infrastructures, because the propagated times of radio waves are used to measure users' positions with high accuracy. In this paper, we propose an indoor autonomous positioning system using radio signal strengths (RSSs) based on ISM band communications. In order to estimate users' positions, the proposed system utilizes a particle filter that is one of the Monte Carlo methods. Because the RSS information is used in the proposed system, the equipments configuring the system are not expensive compared with the conventional indoor positioning systems and it can be installed easily. Moreover, because the particle filter is used to estimate user's position, even if the RSS fluctuates due to, for example, multi-paths, the system can carry out position estimation robustly. We install the proposed system in one floor of a building and carry out some experiments in order to verify the validity of the proposed system. As a result, we confirmed that the average of the estimation errors of the proposed system was about 1.8 m, where the result is enough accuracy for achieving the services mentioned above.

  4. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    ?Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy.

  5. ODINS: On-Demand Indoor Navigation System RFID Based.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federico; Masciadri, Andrea; Salice, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an On-Demand Indoor Navigation System (ODINS) based on RFID technology. ODINS is a distributed infrastructure where a set of information points (Fixed Stations - FS) provides the direction to a user who has to reach the destination point he/she has previously selected. ODINS system is proposed for residencies hosting people with mild cognitive disabilities and elderly but it can be also applied to structures where people could be disoriented. The destination is configured at some reception points or it is a predefined (e.g. the bed room or a selected "safe" point). The destination is associated with a RFID disposable bracelet assigned to her/him. The path is algorithmically computed and spread to all FSs. Every time the user is disoriented, she/he can search for the closest FS that displays the right directition. FSs should be located in strategic positions and provide a user-friendly interface such as bright arrows. The complexity is "system-side" making ODINS usable for everyone.

  6. Relating human productivity and annoyance to indoor noise criteria systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Erica E.; Wang, Lily M.

    2004-05-01

    The goal of this research is to determine a noise criteria system which best relates the effects of background noise to human productivity and annoyance. A number of indoor noise criteria systems are currently used to rate the background noise in built environments, including noise criteria (NC), balanced noise criteria (NCB), room criteria (RC), room criteria Mark II (RC-Mark II), and others. Many questions still remain about the accuracy of these predictors in assessing human response to background noise under the variety of ambient noise situations encountered. To support the use of any individual criterion, subjective testing was performed under a range of background noise situations and statistically related to the various noise criteria predictors listed above. Subjects completed an annoyance survey and performed typing and proofreading tasks in an acoustically controlled environment under 12 simulated background noise settings. These settings varied across three sound levels and four spectral qualities. Subjective testing methodology and results are presented. [Work supported by INCE and ASHRAE.

  7. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  8. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  9. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  10. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  11. An Adaptive Localization System for Outdoor/Indoor Navigation for Autonomous Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    An Adaptive Localization System for Outdoor/Indoor Navigation for Autonomous Robots E.B. Pacis, B. Sights, G. Ahuja, G. Kogut, H.R. Everett...TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Adaptive Localization System for Outdoor/Indoor Navigation for Autonomous Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...demonstrated a series of collaborative behaviors of multiple autonomous robots in a force-protection scenario. Stand- alone sensors detected intruder

  12. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, Mark D.; Robinson, David G.; Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.; Peterson, Kara J.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Desilets, Darin Maurice; Reinert, Rhonda Karen

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  13. Exploitation of Semantic Building Model in Indoor Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjomshoaa, A.; Shayeganfar, F.; Tjoa, A. Min

    2009-04-01

    There are many types of indoor and outdoor navigation tools and methodologies available. A majority of these solutions are based on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and instant video and image processing. These approaches are ideal for open world environments where very few information about the target location is available, but for large scale building environments such as hospitals, governmental offices, etc the end-user will need more detailed information about the surrounding context which is especially important in case of people with special needs. This paper presents a smart indoor navigation solution that is based on Semantic Web technologies and Building Information Model (BIM). The proposed solution is also aligned with Google Android's concepts to enlighten the realization of results. Keywords: IAI IFCXML, Building Information Model, Indoor Navigation, Semantic Web, Google Android, People with Special Needs 1 Introduction Built environment is a central factor in our daily life and a big portion of human life is spent inside buildings. Traditionally the buildings are documented using building maps and plans by utilization of IT tools such as computer-aided design (CAD) applications. Documenting the maps in an electronic way is already pervasive but CAD drawings do not suffice the requirements regarding effective building models that can be shared with other building-related applications such as indoor navigation systems. The navigation in built environment is not a new issue, however with the advances in emerging technologies like GPS, mobile and networked environments, and Semantic Web new solutions have been suggested to enrich the traditional building maps and convert them to smart information resources that can be reused in other applications and improve the interpretability with building inhabitants and building visitors. Other important issues that should be addressed in building navigation scenarios are location tagging and end-user communication

  14. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system. PMID:22319282

  15. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  16. Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Yeh, Shuo-Ju; Liu, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The main approach for a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system is based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements, and the fingerprinting method is utilized to determine the user position by matching the RSS values with the pre-surveyed RSS database. To build a RSS fingerprint database is essential for an RSS based indoor positioning system, and building such a RSS fingerprint database requires lots of time and effort. As the range of the indoor environment becomes larger, labor is increased. To provide better indoor positioning services and to reduce the labor required for the establishment of the positioning system at the same time, an indoor positioning system with an appropriate spatial interpolation method is needed. In addition, the advantage of the RSS approach is that the signal strength decays as the transmission distance increases, and this signal propagation characteristic is applied to an interpolated database with the Kriging algorithm in this paper. Using the distribution of reference points (RPs) at measured points, the signal propagation model of the Wi-Fi access point (AP) in the building can be built and expressed as a function. The function, as the spatial structure of the environment, can create the RSS database quickly in different indoor environments. Thus, in this paper, a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system based on the Kriging fingerprinting method is developed. As shown in the experiment results, with a 72.2% probability, the error of the extended RSS database with Kriging is less than 3 dBm compared to the surveyed RSS database. Importantly, the positioning error of the developed Wi-Fi indoor positioning system with Kriging is reduced by 17.9% in average than that without Kriging. PMID:26343673

  17. Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Yeh, Shuo-Ju; Liu, Ya-Wen

    2015-08-28

    The main approach for a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system is based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements, and the fingerprinting method is utilized to determine the user position by matching the RSS values with the pre-surveyed RSS database. To build a RSS fingerprint database is essential for an RSS based indoor positioning system, and building such a RSS fingerprint database requires lots of time and effort. As the range of the indoor environment becomes larger, labor is increased. To provide better indoor positioning services and to reduce the labor required for the establishment of the positioning system at the same time, an indoor positioning system with an appropriate spatial interpolation method is needed. In addition, the advantage of the RSS approach is that the signal strength decays as the transmission distance increases, and this signal propagation characteristic is applied to an interpolated database with the Kriging algorithm in this paper. Using the distribution of reference points (RPs) at measured points, the signal propagation model of the Wi-Fi access point (AP) in the building can be built and expressed as a function. The function, as the spatial structure of the environment, can create the RSS database quickly in different indoor environments. Thus, in this paper, a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system based on the Kriging fingerprinting method is developed. As shown in the experiment results, with a 72.2% probability, the error of the extended RSS database with Kriging is less than 3 dBm compared to the surveyed RSS database. Importantly, the positioning error of the developed Wi-Fi indoor positioning system with Kriging is reduced by 17.9% in average than that without Kriging.

  18. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  19. A miniature shoe-mounted orientation determination system for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

  20. A miniature shoe-mounted orientation determination system for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

  1. Efficacy of the Precise Climate Controller on the reduction of indoor microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Moungthong, Greetha; Mahakit, Prasit; Chalermwatanachai, Thanit; Thunyaharn, Sudaluck; Monyakul, Veerapol

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays, there are many methods to reduce microorganisms in the air, such as dehumidifier, air purifier or humidity and temperature controller. The Precise Climate Controller is an instrument for controlling humidity and temperature, a concept that is demonstrated. Objective To determine the efficacy of this device, in order to reduce the quantity of the fungi and bacteria in the closed system. Methods This study is a perspective experimental study and is conducted as follows - the air sample in the closed system, a 42-cubic-meter room, is collected before the installation of the Precise Climate Controller. Next, the room is fumed with Aspergillus flavus and closed for 2 days. Then the instrument is in use in order to keep the relative humidity (RH) and the temperature constant at 55% RH and 25 degrees Celsius (℃). The air samples are collected every 3 days for 5 times during the period of 15 days to identify the type and calculate the quantity of the microorganisms. Results Before the Precise Climate Controller has been installed. Three species of bacteria are found in the air samples, but none of the fungus exists in the testing room. Once the room has been fumed with a large amount of A. flavus and the instrument is in use for 3 days, nine colonies of A. flavus are identified, but later on when the instrument is in use for 6, 9, 12, and 15 days, the air samples contain neither fungus nor bacteria. Conclusion After keeping the RH and temperature of the closed system constant at 55% RH and 25℃ by using the Precise Climate Controller, it is found that the efficaciousness in controlling the quantity and species of fungi and bacteria is clinically significant. PMID:24809017

  2. A new approach for indoor climate labeling of building materials—emission testing, modeling, and comfort evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkoff, Peder; Nielsen, Peter A.

    A labeling system for building materials' primary emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) according to their impact on comfort and health has been developed and introduced in Denmark. The system unifies chemical emission testing over time (months), modeling (including a standard room and mathematical modeling of the emission profile, when necessary), and health evaluation. As a first step, the Danish system focuses on comfort, i.e. odor annoyance and mucous membrane irritation, because of their preponderance in the sick building syndrome reporting and the absence of other relevant data on indoor air related health effects. Two design criteria have been set: the labeling system shall be easily comprehensible and at the same time operational and dynamic. The principle is to determine the time value, t( Cm), required to reach the relevant indoor air value, C m (presently, based on odor and mucous membrane irritation thresholds), in a standard room. Odor thresholds are used because they generally are at least one order of magnitude lower than mucous membrane irritation thresholds. t( Cm) is a measure of the period of time during which a new building material may cause indoor air quality problems, unless special precautions are made. The system may also be used for singular VOCs of which a specific health endpoint has been reported. The Danish labeling system is illustrated with the emission testing and comfort evaluation of two sealants using the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC)

  3. An Indoor Monitoring System for Ambient Assisted Living Based on Internet of Things Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Gonçalo; Pitarma, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The study of systems and architectures for ambient assisted living (AAL) is undoubtedly a topic of great relevance given the aging of the world population. The AAL technologies are designed to meet the needs of the aging population in order to maintain their independence as long as possible. As people typically spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, indoor air quality (iAQ) is perceived as an imperative variable to be controlled for the inhabitants’ wellbeing and comfort. Advances in networking, sensors, and embedded devices have made it possible to monitor and provide assistance to people in their homes. The continuous technological advancements make it possible to build smart objects with great capabilities for sensing and connecting several possible advancements in ambient assisted living systems architectures. Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Most of the monitoring frameworks instantly accessible are exceptionally costly and only permit the gathering of arbitrary examples. iAQ is an indoor air quality system based on an Internet of Things paradigm that incorporates in its construction Arduino, ESP8266, and XBee technologies for processing and data transmission and micro sensors for data acquisition. It also allows access to data collected through web access and through a mobile application in real time, and this data can be accessed by doctors in order to support medical diagnostics. Five smaller scale sensors of natural parameters (air temperature, moistness, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and glow) were utilized. Different sensors can be included to check for particular contamination. The results reveal that the system can give a viable indoor air quality appraisal in order to anticipate technical interventions for improving indoor air quality. Indeed indoor air quality might be distinctively contrasted with what is normal for a quality living environment. PMID:27869682

  4. An Indoor Monitoring System for Ambient Assisted Living Based on Internet of Things Architecture.

    PubMed

    Marques, Gonçalo; Pitarma, Rui

    2016-11-17

    The study of systems and architectures for ambient assisted living (AAL) is undoubtedly a topic of great relevance given the aging of the world population. The AAL technologies are designed to meet the needs of the aging population in order to maintain their independence as long as possible. As people typically spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, indoor air quality (iAQ) is perceived as an imperative variable to be controlled for the inhabitants' wellbeing and comfort. Advances in networking, sensors, and embedded devices have made it possible to monitor and provide assistance to people in their homes. The continuous technological advancements make it possible to build smart objects with great capabilities for sensing and connecting several possible advancements in ambient assisted living systems architectures. Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Most of the monitoring frameworks instantly accessible are exceptionally costly and only permit the gathering of arbitrary examples. iAQ is an indoor air quality system based on an Internet of Things paradigm that incorporates in its construction Arduino, ESP8266, and XBee technologies for processing and data transmission and micro sensors for data acquisition. It also allows access to data collected through web access and through a mobile application in real time, and this data can be accessed by doctors in order to support medical diagnostics. Five smaller scale sensors of natural parameters (air temperature, moistness, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and glow) were utilized. Different sensors can be included to check for particular contamination. The results reveal that the system can give a viable indoor air quality appraisal in order to anticipate technical interventions for improving indoor air quality. Indeed indoor air quality might be distinctively contrasted with what is normal for a quality living environment.

  5. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-03

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations.

  6. Design and optimization of indoor optical wireless positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, Mark H.; Guerrero, Daniel; Jin, Xian; Hristovski, Blago A.; Chaves, Hugo A. L. F.; Klukas, Richard; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2016-03-01

    Optical wireless (OW) technologies are an emerging field utilizing optical sources to replace existing radio wavelength technologies. The vast majority of work in OW focuses on communication; however, one smaller emerging field is indoor OW positioning. This emerging field essentially aims to replace GPS indoors. One of the primary competing methods in indoor OW positioning is angle-of-arrival (AOA). AOA positioning uses the received vectors from several optical beacons to triangulate its position. The reliability of this triangulation is fundamentally based on two aspects: the geometry of the optical receiver's location compared to the optical beacon locations, and the ability for the optical receiver to resolve the incident vectors correctly. The optical receiver is quantified based on the standard deviation of the azimuthal and polar angles that define the measured vector. The quality of the optical beacon geometry is quantified using dilution of precision (DOP). This proceeding discusses the AOA standard deviation of an ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV) lens along with the DOP characteristics for several optical beacon geometries. The optical beacon geometries used were simple triangle, square, and hexagon optical beacon geometries. To assist the implementation of large optical beacon geometries it is proposed to use both frequency and wavelength division multiplexing. It is found that with an ultra-wide FOV lens, coupled with the appropriately sized optical beacon geometry, allow for high accuracy positioning over a large area. The results of this work will enable reliable OW positioning deployments.

  7. Hybrid daylight/light-emitting diode illumination system for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Aiming; Qiu, Peng; Cai, Jinlin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwei

    2014-03-20

    A hybrid illumination method using both daylight and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for indoor lighting is presented in this study. The daylight can be introduced into the indoor space by a panel-integration system. The daylight part and LEDs are combined within a specific luminaire that can provide uniform illumination. The LEDs can be turned on and dimmed through closed-loop control when the daylight illuminance is inadequate. We simulated the illumination and calculated the indoor lighting efficiency of our hybrid daylight and LED lighting system, and compared this with that of LED and fluorescent lighting systems. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid daylight/LED illumination method is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems, under the same lighting conditions and lighting time; the method has hybrid lighting average energy savings of T5 66.28%, and that of the LEDs is 41.62%.

  8. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  9. Influence of indoor formaldehyde pollution on respiratory system health in the urban area of Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, L; Zhao, J; Xu, B; Deng, Y; Xu, Z

    2013-03-01

    The decoration of interior spaces can lead to dangerous levels of indoor formaldehyde pollution. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million deaths per year in developing countries. To assess the prevalence of indoor formaldehyde pollution caused by decoration and resultant respiratory system symptoms exhibited in exposed adults and children, due to indoor formaldehyde pollution caused by decoration. Survey sites were chosen and indoor formaldehyde concentrations determined according to the standard of formaldehyde in GB50325-2001. Logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders for this survey. Formaldehyde concentration was above the standard in 64% of Shenyang City. Some adults surveyed complained of common respiratory system disorders, including coughing (11.8%), nasal irritation (39.2%), Heterosmia (14.51%), and throat irritation (25.27%); 12% of children suffered from asthma. The analysis identified formaldehyde pollution and ventilation frequency as risk factors for respiratory system disorders in both adults (OR=2.603, [95% CI: 1.770-3.828], OR=1.604, [95% CI: 1.146-2.244], respectively) and children (OR=4.250, [2.064-8.753], OR=1.831, [1.006-3.333], respectively). The prevalence of common respiratory system disorders was related both to formaldehyde pollution and insufficient ventilation after decorating.

  10. A Review of Pedestrian Indoor Positioning Systems for Mass Market Applications

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Marc; Vicario, Jose Lopez

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the interest in Indoor Location Based Services (ILBS) has increased stimulating the development of Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS). In particular, ILBS look for positioning systems that can be applied anywhere in the world for millions of users, that is, there is a need for developing IPS for mass market applications. Those systems must provide accurate position estimations with minimum infrastructure cost and easy scalability to different environments. This survey overviews the current state of the art of IPSs and classifies them in terms of the infrastructure and methodology employed. Finally, each group is reviewed analysing its advantages and disadvantages and its applicability to mass market applications. PMID:28829386

  11. A Review of Pedestrian Indoor Positioning Systems for Mass Market Applications.

    PubMed

    Correa, Alejandro; Barcelo, Marc; Morell, Antoni; Vicario, Jose Lopez

    2017-08-22

    In the last decade, the interest in Indoor Location Based Services (ILBS) has increased stimulating the development of Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS). In particular, ILBS look for positioning systems that can be applied anywhere in the world for millions of users, that is, there is a need for developing IPS for mass market applications. Those systems must provide accurate position estimations with minimum infrastructure cost and easy scalability to different environments. This survey overviews the current state of the art of IPSs and classifies them in terms of the infrastructure and methodology employed. Finally, each group is reviewed analysing its advantages and disadvantages and its applicability to mass market applications.

  12. Effect of interferences on indoor visible light car-to-car communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Young; Park, Bong-Seok; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Kim, So Eun; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Chung Ghiu

    2016-04-01

    We report the effect of interferences on visible light car-to-car communication system. The interferences from floor reflections and fluorescent lamps are taken into account for indoor car-to-car visible light communication (VLC) systems. The system is composed of a white LED lamp as a VLC transmitter and a photo-receiver with an appropriate optical filter as a VLC receiver. The signal power distribution patterns are measured and analyzed at a transmission distance, considering the positions of the transmitter and receiver. Generally, the light from fluorescent lamps in indoor environment affects the DC level of the received signal power, which is more significant at higher receiver positions. The measurements show that the indoor VLC communication performance can be varied depending on floor reflections. Also, the fluorescent ceiling illuminations affect the DC level change of the received VLC signal waveforms.

  13. Effects of indoor environmental factors on respiratory health of children in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Chiu, J F; Cheng, M F; Lin, M C

    1997-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether indoor environmental factors affected respiratory symptoms in 4164 primary school children in Kaohsiung rural areas of Taiwan. Information on respiratory health symptoms and characteristics of the housing was obtained using a written questionnaire, completed by the parents of children. Multiple logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between respiratory health symptoms (cough, wheezing, bronchitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) and housing factors. Home dampness was significantly associated with all respiratory health symptoms. Incense burning and mosquito repellant burning showed effects on the reporting of coughing symptoms. No apparent associations were found with the other indoor factors included in this study or respiratory health symptoms. We conclude that dampness in the home has a pronounced effects on respiratory health symptoms and is a new public health issue in subtropical areas.

  14. The Performance Analysis of AN Indoor Mobile Mapping System with Rgb-D Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, G. J.; Chiang, K. W.; Chu, C. H.; Chen, Y. L.; El-Sheimy, N.; Habib, A.

    2015-08-01

    Over the years, Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs) have been widely applied to urban mapping, path management and monitoring and cyber city, etc. The key concept of mobile mapping is based on positioning technology and photogrammetry. In order to achieve the integration, multi-sensor integrated mapping technology has clearly established. In recent years, the robotic technology has been rapidly developed. The other mapping technology that is on the basis of low-cost sensor has generally used in robotic system, it is known as the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). The objective of this study is developed a prototype of indoor MMS for mobile mapping applications, especially to reduce the costs and enhance the efficiency of data collection and validation of direct georeferenced (DG) performance. The proposed indoor MMS is composed of a tactical grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the Kinect RGB-D sensor and light detection, ranging (LIDAR) and robot. In summary, this paper designs the payload for indoor MMS to generate the floor plan. In first session, it concentrates on comparing the different positioning algorithms in the indoor environment. Next, the indoor plans are generated by two sensors, Kinect RGB-D sensor LIDAR on robot. Moreover, the generated floor plan will compare with the known plan for both validation and verification.

  15. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N.; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design. PMID:26694387

  16. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N; Li, Jia

    2015-12-14

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design.

  17. Mobile robot self-localization system using single webcam distance measurement technology in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Hsum; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Wei-Yen; Su, Shun-Feng; Lai, To-Wen

    2014-01-27

    A single-webcam distance measurement technique for indoor robot localization is proposed in this paper. The proposed localization technique uses webcams that are available in an existing surveillance environment. The developed image-based distance measurement system (IBDMS) and parallel lines distance measurement system (PLDMS) have two merits. Firstly, only one webcam is required for estimating the distance. Secondly, the set-up of IBDMS and PLDMS is easy, which only one known-dimension rectangle pattern is needed, i.e., a ground tile. Some common and simple image processing techniques, i.e., background subtraction are used to capture the robot in real time. Thus, for the purposes of indoor robot localization, the proposed method does not need to use expensive high-resolution webcams and complicated pattern recognition methods but just few simple estimating formulas. From the experimental results, the proposed robot localization method is reliable and effective in an indoor environment.

  18. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  19. The 3-year follow-up study in a block of flats - experiences in the use of the Finnish indoor climate classification.

    PubMed

    Tuomainen, M; Tuomainen, A; Liesivuori, J; Pasanen, A-L

    2003-06-01

    Indoor climate of two new blocks of flats was investigated. The case building was built for people with respiratory diseases by following the instructions of the Finnish Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Finishing Materials, while the control building was built using conventional building technology. The main indoor air parameters (temperature, relative humidity and levels of CO, CO2, ammonia, total volatile organic compounds, total suspended particles, fungal spores, bacteria and cat, dog and house dust mite allergens) were measured in six apartments of both the buildings on five occasions during the 3-year occupancy. In addition, a questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of the occupants and their satisfaction with their home environment was conducted in connection with indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements. The levels of indoor air pollutants in the case building were, in general, lower than those in the control building. In addition, the asthmatic occupants informed that their symptoms had decreased during the occupancy in the case building. This case study showed that high IAQ is possible to reach by careful design, proper materials and equipment and on high-quality construction with reasonable additional costs. In addition, the study indicated that good IAQ can also be maintained during the occupancy, if sufficient information on factors affecting IAQ and guidance on proper use and care of equipment are available for occupants.

  20. Indoor positioning system using WLAN channel estimates as fingerprints for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Erick; Akopian, David

    2015-03-01

    With the growing integration of location based services (LBS) such as GPS in mobile devices, indoor position systems (IPS) have become an important role for research. There are several IPS methods such as AOA, TOA, TDOA, which use trilateration for indoor location estimation but are generally based on line-of-sight. Other methods rely on classification such as fingerprinting which uses WLAN indoor signals. This paper re-examines the classical WLAN fingerprinting accuracy which uses received signal strength (RSS) measurements by introducing channel estimates for improvements in the classification of indoor locations. The purpose of this paper is to improve existing classification algorithms used in fingerprinting by introducing channel estimates when there are a low number of APs available. The channel impulse response, or in this case the channel estimation from the receiver, should characterize a complex indoor area which usually has multipath, thus providing a unique signature for each location which proves useful for better pattern recognition. In this experiment, channel estimates are extracted from a Software-Defined Radio (SDR) environment, thus exploiting the benefits of SDR from a NI-USRP model and LabVIEW software. Measurements are taken from a known building, and several scenarios with one and two access points (APs) are used in this experiment. Also, three granularities in distance between locations are analyzed. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as the algorithm for pattern recognition of different locations based on the samples taken from RSS and channel estimation coefficients.

  1. Validity and reliability of a radio positioning system for tracking athletes in indoor and outdoor team sports.

    PubMed

    Sathyan, Thuraiappah; Shuttleworth, Richard; Hedley, Mark; Davids, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Radio-frequency local positioning systems (LPS) have the potential to provide accurate location information about sport players for performance analysis, making available for study the emergent nature of interpersonal coordination and collective decision-making behaviour among players in both indoor and outdoor sports. However, no available publications have validated the performance of LPS for indoor sports. The objective of this study was to validate the performance of an LPS in an indoor venue and to compare it to performance observed in an outdoor venue using static and dynamic measurements. Our results showed that the absolute positioning errors obtained from the static measurements of the LPS were comparable for both indoor and outdoor venues, with mean errors of 12.1 cm outdoors and 11.9 cm indoors. From the dynamic measurements, we analysed the relative position error and the distance estimation performance of the system. The 90th-percentile relative position errors were 28 cm for the indoor venue versus 18 cm for the outdoor venue. On average, the LPS overestimated the distance travelled, and the performance was similar for both indoor and outdoor venues. On a linear course, the mean errors of the distance estimates were 2.2% of the total distance indoors and 1.3% outdoors, and on a nonlinear course, they were 2.7% indoors and 3.2% outdoors.

  2. Indoor anti-occlusion visible light positioning systems based on particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Meng; Huang, Zhitong; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ruqi; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-04-01

    As one of the most popular categories of mobile services, a rapid growth of indoor location-based services has been witnessed over the past decades. Indoor positioning methods based on Wi-Fi, radio-frequency identification or Bluetooth are widely commercialized; however, they have disadvantages such as low accuracy or high cost. An emerging method using visible light is under research recently. The existed visible light positioning (VLP) schemes using carrier allocation, time allocation and multiple receivers all have limitations. This paper presents a novel mechanism using particle filtering in VLP system. By this method no additional devices are needed and the occlusion problem in visible light would be alleviated which will effectively enhance the flexibility for indoor positioning.

  3. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Indoor Navigation System for Visually Impaired People.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sala, Alejandro Santos; Losilla, Fernando; Sánchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-12-21

    Indoor navigation is a challenging task for visually impaired people. Although there are guidance systems available for such purposes, they have some drawbacks that hamper their direct application in real-life situations. These systems are either too complex, inaccurate, or require very special conditions (i.e., rare in everyday life) to operate. In this regard, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology has been shown to be effective for indoor positioning, providing a high level of accuracy and low installation complexity. This paper presents SUGAR, an indoor navigation system for visually impaired people which uses UWB for positioning, a spatial database of the environment for pathfinding through the application of the A* algorithm, and a guidance module. The interaction with the user takes place using acoustic signals and voice commands played through headphones. The suitability of the system for indoor navigation has been verified by means of a functional and usable prototype through a field test with a blind person. In addition, other tests have been conducted in order to show the accuracy of different relevant parts of the system.

  4. A Humidity Control System with an Adsorption Material and Indoor Air Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Noriaki

    The present study introduces a humidity control apparatus which can hygienically and automatically maintain the appropriate humidity level of indoor air without either a water supply or drainage system. In humidification, the desiccant takes up water vapor from the outdoor air in the adsorption process, and release it indoors by desorption. Therefore, no water supply is required to humidify. An apparatus having no water supply is more hygienic, because it does not propagate bacteria and does not scatter the calcium and magnesium salts found in the water. In dehumidification, water vapor is removed from the indoor air by the desiccant and is released outdoors by desorption, eliminating the need for a drainage system. The absence of a drainage system also eliminates problems such as water leakage and installation. The performance of a system based on this new method was compared with that of conventional products, whereby the modes of dehumidification, humidification and humidification with ventilation were evaluated. In addition, the new system was tested to reveal the time-dependent charaeteristics of the concentration of indoor odor and the dust collection efficiency.

  5. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Indoor Navigation System for Visually Impaired People

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Sala, Alejandro Santos; Losilla, Fernando; Sánchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation is a challenging task for visually impaired people. Although there are guidance systems available for such purposes, they have some drawbacks that hamper their direct application in real-life situations. These systems are either too complex, inaccurate, or require very special conditions (i.e., rare in everyday life) to operate. In this regard, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology has been shown to be effective for indoor positioning, providing a high level of accuracy and low installation complexity. This paper presents SUGAR, an indoor navigation system for visually impaired people which uses UWB for positioning, a spatial database of the environment for pathfinding through the application of the A* algorithm, and a guidance module. The interaction with the user takes place using acoustic signals and voice commands played through headphones. The suitability of the system for indoor navigation has been verified by means of a functional and usable prototype through a field test with a blind person. In addition, other tests have been conducted in order to show the accuracy of different relevant parts of the system. PMID:26703610

  6. Climate Observing Systems: Data System Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T. R.

    2001-12-01

    Existing observing and data systems have provided considerable information about past climate variations and changes. The recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Research Council, and the USGCRP National Assessment of Climate Variability and Change are testaments to a vast array of knowledge. These reports also expose some serious deficiencies in our ability to discern past climate variations and change which lead to substantial uncertainties in key climate state, climate feedback, and climate forcing variables. How significant are these uncertainties? For climate trends that have our highest confidence, like the change in mean global surface temperature, the 95 percent confidence intervals amount to about two-thirds of the calculated change. With such large uncertainties it is exceedingly difficult to discern accelerated changes. For other variables, especially variables related to climate feedbacks and forcings (with exceptions for long-lived and well-mixed greenhouse gases like CO2 or CH4) or climate and weather extremes, we often have little or no information to discern trends or cannot objectively assess confidence intervals. Do we know how to reduce existing uncertainties? First and foremost, a climate observation oversight and monitoring capability is needed that tracks the gathering of the data, the processing system, and the performance of the observations, especially time-dependent biases. An organized capability does not now exist, but could be developed at a new and/or existing centers. This center(s) should then have the means and influence to fix problems and be able to establish requirements for new in-situ and satellite observing including related data systems. Such a capability should complement the following: (1) Climate observations from both space-based and in-situ platforms that are taken in ways that address climate needs and adhere to the ten principles outlined by the NRC (1999 Adequacy of Climate

  7. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  8. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  9. HyMoTrack: A Mobile AR Navigation System for Complex Indoor Environments.

    PubMed

    Gerstweiler, Georg; Vonach, Emanuel; Kaufmann, Hannes

    2015-12-24

    Navigating in unknown big indoor environments with static 2D maps is a challenge, especially when time is a critical factor. In order to provide a mobile assistant, capable of supporting people while navigating in indoor locations, an accurate and reliable localization system is required in almost every corner of the building. We present a solution to this problem through a hybrid tracking system specifically designed for complex indoor spaces, which runs on mobile devices like smartphones or tablets. The developed algorithm only uses the available sensors built into standard mobile devices, especially the inertial sensors and the RGB camera. The combination of multiple optical tracking technologies, such as 2D natural features and features of more complex three-dimensional structures guarantees the robustness of the system. All processing is done locally and no network connection is needed. State-of-the-art indoor tracking approaches use mainly radio-frequency signals like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth for localizing a user. In contrast to these approaches, the main advantage of the developed system is the capability of delivering a continuous 3D position and orientation of the mobile device with centimeter accuracy. This makes it usable for localization and 3D augmentation purposes, e.g. navigation tasks or location-based information visualization.

  10. HyMoTrack: A Mobile AR Navigation System for Complex Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gerstweiler, Georg; Vonach, Emanuel; Kaufmann, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Navigating in unknown big indoor environments with static 2D maps is a challenge, especially when time is a critical factor. In order to provide a mobile assistant, capable of supporting people while navigating in indoor locations, an accurate and reliable localization system is required in almost every corner of the building. We present a solution to this problem through a hybrid tracking system specifically designed for complex indoor spaces, which runs on mobile devices like smartphones or tablets. The developed algorithm only uses the available sensors built into standard mobile devices, especially the inertial sensors and the RGB camera. The combination of multiple optical tracking technologies, such as 2D natural features and features of more complex three-dimensional structures guarantees the robustness of the system. All processing is done locally and no network connection is needed. State-of-the-art indoor tracking approaches use mainly radio-frequency signals like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth for localizing a user. In contrast to these approaches, the main advantage of the developed system is the capability of delivering a continuous 3D position and orientation of the mobile device with centimeter accuracy. This makes it usable for localization and 3D augmentation purposes, e.g. navigation tasks or location-based information visualization. PMID:26712755

  11. Neural computing thermal comfort index PMV for the indoor environment intelligent control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Yifei

    2013-03-01

    Providing indoor thermal comfort and saving energy are two main goals of indoor environmental control system. An intelligent comfort control system by combining the intelligent control and minimum power control strategies for the indoor environment is presented in this paper. In the system, for realizing the comfort control, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is designed as the control goal, and with chastening formulas of PMV, it is controlled to optimize for improving indoor comfort lever by considering six comfort related variables. On the other hand, a RBF neural network based on genetic algorithm is designed to calculate PMV for better performance and overcoming the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation better. The formulas given in the paper are presented for calculating the expected output values basing on the input samples, and the RBF network model is trained depending on input samples and the expected output values. The simulation result is proved that the design of the intelligent calculation method is valid. Moreover, this method has a lot of advancements such as high precision, fast dynamic response and good system performance are reached, it can be used in practice with requested calculating error.

  12. A Map/INS/Wi-Fi Integrated System for Indoor Location-Based Service Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunyang; Lan, Haiyu; Gu, Fuqiang; Yu, Fei; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2017-06-02

    In this research, a new Map/INS/Wi-Fi integrated system for indoor location-based service (LBS) applications based on a cascaded Particle/Kalman filter framework structure is proposed. Two-dimension indoor map information, together with measurements from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value, are integrated for estimating positioning information. The main challenge of this research is how to make effective use of various measurements that complement each other in order to obtain an accurate, continuous, and low-cost position solution without increasing the computational burden of the system. Therefore, to eliminate the cumulative drift caused by low-cost IMU sensor errors, the ubiquitous Wi-Fi signal and non-holonomic constraints are rationally used to correct the IMU-derived navigation solution through the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Moreover, the map-aiding method and map-matching method are innovatively combined to constrain the primary Wi-Fi/IMU-derived position through an Auxiliary Value Particle Filter (AVPF). Different sources of information are incorporated through a cascaded structure EKF/AVPF filter algorithm. Indoor tests show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the accumulation of positioning errors of a stand-alone Inertial Navigation System (INS), and provide a stable, continuous and reliable indoor location service.

  13. A Map/INS/Wi-Fi Integrated System for Indoor Location-Based Service Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunyang; Lan, Haiyu; Gu, Fuqiang; Yu, Fei; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a new Map/INS/Wi-Fi integrated system for indoor location-based service (LBS) applications based on a cascaded Particle/Kalman filter framework structure is proposed. Two-dimension indoor map information, together with measurements from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value, are integrated for estimating positioning information. The main challenge of this research is how to make effective use of various measurements that complement each other in order to obtain an accurate, continuous, and low-cost position solution without increasing the computational burden of the system. Therefore, to eliminate the cumulative drift caused by low-cost IMU sensor errors, the ubiquitous Wi-Fi signal and non-holonomic constraints are rationally used to correct the IMU-derived navigation solution through the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Moreover, the map-aiding method and map-matching method are innovatively combined to constrain the primary Wi-Fi/IMU-derived position through an Auxiliary Value Particle Filter (AVPF). Different sources of information are incorporated through a cascaded structure EKF/AVPF filter algorithm. Indoor tests show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the accumulation of positioning errors of a stand-alone Inertial Navigation System (INS), and provide a stable, continuous and reliable indoor location service. PMID:28574471

  14. Investigation of practical and theoretical accuracy of wireless indoor-positioning system UBISENSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Marek; Odziemczyk, Waldemar; Nagorski, Kamil

    2013-04-01

    The development of Real Time Locating Systems has become an important add-on to many existing location aware systems. While Global Navigation Satelite System has solved most of the outdoor problems, it fails to repeat this success indoors. Wireless indoor positioning systems have become very popular in recent years. One of them is UBISENSE system. This system requires to carry an identity tag that is detected by sensors, which typically use triangulation to determine location. This paper presents the results of the investigation of accuracy of tag position using precise geodetic measurements and geometric analysis. Experimental measurements were carried out on the field polygon using precise tacheometer TCRP 1201+ and complete equipment of Ubisense. Results of experimental measurements were analyzed and presented graphically using Surfer 8. The paper presents the results of the investigation the teoretical and practical positioning accuracy according to the various working conditions.

  15. Investigation and Demonstration of Local Positioning System Using Ultrasonic Sensors for Wide Indoor Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Takashi; Sunaga, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masaki; Ioroi, Shigenori; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes an indoor positioning system for detecting the location of a moving object such as a person or a goods trolley in a wide indoor area. Conventional system requires synchronization between transmission and receiving unit. As a result, they include not only an ultrasonic part but also a radio part to maintain synchronization. We have developed a system that uses only ultrasonic waves, that is, an asynchronous system. The system configuration and sequence of operation are explained and the verification system which includes H8, PIC microprocessors and a PC for positioning calculation is described. It was confirmed that the proposed method is valid and the positioning error is within 100mm.

  16. Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural…

  17. Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural…

  18. Development of a New Low-Cost Indoor Mapping System - System Design, System Calibration and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.; Tschirschwitz, F.

    2016-06-01

    For mapping of building interiors various 2D and 3D indoor surveying systems are available today. These systems essentially differ from each other by price and accuracy as well as by the effort required for fieldwork and post-processing. The Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of HafenCity University (HCU) Hamburg has developed, as part of an industrial project, a lowcost indoor mapping system, which enables systematic inventory mapping of interior facilities with low staffing requirements and reduced, measurable expenditure of time and effort. The modelling and evaluation of the recorded data take place later in the office. The indoor mapping system of HCU Hamburg consists of the following components: laser range finder, panorama head (pan-tilt-unit), single-board computer (Raspberry Pi) with digital camera and battery power supply. The camera is pre-calibrated in a photogrammetric test field under laboratory conditions. However, remaining systematic image errors are corrected simultaneously within the generation of the panorama image. Due to cost reasons the camera and laser range finder are not coaxially arranged on the panorama head. Therefore, eccentricity and alignment of the laser range finder against the camera must be determined in a system calibration. For the verification of the system accuracy and the system calibration, the laser points were determined from measurements with total stations. The differences to the reference were 4-5mm for individual coordinates.

  19. Very low temperature radiant heating/cooling indoor end system for efficient use of renewable energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jianbo; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Congrong; Xiong, Weicheng; Zhu, Li

    2010-06-15

    Solar or solar-assisted space heating systems are becoming more and more popular. The solar energy utilization efficiency is high when the collector is coupled with indoor radiant heating suppliers, since in principle, lower supply temperature means lower demand temperature and then the system heat loss is less. A new type radiant end system is put forward for even lower supply temperature compared to the conventional radiant floor heating systems. A three dimensional model was established to investigate its energy supply capacities. Simulation results show that 50 W per meter length tube can be achieved with the medium temperature of 30 C for heating and 15 C for cooling. The predicted results agree well with the actual data from a demonstration building. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a supply temperature of 22 C in winter and of 17 C in summer already met the indoor requirements. The new end system has good prospects for effective use of local renewable resources. (author)

  20. PERCEPT Indoor Navigation System for the Blind and Visually Impaired: Architecture and Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Gandhi, Siddhesh; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    We introduce PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT will improve the quality of life and health of the visually impaired community by enabling independent living. Using PERCEPT, blind users will have independent access to public health facilities such as clinics, hospitals, and wellness centers. Access to healthcare facilities is crucial for this population due to the multiple health conditions that they face such as diabetes and its complications. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multistory building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows orientation and mobility principles. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces, especially in healthcare and wellness facilities.

  1. PERCEPT Indoor Navigation System for the Blind and Visually Impaired: Architecture and Experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Gandhi, Siddhesh; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    We introduce PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT will improve the quality of life and health of the visually impaired community by enabling independent living. Using PERCEPT, blind users will have independent access to public health facilities such as clinics, hospitals, and wellness centers. Access to healthcare facilities is crucial for this population due to the multiple health conditions that they face such as diabetes and its complications. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multistory building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows orientation and mobility principles. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces, especially in healthcare and wellness facilities. PMID:23316225

  2. Potential Of Light Pipes System In Malaysian Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Kadir, Aslila; Hakim Ismail, Lokman; Kasim, Narimah; Kaamin, Masiri

    2016-11-01

    Light-pipes system are simple structures that allow the transmission of daylight from the outside to the inside of a room. It is a practical application in many buildings where daylight cannot reach due to building design and limited facade to placing windows. Since roof is the element directly exposed to the sunlight, light pipes system could be introduced. This paper examines the illumination levels obtained using light pipes system under Malaysia climate conditions. A light-pipe system that was installed in a test room located in Batu Pahat. Indoor illuminance distributions and concurrent outdoor illuminance were monitored at a 30 minutes interval for 5 days. The results indicated that the amount of daylight penetrated into the building are varied with less than 150lux in the early morning and late evening, and maximum at over 350lux in the noon and early afternoon. The average internal illuminance levels offer by light pipe system met the MS 1525:2007 recommendation for application in Malaysian buildings. These findings indicated that the light pipe system has a potential as a tool for introducing daylight indoors in Malaysia.

  3. The pilot climate data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reph, M. G.; Treinish, L. A.; Smith, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS) is an interactive scientific information management system for locating, obtaining, manipulating, and displaying climate-research data. The PCDS was developed to manage a large collection of data of interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) research community and currently provides such support for approximately twenty data sets. In order to provide the PCDS capabilities, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) has integrated the capabilities of several general-purpose software packages with specialized software for reading and reformatting the supported data sets. These capabilities were integrated in a manner which allows the PCDS to be easily expanded, either to provide support for additional data sets or to provide additional functional capabilities. This also allows the PCDS to take advantage of new technology as it becomes available, since parts of the system can be replaced with more powerful components without significantly affecting the user interface.

  4. Pedestrian mobile mapping system for indoor environments based on MEMS IMU and range camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haala, N.; Fritsch, D.; Peter, M.; Khosravani, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes an approach for the modeling of building interiors based on a mobile device, which integrates modules for pedestrian navigation and low-cost 3D data collection. Personal navigation is realized by a foot mounted low cost MEMS IMU, while 3D data capture for subsequent indoor modeling uses a low cost range camera, which was originally developed for gaming applications. Both steps, navigation and modeling, are supported by additional information as provided from the automatic interpretation of evacuation plans. Such emergency plans are compulsory for public buildings in a number of countries. They consist of an approximate floor plan, the current position and escape routes. Additionally, semantic information like stairs, elevators or the floor number is available. After the user has captured an image of such a floor plan, this information is made explicit again by an automatic raster-to-vector-conversion. The resulting coarse indoor model then provides constraints at stairs or building walls, which restrict the potential movement of the user. This information is then used to support pedestrian navigation by eliminating drift effects of the used low-cost sensor system. The approximate indoor building model additionally provides a priori information during subsequent indoor modeling. Within this process, the low cost range camera Kinect is used for the collection of multiple 3D point clouds, which are aligned by a suitable matching step and then further analyzed to refine the coarse building model.

  5. PERCEPT-II: smartphone based indoor navigation system for the blind.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James M; Tao, Yang; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce PERCEPT-II, a low cost and user friendly indoor navigation system for blind and visually impaired users. Using an Android Smartphone that runs PERCEPT-II application with accessibility features, the blind user obtains navigation instructions to the chosen destination when touching specific landmarks tagged with Near Field Communication tags. The system was deployed and tested in a large building at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

  6. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... as conditions caused by outdoor impacts (such as climate change). Many reports and studies indicate that the following ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup IAQ at Home Indoor airPLUS Mold ...

  7. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  8. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James D.; Tuttle, Steven C.; Nelson, Morgan C.; Bradshaw, Rebecca K.; Hoybjerg, Taylor G.; Johnson, Julene B.; Kruman, Bryce A.; Orton, Taylor S.; Cook, Ryan B.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Weber, K. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan–Apr) and summer (July–Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  9. A Prototype Climate Information System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Access to the NCDS could also support some of the operational needs of naval bases, such as NEOC. 2. CLICOM CLICOM is a climatic data processing system...developed by the NCDC under a WMO contract (McGuirk and Llanso, 1989). CLICOM is designed primarily for use in developing countries, by personnel with...little technical training. CLICOM currently is used in 37 countries, including 35 sites in the USA. CLICOM software runs on an IBM PC and manuals

  10. An Approach for Indoor Wayfinding Replicating Main Principles of AN Outdoor Navigation System for Cyclists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makri, A.; Zlatanova, S.; Verbree, E.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents an approach to enhance navigation in indoor environments based on a landmark concept. It has already been proved by empirical research that by using landmarks the wayfinding task can be significantly simplified. Navigation based on landmarks relies on the presence of landmarks at each point along a route where wayfinders might need assistance. The approach presented here is based on the Dutch system for navigation of cyclists. The landmarks that are used in the proposed approach are special signposts containing the necessary directional information in order to guide the wayfinder in the space. The system is quite simple, efficient and satisfactory in providing navigational assistance in indoor space. An important contribution of this research is the generation of an approach to automatically determine the decision points in indoor environments, which makes it possible to apply it to navigational assistance systems in any building. The proposed system is verified by placing numbered landmark-signs in a specific building. Several tests are performed and the results are analysed. The findings of the experiment are very promising, showing that participants reach the destinations without detours.

  11. An Indoor Wayfinding System Based on Geometric Features Aided Graph SLAM for the Visually Impaired.

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Ye, Cang

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a 6-degree of freedom (DOF) pose estimation (PE) method and an indoor wayfinding system based on the method for the visually impaired. The PE method involves two-graph simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) processes to reduce the accumulative pose error of the device. In the first step, the floor plane is extracted from the 3-D camera's point cloud and added as a landmark node into the graph for 6-DOF SLAM to reduce roll, pitch, and Z errors. In the second step, the wall lines are extracted and incorporated into the graph for 3-DOF SLAM to reduce X , Y , and yaw errors. The method reduces the 6-DOF pose error and results in more accurate pose with less computational time than the state-of-the-art planar SLAM methods. Based on the PE method, a wayfinding system is developed for navigating a visually impaired person in an indoor environment. The system uses the estimated pose and floor plan to locate the device user in a building and guides the user by announcing the points of interest and navigational commands through a speech interface. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the PE method and demonstrate that the system may substantially ease an indoor navigation task.

  12. Development of an indoor positioning and navigation system using monocular SLAM and IMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Yu-Ching; Lai, Ying-Chih

    2016-07-01

    The positioning and navigation systems based on Global Positioning System (GPS) have been developed over past decades and have been widely used for outdoor environment. However, high-rise buildings or indoor environments can block the satellite signal. Therefore, many indoor positioning methods have been developed to respond to this issue. In addition to the distance measurements using sonar and laser sensors, this study aims to develop a method by integrating a monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (MonoSLAM) algorithm with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to build an indoor positioning system. The MonoSLAM algorithm measures the distance (depth) between the image features and the camera. With the help of Extend Kalman Filter (EKF), MonoSLAM can provide real-time position, velocity and camera attitude in world frame. Since the feature points will not always appear and can't be trusted at any time, a wrong estimation of the features will cause the estimated position diverge. To overcome this problem, a multisensor fusion algorithm was applied in this study by using the multi-rate Kalman Filter. Finally, from the experiment results, the proposed system was verified to be able to improve the reliability and accuracy of the MonoSLAM by integrating the IMU measurements.

  13. Pigment Degradation in Oil Paint Induced by Indoor Climate: Comparison of Visual and Computational Backscattered Electron Images.

    PubMed

    Keune, Katrien; Kramer, Rick P; Huijbregts, Zara; Schellen, Henk L; Stappers, Marc H L; van Eikema Hommes, Margriet H

    2016-04-01

    For the first time the degradation of lead white pigment in mature oil paint has been used as an internal marker for the degree of saponification and hence chemical degradation of oil paint. Computational image analysis of the backscattered electron images quantified the degree of the intact lead white pigment versus the nonpigmented and lead-rich areas (degraded lead white) in the paint layers. This new methodology was applied to a series of paint samples taken from four painted wall hangings (dated 1778), which makes it possible to study the influence of indoor climate on chemical degradation of aged oil paintings. The visual interpretation and computational image analysis of the backscattered electron images revealed clear trends. The highest degree of lead white degradation in the room was found in samples from the north wall close to the windows, whereas degradation diminished further away from the window. Lead white from the south wall was less degraded, but showed a similar trend as in the paintings on the north wall. These results imply a strong relationship between chemical degradation of paint and location of the paint in the room.

  14. Gaussian mixture sigma-point particle filter for optical indoor navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weizhi; Gu, Wenjun; Chen, Chunyi; Chowdhury, M. I. S.; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    With the fast growing and popularization of smart computing devices, there is a rise in demand for accurate and reliable indoor positioning. Recently, systems using visible light communications (VLC) technology have been considered as candidates for indoor positioning applications. A number of researchers have reported that VLC-based positioning systems could achieve position estimation accuracy in the order of centimeter. This paper proposes an Indoors navigation environment, based on visible light communications (VLC) technology. Light-emitting-diodes (LEDs), which are essentially semiconductor devices, can be easily modulated and used as transmitters within the proposed system. Positioning is realized by collecting received-signal-strength (RSS) information on the receiver side, following which least square estimation is performed to obtain the receiver position. To enable tracking of user's trajectory and reduce the effect of wild values in raw measurements, different filters are employed. In this paper, by computer simulations we have shown that Gaussian mixture Sigma-point particle filter (GM-SPPF) outperforms other filters such as basic Kalman filter and sequential importance-resampling particle filter (SIR-PF), at a reasonable computational cost.

  15. Received Signal Strength Recovery in Green WLAN Indoor Positioning System Using Singular Value Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin; Xu, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    Green WLAN is a promising technique for accessing future indoor Internet services. It is designed not only for high-speed data communication purposes but also for energy efficiency. The basic strategy of green WLAN is that all the access points are not always powered on, but rather work on-demand. Though powering off idle access points does not affect data communication, a serious asymmetric matching problem will arise in a WLAN indoor positioning system due to the fact the received signal strength (RSS) readings from the available access points are different in their offline and online phases. This asymmetry problem will no doubt invalidate the fingerprint algorithm used to estimate the mobile device location. Therefore, in this paper we propose a green WLAN indoor positioning system, which can recover RSS readings and achieve good localization performance based on singular value thresholding (SVT) theory. By solving the nuclear norm minimization problem, SVT recovers not only the radio map, but also online RSS readings from a sparse matrix by sensing only a fraction of the RSS readings. We have implemented the method in our lab and evaluated its performances. The experimental results indicate the proposed system could recover the RSS readings and achieve good localization performance. PMID:25587977

  16. Experimental demonstration of a novel indoor optical wireless localization system for high-speed personal area networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2015-04-01

    In this Letter, we propose a novel indoor localization system based on optical wireless technology. By using the same architecture as the high-speed full-duplex indoor optical wireless communication system, the "search and scan" process, and the added transmission power and beam footprint information in the "search and scan" message, indoor localization functionality is achieved. Proof-of-concept experiments are carried out, and results show that an average error of <15  cm is achieved with a localization beam size of 1 m. In addition, the major localization-accuracy-limiting factors are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. When incorporated with the optical wireless communication system, high-speed indoor wireless personal area networks can be achieved.

  17. Indoor Positioning System Using Magnetic Field Map Navigation and an Encoder System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Sol; Seo, Woojin; Baek, Kwang-Ryul

    2017-03-22

    In the indoor environment, variation of the magnetic field is caused by building structures, and magnetic field map navigation is based on this feature. In order to estimate position using this navigation, a three-axis magnetic field must be measured at every point to build a magnetic field map. After the magnetic field map is obtained, the position of the mobile robot can be estimated with a likelihood function whereby the measured magnetic field data and the magnetic field map are used. However, if only magnetic field map navigation is used, the estimated position can have large errors. In order to improve performance, we propose a particle filter system that integrates magnetic field map navigation and an encoder system. In this paper, multiple magnetic sensors and three magnetic field maps (a horizontal intensity map, a vertical intensity map, and a direction information map) are used to update the weights of particles. As a result, the proposed system estimates the position and orientation of a mobile robot more accurately than previous systems. Also, when the number of magnetic sensors increases, this paper shows that system performance improves. Finally, experiment results are shown from the proposed system that was implemented and evaluated.

  18. Indoor Positioning System Using Magnetic Field Map Navigation and an Encoder System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Sol; Seo, Woojin; Baek, Kwang-Ryul

    2017-01-01

    In the indoor environment, variation of the magnetic field is caused by building structures, and magnetic field map navigation is based on this feature. In order to estimate position using this navigation, a three-axis magnetic field must be measured at every point to build a magnetic field map. After the magnetic field map is obtained, the position of the mobile robot can be estimated with a likelihood function whereby the measured magnetic field data and the magnetic field map are used. However, if only magnetic field map navigation is used, the estimated position can have large errors. In order to improve performance, we propose a particle filter system that integrates magnetic field map navigation and an encoder system. In this paper, multiple magnetic sensors and three magnetic field maps (a horizontal intensity map, a vertical intensity map, and a direction information map) are used to update the weights of particles. As a result, the proposed system estimates the position and orientation of a mobile robot more accurately than previous systems. Also, when the number of magnetic sensors increases, this paper shows that system performance improves. Finally, experiment results are shown from the proposed system that was implemented and evaluated. PMID:28327513

  19. Perceptions of indoor air quality associated with ventilation system types in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Kinshella, M R; Van Dyke, M V; Douglas, K E; Martyny, J W

    2001-10-01

    With the increased utilization of school buildings on a year-round basis, school indoor air quality has become a national concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible associations between ventilation system type and occupant perception of indoor air quality. Staff (n = 403) from 12 schools completed a self-administered questionnaire. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, air exchange rates, and particle counts were also measured for each school. Schools with unit ventilator (UV) systems had the lowest mean CO2 level at 637 ppm, followed by the variable air volume (VAV) systems with 664 ppm, and constant volume (CV) systems with a mean of 703 ppm. Schools with UV systems had the lowest mean air exchange rate at 2.67 air changes per hour (ACH), followed by the VAV system type at 2.80 ACH and the CV system type at 4.61 ACH. Indoor versus outdoor particle ratios were calculated for each ventilation system type. Particles with aerodynamic diameters ranging from 0.1-1.0 microm had a geometric mean ratio ranging from 0.38 to 0.68; particles with aerodynamic diameters ranging from 1-3 microm had ratios ranging from 1.39 to 5.47, and particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than 3 microm had ratios ranging from 3.20 to 14.76. Schools using VAV systems had a significantly lower prevalence of red and watery eyes while schools with UV systems had an elevated prevalence of nasal congestion, sore throat, headache, and dustiness complaints. This increased prevalence of complaints in buildings with UV systems may be due to the increased particulate levels.

  20. A practical E-PERM (electret passive environmental radon monitor) system for indoor 222Rn measurement.

    PubMed

    Kotrappa, P; Dempsey, J C; Ramsey, R W; Stieff, L R

    1990-04-01

    The technical and scientific basis for the measurement of indoor 222Rn concentration using an E-PERM (Electret passive environmental radon monitor) has been described in our earlier work. The purpose of this paper is to describe further development of a practical and convenient system that can be used routinely for indoor 222Rn measurement. The ion chamber is now made of electrically conducting plastic to minimize the response from natural gamma radiation. A spring-loaded shutter method is used to cover and uncover the electret from outside the chamber. The electret voltage reader has been modified to improve the accuracy and the ease in operation. The calibration, performance, error analysis, and lower limits of detection for these standardized versions of E-PERMs are also described.

  1. Indoor characterization of the receiver for the novel InPhoCUS concrete tracker CPV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravettoni, Mauro; Cooper, Thomas; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2012-10-01

    The Swiss consortium InPhoCUS has been formed between Airlight Energy Manufacturing SA, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (thermal modelling and CPV characterization and qualification, respectively). The consortium is developing an innovative 50-meter long, 9-meter wide, 2-axis concentrating system. The secondary tracking axis allows reaching concentration ratios as high as 500X. Indoor characterization of the 5-cell receiver has been performed to test the effects of the cell-to-cell non-uniformity of irradiance. Results are presented in this work and are also helpful in the development of new techniques for the indoor characterization of CPV receivers.

  2. Evaluation of dicarbonyls generated in a simulated indoor air environment using an in vitro exposure system.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Jackson, Laurel G; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R

    2010-06-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been increasing awareness regarding the potential impact of indoor air pollution on health. Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or oxygenated organic compounds formed from indoor chemistry has been suggested to contribute to adverse health effects. These studies use an in vitro monitoring system called VitroCell, to assess chemicals found in the indoor air environment. The structurally similar dicarbonyls diacetyl, 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and methyl glyoxal were selected for use in this system. The VitroCell module was used to determine whether these dicarbonyls were capable of inducing inflammatory cytokine expression by exposed pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Increases in the relative fold change in messenger RNA expression of the inflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were identified following exposure to diacetyl, 4-OPA, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and methyl glyoxal when compared to a clean air control. Consistent results were observed when the protein levels of these cytokines were analyzed. Exposure to 4-OPA significantly elevated IL-8, IL-6, GM-CSF, and TNF-alpha while glutaraldehyde caused significant elevations in IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha. IL-6 and IL-8 were also significantly elevated after exposure to diacetyl, glyoxal, and methyl glyoxal. These studies suggest that exposure to structurally similar oxygenated reaction products may be contributing to some of the health effects associated with indoor environments and may provide an in vitro method for identification and characterization of these potential hazards.

  3. Evaluation of Dicarbonyls Generated in a Simulated Indoor Air Environment Using an In Vitro Exposure System

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Jackson, Laurel G.; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been increasing awareness regarding the potential impact of indoor air pollution on health. Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or oxygenated organic compounds formed from indoor chemistry has been suggested to contribute to adverse health effects. These studies use an in vitro monitoring system called VitroCell, to assess chemicals found in the indoor air environment. The structurally similar dicarbonyls diacetyl, 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and methyl glyoxal were selected for use in this system. The VitroCell module was used to determine whether these dicarbonyls were capable of inducing inflammatory cytokine expression by exposed pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Increases in the relative fold change in messenger RNA expression of the inflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were identified following exposure to diacetyl, 4-OPA, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and methyl glyoxal when compared to a clean air control. Consistent results were observed when the protein levels of these cytokines were analyzed. Exposure to 4-OPA significantly elevated IL-8, IL-6, GM-CSF, and TNF-α while glutaraldehyde caused significant elevations in IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. IL-6 and IL-8 were also significantly elevated after exposure to diacetyl, glyoxal, and methyl glyoxal. These studies suggest that exposure to structurally similar oxygenated reaction products may be contributing to some of the health effects associated with indoor environments and may provide an in vitro method for identification and characterization of these potential hazards. PMID:20200221

  4. Observations of the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, Piers J.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of the climate system are critical for model validation and initialization, and also for monitoring in case of "surprises." Presently. we are still benefiting from data provided by the international fleet of Earth Observing satellites launched from the late 1990's onwards as well as from the longer-term record provided hy the operational meteorological satellites. However, we could be facing some data gaps in the near term in some critical areas. In situ measurements continue to be vital and, while they may be augmented hy future satellite measurements, will continue to be irreplaceable.

  5. Indoor Unmanned Airship System Airborne Control Module Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YongXia, Gao; YiBo, Li

    By adopting STC12C5A60S2 SCM as a system control unit, assisted by appropriate software and hardware resources, we complete the airborne control module's design of unmanned airship system. This paper introduces hardware control module's structure, airship-driven composition and software realization. Verified by the China Science and Technology Museum special-shaped airship,this control module can work well.

  6. International standards for the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Olesen, B W

    2004-01-01

    On the international level, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards and that will require the revision of existing standards? Critical issues are: adaptation, the effect of increased air velocity, humidity, type of indoor pollutant sources, etc. This paper will present an overview of existing methods, and discuss areas where revision of present standards or the development of new standards, are needed. The international standards for the indoor environment provide the designer with criteria, which are internationally recognized, for the design of buildings and systems.

  7. Optical wireless indoor systems: how to improve data rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, M. Olivier; Rouet, M. Claude

    2006-08-01

    Wireless networks are currently replacing connection cables via radio, visible or infrared waves. Modules and base systems are installed to cover zones in relation to a quality of service and availability. There are technological radio solutions: Bluetooth, WiFi, UWB and optics constituted by infrared or visible systems. Optic technology has important advantages: Transmitted data security, radio and medical immunity, etc. Nevertheless, optical systems seem to present a limit because this is basically a line of sight solution and the network management is based on only one wavelength with several users. The solution suggested, in the scope of this document, is to transmit various wavelengths in free space, using optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer and optical modules, which are compatible in wavelength. Each Emission/reception module could have a defined and personal wavelength, with a link with the terminal identification (MAC address for instance). This approach can improve and give a full duplex data rate with a minimum of a dozen Mbps per user for broadcasting. The application field for the suggested system is potentially included in the following network types: Optic WLAN and Optic WDAN.

  8. Indoor air pollution by organic emissions from textile floor coverings. Climate chamber studies under dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollinger, S.; Levsen, K.; Wünsch, G.

    The time dependence of the emission of organic compounds from a polyamide floor covering with styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) backing was studied in three climate chambers (0.03, 1.0 and 38 m 3) at 23°C 5nd 45% RH. While volatile compounds such as toluene reach a maximum concentration in the gas phase within 1 h and decrease in concentration to less than 2% within 60 h, the concentration of less volatile compounds, such as 4-phenylcyclohexene, decreases slowly over a period of months. If the chamber is well mixed and a defined chamber loading is maintained the observed concentrations do not depend on the chamber size, the wall material and air velocity. The concentration of the observed emissions is roughly proportional to the chamber loading. Surprisingly it is not inversely proportional to the air exchange rate. Rather, at high air exchange rates mass transfer from the carpet to the gas phase is enhanced. The "decreasing source models" of Dunn and Tichenor ( Atmospheric Environment22, 885-894, 1988) have been applied to the data. They allow the extrapolation of experimental data beyond the time available for measurement. The model calculations reveal the presence of sink effects. The role of the chamber walls as sinks can be determined more reliably if constant sources of an organic compound are placed into the chamber and their increase in concentration with time is compared with the theoretical predictions neglecting sink effects.

  9. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems–Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Li, H.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens’ activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  10. Integration of Thermal Indoor Conditions into Operational Heat Health Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppe, C.; Becker, P.; Pfafferott, J.

    2009-09-01

    The 2003 heat wave in Western Europe with altogether 35,000 to 50,000 deaths in Europe, several thousands of which occurred in Germany, has clearly pointed out the danger arising from long periods with high heat load. As a consequence, Germany, as many other European countries, has started to implement a Heat Health Warning System (HHWS). The German HHWS is based on the ‘Perceived Temperature'. The 'Perceived Temperature' is determined through a heat budget model of the human organism which includes the main thermophysiologically relevant mechanisms of heat exchange with the atmosphere. The most important meteorological ambience parameters included in the model are air temperature, humidity, wind speed and radiation fluxes in the short-wave and long-wave ranges. In addition to using a heat budget model for the assessment of the thermal load, the German HHWS also takes into account that the human body reacts in different ways to its thermal environment due to physiological adaptation (short-term acclimatisation) and short-term behavioural adaptation. The restriction of such an approach, like the majority of approaches used to issue heat warnings, is that the threshold for a warning is generally derived from meteorological observations and that warnings are issued on the basis of weather forecasts. Both, the observed data and the weather forecasts are only available for outside conditions. The group of people who are most at risk of suffering from a heat wave, however, are the elderly and frail who mainly stay inside. The indoor situation, which varies largely from the conditions outside, is not taken into account by most of the warning systems. To overcome this limitation the DWD, in co-operation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, has developed a model which simulates the thermal conditions in the indoor environment. As air-conditioning in private housing in Germany is not very common, the thermal indoor conditions depend on the outside

  11. Mamdani Fuzzy System for Indoor Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. K. A. Ahamed; Rashid, Razif; Elamvazuthi, I.

    2011-06-01

    Several control algorithms for autonomous mobile robot navigation have been proposed in the literature. Recently, the employment of non-analytical methods of computing such as fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, and neural networks has demonstrated the utility and potential of these paradigms for intelligent control of mobile robot navigation. In this paper, Mamdani fuzzy system for an autonomous mobile robot is developed. The paper begins with the discussion on the conventional controller and then followed by the description of fuzzy logic controller in detail.

  12. A MISO UCA Beamforming Dimmable LED System for Indoor Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Taparugssanagorn, Attaphongse; Siwamogsatham, Siwaruk; Pomalaza-Ráez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The use of a multiple input single output (MISO) transmit beamforming system using dimmable light emitting arrays (LEAs) in the form of a uniform circular array (UCA) of transmitters is proposed in this paper. With this technique, visible light communications between a transmitter and a receiver (LED reader) can be achieved with excellent performance and the receiver's position can be estimated. A hexagonal lattice alignment of LED transmitters is deployed to reduce the coverage holes and the areas of overlapping radiation. As a result, the accuracy of the position estimation is better than when using a typical rectangular grid alignment. The dimming control is done with pulse width modulation (PWM) to obtain an optimal closed loop beamforming and minimum energy consumption with acceptable lighting. PMID:24481234

  13. A MISO UCA beamforming dimmable LED system for indoor positioning.

    PubMed

    Taparugssanagorn, Attaphongse; Siwamogsatham, Siwaruk; Pomalaza-Ráez, Carlos

    2014-01-29

    The use of a multiple input single output (MISO) transmit beamforming system using dimmable light emitting arrays (LEAs) in the form of a uniform circular array (UCA) of transmitters is proposed in this paper. With this technique, visible light communications between a transmitter and a receiver (LED reader) can be achieved with excellent performance and the receiver's position can be estimated. A hexagonal lattice alignment of LED transmitters is deployed to reduce the coverage holes and the areas of overlapping radiation. As a result, the accuracy of the position estimation is better than when using a typical rectangular grid alignment. The dimming control is done with pulse width modulation (PWM) to obtain an optimal closed loop beamforming and minimum energy consumption with acceptable lighting.

  14. Assessment of indoor climate of Mogiła Abbey in Kraków (Poland) and the application of the analogues method to predict microclimate indoor conditions.

    PubMed

    Frasca, F; Siani, A M; Casale, G R; Pedone, M; Bratasz, Ł; Strojecki, M; Mleczkowska, A

    2016-04-04

    The microclimatic monitoring of the historic church of Mogiła Abbey (Kraków, Poland) was carried out to study the impact of the environmental parameters on the organic and hygroscopic artworks. Specific indexes were proposed to objectively assess the quality of time series of temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2) before applying the exploratory data analysis. The series were used to define the historic environmental conditions as stated in the European Standard EN 15757:2010 and with the use of the climate evaluation chart (CEC). It was found that the percentage of time in which T and RH values are within the allowable limits of the ASHRAE (2011) Class B is more than 85 %. This means that, for about 15 % of the time, there is a high risk of mechanical damage to highly vulnerable objects mainly due to the RH variability. The environment at the chancel resulted moister than that at the cornice, and the fungal growth is possible. In addition, the time-weighted preservation index (TWPI) is computed to evaluate the life expectancy of the objects, taking into account the environmental conditions of the site under study. The method of analogues, developed to predict the evolution of a system given observations of the past and without the knowledge of any equation among variables, was proposed and applied to the time series of temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide with a 1-h sampling time to avoid the influence of the autocorrelation.

  15. A critical analysis of climatic influences on indoor radon concentrations: Implications for seasonal correction.

    PubMed

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J; Crockett, Robin G M; Denman, Antony R; Phillips, Paul S

    2015-10-01

    Although statistically-derived national Seasonal Correction Factors (SCFs) are conventionally used to convert sub-year radon concentration measurements to an annual mean, it has recently been suggested that external temperature could be used to derive local SCFs for short-term domestic measurements. To validate this approach, hitherto unanalysed radon and temperature data from an environmentally-stable location were analysed. Radon concentration and internal temperature were measured over periods totalling 1025 days during an overall period of 1762 days, the greatest continuous sampling period being 334 days, with corresponding meteorological data collected at a weather station 10 km distant. Mean daily, monthly and annual radon concentrations and internal temperatures were calculated. SCFs derived using monthly mean radon concentration, external temperature and internal-external temperature-difference were cross-correlated with each other and with published UK domestic SCF sets. Relatively good correlation exists between SCFs derived from radon concentration and internal-external temperature difference but correlation with external temperature, was markedly poorer. SCFs derived from external temperature correlate very well with published SCF tabulations, confirming that the complexity of deriving SCFs from temperature data may be outweighed by the convenience of using either of the existing domestic SCF tabulations. Mean monthly radon data fitted to a 12-month sinusoid showed reasonable correlation with many of the annual climatic parameter profiles, exceptions being atmospheric pressure, rainfall and internal temperature. Introducing an additional 6-month sinusoid enhanced correlation with these three parameters, the other correlations remaining essentially unchanged. Radon latency of the order of months in moisture-related parameters suggests that the principal driver for radon is total atmospheric moisture content rather than relative humidity.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  17. A portable system for recording neural activity in indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Baluch, Farhan; Itti, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We present a self-contained portable USB based device that can amplify and record small bioelectric signals from insects and animals. The system combines a purpose built low noise amplifier with off the shelf components to provide a low cost low power system for recording electrophysiological signals. Using open source software the system is programmed as a simple USB device and can be connected to any USB capable computer for recording data. This simple and universal interface provides the ability to connect to a variety of systems. Open source acquisition software was also written to record signals under the linux operating system. Performance analysis shows that our device is able to record good quality signals both indoors and outdoors and delivers this performance at a very low cost. Compared to larger systems our device provides the additional advantage of portability given that it can fit into a pocket and costs a fraction of large systems used in electrophysiology labs.

  18. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qinglin; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Pan, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy. PMID:26690170

  19. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qinglin; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Pan, Yun

    2015-12-05

    Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy.

  20. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  1. 3D indoor modeling using a hand-held embedded system with multiple laser range scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Wang, Duhu; Xu, Shike

    2016-10-01

    Accurate three-dimensional perception is a key technology for many engineering applications, including mobile mapping, obstacle detection and virtual reality. In this article, we present a hand-held embedded system designed for constructing 3D representation of structured indoor environments. Different from traditional vehicle-borne mobile mapping methods, the system presented here is capable of efficiently acquiring 3D data while an operator carrying the device traverses through the site. It consists of a simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) module, a 3D attitude estimate module and a point cloud processing module. The SLAM is based on a scan matching approach using a modern LIDAR system, and the 3D attitude estimate is generated by a navigation filter using inertial sensors. The hardware comprises three 2D time-flight laser range finders and an inertial measurement unit(IMU). All the sensors are rigidly mounted on a body frame. The algorithms are developed on the frame of robot operating system(ROS). The 3D model is constructed using the point cloud library(PCL). Multiple datasets have shown robust performance of the presented system in indoor scenarios.

  2. A Low Complexity System Based on Multiple Weighted Decision Trees for Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Hernández-Morera, Pablo; Quinteiro, José Ma.; Alonso-González, Itziar

    2015-01-01

    Indoor position estimation has become an attractive research topic due to growing interest in location-aware services. Nevertheless, satisfying solutions have not been found with the considerations of both accuracy and system complexity. From the perspective of lightweight mobile devices, they are extremely important characteristics, because both the processor power and energy availability are limited. Hence, an indoor localization system with high computational complexity can cause complete battery drain within a few hours. In our research, we use a data mining technique named boosting to develop a localization system based on multiple weighted decision trees to predict the device location, since it has high accuracy and low computational complexity. The localization system is built using a dataset from sensor fusion, which combines the strength of radio signals from different wireless local area network access points and device orientation information from a digital compass built-in mobile device, so that extra sensors are unnecessary. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system leads to substantial improvements on computational complexity over the widely-used traditional fingerprinting methods, and it has a better accuracy than they have. PMID:26110413

  3. A Low Complexity System Based on Multiple Weighted Decision Trees for Indoor Localization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Hernández-Morera, Pablo; Quinteiro, José Ma; Alonso-González, Itziar

    2015-06-23

    Indoor position estimation has become an attractive research topic due to growing interest in location-aware services. Nevertheless, satisfying solutions have not been found with the considerations of both accuracy and system complexity. From the perspective of lightweight mobile devices, they are extremely important characteristics, because both the processor power and energy availability are limited. Hence, an indoor localization system with high computational complexity can cause complete battery drain within a few hours. In our research, we use a data mining technique named boosting to develop a localization system based on multiple weighted decision trees to predict the device location, since it has high accuracy and low computational complexity. The localization system is built using a dataset from sensor fusion, which combines the strength of radio signals from different wireless local area network access points and device orientation information from a digital compass built-in mobile device, so that extra sensors are unnecessary. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system leads to substantial improvements on computational complexity over the widely-used traditional fingerprinting methods, and it has a better accuracy than they have.

  4. An adaptive localization system for outdoor/indoor navigation for autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacis, E. B.; Sights, B.; Ahuja, G.; Kogut, G.; Everett, H. R.

    2006-05-01

    Many envisioned applications of mobile robotic systems require the robot to navigate in complex urban environments. This need is particularly critical if the robot is to perform as part of a synergistic team with human forces in military operations. Historically, the development of autonomous navigation for mobile robots has targeted either outdoor or indoor scenarios, but not both, which is not how humans operate. This paper describes efforts to fuse component technologies into a complete navigation system, allowing a robot to seamlessly transition between outdoor and indoor environments. Under the Joint Robotics Program's Technology Transfer project, empirical evaluations of various localization approaches were conducted to assess their maturity levels and performance metrics in different exterior/interior settings. The methodologies compared include Markov localization, global positioning system, Kalman filtering, and fuzzy-logic. Characterization of these technologies highlighted their best features, which were then fused into an adaptive solution. A description of the final integrated system is discussed, including a presentation of the design, experimental results, and a formal demonstration to attendees of the Unmanned Systems Capabilities Conference II in San Diego in December 2005.

  5. An RF-based wearable sensor system for indoor tracking to facilitate efficient healthcare management.

    PubMed

    Yuzhe Ouyang; Shan, Kai; Bui, Francis Minhthang

    2016-08-01

    To understand the utilization of clinical resources and improve the efficiency of healthcare, it is often necessary to accurately locate patients and doctors in a healthcare facility. However, existing tracking methods, such as GPS, Wi-Fi and RFID, have technological drawbacks or impose significant costs, thus limiting their applications in many clinical environments, especially those with indoor enclosures. This paper proposes a low-cost and flexible tracking system that is well suited for operating in an indoor environment. Based on readily available RF transceivers and microcontrollers, our wearable sensor system can facilitate locating users (e.g., patients or doctors) or objects (e.g., medical devices) in a building. The strategic construction of the sensor system, along with a suitably designed tracking algorithm, together provide for reliability and dispatch in localization performance. For demonstration purposes, several simplified experiments, with different configurations of the system, are implemented in two testing rooms to assess the baseline performance. From the obtained results, our system exhibits immense promise in acquiring a user location and corresponding time-stamp, with high accuracy and rapid response. This capability is conducive to both short- and long-term data analytics, which are crucial for improving healthcare management.

  6. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a PMID:9769764

  7. IMPACT OF AN INDOOR COOK STOVE INTERVENTION ON MEASURES OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Approximately three billion people use inefficient and poorly-vented indoor cook stoves, which can result in high indoor air pollution concentrations. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular effects of indoor biomass burning. Methods: In this pilot s...

  8. IMPACT OF AN INDOOR COOK STOVE INTERVENTION ON MEASURES OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Approximately three billion people use inefficient and poorly-vented indoor cook stoves, which can result in high indoor air pollution concentrations. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular effects of indoor biomass burning. Methods: In this pilot s...

  9. A mobile indoor positioning system based on iBeacon technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xin-Yu; Ho, Te-Wei; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Zui-Shen; Yang, Bey-Jing; Lai, Feipei

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency in the emergency room, the goal of this research is to implement a mobile-based indoor positioning system using mobile applications (APP) with the iBeacon solution based on the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology. We use the Received Signal Strength (RSS) based localization method to estimate the patients' locations. Our positioning algorithm achieves 97.22% (95% Confidence Interval = 95.90% - 98.55%) accuracy of classification. As the result, our mechanism is reliable enough to satisfy the need for medical staff to track the locations of their patients.

  10. Improvement in the Geofencing Service Interface Using Indoor Positioning Systems and Mobile Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, M.

    2013-11-01

    The current state of location-based services provides spatial information delivery for mobile users based on position data taken from GPS sensors. However, sometimes the spatial information delivery service includes unwanted information. In particular, push-based or passive information delivery has a high probability that users receive unwanted information. We propose a new spatial information delivery to improve the integrity of spatial information delivery. We conducted an experiment using an Indoor Messaging System and an accelerometer, and concluded that our methodology can detect user behavior without accessing personal information and reduce the amount of spam information.

  11. Physicochemical Characterization of Nanoparticles from Indoor Ventilation Systems and Their Potential Health Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, G.; Revkin, A. C.; Gruenspecht, H.; Ramanathan, V.; Brown, M. A.; Nagel, D. C.; Revkin, A. C.; Umo, N. S.; Oseghe, E. O.

    2016-12-01

    Indoor air pollution remains a major concern to humans considering that we spend about 90% of our daily lives indoors [1,2]. Air pollutants, which ranges from gases to aerosol particles, vary considerably from our homes, public/work places and confined environments such as cars. They can impact on our health depending on the nature and concentration of the pollutants as well as the duration of exposure [3,4]. Particulate matter (PM), which is one of the major air pollutant markers, is present indoors and can be circulated for days to months within a confined space by the ventilation systems. In this study, both physical and chemical compositional evaluation of PM2.5 - 10 was carried out and the recirculation model of these particulates is presented based on the study of some ventilation systems such as air conditioners, cooling vents, and fans. For the first time, it is shown that the compositional variability of PM does not just depend on the source or the ongoing activities in the confined space but also on the recirculation time. Mineral dust particles were found to be dominant, some mixed with organics and soot or BC particles; heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and others were also analysed from the collected PM. Ventilation systems trap these particulates and do recirculate them over time and this can increase their toxicities and influences their composition. From this study, it can be suggested that regular cleaning of ventilation systems and flushing closed spaces with fresh air may become the most effective ways of controlling the concentration of PM in closed spaces with ventilation units such as indoors and cars. [1] H. K. Lai, et al., Atmospheric Environment 38 (37)(2004). [2] N.E. Klepeis, et al., J. of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 11(2001). [3] N. Bruce, et al., Bul. of the World Health Organization, 78 (9)(2000). [4] K.A. Miller, et al, The New England Journal of Medicine 356 (2007).

  12. Weather Climate Interactions and Extreme Events in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The most pronounced local impacts of climate change would occur in association with extreme weather events superimposed on the altered climate. Thus a major thrust of recent efforts in the climate community has been to assess how extreme regional events such as cold air outbreaks, heat waves, tropical cyclones, floods, droughts, and severe weather might change with the climate. Many of these types of events are poorly simulated in climate models because of insufficient spatial resolution and insufficient quality parameterization of sub grid scale convection and radiation processes. This talk summarizes examples selected from those discussed below of how weather and climate events can be interconnected so that the physics of natural climate and weather phenomena depend on each other, thereby complicating our ability to simulate extreme events. A major focus of the chapter is on the Madden Julian oscillation (MJO), which is associated with alternating eastward-moving planetary scale regions of enhanced and suppressed moist deep convection favoring warm pool regions in the tropics. The MJO modulates weather events around the world and influences the evolution of interannual climate variability. We first discuss how the MJO evolves together with the seasonal cycle, the El Niño/southern oscillation (ENSO), and the extratropical circulation, then continue with a case study illustration of how El Niño is intrinsically coupled to intraseasonal and synoptic weather events such as the MJO and westerly wind bursts. This interconnectedness in the system implies that modeling many types of regional extreme weather events requires more than simply downscaling coarse climate model signals to nested regional models because extreme outcomes in a region can depend on poorly simulated extreme weather in distant parts of the world. The authors hope that an improved understanding of these types of interactions between signals across scales of time and space will ultimately yield

  13. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  14. On Calibrating the Sensor Errors of a PDR-Based Indoor Localization System

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Kun-Chan; Shih, Wen-Yuah

    2013-01-01

    Many studies utilize the signal strength of short-range radio systems (such as WiFi, ultrasound and infrared) to build a radio map for indoor localization, by deploying a large number of beacon nodes within a building. The drawback of such an infrastructure-based approach is that the deployment and calibration of the system are costly and labor-intensive. Some prior studies proposed the use of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) for indoor localization, which does not require the deployment of beacon nodes. In a PDR system, a small number of sensors are put on the pedestrian. These sensors (such as a G-sensor and gyroscope) are used to estimate the distance and direction that a user travels. The effectiveness of a PDR system lies in its success in accurately estimating the user's moving distance and direction. In this work, we propose a novel waist-mounted based PDR that can measure the user's step lengths with a high accuracy. We utilize vertical acceleration of the body to calculate the user's change in height during walking. Based on the Pythagorean Theorem, we can then estimate each step length using this data. Furthermore, we design a map matching algorithm to calibrate the direction errors from the gyro using building floor plans. The results of our experiment show that we can achieve about 98.26% accuracy in estimating the user's walking distance, with an overall location error of about 0.48 m. PMID:23575036

  15. On calibrating the sensor errors of a PDR-based indoor localization system.

    PubMed

    Lan, Kun-Chan; Shih, Wen-Yuah

    2013-04-10

    Many studies utilize the signal strength of short-range radio systems (such as WiFi, ultrasound and infrared) to build a radio map for indoor localization, by deploying a large number of beacon nodes within a building. The drawback of such an infrastructure-based approach is that the deployment and calibration of the system are costly and labor-intensive. Some prior studies proposed the use of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) for indoor localization, which does not require the deployment of beacon nodes. In a PDR system, a small number of sensors are put on the pedestrian. These sensors (such as a G-sensor and gyroscope) are used to estimate the distance and direction that a user travels. The effectiveness of a PDR system lies in its success in accurately estimating the user's moving distance and direction. In this work, we propose a novel waist-mounted based PDR that can measure the user's step lengths with a high accuracy. We utilize vertical acceleration of the body to calculate the user's change in height during walking. Based on the Pythagorean Theorem, we can then estimate each step length using this data. Furthermore, we design a map matching algorithm to calibrate the direction errors from the gyro using building floor plans. The results of our experiment show that we can achieve about 98.26% accuracy in estimating the user's walking distance, with an overall location error of about 0.48 m.

  16. High-speed duplex optical wireless communication system for indoor personal area networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2010-11-22

    In this paper a new hybrid wireless access system incorporating high bandwidth line-of-sight free space optical wireless and radio frequency localization is proposed and demonstrated. This system is capable of supporting several gigabits/second up-stream and down-stream data transmission and ideally suited for high bandwidth indoor applications such as personal area networks. A radio frequency signal is used to achieve localization of subscribers, offering limited mobility to subscribers within a practical office scenario. Even with the modest transmitted power of 5 dBm, we demonstrate satisfactory performance of bit error rates better than 10(-9) over the entire room in the presence of strong background light. Using simulations, the effectiveness of the proposed system architecture is investigated and the key performance trade-offs identified. Proof-of-concept experiments have also been carried out to validate simulation model, and initial experimental results successfully demonstrate the feasibility of the system capable of supporting 2.5 Gbps over a 1-2 m optical wireless link (limited by the length of the sliding rail used in the experiment) with a 45 degrees diffused beam in an indoor environment for the first time.

  17. A novel sensor-assisted RFID-based indoor tracking system for the elderly living alone.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Chang; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2011-01-01

    The population of elderly people is increasing rapidly in many developed nations. Providing safe and comfortable care to aging people is an important social goal. Moreover, obtaining correct activity and location information for an elderly person is an important research goal. This work proposes a novel intelligent RFID-based indoor tracking system for elderly people living alone. The proposed system uses environment information for inhabitants and received signal strength of an RFID reader to estimate the probable location of an inhabitant. The proposed system then coordinates with the wireless sensor node of a three-axis accelerometer and uses a genetic algorithm to compute the location of the inhabitant. The proposed system also uses context and gait information to improve inhabitant-tracking accuracy. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the proposed system is better than that of existing RFID-based systems.

  18. Composition and Verification Experiment for Indoor Positioning System using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Masaki; Sunaga, Hikaru; Ioroi, Shigenori; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    Positioning systems that use ultrasonic sensors can measure position with a high degree of accuracy. For this reason, they are an attractive option for use in indoors, where the level of accuracy required is higher than that needed outdoors. This study aims to make possible a practical ultrasonic positioning system based on what is called an inverse GPS method. To be practical, positioning systems should be able to cover a wide area and identify the positions of multiple objects. This paper discusses the positioning methodology and system structure to achieve these objectives. It presents the results of verification tests with static and moving objects conducted using an experimental model. It was confirmed that the positioning error is less than 100 mm, and that the proposed system satisfies the required accuracy. In addition, as a possible application of the method, an experiment in ‘pedestrian navigation’ was conducted using a moving robot, and the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed.

  19. A Novel Sensor-Assisted RFID-Based Indoor Tracking System for the Elderly Living Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Chang; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2011-01-01

    The population of elderly people is increasing rapidly in many developed nations. Providing safe and comfortable care to aging people is an important social goal. Moreover, obtaining correct activity and location information for an elderly person is an important research goal. This work proposes a novel intelligent RFID-based indoor tracking system for elderly people living alone. The proposed system uses environment information for inhabitants and received signal strength of an RFID reader to estimate the probable location of an inhabitant. The proposed system then coordinates with the wireless sensor node of a three-axis accelerometer and uses a genetic algorithm to compute the location of the inhabitant. The proposed system also uses context and gait information to improve inhabitant-tracking accuracy. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the proposed system is better than that of existing RFID-based systems. PMID:22346631

  20. Energy, Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change presents many challenges, including the production of severe weather events. These events and efforts to minimize their effects through weatherization can adversely affect indoor environments.

  1. A Heterogeneous Sensing System-Based Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Indoor Positioning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Li, Kang; Liang, Guoyuan; Chen, Haoyao; Huang, Sheng; Wu, Xinyu

    2017-08-10

    The indoor environment has brought new challenges for micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in terms of their being able to execute tasks with high positioning accuracy. Conventional positioning methods based on GPS are unreliable, although certain circumstances of limited space make it possible to apply new technologies. In this paper, we propose a novel indoor self-positioning system of UAV based on a heterogeneous sensing system, which integrates data from a structured light scanner, ultra-wideband (UWB), and an inertial navigation system (INS). We made the structured light scanner, which is composed of a low-cost structured light and camera, ourselves to improve the positioning accuracy at a specified area. We applied adaptive Kalman filtering to fuse the data from the INS and UWB while the vehicle was moving, as well as Gauss filtering to fuse the data from the UWB and the structured light scanner in a hovering state. The results of our simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed strategy significantly improves positioning accuracy in motion and also in the hovering state, as compared to using a single sensor.

  2. An Indoor Positioning System Based on Wearables for Ambient-Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte-Fernández, Óscar; Puertas-Cabedo, Adrian; Torres-Sospedra, Joaquín; Montoliu-Colás, Raúl; Trilles-Oliver, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    The urban population is growing at such a rate that by 2050 it is estimated that 84% of the world’s population will live in cities, with flats being the most common living place. Moreover, WiFi technology is present in most developed country urban areas, with a quick growth in developing countries. New Ambient-Assisted Living applications will be developed in the near future having user positioning as ground technology: elderly tele-care, energy consumption, security and the like are strongly based on indoor positioning information. We present an indoor positioning system for wearable devices based on WiFi fingerprinting. Smart-watch wearable devices are used to acquire the WiFi strength signals of the surrounding Wireless Access Points used to build an ensemble of Machine Learning classification algorithms. Once built, the ensemble algorithm is used to locate a user based on the WiFi strength signals provided by the wearable device. Experimental results for five different urban flats are reported, showing that the system is robust and reliable enough for locating a user at room level into his/her home. Another interesting characteristic of the presented system is that it does not require deployment of any infrastructure, and it is unobtrusive, the only device required for it to work is a smart-watch. PMID:28029142

  3. Design of an indoor mapping system using three 2D laser scanners and 6 DOF SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosselman, G.

    2014-08-01

    We present the design for a new indoor mapping system based on three 2D laser scanners as well as a method to process the range measurements such that the pose of the system and the planes of floor, ceiling and walls can be estimated simultaneously. By the combined use of the measurements of all three scanners the pose of the system can be reconstructed in 3D without the need for an IMU. The six pose parameters are modelled as a continuous function over time such that scan line deformations caused by rapid scanner movements do not lead to biases in the estimated poses. The theoretical feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by analysing reconstruction results derived from simulated sensor data of two indoor models. Assuming a perfectly calibrated sensor and ranging noise of 3 cm, the results on data in 10x20 m corridor show that the plane orientation precision is better than 0.1 degree and that the standard deviation of plane-to-plane distances is below 1.5 cm after three loops in the corridor.

  4. A Heterogeneous Sensing System-Based Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Indoor Positioning †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Liang, Guoyuan; Huang, Sheng; Wu, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    The indoor environment has brought new challenges for micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in terms of their being able to execute tasks with high positioning accuracy. Conventional positioning methods based on GPS are unreliable, although certain circumstances of limited space make it possible to apply new technologies. In this paper, we propose a novel indoor self-positioning system of UAV based on a heterogeneous sensing system, which integrates data from a structured light scanner, ultra-wideband (UWB), and an inertial navigation system (INS). We made the structured light scanner, which is composed of a low-cost structured light and camera, ourselves to improve the positioning accuracy at a specified area. We applied adaptive Kalman filtering to fuse the data from the INS and UWB while the vehicle was moving, as well as Gauss filtering to fuse the data from the UWB and the structured light scanner in a hovering state. The results of our simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed strategy significantly improves positioning accuracy in motion and also in the hovering state, as compared to using a single sensor. PMID:28796184

  5. An Indoor Positioning System Based on Wearables for Ambient-Assisted Living.

    PubMed

    Belmonte-Fernández, Óscar; Puertas-Cabedo, Adrian; Torres-Sospedra, Joaquín; Montoliu-Colás, Raúl; Trilles-Oliver, Sergi

    2016-12-25

    The urban population is growing at such a rate that by 2050 it is estimated that 84% of the world's population will live in cities, with flats being the most common living place. Moreover, WiFi technology is present in most developed country urban areas, with a quick growth in developing countries. New Ambient-Assisted Living applications will be developed in the near future having user positioning as ground technology: elderly tele-care, energy consumption, security and the like are strongly based on indoor positioning information. We present an Indoor Positioning System for wearable devices based on WiFi fingerprinting. Smart-watch wearable devices are used to acquire the WiFi strength signals of the surrounding Wireless Access Points used to build an ensemble of Machine Learning classification algorithms. Once built, the ensemble algorithm is used to locate a user based on the WiFi strength signals provided by the wearable device. Experimental results for five different urban flats are reported, showing that the system is robust and reliable enough for locating a user at room level into his/her home. Another interesting characteristic of the presented system is that it does not require deployment of any infrastructure, and it is unobtrusive, the only device required for it to work is a smart-watch.

  6. Study of Climate Responsive Passive Design Features in Traditional Hill Architecture of Khyah Village in Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India for Indoor Thermal Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.

    2013-03-01

    Vernacular architecture of any settlement is characterized by architecture and construction methods developed by the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, to provide thermal comfort to users in extreme outdoor uncomfortable climatic conditions, by using locally available building materials and by adopting construction technology which both were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will highlight the climate-responsiveness in the traditional architecture of Khyah village in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh, having sub-tropical climatic condition. The plan of individual house, the cluster of houses and the overall settlement itself has been evolved from a process of understanding the local geo-climatic conditions which causes discomfort in both cold winter and hot summer months. Hence, the house plans were kept compact, thick adobe bricks were used for walls, pitched roof with attic and roof-covering of slate were employed and small window openings were provided with heavy timber shutter—all as a mean to retain indoor heat during cold winter months and also to prevent excessive heat-loss and heat-gains. The paper will also attempt to bring out the adaptive synchronized dynamic interactions between the various activities of inhabitants and their spatial environment, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the physical survey of this traditional hill settlement.

  7. Indoor weather related to the energy consumption of air conditioned classroom: Monitoring system for energy efficient building plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattanongphisat, W.; Suwannakom, A.; Harfield, A.

    2016-08-01

    The current research aims to investigate the relation of indoor weather to energy consumption of air conditioned classroom by design and construct the indoor weather and energy monitoring systems. In this research, a combined temperature and humidity sensor in conjunction with a microcontroller was constructed for the indoor weather monitoring system. The wire sensor network for the temperature-humidity sensor nodes is the Controller Area Network (CAN). Another part is using a nonintrusive method where a wireless current transformer sending the signal to the data collection box then transmitted by the radio frequency to the computer where the Ethernet application software was installed for the energy monitoring system. The results show that the setting air temperature, outdoor ambient temperature and operating time impact to the energy consumption of the air conditioned classroom.

  8. Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4

    DOE PAGES

    Bitz, Cecilia M.; Shell, K. M.; Gent, P. R.; ...

    2012-05-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) is 3.20°C for 1° horizontal resolution in each component. This is about a half degree Celsius higher than in the previous version (CCSM3). The transient climate sensitivity of CCSM4 at 1° resolution is 1.72°C, which is about 0.2°C higher than in CCSM3. These higher climate sensitivities in CCSM4 cannot be explained by the change to a preindustrial baseline climate. We use the radiative kernel technique to show that from CCSM3 to CCSM4, the global mean lapse-rate feedback declines in magnitude, and the shortwave cloud feedback increases. These twomore » warming effects are partially canceled by cooling due to slight decreases in the global mean water-vapor feedback and longwave cloud feedback from CCSM3 to CCSM4. A new formulation of the mixed-layer, slab ocean model in CCSM4 attempts to reproduce the SST and sea ice climatology from an integration with a full-depth ocean, and it is integrated with a dynamic sea ice model. These new features allow an isolation of the influence of ocean dynamical changes on the climate response when comparing integrations with the slab ocean and full-depth ocean. The transient climate response of the full-depth ocean version is 0.54 of the equilibrium climate sensitivity when estimated with the new slab ocean model version for both CCSM3 and CCSM4. We argue the ratio is the same in both versions because they have about the same zonal mean pattern of change in ocean surface heat flux, which broadly resembles the zonal mean pattern of net feedback strength.« less

  9. Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, Cecilia M.; Shell, K. M.; Gent, P. R.; Bailey, D. A.; Danabasoglu, G.; Armour, K. C.; Holland, M. M.; Kiehl, J. T.

    2012-05-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) is 3.20°C for 1° horizontal resolution in each component. This is about a half degree Celsius higher than in the previous version (CCSM3). The transient climate sensitivity of CCSM4 at 1° resolution is 1.72°C, which is about 0.2°C higher than in CCSM3. These higher climate sensitivities in CCSM4 cannot be explained by the change to a preindustrial baseline climate. We use the radiative kernel technique to show that from CCSM3 to CCSM4, the global mean lapse-rate feedback declines in magnitude, and the shortwave cloud feedback increases. These two warming effects are partially canceled by cooling due to slight decreases in the global mean water-vapor feedback and longwave cloud feedback from CCSM3 to CCSM4. A new formulation of the mixed-layer, slab ocean model in CCSM4 attempts to reproduce the SST and sea ice climatology from an integration with a full-depth ocean, and it is integrated with a dynamic sea ice model. These new features allow an isolation of the influence of ocean dynamical changes on the climate response when comparing integrations with the slab ocean and full-depth ocean. The transient climate response of the full-depth ocean version is 0.54 of the equilibrium climate sensitivity when estimated with the new slab ocean model version for both CCSM3 and CCSM4. We argue the ratio is the same in both versions because they have about the same zonal mean pattern of change in ocean surface heat flux, which broadly resembles the zonal mean pattern of net feedback strength.

  10. Indoor navigation by people with visual impairment using a digital sign system.

    PubMed

    Legge, Gordon E; Beckmann, Paul J; Tjan, Bosco S; Havey, Gary; Kramer, Kevin; Rolkosky, David; Gage, Rachel; Chen, Muzi; Puchakayala, Sravan; Rangarajan, Aravindhan

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for adaptive technology to enhance indoor wayfinding by visually-impaired people. To address this need, we have developed and tested a Digital Sign System. The hardware and software consist of digitally-encoded signs widely distributed throughout a building, a handheld sign-reader based on an infrared camera, image-processing software, and a talking digital map running on a mobile device. Four groups of subjects-blind, low vision, blindfolded sighted, and normally sighted controls-were evaluated on three navigation tasks. The results demonstrate that the technology can be used reliably in retrieving information from the signs during active mobility, in finding nearby points of interest, and following routes in a building from a starting location to a destination. The visually impaired subjects accurately and independently completed the navigation tasks, but took substantially longer than normally sighted controls. This fully functional prototype system demonstrates the feasibility of technology enabling independent indoor navigation by people with visual impairment.

  11. Indoor Localization Algorithms for an Ambulatory Human Operated 3D Mobile Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, N; Zakhor, A

    2013-12-03

    Indoor localization and mapping is an important problem with many applications such as emergency response, architectural modeling, and historical preservation. In this paper, we develop an automatic, off-line pipeline for metrically accurate, GPS-denied, indoor 3D mobile mapping using a human-mounted backpack system consisting of a variety of sensors. There are three novel contributions in our proposed mapping approach. First, we present an algorithm which automatically detects loop closure constraints from an occupancy grid map. In doing so, we ensure that constraints are detected only in locations that are well conditioned for scan matching. Secondly, we address the problem of scan matching with poor initial condition by presenting an outlier-resistant, genetic scan matching algorithm that accurately matches scans despite a poor initial condition. Third, we present two metrics based on the amount and complexity of overlapping geometry in order to vet the estimated loop closure constraints. By doing so, we automatically prevent erroneous loop closures from degrading the accuracy of the reconstructed trajectory. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified using both controlled and real-world data. The end-to-end system performance is evaluated using 100 surveyed control points in an office environment and obtains a mean accuracy of 10 cm. Experimental results are also shown on three additional datasets from real world environments including a 1500 meter trajectory in a warehouse sized retail shopping center.

  12. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  13. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-11-30

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015.

  14. Indoor Navigation by People with Visual Impairment Using a Digital Sign System

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Beckmann, Paul J.; Tjan, Bosco S.; Havey, Gary; Kramer, Kevin; Rolkosky, David; Gage, Rachel; Chen, Muzi; Puchakayala, Sravan; Rangarajan, Aravindhan

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for adaptive technology to enhance indoor wayfinding by visually-impaired people. To address this need, we have developed and tested a Digital Sign System. The hardware and software consist of digitally-encoded signs widely distributed throughout a building, a handheld sign-reader based on an infrared camera, image-processing software, and a talking digital map running on a mobile device. Four groups of subjects—blind, low vision, blindfolded sighted, and normally sighted controls—were evaluated on three navigation tasks. The results demonstrate that the technology can be used reliably in retrieving information from the signs during active mobility, in finding nearby points of interest, and following routes in a building from a starting location to a destination. The visually impaired subjects accurately and independently completed the navigation tasks, but took substantially longer than normally sighted controls. This fully functional prototype system demonstrates the feasibility of technology enabling independent indoor navigation by people with visual impairment. PMID:24116156

  15. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  16. FOLLOW-UP DURABILITY MEASUREMENTS AND MITIGATION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT TESTS IN 38 EASTERN PENNSYL- VANIA HOUSES HAVING INDOOR REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of follow-up tests in 38 difficult- to-mitigate Pennsylvania houses where indoor radon reduction systems had been installed 2 to 4 years earlier. bjectives were to assess system durability, methods for improving performance, and methods for reducing insta...

  17. FOLLOW-UP DURABILITY MEASUREMENTS AND MITIGATION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT TESTS IN 38 EASTERN PENNSYL- VANIA HOUSES HAVING INDOOR REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of follow-up tests in 38 difficult- to-mitigate Pennsylvania houses where indoor radon reduction systems had been installed 2 to 4 years earlier. bjectives were to assess system durability, methods for improving performance, and methods for reducing insta...

  18. Performance of a mmWave beamformed phased array system for indoor LOS communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Kinnan; Xu, Huaping

    2016-11-01

    Millimeter waves (mmWaves) spectrum ranging from 30GHz to 300GHz is emerging as a potential solution to the bandwidth problem faced by the wireless communication now a days. The advancements in the antenna technology has enabled the fabrication of antenna arrays or phased array systems which when used with techniques like spatial multiplexing and beamforming has enabled the use of mmWaves for both indoor and outdoor communication systems by providing gain and selectivity. This has also opened the doors for its potential use in long range and cellular communications. The 60GHz band also know as the oxygen absorption band due to its higher attenuation and unlicensed operation is a good candidate for use in secure and confined communications. In this paper we have investigated the performance of a beamformed phased array system in the mmWave spectrum. The performance is measured for varying the source and noise location and compared for a Linear and Rectangular array.

  19. An Integrated Wireless Wearable Sensor System for Posture Recognition and Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Yuan; Xiao, Xiling

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better monitoring for the elderly or patients, we developed an integrated wireless wearable sensor system that can realize posture recognition and indoor localization in real time. Five designed sensor nodes which are respectively fixed on lower limbs and a standard Kalman filter are used to acquire basic attitude data. After the attitude angles of five body segments (two thighs, two shanks and the waist) are obtained, the pitch angles of the left thigh and waist are used to realize posture recognition. Based on all these attitude angles of body segments, we can also calculate the coordinates of six lower limb joints (two hip joints, two knee joints and two ankle joints). Then, a novel relative localization algorithm based on step length is proposed to realize the indoor localization of the user. Several sparsely distributed active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags are used to correct the accumulative error in the relative localization algorithm and a set-membership filter is applied to realize the data fusion. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:27809230

  20. Using Dimensionality Reduction Techniques for Refining Passive Indoor Positioning Systems Based on Radio Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-de-Teruel, Pedro E.; Canovas, Oscar; Garcia, Felix J.

    2017-01-01

    Indoor positioning methods based on fingerprinting and radio signals rely on the quality of the radio map. For example, for room-level classification purposes, it is required that the signal observations related to each room exhibit significant differences in their RSSI values. However, it is difficult to verify and visualize that separability since radio maps are constituted by multi-dimensional observations whose dimension is directly related to the number of access points or monitors being employed for localization purposes. In this paper, we propose a refinement cycle for passive indoor positioning systems, which is based on dimensionality reduction techniques, to evaluate the quality of a radio map. By means of these techniques and our own data representation, we have defined two different visualization methods to obtain graphical information about the quality of a particular radio map in terms of overlapping areas and outliers. That information will be useful to determine whether new monitors are required or some existing ones should be moved. We have performed an exhaustive experimental analysis based on a variety of different scenarios, some deployed by our own research group and others corresponding to a well-known existing dataset widely analyzed by the community, in order to validate our proposal. As we will show, among the different combinations of data representation methods and dimensionality reduction techniques that we discuss, we have found that there are some specific configurations that are more useful in order to perform the refinement process. PMID:28420133

  1. a New Ubiquitous-Based Indoor Positioning System with Minimum Extra Hardware Using Smart Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassany Pazoky, S.; Chehreghan, A.; Sadeghi Niaraki, A.; Abbaspour, R. Ali

    2014-10-01

    Knowing the position has been an ambition in many areas such as science, military, business, etc. GPS was the realization of this wish in 1970s. Technological advances such as ubiquitous computing, as a conquering perspective, requires any service to work for any user, any place, anytime, and via any network. As GPS cannot provide services in indoor environments, many scientists began to develop indoor positioning systems (IPS). Smart phones penetrating our everyday lives were a great platform to host IPS applications. Sensors in smart phones were another big motive to develop IPS applications. Many researchers have been working on the topic developing various applications. However, the applications introduced lack simplicity. In other words, they need to install a step counter or smart phone on the ankle, which makes it awkward and inapplicable in many situations. In the current study, a new IPS methodology is introduced using only the usual embedded sensors in the smart phones. The robustness of this methodology cannot compete with those of the aforementioned approaches. The price paid for simplicity was decreasing robustness and complicating the methods and formulations. However, methods or tricks to harness the errors to an acceptable range are introduced as the future works.

  2. An Integrated Wireless Wearable Sensor System for Posture Recognition and Indoor Localization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Yuan; Xiao, Xiling

    2016-10-31

    In order to provide better monitoring for the elderly or patients, we developed an integrated wireless wearable sensor system that can realize posture recognition and indoor localization in real time. Five designed sensor nodes which are respectively fixed on lower limbs and a standard Kalman filter are used to acquire basic attitude data. After the attitude angles of five body segments (two thighs, two shanks and the waist) are obtained, the pitch angles of the left thigh and waist are used to realize posture recognition. Based on all these attitude angles of body segments, we can also calculate the coordinates of six lower limb joints (two hip joints, two knee joints and two ankle joints). Then, a novel relative localization algorithm based on step length is proposed to realize the indoor localization of the user. Several sparsely distributed active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags are used to correct the accumulative error in the relative localization algorithm and a set-membership filter is applied to realize the data fusion. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  3. Indoor Confined Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Daniel L; Kroll, Lee Anne K

    2015-07-01

    Indoor confined feedlots offer advantages that make them desirable in northern climates where high rainfall and snowfall occur. These facilities increase the risk of certain health risks, including lameness and tail injuries. Closed confinement can also facilitate the rapid spread of infectious disease. Veterinarians can help to manage these health risks by implementing management practices to reduce their occurrence.

  4. Climate change: Cropping system changes and adaptations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate change impacts the life of every person; however, there is little comprehensive understanding of the direct and indirect effects of climate change on agriculture. Since our food, feed, fiber, and fruit is derived from agricultural systems, understanding the effects of changing temperature, p...

  5. Prototype Expert System for Climate Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clay

    Many students find climate classification laborious and time-consuming, and through their lack of repetition fail to grasp the details of classification. This paper describes an expert system for climate classification that is being developed at Middle Tennessee State University. Topics include: (1) an introduction to the nature of classification,…

  6. Impact of simulated climate and building features on the penetration of toxic gases from the ambient into the indoor environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is a combination of experimental results and analysis of formaldehyde penetration across a residential building envelope with the objective of developing an understanding of the factors that govern indoor air concentrations of air toxics and to provide linkages betw...

  7. Impact of simulated climate and building features on the penetration of toxic gases from the ambient into the indoor environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is a combination of experimental results and analysis of formaldehyde penetration across a residential building envelope with the objective of developing an understanding of the factors that govern indoor air concentrations of air toxics and to provide linkages betw...

  8. Indoor location-aware medical systems for smart homecare and telehealth monitoring: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Fendy; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of current progress in the application of state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems for telecare and telehealth monitoring. This review is the first in the literature that provides a comprehensive discussion on how existing wireless indoor positioning systems can benefit the development of home-based care systems. More specifically, this review provides an in-depth comparative study of how both system users and medical practitioners can get benefit from indoor positioning technologies; e.g. for real-time monitoring of patients suffering chronic cardiovascular conditions, general monitoring of activities of daily living (ADLs), fall detection systems for the elderly as well as indoor navigation systems for those suffering from visual impairments. Furthermore, it also details various aspects worth considering when choosing a certain technology for a specific healthcare application; e.g. the spatial precision demanded by the application, trade-offs between unobtrusiveness and complexity, and issues surrounding compliance and adherence with the use of wearable tags. Beyond the current state-of-the-art, this review also rigorously discusses several research opportunities and the challenges associated with each.

  9. Climate data system supports FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Iascone, Dominick; Reph, Mary G.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Climate Data System (NCDS) at Goddard Space Flight Center is serving as the FIRE Central Archive, providing a centralized data holding and data cataloging service for the FIRE project. NCDS members are carrying out their responsibilities by holding all reduced observations and data analysis products submitted by individual principal investigators in the agreed upon format, by holding all satellite data sets required for FIRE, by providing copies of any of these data sets to FIRE investigators, and by producing and updating a catalog with information about the FIRE holdings. FIRE researchers were requested to provide their reduced data sets in the Standard Data Format (SDF) to the FIRE Central Archive. This standard format is proving to be of value. An improved SDF document is now available. The document provides an example from an actual FIRE SDF data set and clearly states the guidelines for formatting data in SDF. NCDS has received SDF tapes from a number of investigators. These tapes were analyzed and comments provided to the producers. One product which is now available is William J. Syrett's sodar data product from the Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observation. Sample plots from all SDF tapes submitted to the archive will be available to FSET members. Related cloud products are also available through NCDS. Entries describing the FIRE data sets are being provided for the NCDS on-line catalog. Detailed information for the Extended Time Observations is available in the general FIRE catalog entry. Separate catalog entries are being written for the Cirrus Intensive Field Observation (IFO) and for the Marine Stratocumulus IFO. Short descriptions of each FIRE data set will be installed into the NCDS Summary Catalog.

  10. High-accuracy indoor positioning system based on visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ling; Zhang, Hongming; Yu, Bingyan; Guan, Yang

    2015-11-01

    A visible light communication (VLC)-based high-accuracy indoor positioning system is proposed and demonstrated. In this system, the light-emitting diode identification (LED-ID) indicating the position information of the LED can be transmitted to the receiver by the illumination LED through VLC. In the meantime, with the aid of a camera and angular sensors of the mobile device, a coordinate transform can be employed to calculate the relative position between the receiver and the reference LED so that the position of the receiver can be determined. Finally, the experimental results show that 2-cm positioning accuracy can be achieved and the simulation results indicate that the positioning error can be limited within 4.7 cm when the accuracy of angular sensors is 1 deg.

  11. Web Information Systems for Monitoring and Control of Indoor Air Quality at Subway Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gi Heung; Choi, Gi Sang; Jang, Joo Hyoung

    In crowded subway stations indoor air quality (IAQ) is a key factor for ensuring the safety, health and comfort of passengers. In this study, a framework for web-based information system in VDN environment for monitoring and control of IAQ in subway stations is suggested. Since physical variables that describing IAQ need to be closely monitored and controlled in multiple locations in subway stations, concept of distributed monitoring and control network using wireless media needs to be implemented. Connecting remote wireless sensor network and device (LonWorks) networks to the IP network based on the concept of VDN can provide a powerful, integrated, distributed monitoring and control performance, making a web-based information system possible.

  12. Management system, organizational climate and performance relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Seven aerospace firms were investigated to determine if a relationship existed among management systems, organizational climate, and organization performance. Positive relationships were found between each of these variables, but a statistically significant relationship existed only between the management system and organizational climate. The direction and amount of communication and the degree of decentralized decision-making, elements of the management system, also had a statistically significant realtionship with organization performance.

  13. The Global Climate Observing System. French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvanon-Du-Vachat, R.

    2010-09-01

    THE GLOBAL CLIMATE OBSERVING SYSTEM. FRENCH CONTRIBUTION Régis Juvanon du Vachat Société Météorologique de France, c/o D2I/MI, 1, Quai Branly 75007 Paris France is participating fully in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). It incorporates the following four components: meteorological and atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial, spatial, which will be briefly presented, especially in relation with the monitoring of the climate. The presentation will give an overview of the general principles governing the GCOS system and particularly the concepts used to maintain efficiently this climate observing system for a long period of time ("from research networks to operational networks"). The presentation will cover all the four components of the GCOS system. The whole report has been published in the Fifth National Communication from France to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The presentation will give an overview of the different networks of these four domains devoted to the monitoring of climate and maintained by France and highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of this climate observing system.

  14. Unobtrusive measurement of indoor energy expenditure using an infrared sensor-based activity monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bosun; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an unobtrusive energy expenditure (EE) measurement system using an infrared (IR) sensor-based activity monitoring system to measure indoor activities and to estimate individual quantitative EE. IR-sensor activation counts were measured with a Bluetooth-based monitoring system and the standard EE was calculated using an established regression equation. Ten male subjects participated in the experiment and three different EE measurement systems (gas analyzer, accelerometer, IR sensor) were used simultaneously in order to determine the regression equation and evaluate the performance. As a standard measurement, oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured by a portable metabolic system (Metamax 3X, Cortex, Germany). A single room experiment was performed to develop a regression model of the standard EE measurement from the proposed IR sensor-based measurement system. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were done to compare the performance of the IR system with that of the Actigraph system. We determined that our proposed IR-based EE measurement system shows a similar correlation to the Actigraph system with the standard measurement system.

  15. High-speed indoor optical wireless communication system with single channel imaging receiver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2012-04-09

    In this paper we experimentally investigate a gigabit indoor optical wireless communication system with single channel imaging receiver. It is shown that the use of single channel imaging receiver rejects most of the background light. This single channel imaging receiver is composed of an imaging lens and a small photo-sensitive area photodiode attached on a 2-axis actuator. The actuator and photodiode are placed on the focal plane of the lens to search for the focused light spot. The actuator is voice-coil based and it is low cost and commercially available. With this single channel imaging receiver, bit rate as high as 12.5 Gbps has been successfully demonstrated and the maximum error-free (BER<10⁻⁹) beam footprint is even larger than 1 m. Compared with our previous experimental results with a single wide field-of-view non-imaging receiver, an improvement in error-free beam footprint of >20% has been achieved. When this system is integrated with our recently proposed optical wireless based indoor localization system, both high speed wireless communication and mobility can be provided to users over the entire room. Furthermore, theoretical analysis has been carried out and the simulation results agree well with the experiments. In addition, since the rough location information of the user is available in our proposed system, instead of searching for the focused light spot over a large area on the focal plane of the lens, only a small possible area needs to be scanned. By further pre-setting a proper comparison threshold when searching for the focused light spot, the time needed for searching can be further reduced.

  16. A geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial modeling approach to assessing indoor radon potential at local level.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Joey Y; Laćan, Igor; Liu, Kai-Shen; Waldman, Jed

    2006-04-01

    This study integrates residential radon data from previous studies in Southern California (USA), into a geographic information system (GIS) linked with statistical techniques. A difference (p<0.05) is found in the indoor radon in residences grouped by radon-potential zones. Using a novel Monte Carlo approach, we found that the mean distance from elevated-radon residences (concentration>74 Bq m(-3)) to epicenters of large (> 4 Richter) earthquakes was smaller (p<0.0001) than the average residence-to-epicenter distance, suggesting an association between the elevated indoor-radon and seismic activities.

  17. A visual orientation system for promoting indoor travel in persons with profound developmental disabilities and visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, G E; Oliva, D; Gnocchini, F

    1996-10-01

    A visual orientation system was employed for promoting independent indoor travel for two young adults with profound developmental disabilities and visual impairment. The system was a portable device subjects wore and light sources that marked the routes to the various destinations. Data showed that the system was useful in helping the subjects orient and move independently in their daily environment and in a new (generalization) setting. The visual orientation system is discussed in relation to other systems previously developed.

  18. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

  19. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-30

    This progress report covers the period July 1, 1994 through September 30, 1994, and summarizes continuing work on developing deloyable covers for indoor swimming pools. This work includes design and development of motor controllers to deploy and roll up pool covers, reels, cover material of polyethylene and foam filled laminates, and plans for field deployment of a system, where energy savings can be monitored.

  20. RE-ENTRAINMENT AND DISPERSION OF EXHAUSTS FROM INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS: ANALYSIS OF TRACER GAS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that acti...

  1. strange beta: An assistance system for indoor rock climbing route setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C.; Becker, L.; Bradley, E.

    2012-03-01

    This paper applies the mathematics of chaos to the task of designing indoor rock-climbing routes. Chaotic variation has been used to great advantage on music and dance, but the challenges here are quite different, beginning with the representation. We present a formalized system for transcribing rock climbing problems and then describe a variation generator that is designed to support human route-setters in designing new and interesting climbing problems. This variation generator, termed strange beta, uses chaos to introduce novelty. We validated this approach with a large blinded study in a commercial climbing gym, in cooperation with experienced climbers and expert route setters. The results show that strange beta can help a human setter produce routes that are at least as good as, and in some cases better than, those produced in the traditional manner.

  2. Strange beta: an assistance system for indoor rock climbing route setting.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C; Becker, L; Bradley, E

    2012-03-01

    This paper applies the mathematics of chaos to the task of designing indoor rock-climbing routes. Chaotic variation has been used to great advantage on music and dance, but the challenges here are quite different, beginning with the representation. We present a formalized system for transcribing rock climbing problems and then describe a variation generator that is designed to support human route-setters in designing new and interesting climbing problems. This variation generator, termed strange beta, uses chaos to introduce novelty. We validated this approach with a large blinded study in a commercial climbing gym, in cooperation with experienced climbers and expert route setters. The results show that strange beta can help a human setter produce routes that are at least as good as, and in some cases better than, those produced in the traditional manner.

  3. GIS management system of power plant staff based on wireless fidelity indoor location technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    The labor conditions and environment of electric power production are quite complicated. It is very difficult to realize the real-time supervision of the employees' working conditions and safety. Using the existing base stations in the power plant, the wireless fidelity network is established to realize the wireless coverage of the work site. We can use mobile phone to communicate and achieve positioning. The main content of this project is based on the special environment of the power plant, designed a suitable for ordinary Android mobile phone indoor wireless fidelity positioning system, real-time positioning and record the scene of each employee's movement trajectory, has achieved real-time staff check Gang, Staff in place, and for the safety of employees to provide a guarantee.

  4. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-25

    This is a progress report for the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994, for a project to develop cover systems for indoor swimming pools with the objective of reducing energy consumption. Effort has included evaluation of cover materials, development of brakes to tension deployment ropes, better limit of motion switches, reel systems, drive systems for the take up spool, and drive tensioning systems.

  5. 47 CFR 15.517 - Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 15.517 Section 15.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY... under the provisions of this section is limited to UWB transmitters employed solely for indoor operation... necessity to operate with a fixed indoor infrastructure, e.g., a transmitter that must be connected to the...

  6. 47 CFR 15.517 - Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 15.517 Section 15.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY... under the provisions of this section is limited to UWB transmitters employed solely for indoor operation... necessity to operate with a fixed indoor infrastructure, e.g., a transmitter that must be connected to the...

  7. 47 CFR 15.517 - Technical requirements for indoor UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 15.517 Section 15.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY... under the provisions of this section is limited to UWB transmitters employed solely for indoor operation... necessity to operate with a fixed indoor infrastructure, e.g., a transmitter that must be connected to the...

  8. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  9. a Statistical Analysis on the System Performance of a Bluetooth Low Energy Indoor Positioning System in a 3d Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haagmans, G. G.; Verhagen, S.; Voûte, R. L.; Verbree, E.

    2017-09-01

    Since GPS tends to fail for indoor positioning purposes, alternative methods like indoor positioning systems (IPS) based on Bluetooth low energy (BLE) are developing rapidly. Generally, IPS are deployed in environments covered with obstacles such as furniture, walls, people and electronics influencing the signal propagation. The major factor influencing the system performance and to acquire optimal positioning results is the geometry of the beacons. The geometry of the beacons is limited to the available infrastructure that can be deployed (number of beacons, basestations and tags), which leads to the following challenge: Given a limited number of beacons, where should they be placed in a specified indoor environment, such that the geometry contributes to optimal positioning results? This paper aims to propose a statistical model that is able to select the optimal configuration that satisfies the user requirements in terms of precision. The model requires the definition of a chosen 3D space (in our case 7 × 10 × 6 meter), number of beacons, possible user tag locations and a performance threshold (e.g. required precision). For any given set of beacon and receiver locations, the precision, internal- and external reliability can be determined on forehand. As validation, the modeled precision has been compared with observed precision results. The measurements have been performed with an IPS of BlooLoc at a chosen set of user tag locations for a given geometric configuration. Eventually, the model is able to select the optimal geometric configuration out of millions of possible configurations based on a performance threshold (e.g. required precision).

  10. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Abanyie, S.; Akuffo, F. O.; Kutin-Sanwu, V.

    2013-01-01

    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+) simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT). An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses. PMID:23878528

  11. A Spatial Division Clustering Method and Low Dimensional Feature Extraction Technique Based Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yun; Zhang, Zhongzhao; Meng, Weixiao; Ma, Lin; Wang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    Indoor positioning systems based on the fingerprint method are widely used due to the large number of existing devices with a wide range of coverage. However, extensive positioning regions with a massive fingerprint database may cause high computational complexity and error margins, therefore clustering methods are widely applied as a solution. However, traditional clustering methods in positioning systems can only measure the similarity of the Received Signal Strength without being concerned with the continuity of physical coordinates. Besides, outage of access points could result in asymmetric matching problems which severely affect the fine positioning procedure. To solve these issues, in this paper we propose a positioning system based on the Spatial Division Clustering (SDC) method for clustering the fingerprint dataset subject to physical distance constraints. With the Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine techniques, SDC can achieve higher coarse positioning accuracy than traditional clustering algorithms. In terms of fine localization, based on the Kernel Principal Component Analysis method, the proposed positioning system outperforms its counterparts based on other feature extraction methods in low dimensionality. Apart from balancing online matching computational burden, the new positioning system exhibits advantageous performance on radio map clustering, and also shows better robustness and adaptability in the asymmetric matching problem aspect. PMID:24451470

  12. A spatial division clustering method and low dimensional feature extraction technique based indoor positioning system.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yun; Zhang, Zhongzhao; Meng, Weixiao; Ma, Lin; Wang, Yao

    2014-01-22

    Indoor positioning systems based on the fingerprint method are widely used due to the large number of existing devices with a wide range of coverage. However, extensive positioning regions with a massive fingerprint database may cause high computational complexity and error margins, therefore clustering methods are widely applied as a solution. However, traditional clustering methods in positioning systems can only measure the similarity of the Received Signal Strength without being concerned with the continuity of physical coordinates. Besides, outage of access points could result in asymmetric matching problems which severely affect the fine positioning procedure. To solve these issues, in this paper we propose a positioning system based on the Spatial Division Clustering (SDC) method for clustering the fingerprint dataset subject to physical distance constraints. With the Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine techniques, SDC can achieve higher coarse positioning accuracy than traditional clustering algorithms. In terms of fine localization, based on the Kernel Principal Component Analysis method, the proposed positioning system outperforms its counterparts based on other feature extraction methods in low dimensionality. Apart from balancing online matching computational burden, the new positioning system exhibits advantageous performance on radio map clustering, and also shows better robustness and adaptability in the asymmetric matching problem aspect.

  13. A system-level simulator for indoor mmW SAR imaging and its applications.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Ocket, Ilja; Schreurs, Dominique; Nauwelaers, Bart

    2012-10-08

    Recently, the research interest in indoor active millimeter wave (mmW) imaging by applying the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technique is increasing. However, there is a lack of proper computer-aided design (CAD) tools at the system level, and almost all the R&D activities rely on experiments solely. The high cost of such a system stops many researchers from investigating such a fascinating research topic. Moreover, the experiment-oriented studies may blind the researchers to some details during the imaging process, since in most cases they are only interested in the readout from the receivers and do not know how the waves perform in reality. To bridge such a gap, we propose a modeling approach at mmW frequencies, which is able to simulate the physical process during SAR imaging. We are not going to discuss about advanced image reconstruction algorithms, since they have already been investigated intensively for decades. To distinguish from previous work, for the first time, we model the data acquisition process in a SAR imaging system successfully at mmW frequencies. We show how to perform some system-level studies based on such a simulator via a common PC, including the influence of reflectivity contrast between object and background, sampling step, and antenna's directivity on image quality. The simulator can serve system design purposes and it can be easily extended to THz frequencies.

  14. Active Learning and Engagement with the Wireless Indoor Location Device (WILD) Learning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M.; Samson, P. J.; Ojeda, L.; Miller, T.; Yu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Wireless Indoor Location Device (WILD) Learning System being developed at the University of Michigan and the Education Technology company A2 Motus LLC provides a unique platform for social learning by allowing students to become active participants in live simulations of complex systems, like hurricane formation. The WILD Learning System enables teachers to engage students in kinesthetic activities that explore complex models from a wide variety of STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Math) disciplines. The system provides students' location, orientation and motion within the classroom and assigns each student different parameters depending on the activity. For example, students learning about hurricanes could be assigned atmospheric pressure levels and asked to arrange themselves around the room to simulate a hurricane. The Wild Learning System software then takes the students' pressure readings and locations and projects their locations overlaid onto a real-time generated simulated pressure weather map enabling the observation of how their arrangement influences the pressure structure. The teacher then could have the students orient themselves in the direction they think the resulting wind field will be based on the pressure contours as the system can show an arrow originating from each of the students position in the direction that they are facing. The system also could incorporate a student response-type system for the instructor to then directly question students about other concepts and record their response to both the kinesthetic activity and other formative assessment questions. The WILD Learning System consists of a sensor package for each student in the class, beacons to enable precise localization of the students, software to calculate student location information, and educational software for a variety of activities. In addition, a software development kit (SDK) is under development that would allow others to create additional learning

  15. Energy-efficient heat recovery systems for air conditioning of indoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.M.; El-Refaee, M.M.; Borhan, Y.A.

    1997-12-31

    Analysis of a conventional air-conditioning system for indoor swimming pools during the summer season is presented. The analysis showed that the cooling load is characterized by a large latent heat fraction. As a result, a reheating process must be used downstream of the cooling coil to achieve the proper design comfort condition in the pool area. This, in turn, increases the energy requirement per unit cooling load of the pool. Two heat recovery systems are proposed to reduce this energy. In the first system, ambient air is used for the reheating process in an air-to-air heat exchanger. In the second system, mixed air--recirculated and ambient air--is used for the reheating process. Heat recovery efficiency is defined as an index of the energy savings resulting from the use of the heat recovery system compared to that of a conventional air-conditioning system. At a wide range of ambient conditions it is found that the energy savings could be up to 70% of the energy required to operate a conventional air-conditioning system. A parametric study was carried out to size the air-to-air heat exchanger associated with these heat recovery systems, and the results showed that a heat exchanger having an effectiveness of 0.5 would give satisfactory results. The proposed heat recovery systems are also compared to the case of reheating using the heat rejection from the condenser of the refrigeration machine. The comparison showed that the proposed systems save more energy than reheating using the condenser heat. A typical case study is given to demonstrate the savings in energy consumption when these systems are used.

  16. An intelligent multi-sensor system for first responder indoor navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanatiadis, A.; Gasteratos, A.; Koulouriotis, D.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an indoor navigation system based on sensor data from first responder wearable modules. The system combines an inertial measurement unit, a digital camera and a radio frequency identification device in a way that allows the advantages of each sensor to be fully exploited. The key to this synergy is the extracted qualitative criteria which characterize the performance of each sensor subsystem at various first responder activities and operational conditions under certain time intervals. The accuracy of the detected walking pattern through measurements of the acceleration magnitude from the inertial sensor is utilized for the performance evaluation of the dead-reckoning algorithm. The amount of correct feature matches is linked to the three-dimensional scene representation from the camera navigation subsystem and finally, the degree of probability of each radio frequency identification location estimate is exploited as a straightforward qualitative criterion. The final fused location estimation is extracted after applying fuzzy if-then rules at each time interval. Since the inertial sensor suffers from accumulated drift, the rules of the fuzzy inference system drop the measurements from the inertial measurement unit whenever the other two subsystems perform adequately. Extensive comparison and experimental results based on the proposed architecture have shown not only better navigation effectiveness and lower positioning error compared with other first responder navigation systems but also increased accuracy in various and challenging operational conditions.

  17. A Telemetry System Embedded in Clothes for Indoor Localization and Elderly Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Charlon, Yoann; Fourty, Nicolas; Campo, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a telemetry system used in a combined trilateration method for the precise indoor localization of the elderly who need health monitoring. The system is based on the association of two wireless technologies: ultrasonic and 802.15.4. The use of the 802.15.4 RF signal gives the reference starting time of the ultrasonic emission (time difference of arrival method). A time of flight measurement of the ultrasonic pulses provides the distances between the mobile node and three anchor points. These distance measurements are then used to locate the mobile node using the trilateration method with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The originality of our work lies in embedding the mobile node in clothes. The system is embedded in clothes in two ways: on a shoe in order to form a “smart” shoe and in a hat in order to form a “smart” hat. Both accessories allow movements, gait speed and distance covered to be monitored for health applications. Experiments in a test room are presented to show the effectiveness of our system. PMID:24008286

  18. A telemetry system embedded in clothes for indoor localization and elderly health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Charlon, Yoann; Fourty, Nicolas; Campo, Eric

    2013-09-04

    This paper presents a telemetry system used in a combined trilateration method for the precise indoor localization of the elderly who need health monitoring. The system is based on the association of two wireless technologies: ultrasonic and 802.15.4. The use of the 802.15.4 RF signal gives the reference starting time of the ultrasonic emission (time difference of arrival method). A time of flight measurement of the ultrasonic pulses provides the distances between the mobile node and three anchor points. These distance measurements are then used to locate the mobile node using the trilateration method with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The originality of our work lies in embedding the mobile node in clothes. The system is embedded in clothes in two ways: on a shoe in order to form a "smart" shoe and in a hat in order to form a "smart" hat. Both accessories allow movements, gait speed and distance covered to be monitored for health applications. Experiments in a test room are presented to show the effectiveness of our system.

  19. A practical indoor context-aware surveillance system with multi-Kinect sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; You, Ying; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we develop a novel practical application, which give scalable services to the end users when abnormal actives are happening. Architecture of the application has been presented consisting of network infrared cameras and a communication module. In this intelligent surveillance system we use Kinect sensors as the input cameras. Kinect is an infrared laser camera which its user can access the raw infrared sensor stream. We install several Kinect sensors in one room to track the human skeletons. Each sensor returns the body positions with 15 coordinates in its own coordinate system. We use calibration algorithms to calibrate all the body positions points into one unified coordinate system. With the body positions points, we can infer the surveillance context. Furthermore, the messages from the metadata index matrix will be sent to mobile phone through communication module. User will instantly be aware of an abnormal case happened in the room without having to check the website. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. And the application method introduced in this paper is not only to discourage the criminals and assist police in the apprehension of suspects, but also can enabled the end-users monitor the indoor environments anywhere and anytime by their phones.

  20. Indoor ultrafine particle exposures and home heating systems: a cross-sectional survey of Canadian homes during the winter months.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Dufresne, Andre; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Joseph, Lawrence

    2007-05-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter has a negative effect on respiratory health in both children and adults. Ultrafine particle (UFP) exposures are of particular concern owing to their enhanced ability to cause oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs. In this investigation, our objective was to examine the contribution of home heating systems (electric baseboard heaters, wood stoves, forced-air oil/natural gas furnace) to indoor UFP exposures. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 36 homes in the cities of Montréal, Québec, and Pembroke, Ontario. Real-time measures of indoor UFP concentrations were collected in each home for approximately 14 h, and an outdoor UFP measurement was collected outside each home before indoor sampling. A home-characteristic questionnaire was also administered, and air exchange rates were estimated using carbon dioxide as a tracer gas. Average UFP exposures of 21,594 cm(-3) (95% confidence interval (CI): 14,014, 29,174) and 6660 cm(-3) (95% CI: 4339, 8982) were observed for the evening (1600-2400) and overnight (2400-0800) hours, respectively. In an unadjusted comparison, overnight baseline UFP exposures were significantly greater in homes with electric baseboard heaters as compared to homes using forced-air oil or natural gas furnaces, and homes using wood stoves had significantly greater overnight baseline UFP exposures than homes using forced-air natural gas furnaces. However, in multivariate models, electric oven use (beta=12,253 cm(-3), 95% CI: 3524, 20,982), indoor relative humidity (beta=1136 cm(-3) %, 95% CI: 372, 1899), and indoor smoking (beta=18,192 cm(-3), 95% CI: 2073, 34,311) were the only significant determinants of mean indoor UFP exposure, whereas air exchange rate (beta=4351 cm(-3) h(-1), 95% CI: 1507, 7195) and each 10,000 cm(-3) increase in outdoor UFPs (beta=811 cm(-3), 95% CI: 244,1377) were the only significant determinants of overnight baseline UFP exposures. In general, our findings suggest that

  1. The Community Climate System Model: CCSM3

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W D; Blackmon, M; Bitz, C; Bonan, G; Bretherton, C S; Carton, J A; Chang, P; Doney, S; Hack, J J; Kiehl, J T; Henderson, T; Large, W G; McKenna, D; Santer, B D; Smith, R D

    2004-12-27

    A new version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) has been developed and released to the climate community. CCSM3 is a coupled climate model with components representing the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface connected by a flux coupler. CCSM3 is designed to produce realistic simulations over a wide range of spatial resolutions, enabling inexpensive simulations lasting several millennia or detailed studies of continental-scale climate change. This paper will show results from the configuration used for climate-change simulations with a T85 grid for atmosphere and land and a 1-degree grid for ocean and sea-ice. The new system incorporates several significant improvements in the scientific formulation. The enhancements in the model physics are designed to reduce or eliminate several systematic biases in the mean climate produced by previous editions of CCSM. These include new treatments of cloud processes, aerosol radiative forcing, land-atmosphere fluxes, ocean mixed-layer processes, and sea-ice dynamics. There are significant improvements in the sea-ice thickness, polar radiation budgets, equatorial sea-surface temperatures, ocean currents, cloud radiative effects, and ENSO teleconnections. CCSM3 can produce stable climate simulations of millenial duration without ad hoc adjustments to the fluxes exchanged among the component models. Nonetheless, there are still systematic biases in the ocean-atmosphere fluxes in western coastal regions, the spectrum of ENSO variability, the spatial distribution of precipitation in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the continental precipitation and surface air temperatures. We conclude with the prospects for extending CCSM to a more comprehensive model of the Earth's climate system.

  2. Climate change impacts on food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Food system includes biophysical factors (climate, land and water), human environments (production technologies and food consumption, distribution and marketing), as well as the dynamic interactions within them. Climate change affects agriculture and food systems in various ways. Agricultural production can be influenced directly by climatic factors such as mean temperature rising, change in rainfall patterns, and more frequent extreme events. Eventually, climate change could cause shift of arable land, alteration of water availability, abnormal fluctuation of food prices, and increase of people at risk of malnutrition. This work aims to evaluate how climate change would affect agricultural production biophysically and how these effects would propagate to social factors at the global level. In order to model the complex interactions between the natural and social components, a Global Optimization model of Agricultural Land and Water resources (GOALW) is applied to the analysis. GOALW includes various demands of human society (food, feed, other), explicit production module, and irrigation water availability constraint. The objective of GOALW is to maximize global social welfare (consumers' surplus and producers' surplus).Crop-wise irrigation water use in different regions around the world are determined by the model; marginal value of water (MVW) can be obtained from the model, which implies how much additional welfare benefit could be gained with one unit increase in local water availability. Using GOALW, we will analyze two questions in this presentation: 1) how climate change will alter irrigation requirements and how the social system would buffer that by price/demand adjustment; 2) how will the MVW be affected by climate change and what are the controlling factors. These results facilitate meaningful insights for investment and adaptation strategies in sustaining world's food security under climate change.

  3. Indoor radiation mapping using the Laser Assisted Ranging and Data System (LARADS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) nuclear facilities require characterization and documentation of the results as part of planning and decision-making for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) projects and to release areas that have been cleaned up. Conducting radiation surveys of indoor and outdoor surfaces and generating accurate survey reports is an important component of the D and D program. The Laser Assisted Ranging and Data System (LARADS) is a characterization technology that provides real-time data on the location and concentration levels of radiological contamination. The system can be utilized with a number of available detection instruments and can be integrated with existing data analysis and mapping software technologies to generate superior quality survey data reports. This innovative technology is competitive with baseline technologies in terms of cost and survey times, but is much more flexible and provides more useful reports. The system also has the capability of electronically logging survey data, making it easy to store and retrieve. Such data are scientifically derived and not subject to interpretation. The LARADS is an extremely attractive alternative to manually generated survey data reports.

  4. Designing coherent optical wireless systems for high speed indoor telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakis, Thomas; Kanakis, Panagiotis; Bogris, Adonis; Dalakas, Vasilis; Dede, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on several design issues of coherent optical wireless systems as a means of providing high data rate optical links in indoor environments enabling the realization of ultra-broadband wireless local area networks. We show how the performance specifications can be translated into signal-to-noise ratio requirements inside the coverage area, taking into account the laser phase noise mitigation scheme. We then discuss the power budget details using Gaussian beam optics incorporating the transceiver positioning and the optical systems used at the transmitter and receiver side. We also treat the influence of ambient light noise. We show that coherent optical wireless systems are characterized by excellent signal-to-noise performance enabling networking at very high data rates. Our results indicate that 2 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s data rates can be easily sustained at 3 m distances over a circular coverage area of 1 m radius using Class-1 lasers for the transmitter and the local oscillator. We also discuss the power gain compared to intensity modulated/direct detection optical wireless and show that it can be as high as 20 dB, especially near the edge of the coverage area.

  5. Challenges in Wireless System Integration as Enablers for Indoor Context Aware Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The advent of fully interactive environments within Smart Cities and Smart Regions requires the use of multiple wireless systems. In the case of user-device interaction, which finds multiple applications such as Ambient Assisted Living, Intelligent Transportation Systems or Smart Grids, among others, large amount of transceivers are employed in order to achieve anytime, anyplace and any device connectivity. The resulting combination of heterogeneous wireless network exhibits fundamental limitations derived from Coverage/Capacity relations, as a function of required Quality of Service parameters, required bit rate, energy restrictions and adaptive modulation and coding schemes. In this context, inherent transceiver density poses challenges in overall system operation, given by multiple node operation which increases overall interference levels. In this work, a deterministic based analysis applied to variable density wireless sensor network operation within complex indoor scenarios is presented, as a function of topological node distribution. The extensive analysis derives interference characterizations, both for conventional transceivers as well as wearables, which provide relevant information in terms of individual node configuration as well as complete network layout. PMID:28704963

  6. Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging System Using Spread Spectrum and MEMS Technology for Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Laurent; Tiete, Jelmer; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Indoor localization of persons and objects poses a great engineering challenge. Previously developed localization systems demonstrate the use of wideband techniques in ultrasound ranging systems. Direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum ultrasound signals have been proven to achieve a high level of accuracy. A novel ranging method using the frequency hopping spread spectrum with finite impulse response filtering will be investigated and compared against the direct sequence spread spectrum. In the first setup, distances are estimated in a single-access environment, while in the second setup, two senders and one receiver are used. During the experiments, the micro-electromechanical systems are used as ultrasonic sensors, while the senders were implemented using field programmable gate arrays. Results show that in a single-access environment, the direct sequence spread spectrum method offers slightly better accuracy and precision performance compared to the frequency hopping spread spectrum. When two senders are used, measurements point out that the frequency hopping spread spectrum is more robust to near-far effects than the direct sequence spread spectrum. PMID:24553084

  7. Challenges in Wireless System Integration as Enablers for Indoor Context Aware Environments.

    PubMed

    López-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villandangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2017-07-12

    The advent of fully interactive environments within Smart Cities and Smart Regions requires the use of multiple wireless systems. In the case of user-device interaction, which finds multiple applications such as Ambient Assisted Living, Intelligent Transportation Systems or Smart Grids, among others, large amount of transceivers are employed in order to achieve anytime, anyplace and any device connectivity. The resulting combination of heterogeneous wireless network exhibits fundamental limitations derived from Coverage/Capacity relations, as a function of required Quality of Service parameters, required bit rate, energy restrictions and adaptive modulation and coding schemes. In this context, inherent transceiver density poses challenges in overall system operation, given by multiple node operation which increases overall interference levels. In this work, a deterministic based analysis applied to variable density wireless sensor network operation within complex indoor scenarios is presented, as a function of topological node distribution. The extensive analysis derives interference characterizations, both for conventional transceivers as well as wearables, which provide relevant information in terms of individual node configuration as well as complete network layout.

  8. A vision-based automated guided vehicle system with marker recognition for indoor use.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeisung; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon

    2013-08-07

    We propose an intelligent vision-based Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system using fiduciary markers. In this paper, we explore a low-cost, efficient vehicle guiding method using a consumer grade web camera and fiduciary markers. In the proposed method, the system uses fiduciary markers with a capital letter or triangle indicating direction in it. The markers are very easy to produce, manipulate, and maintain. The marker information is used to guide a vehicle. We use hue and saturation values in the image to extract marker candidates. When the known size fiduciary marker is detected by using a bird's eye view and Hough transform, the positional relation between the marker and the vehicle can be calculated. To recognize the character in the marker, a distance transform is used. The probability of feature matching was calculated by using a distance transform, and a feature having high probability is selected as a captured marker. Four directional signals and 10 alphabet features are defined and used as markers. A 98.87% recognition rate was achieved in the testing phase. The experimental results with the fiduciary marker show that the proposed method is a solution for an indoor AGV system.

  9. Integration of Directional Antennas in an RSS Fingerprinting-Based Indoor Localization System.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Quirós, Raúl; Martínez-Sala, Alejandro; Gómez-Tornero, José Luis; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-12-23

    In this paper, the integration of directional antennas in a room-level received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting-based indoor localization system (ILS) is studied. The sensor reader (SR), which is in charge of capturing the RSS to infer the tag position, can be attached to an omnidirectional or directional antenna. Unlike commonly-employed omnidirectional antennas, directional antennas can receive a stronger signal from the direction in which they are pointed, resulting in a different RSS distributions in space and, hence, more distinguishable fingerprints. A simulation tool and a system management software have been also developed to control the system and assist the initial antenna deployment, reducing time-consuming costs. A prototype was mounted in a real scenario, with a number of SRs with omnidirectional and directional antennas properly positioned. Different antenna configurations have been studied, evidencing a promising capability of directional antennas to enhance the performance of RSS fingerprinting-based ILS, reducing the number of required SRs and also increasing the localization success.

  10. A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeisung; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon

    2013-01-01

    We propose an intelligent vision-based Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system using fiduciary markers. In this paper, we explore a low-cost, efficient vehicle guiding method using a consumer grade web camera and fiduciary markers. In the proposed method, the system uses fiduciary markers with a capital letter or triangle indicating direction in it. The markers are very easy to produce, manipulate, and maintain. The marker information is used to guide a vehicle. We use hue and saturation values in the image to extract marker candidates. When the known size fiduciary marker is detected by using a bird's eye view and Hough transform, the positional relation between the marker and the vehicle can be calculated. To recognize the character in the marker, a distance transform is used. The probability of feature matching was calculated by using a distance transform, and a feature having high probability is selected as a captured marker. Four directional signals and 10 alphabet features are defined and used as markers. A 98.87% recognition rate was achieved in the testing phase. The experimental results with the fiduciary marker show that the proposed method is a solution for an indoor AGV system. PMID:23966180

  11. Design approaches for a cycling adsorbent/photocatalyst system for indoor air purification: formaldehyde example.

    PubMed

    Chin, Paul; Ollis, David F

    2008-04-01

    A kinetic model for a cycling adsorbent/photocatalyst combination for formaldehyde removal in indoor air (Chin et al. J. Catalysis 2006, 237, 29-37) was previously developed in our lab, demonstrating agreement with lab-scale batch operation data of other researchers (Shiraishi et al. Chem. Engineer. Sci. 2003, 58, 929-934). Model parameters evaluated included adsorption equilibrium and rate constants for the adsorbent (activated carbon) honeycomb rotor, and catalytic rate constant for pseudo-first-order formaldehyde destruction in the titanium dioxide photoreactor. This paper explores design consequences for this novel system. In particular, the batch parameter values are used to model both adsorbent and photocatalyst behavior for continuous operation in typical residential home challenges. Design variables, including realistic make-up air fraction, adsorbent honeycomb rotation speed, and formaldehyde source emission rate, are considered to evaluate the ability of the system to achieve World Health Organization pollutant guidelines. In all circumstances, the size of the required rotating adsorbent bed and photoreactor for single-stage operation and the resultant formaldehyde concentration in the home are calculated. The ability of how well such a system might be accommodated within the typical dimensions of commercial ventilation ducts is also considered.

  12. Integration of Directional Antennas in an RSS Fingerprinting-Based Indoor Localization System

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Quirós, Raúl; Martínez-Sala, Alejandro; Gómez-Tornero, José Luis; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the integration of directional antennas in a room-level received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting-based indoor localization system (ILS) is studied. The sensor reader (SR), which is in charge of capturing the RSS to infer the tag position, can be attached to an omnidirectional or directional antenna. Unlike commonly-employed omnidirectional antennas, directional antennas can receive a stronger signal from the direction in which they are pointed, resulting in a different RSS distributions in space and, hence, more distinguishable fingerprints. A simulation tool and a system management software have been also developed to control the system and assist the initial antenna deployment, reducing time-consuming costs. A prototype was mounted in a real scenario, with a number of SRs with omnidirectional and directional antennas properly positioned. Different antenna configurations have been studied, evidencing a promising capability of directional antennas to enhance the performance of RSS fingerprinting-based ILS, reducing the number of required SRs and also increasing the localization success. PMID:26703620

  13. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  14. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  15. Towards improved characterization of high-risk releases using heterogeneous indoor sensor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sreedharan, Priya; Sohn, Michael D.; Nazaroff, William W.; J. Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-06-30

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardous to building occupants. For an acutely toxic contaminant, the speed of the emergency response strongly influences the consequences to occupants. The design of a real time sensor system is made challenging both by the urgency and complex nature of the event, and by the imperfect sensors and models available to describe it. In this research, we use Bayesian modeling to combine information from multiple types of sensors to improve the characterization of a release. We discuss conceptual and algorithmic considerations for selecting and fusing information from disparate sensors. To explore system performance, we use both real tracer gas data from experiments in a three story building, along with synthetic data, including information from door position sensors. The added information from door position sensors is found to be useful for many scenarios, but not always. We discuss the physical conditions and design factors that affect these results, such as the influence of the door positions on contaminant transport. We highlight potential benefits of multisensor data fusion, challenges in realizing those benefits, and opportunities for further improvement.

  16. TrackCC: A Practical Wireless Indoor Localization System Based on Less-Expensive Chips

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolong; Zheng, Yan; Cai, Jun; Yi, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at proposing a new wireless indoor localization system (ILS), called TrackCC, based on a commercial type of low-power system-on-chip (SoC), nRF24LE1. This type of chip has only l output power levels and acute fluctuation for a received minimum power level in operation, which give rise to many practical challenges for designing localization algorithms. In order to address these challenges, we exploit the Markov theory to construct a (l+1)×(l+1) -sized state transition matrix to remove the fluctuation, and then propose a priority-based pattern matching algorithm to search for the most similar match in the signal map to estimate the real position of unknown nodes. The experimental results show that, compared to two existing wireless ILSs, LANDMARC and SAIL, which have meter level positioning accuracy, the proposed TrackCC can achieve the decimeter level accuracy on average in both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) senarios. PMID:28617313

  17. Monitoring of manufacturing processes in the automotive industry using indoor location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, LM; Belu, N.; Rachieru, N.; Mazăre, AG; Anghel, D.-C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method for locating the operators, equipment and parts using radio communications systems. Specifically there will be radio transceiver arranged in a network of active and passive radio receivers placed on personnel, equipment or parts. Based on a radio triangulation method, it is determined the location of the all resources and parts involved in manufacturing process. The transceivers communicate with each other via “routers” - also components of the network. Such a structure may extend over large distances even in indoor spaces where there are obstacles (walls between rooms). The location is done by determining the power of transmission signal for at least three end points. The receiver position is then transmitted over the network through routers, to a central server where all positions of the resources are centralized. Our solution is a non-invasive and low cost method for determining resource position in the factory. The system can be used for both resource planning production for current process more efficient and for further analysis of the movement of resources during previous processes with possible adjustments to the workspace and re-planning of resources for future processes.

  18. TrackCC: A Practical Wireless Indoor Localization System Based on Less-Expensive Chips.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Zheng, Yan; Cai, Jun; Yi, Yunfei

    2017-06-15

    This paper aims at proposing a new wireless indoor localization system (ILS), called TrackCC, based on a commercial type of low-power system-on-chip (SoC), nRF24LE1. This type of chip has only l output power levels and acute fluctuation for a received minimum power level in operation, which give rise to many practical challenges for designing localization algorithms. In order to address these challenges, we exploit the Markov theory to construct a ( l + 1 ) × ( l + 1 ) -sized state transition matrix to remove the fluctuation, and then propose a priority-based pattern matching algorithm to search for the most similar match in the signal map to estimate the real position of unknown nodes. The experimental results show that, compared to two existing wireless ILSs, LANDMARC and SAIL, which have meter level positioning accuracy, the proposed TrackCC can achieve the decimeter level accuracy on average in both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) senarios.

  19. A T-DMB navigation system for seamless positioning in both indoor and outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Gong Bo; Chun, Se Bum; Hur, Moon Beom; Jee, Gyu-In

    2014-12-01

    The conventional global positioning system (GPS) can often fail to provide position determination for a mobile user in indoor and urban environments. To cope with GPS failure in such environments, a new navigation system which utilizes a terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T-DMB) signal to obtain the mobile user's position is presented. Since the T-DMB transmitters in Korea construct a single frequency network (SFN), which forces the transmitters to be synchronized, the mobile user can measure a time difference of arrival (TDOA) for all audible T-DMB transmitter pairs. The time difference between T-DMB transmitters is converted to a distance difference by multiplying the time difference by the speed of light. Using these measurements and a TDOA positioning method, the mobile user position can be estimated. An experiment with a T-DMB receiver and a data acquisition (DAQ) board is performed in Seoul to analyze the error characteristic of TDOA measurements. It is certified that the measurement error is bounded under 300 m and can be used to determine the mobile user's position with a small standard deviation.

  20. Research on field of view of optical receiving antenna based on indoor visible light communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mingguang; Lan, Tian; Zhao, Tao; Zhang, Yilun; Cui, Zhenghua; Ni, Guoqiang

    2015-08-01

    Optical receiving antenna is usually positioned before the detector of an indoor visible light communication (VLC) system in order to collect more optical energy into the detector. Besides optical gain of the antenna, the field of view (FOV) plays also an important role to the performance of a VLC system. In this paper, the signal noise ratio (SNR) and inter-symbol interference (ISI) versus FOV of the antenna are simulated via Line-of-Sight (LOS) and non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) links within a room with a size of 5m × 5m × 3m. Results show that, the blind area appears while the FOV is less than 40 deg. and the SNR reduces as FOV increases and keeps small when FOV is more than 70 deg.. Furthermore, the average power of ISI rises with the increase of FOV, and the rising trend is relatively moderate when FOV is below 50 deg., while there is a rapid increase between 50 deg. and 70 deg. and finally tends to be stable after 70 deg. Therefore, it is practical to determine the FOV of the optical receiving antenna in the scope of 40 to 50 deg. based on the installment of LED lights on the ceiling here so as to avoid the blind area, attain high SNR, and reduce the influence of ISI. It is also worthwhile in practice to provide an identifiable evidence for the determination of FOV of the optical antenna.

  1. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  2. Experimental research on the indoor temperature and humidity fields in radiant ceiling air-conditioning system under natural ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Xiang, Yutong; Wang, Yonghong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the indoor temperature and humidity fields of the air in a metal ceiling radiant panel air conditioning system with fresh air under natural ventilation were researched. The temperature and humidity distributions at different height and different position were compared. Through the computation analysis of partial pressure of water vapor, the self-recovery characteristics of humidity after the natural ventilation was discussed.

  3. Indoor Tanning

    MedlinePlus

    ... young patients for skin cancer. Indoor Tanning vs. Sunlight The sun's rays contain two types of ultraviolet ... Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours ...

  4. State indoor tanning laws and adolescent indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Guy, Gery P; Berkowitz, Zahava; Jones, Sherry Everett; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Miyamoto, Justin N; Michael, Shannon L; Saraiya, Mona

    2014-04-01

    Recently, several state indoor tanning laws, including age restrictions, were promulgated to reduce indoor tanning among minors. We examined the effects of these laws on adolescent indoor tanning. We used nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 31 835). Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning among US high school students. Female students in states with indoor tanning laws were less likely to engage in indoor tanning than those in states without any laws. We observed a stronger association among female students in states with systems access, parental permission, and age restriction laws than among those in states without any laws. We found no significant association among female students in states with only systems access and parental permission laws or among male students. Indoor tanning laws, particularly those including age restrictions, may be effective in reducing indoor tanning among female high school students, for whom rates are the highest. Such reductions have the potential to reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer.

  5. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Adolescent Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Gery P.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Jones, Sherry Everett; O’Malley Olsen, Emily; Miyamoto, Justin N.; Michael, Shannon L.; Saraiya, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recently, several state indoor tanning laws, including age restrictions, were promulgated to reduce indoor tanning among minors. We examined the effects of these laws on adolescent indoor tanning. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 31 835). Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning among US high school students. Results. Female students in states with indoor tanning laws were less likely to engage in indoor tanning than those in states without any laws. We observed a stronger association among female students in states with systems access, parental permission, and age restriction laws than among those in states without any laws. We found no significant association among female students in states with only systems access and parental permission laws or among male students. Conclusions. Indoor tanning laws, particularly those including age restrictions, may be effective in reducing indoor tanning among female high school students, for whom rates are the highest. Such reductions have the potential to reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:24524515

  6. Thermographic NDT of building envelopes utilizing in-door heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Tatsuhito; Nakano, Yonezou; Tanigawa, Yasuo

    2002-03-01

    The deterioration of concrete structures due to drastic changes in environment or due to poor workmanship has become very serious in Japan recently. In particular, since buildings are finished with render or tile on their facades in order to improve durability and appearance in many cases, the number of accidents resulting in injury or death caused by the fall of these finishing materials in increasing continuously. As a method of detecting delaminations of finishing materials, the thermographic survey using thermal imager is widely used because of the advantages of easiness, rate of data sampling and safeness. However, since this method is based on the difference of surface temperature between delaminated areas and sound areas generated by solar radiation, the method cannot be used under cloudy weather. It is a big difference between the construction field and other fields like metals, ceramics and plastics, which can do artificial heating or cooling easily. In order to improve the applicability and limitations of the method, a study was carried out. In ths study, instead of exposing an external wall to the sun, a method of heating the rear side of the wall by using the indoor heating system of the building was discussed and tested. As a result, it was proved that below-surface defects of building facades could be located without solar radiation by controlling the room temperature appropriately. This paper outlines the procedure and results of the study.

  7. Microanalysis of indoor aerosols and the impact of a compact high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system.

    PubMed

    Abraham, M E

    1999-03-01

    Aerosol particles in municipal atmospheres are of increasing public health concern; however, since most of our time is spent indoors, indoor aerosols must be researched in counterpart. Compact High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter systems are commonly employed in residences to alleviate airborne dust concentrations. In this study, a detailed and original methodology was used to determine concentrations and types of submicrometer aerosols, as well as of large (> 4 microns) dust particles. Scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify and characterize ambient aerosols collected from filtered and non-filtered rooms. Particle concentrations were significantly lower in samples collected in the presence of the filter system (mean 23 to 8 coarse particles liter-1, 63% reduction; 13 to 3 inorganic submicron particles cm-3, 76% reduction; 85 to 33 total submicron particles cm-3, 62% reduction; all P < 0.05). This study provides a new methodology for analysis of indoor aerosols and new data on their physico-chemical characteristics. Since the filter systems are effective at reducing submicron aerosol concentrations, they may improve the health of individuals such as asthmatics, who experience health problems caused by anthropogenic fine particles.

  8. Measured Cooling Season Results Relating the Impact of Mechanical Ventilation on Energy, Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality in Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Eric; Amos, Bryan; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Widder, Sarah H.; Fonorow, Ken

    2014-08-22

    Conference Paper for ACEEE Summer Study in Buildings discussing results to date of a project evaluating the impact of ventialtion on energy use, comfort, durability, and cost in the hot humid climate.

  9. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions.

    PubMed

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-03-11

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y(-1)), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y(-1). Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y(-1) could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient--measured in "total abatement calorie cost"--than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes.

  10. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    PubMed Central

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  11. Bayesian based design of real-time sensor systems for high-risk indoor contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Sreedharan, Priya

    2007-01-01

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardousto building occupants. To respond effectively, the contaminant release must be quicklydetected and characterized to determine unobserved parameters, such as release locationand strength. Characterizing the release requires solving an inverse problem. Designinga robust real-time sensor system that solves the inverse problem is challenging becausethe fate and transport of contaminants is complex, sensor information is limited andimperfect, and real-time estimation is computationally constrained.This dissertation uses a system-level approach, based on a Bayes Monte Carloframework, to develop sensor-system design concepts and methods. I describe threeinvestigations that explore complex relationships among sensors, network architecture,interpretation algorithms, and system performance. The investigations use data obtainedfrom tracer gas experiments conducted in a real building. The influence of individual sensor characteristics on the sensor-system performance for binary-type contaminant sensors is analyzed. Performance tradeoffs among sensor accuracy, threshold level and response time are identified; these attributes could not be inferred without a system-level analysis. For example, more accurate but slower sensors are found to outperform less accurate but faster sensors. Secondly, I investigate how the sensor-system performance can be understood in terms of contaminant transport processes and the model representation that is used to solve the inverse problem. The determination of release location and mass are shown to be related to and constrained by transport and mixing time scales. These time scales explain performance differences among different sensor networks. For example, the effect of longer sensor response times is comparably less for releases with longer mixing time scales. The third investigation explores how information fusion from heterogeneous sensors may improve the sensor-system

  12. Iterative positioning algorithm to reduce the impact of diffuse reflection on an indoor visible light positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Heqing; Feng, Lihui; Guo, Peng; Yang, Aiying; Ni, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Recently, indoor visible light localization has become attractive. Unfortunately, its performance is limited by diffuse reflection. The diffuse reflection is estimated by the bilinear interpolation-based method. A received signal strength-based iterative visible light positioning algorithm is proposed to reduce the influence of diffuse reflection by subtracting the estimated diffuse reflection signal from the received signal. Simulations are made to evaluate the proposed iterative positioning algorithm in a typical scenario with different parameters of the field-of-view (FOV) of the receiver and the reflectivity of the wall. Results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the average positioning error by 12 times in a typical scenario and can reduce the positioning error greatly with various FOV of the receiver and the reflectivity of the wall. The proposed algorithm is effective and robust to reduce the degradation caused by diffuse reflection in a positioning system and will have many potential applications in indoor localization scenarios.

  13. The climate system as a ticking clock

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-09-14

    Climate researchers are picking up a more or less regular 2-year beat to the global climate system - one that seems to be heard from every quarter. The most recently discovered example of this climatic ticking - and perhaps the most intriguing - comes from the very core of El Nino. Researchers have found that some aspects of this cycle of alternating warm and relatively cold waters along the equatorial Pacific have a tendency to repeat every 2 years. The overlying winds pulsate at the same pace, as do the globe-girdling effects of the El Nino cycle, from winter warmth in Alaska to heavy rains in Peru and drought in Australia. The climatic ticking in the tropical Pacific is hardly as reliable as the changing of the seasons. Sometimes it is muted, and occasionally it skips a beat. But some researchers nevertheless see hope of using it in the prediction of El Nino and its global effects. In any case, climate researchers are eager to determine what makes El Nino tick. The answer could be an underlying pacemaker of this crucial atmospheric cycle.

  14. Indoor acoustic gain design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  15. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-10-16

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy.

  16. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  17. Performance and accuracy test of a WiFi indoor positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retscher, Guenther; Moser, Eva; Vredeveld, Dennis; Heberling, Dirk; Pamp, Joerg

    2007-09-01

    Location based-services and personal navigation require the location determination of a user not only in outdoor environments but also indoor. For indoor location already established wireless infrastructure such as WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) or WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks) can be employed. This approach has the advantage that no costly hardware installations are necessary inside a building if WiFi is already available. The IMST GmbH has developed a software framework called "ipos" for indoor positioning technologies. The principle of the developed platform and the performance of the location determination using WiFi in a localization testbed of IMST GmbH are presented in this paper.

  18. a Framework of Cognitive Indoor Navigation Based on Characteristics of Indoor Spatial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, R.; Arikawa, M.

    2015-05-01

    People are easy to get confused in indoor spatial environment. Thus, indoor navigation systems on mobile devices are expected in a wide variety of application domains. Limited by the accuracy of indoor positioning, indoor navigating systems are not common in our society. However, automatic positioning is not all about location-based services (LBS), other factors, such as good map design and user interfaces, are also important to satisfy users of LBS. Indoor spatial environment and people's indoor spatial cognition are different than those in outdoor environment, which asks for different design of LBS. This paper introduces our design methods of indoor navigation system based on the characteristics of indoor spatial environment and indoor spatial cognition.

  19. A Bluetooth/PDR Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Chunyan

    2015-09-25

    This paper proposes two schemes for indoor positioning by fusing Bluetooth beacons and a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) technique to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. As to the PDR approach, a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm is used to improve the positioning accuracy. According to pedestrians' different walking patterns such as walking or running, this paper makes a comparative analysis of multiple step length calculation models to determine a linear computation model and the relevant parameters. In consideration of the deviation between the real heading and the value of the orientation sensor, a heading estimation method with real-time compensation is proposed, which is based on a Kalman filter with map geometry information. The corrected heading can inhibit the positioning error accumulation and improve the positioning accuracy of PDR. Moreover, this paper has implemented two positioning approaches integrated with Bluetooth and PDR. One is the PDR-based positioning method based on map matching and position correction through Bluetooth. There will not be too much calculation work or too high maintenance costs using this method. The other method is a fusion calculation method based on the pedestrians' moving status (direct movement or making a turn) to determine adaptively the noise parameters in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) system. This method has worked very well in the elimination of various phenomena, including the "go and back" phenomenon caused by the instability of the Bluetooth-based positioning system and the "cross-wall" phenomenon due to the accumulative errors caused by the PDR algorithm. Experiments performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building in the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus showed that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve a 2-meter precision.

  20. A Bluetooth/PDR Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes two schemes for indoor positioning by fusing Bluetooth beacons and a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) technique to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. As to the PDR approach, a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm is used to improve the positioning accuracy. According to pedestrians’ different walking patterns such as walking or running, this paper makes a comparative analysis of multiple step length calculation models to determine a linear computation model and the relevant parameters. In consideration of the deviation between the real heading and the value of the orientation sensor, a heading estimation method with real-time compensation is proposed, which is based on a Kalman filter with map geometry information. The corrected heading can inhibit the positioning error accumulation and improve the positioning accuracy of PDR. Moreover, this paper has implemented two positioning approaches integrated with Bluetooth and PDR. One is the PDR-based positioning method based on map matching and position correction through Bluetooth. There will not be too much calculation work or too high maintenance costs using this method. The other method is a fusion calculation method based on the pedestrians’ moving status (direct movement or making a turn) to determine adaptively the noise parameters in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) system. This method has worked very well in the elimination of various phenomena, including the “go and back” phenomenon caused by the instability of the Bluetooth-based positioning system and the “cross-wall” phenomenon due to the accumulative errors caused by the PDR algorithm. Experiments performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building in the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus showed that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve a 2-meter precision. PMID:26404277

  1. A spatial decision support system for guiding focal indoor residual interventions in a malaria elimination zone.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gerard C; Seng, Chang Moh; Donald, Wesley; Taleo, George; Nausien, Johnny; Batarii, Willie; Iata, Harry; Tanner, Marcel; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Clements, Archie C A

    2011-11-01

    A customized geographical information system (GIS) has been developed to support focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) operations as part of a scaled-up campaign to progressively eliminate malaria in Vanuatu. The aims of the GISbased spatial decision support system (SDSS) were to guide the planning, implementation and assessment of IRS at the household level. Additional aims of this study were to evaluate the user acceptability of a SDSS guiding IRS interventions. IRS was conducted on Tanna Island, Republic of Vanuatu between 26 October and 5 December 2009. Geo-referenced household information provided a baseline within the SDSS. An interactive mapping interface was used to delineate operation areas, extract relevant data to support IRS field teams. In addition, it was used as a monitoring tool to assess overall intervention coverage. Surveys and group discussions were conducted during the operations to ascertain user acceptability. Twenty-one operation areas, comprising a total of 187 settlements and 3,422 households were identified and mapped. A total of 3,230 households and 12,156 household structures were sprayed, covering a population of 13,512 individuals, achieving coverage of 94.4% of the households and 95.7% of the population. Village status maps were produced to visualize the distribution of IRS at the sub-village level. One hundred percent of survey respondents declared the SDSS a useful and effective tool to support IRS. The GIS-based SDSS adopted in Tanna empowered programme managers at the provincial level to implement and asses the IRS intervention with the degree of detail required for malaria elimination. Since completion, SDSS applications have expanded to additional provinces in Vanuatu and the neighbouring Solomon Islands supporting not only specific malaria elimination and control interventions, but also the broader public health sector in general.

  2. Stereoscopic helmet mounted system for real time 3D environment reconstruction and indoor ego-motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, Giuseppe; Sequeira, Vitor M.; Sadka, Abdul

    2008-04-01

    A novel type of stereoscopic Helmet Mounted System for simultaneous user localization and mapping applications is described. This paper presents precise real time volume data reconstruction. The system is designed for users that need to explore and navigate in unprepared indoor environments without any support of GPS signal or environment preparation through preinstalled markers. Augmented Reality features in support of self-navigation can be interactively added by placing virtual markers in the desired positions in the world coordinate system. They can then be retrieved when the marker is back in the user field of view being used as visual alerts or for back path finding.

  3. Analysis of Connected Climate Systems via Deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh-Atoufi, M. B.; Reischmann, E.; Rial, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Deconvolution is a technique most often used in signal and image processing to remove the effects of a system's impulse response and recreate the input signal from a given output. In the context of paleoclimate, deconvolution by spectral division has been used to recover the climate system's impulse response, also known as its transfer function, given the δ18O time series record of the north pole as the input and the south as the output (or vice versa). The working hypothesis of polar synchronization justifies the use of deconvolution methods. Various regularization approaches and spectral analysis show a clear connection of millennial scale periodicity linking the polar climates over the past 100,000 years. Tests of spectral peak consistency across regularization factors and of peak validity indicate that the connection is a result of the data and is not an artifact of the method used. Deconvolution can be applied to other linearly connected climate systems including teleconnected systems. Sea surface temperature dipoles found in the North Atlantic Ocean basin, for example, also display potentially geographically linked features, and correlation between the dipoles themselves suggests synchronization of adjacent dipoles. Having identified this system of synchronized variations with linear phase relations, deconvolution methods can be used to investigate potential transfer functions across different scales.

  4. Online Mapping Systems for Climate Data Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, S. T.; Nicholson, C. M.; Bergantino, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Online, map-based applications have experienced an explosion in popularity over the past decade. The success of these systems is largely due to their ability to provide a spatial framework data exploration, and for the visual context (e.g., satellite images) they offer. Here we detail the development of a new online mapping system for Wyoming that will serve as a portal for the delivery of weather, climate, and water-related data for users across the state. While capitalizing on the success of previous online mapping efforts, this new system also highlights the potential for additional applications and functionality. Known as the Wyoming Internet Map Server (WyoIMS), the system brings together real-time observations and summary products from multiple federal agencies (NOAA-NWS, NRCS, USGS) to provide “one-stop-shopping” for key climatic datasets. Likewise this system is providing a platform for data delivery, archiving, and QC/QA as part of a new statewide hydroclimatic monitoring network. Moving beyond the simple transfer of data, this system also allows users to access information from resources that include state libraries and various databases that contain information related to climate and water resources. Users can, for example, select individual counties, watersheds, irrigation districts, or municipalities and download a wide range of documents and reports specific to those locations. On the whole, WyoIMS has become a catalyst for the development of new climate-related products, and a foundation for decision support with applications in water resources, wildlife management, and agriculture.

  5. Pilot climate data system user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reph, M. G.; Treinish, L. A.; Bloch, L.

    1984-01-01

    Instructions for using the Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS), an interactive, scientific data management system for locating, obtaining, manipulating, and displaying climate-research data are presented. The PCDS currently provides this supoort for approximately twenty data sets. Figures that illustrate the terminal displays which a user sees when he/she runs the PCDS and some examples of the output from this system are included. The capabilities which are described in detail allow a user to perform the following: (1) obtain comprehensive descriptions of a number of climate parameter data sets and the associated sensor measurements from which they were derived; (2) obtain detailed information about the temporal coverage and data volume of data sets which are readily accessible via the PCDS; (3) extract portions of a data set using criteria such as time range and geographic location, and output the data to tape, user terminal, system printer, or online disk files in a special data-set-independent format; (4) access and manipulate the data in these data-set-independent files, performing such functions as combining the data, subsetting the data, and averaging the data; and (5) create various graphical representations of the data stored in the data-set-independent files.

  6. Network of Networks and the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, Jürgen; Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Donges, Jonathan; Donner, Reik; Malik, Nishant; Marwan, Norbert; Stolbova, Veronika

    2013-04-01

    Network of networks is a new direction in complex systems science. One can find such networks in various fields, such as infrastructure (power grids etc.), human brain or Earth system. Basic properties and new characteristics, such as cross-degree, or cross-betweenness will be discussed. This allows us to quantify the structural role of single vertices or whole sub-networks with respect to the interaction of a pair of subnetworks on local, mesoscopic, and global topological scales. Next, we consider an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This technique is then applied to 3-dimensional data of the climate system. We interpret different heights in the atmosphere as different networks and the whole as a network of networks. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. This concept is applied to Indian Monsoon data in order to characterize the regional occurrence of strong rain events and its impact on predictability. References: Arenas, A., A. Diaz-Guilera, J. Kurths, Y. Moreno, and C. Zhou, Phys. Reports 2008, 469, 93. Donges, J., Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Europhys. Lett. 2009, 87, 48007. Donner, R., Y. Zou, J. Donges, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 2010, 81, 015101(R ). Mokhov, I. I., D. A. Smirnov, P. I. Nakonechny, S. S. Kozlenko, E. P. Seleznev, and J. Kurths, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L00F04. Malik, N., B. Bookhagen, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Climate Dynamics, 2012, 39, 971. Donges, J., H. Schultz, N. Marwan, Y. Zou, J. Kurths, Eur. J. Phys. B 2011, 84, 635-651. Donges, J., R. Donner, M. Trauth, N. Marwan, H.J. Schellnhuber, and J. Kurths

  7. A depth video sensor-based life-logging human activity recognition system for elderly care in smart indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Ahmad; Kamal, Shaharyar; Kim, Daijin

    2014-07-02

    Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR) realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital.

  8. A Depth Video Sensor-Based Life-Logging Human Activity Recognition System for Elderly Care in Smart Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Ahmad; Kamal, Shaharyar; Kim, Daijin

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR) realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital. PMID:24991942

  9. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOEpatents

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  10. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Lisa K; Clougherty, Jane E; Paciorek, Chritopher J; Wright, Rosalind J; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and/or factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system (GIS), and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households.As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 - 2005. Elemental carbon concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally-located ambient monitor.The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM(2.5) was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO(2) with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO(2) and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in

  11. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system, and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households. As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally located ambient monitor. The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM 2.5 was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO 2 with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50 m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO 2 and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in the

  12. Quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter for accurate indoor heading estimation using wearable multi-sensor system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xuebing; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Shengzhi; Wang, Guoping; Liu, Sheng

    2015-05-07

    Inertial navigation based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) has attracted numerous researchers due to its high reliability and independence. The heading estimation, as one of the most important parts of inertial navigation, has been a research focus in this field. Heading estimation using magnetometers is perturbed by magnetic disturbances, such as indoor concrete structures and electronic equipment. The MEMS gyroscope is also used for heading estimation. However, the accuracy of gyroscope is unreliable with time. In this paper, a wearable multi-sensor system has been designed to obtain the high-accuracy indoor heading estimation, according to a quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. The proposed multi-sensor system including one three-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, one three-axis magnetometer and one microprocessor minimizes the size and cost. The wearable multi-sensor system was fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for heading estimation experiments in our college building. The results show that the mean heading estimation errors are less 10° and 5° to multi-sensor system fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor UAV, respectively, compared to the reference path.

  13. Quaternion-Based Unscented Kalman Filter for Accurate Indoor Heading Estimation Using Wearable Multi-Sensor System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xuebing; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Shengzhi; Wang, Guoping; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) has attracted numerous researchers due to its high reliability and independence. The heading estimation, as one of the most important parts of inertial navigation, has been a research focus in this field. Heading estimation using magnetometers is perturbed by magnetic disturbances, such as indoor concrete structures and electronic equipment. The MEMS gyroscope is also used for heading estimation. However, the accuracy of gyroscope is unreliable with time. In this paper, a wearable multi-sensor system has been designed to obtain the high-accuracy indoor heading estimation, according to a quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. The proposed multi-sensor system including one three-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, one three-axis magnetometer and one microprocessor minimizes the size and cost. The wearable multi-sensor system was fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for heading estimation experiments in our college building. The results show that the mean heading estimation errors are less 10° and 5° to multi-sensor system fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor UAV, respectively, compared to the reference path. PMID:25961384

  14. The heartbeat of the Oligocene climate system.

    PubMed

    Pälike, Heiko; Norris, Richard D; Herrle, Jens O; Wilson, Paul A; Coxall, Helen K; Lear, Caroline H; Shackleton, Nicholas J; Tripati, Aradhna K; Wade, Bridget S

    2006-12-22

    A 13-million-year continuous record of Oligocene climate from the equatorial Pacific reveals a pronounced "heartbeat" in the global carbon cycle and periodicity of glaciations. This heartbeat consists of 405,000-, 127,000-, and 96,000-year eccentricity cycles and 1.2-million-year obliquity cycles in periodically recurring glacial and carbon cycle events. That climate system response to intricate orbital variations suggests a fundamental interaction of the carbon cycle, solar forcing, and glacial events. Box modeling shows that the interaction of the carbon cycle and solar forcing modulates deep ocean acidity as well as the production and burial of global biomass. The pronounced 405,000-year eccentricity cycle is amplified by the long residence time of carbon in the oceans.

  15. The Heartbeat of the Oligocene Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pälike, Heiko; Norris, Richard D.; Herrle, Jens O.; Wilson, Paul A.; Coxall, Helen K.; Lear, Caroline H.; Shackleton, Nicholas J.; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Wade, Bridget S.

    2006-12-01

    A 13-million-year continuous record of Oligocene climate from the equatorial Pacific reveals a pronounced “heartbeat” in the global carbon cycle and periodicity of glaciations. This heartbeat consists of 405,000-, 127,000-, and 96,000-year eccentricity cycles and 1.2-million-year obliquity cycles in periodically recurring glacial and carbon cycle events. That climate system response to intricate orbital variations suggests a fundamental interaction of the carbon cycle, solar forcing, and glacial events. Box modeling shows that the interaction of the carbon cycle and solar forcing modulates deep ocean acidity as well as the production and burial of global biomass. The pronounced 405,000-year eccentricity cycle is amplified by the long residence time of carbon in the oceans.

  16. Organizational Climate Assessment: a Systemic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argentero, Piergiorgio; Setti, Ilaria

    A number of studies showed how the set up of an involving and motivating work environment represents a source for organizational competitive advantage: in this view organizational climate (OC) research occupies a preferred position in current I/O psychology. The present study is a review carried out to establish the breadth of the literature on the characteristics of OC assessment considered in a systemic perspective. An organization with a strong climate is a work environment whose members have similar understanding of the norms and practices and share the same expectations. OC should be considered as a sort of emergent entity and, as such, it can be studied only within a systemic perspective because it is linked with some organizational variables, in terms of antecedents (such as the organization's internal structure and its environmental features) and consequences (such as job performance, psychological well-being and withdrawal) of the climate itself. In particular, when employees have a positive view of their organizational environment, consistently with their values and interests, they are more likely to identify their personal goals with those of the organization and, in turn, to invest a greater effort to pursue them: the employees' perception of the organizational environment is positively related to the key outcomes such as job involvement, effort and performance. OC analysis could also be considered as an effective Organizational Development (OD) tool: in particular, the Survey Feedback, that is the return of the OC survey results, could be an effective instrument to assess the efficacy of specific OD programs, such as Team Building, TQM and Gainsharing. The present study is focused on the interest to investigate all possible variables which are potential moderators of the climate - outcome relationship: therefore future researches in the OC field should consider a great variety of organizational variables, considered in terms of antecedents and effects

  17. Indicators of climate impacts for forests: recommendations for the US National Climate Assessment indicators system

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Heath; Sarah M. Anderson; Marla R. Emery; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Jeremy Littell; Alan Lucier; Jeffrey G. Masek; David L. Peterson; Richard Pouyat; Kevin M. Potter; Guy Robertson; Jinelle Sperry; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Sarah Jovan; Miranda H. Mockrin; Robert Musselman; Bethany K. Schulz; Robert J. Smith; Susan I. Stewart

    2015-01-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) process for the United States focused in part on developing a system of indicators to communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness to inform decisionmakers and the public. Initially, 13 active teams were formed to recommend indicators in a range of categories, including...

  18. Intensive indoor versus outdoor swine production systems: genotype and supplemental iron effects on blood hemoglobin and selected immune measures in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Kleinbeck, S N; McGlone, J J

    1999-09-01

    The objectives of Exp. 1 were to determine the effects of production system and genotype on pig performance and health. Sows were bred, gestated, farrowed, and lactated in either an intensive indoor or an intensive outdoor production system. The three dam genotypes of pigs used in each environment were PIC Camborough-15 (C-15), PIC Camborough Blue (CB), and Yorkshire x Landrace (YL). All pigs received 100 mg of iron dextran at d 3 of age. Pigs raised in the outdoor unit had higher blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations on d 28 of age than pigs raised indoors (11.5 +/- .22 vs 8.16 +/- .26 g/dL, P < .0001). Outdoor-reared pigs had more white blood cells (WBC) on d 3 than indoor-reared pigs (9.7 +/- .38 vs 8.04 +/- .38 cells/microL x 10(3), P < .05), but outdoor pigs had fewer WBC on d 28 of age than indoor-reared pigs (9.8 +/- .5 vs 11.1 +/- .45 cells/microL x 10(3), P < .05). Genetic lines did not differ in plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations at 3 or 28 d of age. Environment and age influenced pig Hb levels and WBC numbers. The objectives for Exp. 2 were to determine whether C-15-405 pigs reared outdoors or indoors needed supplemental iron or whether they would receive enough environmental iron, and how the lack of supplemental iron may impact pig Hb and immunity. Indoor and outdoor pigs received either no supplemental iron, 100 mg, or 400 mg of iron dextran on d 3 of age. Blood percentage neutrophils and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio were lower (P < .05) indoors, and natural killer cell (NK) activity was greater (P < .05) among indoor- than outdoor-reared pigs (NK % cytotoxicity: 15.6 +/- 2.3 vs 9.7 +/- 2.3). Outdoor-reared pigs that received no injected iron had similar Hb at d 28 of age as indoor-reared pigs that received 100 mg of iron dextran (11.1 +/- .36 vs 10.7 +/- .4 g/dL, P = .59). Supplemental iron may not be necessary in an outdoor production system. Outdoor-reared pigs had lower values for some immune measures, but they had similar survival rates

  19. Precambrian evolution of the climate system.

    PubMed

    Walker, J C

    1990-01-01

    Climate is an important environmental parameter of the early Earth, likely to have affected the origin and evolution of life, the composition and mineralogy of sedimentary rocks, and stable isotope ratios in sedimentary minerals. There is little observational evidence constraining Precambrian climates. Most of our knowledge is at present theoretical. Factors that must have affected the climate include reduced solar luminosity, enhanced rotation rate of the Earth, an area of land that probably increased with time, and biological evolution, particularly as it affected the composition of the atmosphere and the greenhouse effect. Cloud cover is a major uncertainty about the early Earth. Carbon dioxide and its greenhouse effect are the factors that have been most extensively studied. This paper presents a new examination of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon as they may have changed between an Archean Earth deficient in land, sedimentary rocks, and biological activity, and a Proterozoic Earth much like the modern Earth, but lacking terrestrial life and carbonate-secreting plankton. Results of a numerical simulation of this transition show how increasing biological activity could have drawn down atmospheric carbon dioxide by extracting sedimentary organic carbon from the system. Increasing area of continents could further have drawn down carbon dioxide by encouraging the accumulation of carbonate sediments. An attempt to develop a numerical simulation of the carbon cycles of the Precambrian raises questions about sources and sinks of marine carbon and alkalinity on a world without continents. More information is needed about sea-floor weathering processes.

  20. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenton, T.M.; Held, H.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S.; Kriegler, E. |; Hall, J.W.; Schellnhuber, H.J. |

    2008-02-12

    The term 'tipping point' commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here the authors introduce the term 'tipping element' to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. They critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and they assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then the authors explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  1. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations. The traditional approach to climate model evaluation, which compares a single parameter at a time, identifies symptomatic model biases and errors but fails to diagnose the model problems. The model diagnosis process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. To address these challenges, we are developing a parallel, distributed web-service system that enables the physics-based multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks (i.e., Flask, Gunicorn, and Tornado). The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation and (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, and (4) the calculation of difference between two variables. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use

  2. Multi-modal low cost mobile indoor surveillance system on the Robust Artificial Intelligence-based Defense Electro Robot (RAIDER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Binu M.; Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    We present an autonomous system capable of performing security check routines. The surveillance machine, the Clearpath Husky robotic platform, is equipped with three IP cameras with different orientations for the surveillance tasks of face recognition, human activity recognition, autonomous navigation and 3D reconstruction of its environment. Combining the computer vision algorithms onto a robotic machine has given birth to the Robust Artificial Intelligencebased Defense Electro-Robot (RAIDER). The end purpose of the RAIDER is to conduct a patrolling routine on a single floor of a building several times a day. As the RAIDER travels down the corridors off-line algorithms use two of the RAIDER's side mounted cameras to perform a 3D reconstruction from monocular vision technique that updates a 3D model to the most current state of the indoor environment. Using frames from the front mounted camera, positioned at the human eye level, the system performs face recognition with real time training of unknown subjects. Human activity recognition algorithm will also be implemented in which each detected person is assigned to a set of action classes picked to classify ordinary and harmful student activities in a hallway setting.The system is designed to detect changes and irregularities within an environment as well as familiarize with regular faces and actions to distinguish potentially dangerous behavior. In this paper, we present the various algorithms and their modifications which when implemented on the RAIDER serves the purpose of indoor surveillance.

  3. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Shifei; Atia, Mohamed M.; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS) alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory. PMID:26389906

  4. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Shifei; Atia, Mohamed M; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-09-15

    This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS) alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory.

  5. Comparison of the impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 and a cigarette on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Mitova, Maya I; Campelos, Pedro B; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine G; Maeder, Serge; Mottier, Nicolas; Rouget, Emmanuel G R; Tharin, Manuel; Tricker, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    The impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2) on indoor air quality was evaluated in an environmentally controlled room using ventilation conditions recommended for simulating "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" environments and was compared with smoking a lit-end cigarette (Marlboro Gold) under identical experimental conditions. The concentrations of eighteen indoor air constituents (respirable suspended particles (RSP) < 2.5 μm in diameter), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), solanesol, 3-ethenylpyridine, nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, isoprene, toluene, acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and combined oxides of nitrogen) were measured. In simulations evaluating THS 2.2, the concentrations of most studied analytes did not exceed the background concentrations determined when non-smoking panelists were present in the environmentally controlled room under equivalent conditions. Only acetaldehyde and nicotine concentrations were increased above background concentrations in the "Office" (3.65 and 1.10 μg/m(3)), "Residential" (5.09 and 1.81 μg/m(3)) and "Hospitality" (1.40 and 0.66 μg/m(3)) simulations, respectively. Smoking Marlboro Gold resulted in greater increases in the concentrations of acetaldehyde (58.8, 83.8 and 33.1 μg/m(3)) and nicotine (34.7, 29.1 and 34.6 μg/m(3)) as well as all other measured indoor air constituents in the "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" simulations, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A personal perspective on modelling the climate system.

    PubMed

    Palmer, T N

    2016-04-01

    Given their increasing relevance for society, I suggest that the climate science community itself does not treat the development of error-free ab initio models of the climate system with sufficient urgency. With increasing levels of difficulty, I discuss a number of proposals for speeding up such development. Firstly, I believe that climate science should make better use of the pool of post-PhD talent in mathematics and physics, for developing next-generation climate models. Secondly, I believe there is more scope for the development of modelling systems which link weather and climate prediction more seamlessly. Finally, here in Europe, I call for a new European Programme on Extreme Computing and Climate to advance our ability to simulate climate extremes, and understand the drivers of such extremes. A key goal for such a programme is the development of a 1 km global climate system model to run on the first exascale supercomputers in the early 2020s.

  7. NAVIS-An UGV Indoor Positioning System Using Laser Scan Matching for Large-Area Real-Time Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jian.; Chen, Yuwei.; Jaakkola, Anttoni.; Liu, Jinbing.; Hyyppä, Juha.; Hyyppä, Hannu.

    2014-01-01

    Laser scan matching with grid-based maps is a promising tool for real-time indoor positioning of mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). While there are critical implementation problems, such as the ability to estimate the position by sensing the unknown indoor environment with sufficient accuracy and low enough latency for stable vehicle control, further development work is necessary. Unfortunately, most of the existing methods employ heuristics for quick positioning in which numerous accumulated errors easily lead to loss of positioning accuracy. This severely restricts its applications in large areas and over lengthy periods of time. This paper introduces an efficient real-time mobile UGV indoor positioning system for large-area applications using laser scan matching with an improved probabilistically-motivated Maximum Likelihood Estimation (IMLE) algorithm, which is based on a multi-resolution patch-divided grid likelihood map. Compared with traditional methods, the improvements embodied in IMLE include: (a) Iterative Closed Point (ICP) preprocessing, which adaptively decreases the search scope; (b) a totally brute search matching method on multi-resolution map layers, based on the likelihood value between current laser scan and the grid map within refined search scope, adopted to obtain the global optimum position at each scan matching; and (c) a patch-divided likelihood map supporting a large indoor area. A UGV platform called NAVIS was designed, manufactured, and tested based on a low-cost robot integrating a LiDAR and an odometer sensor to verify the IMLE algorithm. A series of experiments based on simulated data and field tests with NAVIS proved that the proposed IMEL algorithm is a better way to perform local scan matching that can offer a quick and stable positioning solution with high accuracy so it can be part of a large area localization/mapping, application. The NAVIS platform can reach an updating rate of 12 Hz in a feature-rich environment and 2 Hz

  8. NAVIS-An UGV indoor positioning system using laser scan matching for large-area real-time applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Liu, Jinbing; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2014-07-04

    Laser scan matching with grid-based maps is a promising tool for real-time indoor positioning of mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). While there are critical implementation problems, such as the ability to estimate the position by sensing the unknown indoor environment with sufficient accuracy and low enough latency for stable vehicle control, further development work is necessary. Unfortunately, most of the existing methods employ heuristics for quick positioning in which numerous accumulated errors easily lead to loss of positioning accuracy. This severely restricts its applications in large areas and over lengthy periods of time. This paper introduces an efficient real-time mobile UGV indoor positioning system for large-area applications using laser scan matching with an improved probabilistically-motivated Maximum Likelihood Estimation (IMLE) algorithm, which is based on a multi-resolution patch-divided grid likelihood map. Compared with traditional methods, the improvements embodied in IMLE include: (a) Iterative Closed Point (ICP) preprocessing, which adaptively decreases the search scope; (b) a totally brute search matching method on multi-resolution map layers, based on the likelihood value between current laser scan and the grid map within refined search scope, adopted to obtain the global optimum position at each scan matching; and (c) a patch-divided likelihood map supporting a large indoor area. A UGV platform called NAVIS was designed, manufactured, and tested based on a low-cost robot integrating a LiDAR and an odometer sensor to verify the IMLE algorithm. A series of experiments based on simulated data and field tests with NAVIS proved that the proposed IMEL algorithm is a better way to perform local scan matching that can offer a quick and stable positioning solution with high accuracy so it can be part of a large area localization/mapping, application. The NAVIS platform can reach an updating rate of 12 Hz in a feature-rich environment and 2 Hz

  9. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building. PMID:27240379

  10. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-05-28

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building.

  11. The correlation of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system with other environmental parameters in commercial buildings as possible indicator for indoor air quality

    PubMed Central

    OOI, Soo Shen; MAK, Joon Wah; CHEN, Donald K.F.; AMBU, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. However, its role in affecting indoor air quality and ill-health of indoor occupants is relatively unknown. The present study investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system and its correlation with other indoor air quality parameters, used in the industry code of practice and its potential as an indicator for indoor air quality. Indoor air quality assessments were carried out in nine commercial buildings with approval from the building management, and the parameters assessed were as recommended by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The presence of Acanthamoeba was determined through dust swabs from the ventilation system and indoor furniture. Logistic regression was performed to study the correlation between assessed parameters and occupants’ complaints. A total of 107 sampling points were assessed and 40.2% of the supplying air diffuser and blowing fan and 15% of the furniture were positive for cysts. There was a significant correlation between Acanthamoeba detected from the ventilation system with ambient total fungus count (r=0.327; p=0.01) and respirable particulates (r=0.276; p=0.01). Occupants’ sick building syndrome experience also correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba in the ventilation system (r=0.361; p=0.01) and those detected on the furniture (r=0.290; p=0.01). Logistic regression showed that there was a five-fold probability of sick building syndrome among occupants when Acanthamoeba was detected in the ventilation system. PMID:27476379

  12. Three Northwest Institutions Receive Funding from EPA for Research to Better Understand the Effects of Climate Change on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - July 28, 2015) On July 21, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced its continued commitment to improving America's indoor air quality by providing almost $8 million to fund nine institutions, including three in the Northwest, research

  13. Managing climate change risks in rangeland systems [Chapter 15

    Treesearch

    Linda A. Joyce; Nadine A. Marshall

    2017-01-01

    The management of rangelands has long involved adapting to climate variability to ensure that economic enterprises remain viable and ecosystems sustainable; climate change brings the potential for change that surpasses the experience of humans within rangeland systems. Adaptation will require an intentionality to address the effects of climate change. Knowledge of...

  14. NASA's climate data system primer, version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Closs, James W.; Reph, Mary G.; Olsen, Lola M.

    1989-01-01

    This is a beginner's manual for NASA's Climate Data System (NCDS), an interactive scientific information management system that allows one to locate, access, manipulate, and display climate-research data. Additional information on the use of the system is available from the system itself.

  15. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  16. Indoor Air '90: the 5th in a series of international conferences on the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Walkinshaw, D

    1992-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate: INDOOR AIR '90 continued a series of international scientific conferences begun in 1978 on a complex, interdisciplinary subject increasingly recognized to be of importance to human comfort, health and productivity, and having important implications for building design and furnishing, office equipment, appliances, cleaning, heating, ventilating, humidifying and air-conditioning. INDOOR AIR '90 constituted a week long program of 542 paper and poster presentations and forum discussions, 100 exhibits, and a public forum. This paper summarizes some of the highlights of this conference and links these to some of the studies reported at earlier INDOOR AIR Conference.

  17. Optimization of the Coverage and Accuracy of an Indoor Positioning System with a Variable Number of Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Perez, Francisco; Lazaro-Galilea, Jose Luis; Bravo, Ignacio; Gardel, Alfredo; Rodriguez, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on optimal sensor deployment for indoor localization with a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Our goal is to obtain an algorithm to deploy sensors taking the number of sensors, accuracy and coverage into account. Contrary to most works in the literature, we consider the presence of obstacles in the region of interest (ROI) that can cause occlusions between the target and some sensors. In addition, we aim to obtain all of the Pareto optimal solutions regarding the number of sensors, coverage and accuracy. To deal with a variable number of sensors, we add speciation and structural mutations to the well-known non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Speciation allows one to keep the evolution of sensor sets under control and to apply genetic operators to them so that they compete with other sets of the same size. We show some case studies of the sensor placement of an infrared range-difference indoor positioning system with a fairly complex model of the error of the measurements. The results obtained by our algorithm are compared to sensor placement patterns obtained with random deployment to highlight the relevance of using such a deployment algorithm. PMID:27338414

  18. Processes in Decadal Climate Variability and their Incorporation into a Decadal Climate Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proemmel, K.; Cubasch, U.; Vamborg, F.

    2012-12-01

    The quality of decadal climate predictions rests fundamentally on the ability of the forecast models realistically to simulate climate and its variability, in particular at decadal timescales. The new German research project "MiKlip - Decadal Predictions" (http://www.fona-miklip.de/en/) aims to develop a system for climate predictions for up to a decade ahead that can then be applied by an operational agency such as the German Meteorological Service DWD. This climate prediction system is based on the MPI-M Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) from the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Germany. Different aspects of decadal climate predictions are considered in MiKlip like initialisation strategies, the predictive skill on the regional scale with focus on Europe and Africa and the systematic evaluation of the prediction system. Another part of MiKlip deals with the incorporation of those processes in climate models that are important for the realistic representation of decadal climate variability, and the understanding of the important processes in the numerical prediction system. Processes that have the potential to improve decadal climate predictions are related to e.g. Arctic sea ice, atmospheric chemistry, large volcanic eruptions, atmosphere-ocean coupling, stratosphere and land-atmosphere interaction. The work dealing with the processes can be categorized into assessing the effects of enhanced resolution and of advanced parameterizations and numerics, investigating mechanisms of decadal variability, improvement of existing system components and coupling of additional climate subsystems.

  19. Orbital Noise in the Earth System and Climate Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Frequency noise in the variations of the Earth's obliquity (tilt) can modulate the insolation signal for climate change. Including this frequency noise effect on the incoming solar radiation, we have applied an energy balance climate model to calculate the climate fluctuations for the past one million years. Model simulation results are in good agreement with the geologically observed paleoclimate data. We conclude that orbital noise in the Earth system may be the major cause of the climate fluctuation cycles.

  20. Wideband optical propagation measurement system for characterization of indoor optical wireless channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehrad, Mohsen; Fadlullah, Jarir

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the presented research is to characterize an indoor wireless optical communication channel. Until recently, there have not been any comprehensive published measurements results presenting characteristics of this channel for high data rates, e. g. 1Gbit/s. To this end, a measurement setup is implemented, with a high-power laser diode acting as the optical transmitter and an avalanche photodiode acting as the receiver. Using a network analyzer, the laser is modulated by CW frequencies up to 1 GHz, which is the bandwidth of the receiver, as limited by the intrinsic capacitance and the response-time of the avalanche photodiode. A single collimated optical spot with a small elliptical shape on the ceiling is tested. The impacts of receiver orientation and configuration on the channel frequency response are investigated. These measurements will enable us to explore the possibility of higher data transmission rates, potentially beyond 1 Gbps, on indoor optical wireless channels. These channels can be a viable alternative to inherently insecure and interference-prone RF wireless channels, and therefore, could be the basis of next-generation high data rate wireless local area networks.

  1. Development of a Pedestrian Indoor Navigation System Based on Multi-Sensor Fusion and Fuzzy Logic Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. C.; Chang, C. C.; Tsai, C. M.; Lin, S. Y.; Huang, S. C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a pedestrian indoor navigation system based on the multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The proposed navigation system is a self-contained dead reckoning navigation that means no other outside signal is demanded. In order to achieve the self-contained capability, a portable and wearable inertial measure unit (IMU) has been developed. Its adopted sensors are the low-cost inertial sensors, accelerometer and gyroscope, based on the micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS). There are two types of the IMU modules, handheld and waist-mounted. The low-cost MEMS sensors suffer from various errors due to the results of manufacturing imperfections and other effects. Therefore, a sensor calibration procedure based on the scalar calibration and the least squares methods has been induced in this study to improve the accuracy of the inertial sensors. With the calibrated data acquired from the inertial sensors, the step length and strength of the pedestrian are estimated by multi-sensor fusion and fuzzy logic estimation algorithms. The developed multi-sensor fusion algorithm provides the amount of the walking steps and the strength of each steps in real-time. Consequently, the estimated walking amount and strength per step are taken into the proposed fuzzy logic estimation algorithm to estimates the step lengths of the user. Since the walking length and direction are both the required information of the dead reckoning navigation, the walking direction is calculated by integrating the angular rate acquired by the gyroscope of the developed IMU module. Both the walking length and direction are calculated on the IMU module and transmit to a smartphone with Bluetooth to perform the dead reckoning navigation which is run on a self-developed APP. Due to the error accumulating of dead reckoning navigation, a particle filter and a pre-loaded map of indoor environment have been applied to the APP of the proposed navigation system to extend its

  2. Indoorgml - a Standard for Indoor Spatial Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ki-Joune

    2016-06-01

    With recent progress of mobile devices and indoor positioning technologies, it becomes possible to provide location-based services in indoor space as well as outdoor space. It is in a seamless way between indoor and outdoor spaces or in an independent way only for indoor space. However, we cannot simply apply spatial models developed for outdoor space to indoor space due to their differences. For example, coordinate reference systems are employed to indicate a specific position in outdoor space, while the location in indoor space is rather specified by cell number such as room number. Unlike outdoor space, the distance between two points in indoor space is not determined by the length of the straight line but the constraints given by indoor components such as walls, stairs, and doors. For this reason, we need to establish a new framework for indoor space from fundamental theoretical basis, indoor spatial data models, and information systems to store, manage, and analyse indoor spatial data. In order to provide this framework, an international standard, called IndoorGML has been developed and published by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). This standard is based on a cellular notion of space, which considers an indoor space as a set of non-overlapping cells. It consists of two types of modules; core module and extension module. While core module consists of four basic conceptual and implementation modeling components (geometric model for cell, topology between cells, semantic model of cell, and multi-layered space model), extension modules may be defined on the top of the core module to support an application area. As the first version of the standard, we provide an extension for indoor navigation.

  3. Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A&N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A&N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

  4. Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

  5. Indoor radon.

    PubMed

    Polpong, P; Bovornkitti, S

    1998-01-01

    The naturally radioactive but chemically inert gas, radon, is formed from the radioactive decay of radium which is part of the uranium series. Radon gas, which has a half life of 3.8 days, must escape from soil particles through air-filled pores in order to enter the atmosphere following the decay of radium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies, depending on the place, time, height above the ground and meteorological conditions. It is thus an inescapable source of radiation exposure, both at home and at work. The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from indoor radon gas and its daughter products are of great concern worldwide. Noting of an excessive lung cancer risk among several groups of underground miners exposed to radon and its daughter products, studies on radon concentrations in the workplace and in dwellings have been conducted in many countries. The results have shown that the distribution of radon concentrations are approximately lognormal from which population weighted; the arithmetic mean of radon concentration of 40 Bq.m-3 has been adopted worldwide for dwellings and workplaces. The principal methods for reducing a high indoor radon concentration are: reducing the radon supply by reversing the pressure difference between the building and the soil; raising the resistance of the foundations to soil gas entry; removing the radon sources such as water or underlying soil; diluting the concentration by increasing the ventilation rate; and reducing the concentration of radon progeny by filtering and increasing the circulation of indoor air. Buildings which have a radon concentration higher than 200 Bq.m-3 should be investigated by the national authorities concerned; meanwhile, householders should be advised to take simple temporary precautions, such as increasing ventilation, until a permanent remedy can be effected.

  6. Gigabit-class optical wireless communication system at indoor distances (1.5 ÷ 4 m).

    PubMed

    Cossu, Giulio; Ali, Wajahat; Corsini, Raffaele; Ciaramella, Ernesto

    2015-06-15

    In this paper we experimentally realized bidirectional optical wireless communication (OWC) link using four channel visible LED board exploiting wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for the downlink and infrared LED for uplink. We achieved greater than 5 Gbit/s data rate at common indoor distance (1.5 to 4 m) for downlink and 1.5 Gbit/s for uplink using commercially available LEDs. We achieved these results after a careful choice of the LED emission wavelengths and the optical filter spectra. Moreover, we investigate the optimal LED working current and the optimal modulation depth. The bit error ratios of all the channels were maintained lower than the FEC limit (3.8·10(-3)).

  7. Climate change impact of biochar cook stoves in western Kenyan farm households: system dynamics model analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Thea; Nicholson, Charles F; Torres, Dorisel; Lehmann, Johannes

    2011-04-15

    Cook stoves that produce biochar as well as heat for cooking could help mitigate indoor air pollution from cooking fires and could enhance local soils, while their potential reductions in carbon (C) emissions and increases in soil C sequestration could offer access to C market financing. We use system dynamics modeling to (i) investigate the climate change impact of prototype and refined biochar-producing pyrolytic cook stoves and improved combustion cook stoves in comparison to conventional cook stoves; (ii) assess the relative sensitivity of the stoves' climate change impacts to key parameters; and (iii) quantify the effects of different climate change impact accounting decisions. Simulated reductions in mean greenhouse gas (GHG) impact from a traditional, 3-stone cook stove baseline are 3.50 tCO(2)e/household/year for the improved combustion stove and 3.69-4.33 tCO(2)e/household/year for the pyrolytic stoves, of which biochar directly accounts for 26-42%. The magnitude of these reductions is about 2-5 times more sensitive to baseline wood fuel use and the fraction of nonrenewable biomass (fNRB) of off-farm wood that is used as fuel than to soil fertility improvement or stability of biochar. Improved cookstoves with higher wood demand are less sensitive to changes in baseline fuel use and rely on biochar for a greater proportion of their reductions.

  8. Concentrated and piped sunlight for indoor illumination.

    PubMed

    Fraas, L M; Pyle, W R; Ryason, P R

    1983-02-15

    A concept for indoor illumination of buildings using sunlight is described. For this system, a tracking concentrator on the building roof follows the sun and focuses sunlight into a lightguide. A system of transparent lightguides distributes the sunlight to interior rooms. Recent advances in the transparency of acrylic plastic optical fibers suggest that acrylic lightguides could be successfully used for piping sunlight. The proposed system displaces electricity currently used for indoor lighting. It is argued that using sunlight directly for indoor illumination would be about twenty-five times more cost-effective than using sunlight to generate electricity with solar cells for powering electric lamps for indoor lighting.

  9. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  10. The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable…

  11. The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable…

  12. The Community Climate System Model Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Peter R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Donner, Leo J.; Holland, Marika M.; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Jayne, Steve R.; Lawrence, David M.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Worley, Patrick; Yang, Zong-Liang; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-10-01

    The fourth version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) was recently completed and released to the climate community. This paper describes developments to all the CCSM components, and documents fully coupled pre-industrial control runs compared to the previous version, CCSM3. Using the standard atmosphere and land resolution of 1{sup o} results in the sea surface temperature biases in the major upwelling regions being comparable to the 1.4{sup o} resolution CCSM3. Two changes to the deep convection scheme in the atmosphere component result in the CCSM4 producing El Nino/Southern Oscillation variability with a much more realistic frequency distribution than the CCSM3, although the amplitude is too large compared to observations. They also improve the representation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, and the frequency distribution of tropical precipitation. A new overflow parameterization in the ocean component leads to an improved simulation of the deep ocean density structure, especially in the North Atlantic. Changes to the CCSM4 land component lead to a much improved annual cycle of water storage, especially in the tropics. The CCSM4 sea ice component uses much more realistic albedos than the CCSM3, and the Arctic sea ice concentration is improved in the CCSM4. An ensemble of 20th century simulations runs produce an excellent match to the observed September Arctic sea ice extent from 1979 to 2005. The CCSM4 ensemble mean increase in globally-averaged surface temperature between 1850 and 2005 is larger than the observed increase by about 0.4 C. This is consistent with the fact that the CCSM4 does not include a representation of the indirect effects of aerosols, although other factors may come into play. The CCSM4 still has significant biases, such as the mean precipitation distribution in the tropical Pacific Ocean, too much low cloud in the Arctic, and the latitudinal distributions of short-wave and long-wave cloud forcings.

  13. Do obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attack when exposed to indoor mold? A study based on the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Jun; Balluz, Lina; Mokdad, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Some studies show an association between asthma and obesity, but it is unknown whether exposure to mold will increase the risk of asthma attacks among obese people. This study examined whether obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attacks than non-obese adults when exposed to indoor mold. We used data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to conduct a cross-sectional analysis among 9,668 respondents who reported exposure to indoor mold. With exposure to indoor mold, weighted prevalence of asthma attacks among obese respondents was 11.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0, 20.6], which was 2.3 times as high as among the exposed non-obese respondents (5.0%, 95% CI 2.8, 8.8). This ratio was almost the same as the ratio of 2.0:1 between the obese respondents (5.7%, 95% CI 4.6, 7.2) and the non-obese respondents (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3, 3.9) when neither group had exposure to mold. The odds ratio of asthma attack among obese people was 3.10 (95% CI 1.10, 8.67) for those with exposure to mold and 2.21 (95% CI 1.54, 3.17) for those without exposure to mold after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Our study suggests that obese adults who have been exposed to indoor mold may not necessarily have a higher risk of asthma attack than obese adults who have not been exposed, even though obesity and exposure to indoor mold are both major risk factors for asthma attack. Medical professionals should not only incorporate weight-control or weight-reduction measures as the components of asthma treatment plans, but also advise asthma patients to avoid exposure to indoor mold.

  14. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  15. Design of an indoor self-positioning system for the visually impaired--simulation with RFID and Bluetooth in a visible light communication system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohan; Makino, Hideo; Kobayashi, Suguru; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    After a public experiment of the indoor guidance system using FLC (fluorescent light communication), we found that FLC provides a promising medium for the installation of a guidance system for the visually impaired. However, precise self-positioning was not satisfactorily achieved. In this article, we propose a new self-positioning method, one that uses a combination of RFID (Radio-frequency identification), Bluetooth and FLC. We analyzed the situation and developed a model that combined the three communication modes. Then we performed a series of experiments and get some results in the first step.

  16. State laws prohibiting sales to minors and indoor use of electronic nicotine delivery systems--United States, November 2014.

    PubMed

    Marynak, Kristy; Holmes, Carissa Baker; King, Brian A; Promoff, Gabbi; Bunnell, Rebecca; McAfee, Timothy

    2014-12-12

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other devices such as electronic hookahs, electronic cigars, and vape pens, are battery-powered devices capable of delivering aerosolized nicotine and additives to the user. Experimentation with and current use of e-cigarettes has risen sharply among youths and adults in the United States. Youth access to and use of ENDS is of particular concern given the potential adverse effects of nicotine on adolescent brain development. Additionally, ENDS use in public indoor areas might passively expose bystanders (e.g., children, pregnant women, and other nontobacco users) to nicotine and other potentially harmful constituents. ENDS use could have the potential to renormalize tobacco use and complicate enforcement of smoke-free policies. State governments can regulate the sales of ENDS and their use in indoor areas where nonusers might be involuntarily exposed to secondhand aerosol. To learn the current status of state laws regulating the sales and use of ENDS, CDC assessed state laws that prohibit ENDS sales to minors and laws that include ENDS use in conventional smoking prohibitions in indoor areas of private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Findings indicate that as of November 30, 2014, 40 states prohibited ENDS sales to minors, but only three states prohibited ENDS use in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Of the 40 states that prohibited ENDS sales to minors, 21 did not prohibit ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Three states had no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS sales to minors and no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. According to the Surgeon General, ENDS have the potential for public health harm or public health benefit. The possibility of public health benefit from ENDS could arise only if 1) current smokers use these devices to switch completely

  17. Weakening of atmospheric information flow in a warming climate in the Community Climate System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yi; Ebert-Uphoff, Imme

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new perspective of climate change by revealing the changing characteristics of atmospheric information flow in a warming climate. The key idea is to interpret large-scale atmospheric dynamical processes as information flow around the globe and to identify the pathways of this information flow using a climate network based on causal discovery and graphical models. We construct such networks using the daily geopotential height data from the Community Climate System Model Version 4.0 (CCSM4.0)'s 20th century climate simulation and 21st century climate projection. We show that in the CCSM4.0 model under enhanced greenhouse gases (GHGs) forcing, prominent midlatitude information pathways in the midtroposphere weaken and shift poleward, while major tropical information pathways start diminishing. Averaged over the entire Northern Hemisphere, the atmospheric information flow weakens. The implications of this weakening for the interconnectivity among different geographical locations and for the intrinsic predictability of the atmosphere are discussed.

  18. Outdoor performance of a reflective type 3D LCPV system under different climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Hasan; Siviter, Jonathan; Maria, Elena Ana; Montecucco, Andrea; Li, Wenguang; Paul, Manosh; Sweet, Tracy; Gao, Min; Mullen, Paul A.; Knox, Andrew R.; Mallick, Tapas

    2017-09-01

    Concentrating sunlight and focusing on smaller solar cells increases the power output per unit solar cell area. In the present study, we highlight the design of a low concentrating photovoltaic (LCPV) system and its performance in different test conditions. The system essentially consists of a reflective type 3.6× cross compound parabolic concentrator (CCPC) designed for an acceptance angle of ± 30°, coupled with square shaped laser grooved buried contact (LGBC) silicon solar cells. A heat exchanger is also integrated with the PV system which extracts the thermal energy rejected by the solar cells whilst maintaining its temperature. Indoor characterization is carried out to evaluate the system performance under standard conditions. Results showed a power ratio of 3.12 and an optical efficiency of 73%. The system is placed under outdoor environment on a south facing roof at Penryn, UK with a fixed angular tilt of 50°. The high angular acceptance of the system allows collection of sunlight over a wider range. Results under different climatic conditions are presented and compared with a non-concentrating system under similar conditions. On an average, the LCPV system was found to collect an average of 2.54 times more solar energy than a system without the concentrator.

  19. Integrated regional changes in arctic climate feedbacks: Implications for the global climate system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.; Wirth, C.; ,

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic is a key part of the global climate system because the net positive energy input to the tropics must ultimately be resolved through substantial energy losses in high-latitude regions. The Arctic influences the global climate system through both positive and negative feedbacks that involve physical, ecological, and human systems of the Arctic. The balance of evidence suggests that positive feedbacks to global warming will likely dominate in the Arctic during the next 50 to 100 years. However, the negative feedbacks associated with changing the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean might abruptly launch the planet into another glacial period on longer timescales. In light of uncertainties and the vulnerabilities of the climate system to responses in the Arctic, it is important that we improve our understanding of how integrated regional changes in the Arctic will likely influence the evolution of the global climate system. Copyright ?? 2006 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  1. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  2. Pilot climate data system: User's guide for charts subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    The use of the Pilot Climate Data System's (PCDS) CHARTS Subsystem is described. This facility is an interactive software system for the graphical production and enhancement of text and viewgraph displays.

  3. Design of a multi-sensor sonar system for indoor range measurement as a navigational aid for the blind.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Maroof H; Barreto, Armando

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the methodology for the design of a sonar-based ranging and guidance system. The intended application of the system is to help a blind person avoid obstacles as he/she navigates his/her environment. Six sonar transceivers are arranged radially on a headgear worn by the user. The transceivers detect discrete range data at discrete-time sampling instances. A panoramic map of the environment is generated from the discrete-space sensory data. The paper emphasizes the challenges faced during the measurement of omnidirectional ranging information in indoor environments. Situations have been identified where erroneous range readings are generated due to channel cross talk caused by echo bouncing off multiple surfaces. Several sonar control and measurement schemes were developed and tested to avoid these situations. The results and performance of these different control schemes are compared in this paper. A microcontroller-based system commands the sonar ping sequences, acquires the echo return times and computes the ranges. The set of range data is transmitted to a PC, which utilizes the information to build a spatialized audio map of the surrounding obstacles. The hardware and software layout for the system are described in this paper.

  4. Experimental investigation of analog and digital dimming techniques on photometric performance of an indoor Visible Light Communication (VLC) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Fahad; Kalavally, Vineetha; Bakaul, Masuduzzaman; Parthiban, R.

    2015-09-01

    For making commercial implementation of light emitting diode (LED) based visible light communication (VLC) systems feasible, it is necessary to incorporate it with dimming schemes which will provide energy savings, moods and increase the aesthetic value of the places using this technology. There are two general methods which are used to dim LEDs commonly categorized as analog and digital dimming. Incorporating fast data transmission with these techniques is a key challenge in VLC. In this paper, digital and analog dimming for a 10 Mb/s non return to zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) based VLC system is experimentally investigated considering both photometric and communicative parameters. A spectrophotometer was used for photometric analysis and a line of sight (LOS) configuration in the presence of ambient light was used for analyzing communication parameters. Based on the experimental results, it was determined that digital dimming scheme is preferable for use in indoor VLC systems requiring high dimming precision and data transmission at lower brightness levels. On the other hand, analog dimming scheme is a cost effective solution for high speed systems where dimming precision is insignificant.

  5. A National Program for Analysis of the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Arkin, Phil; Kalnay, Eugenia; Laver, James; Trenberth, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Perhaps the single greatest roadblock to fundamental advances in our understanding of climate variability and climate change is the lack of robust and unbiased long-term global observations of the climate system. Such observations are critical for the identification and diagnosis of climate variations, and provide the constraints necessary for developing and validating climate models. The first generation of reanalysis efforts, by using fixed analysis systems, eliminated the artificial climate signals that occurred in analyses generated at the operational numerical weather prediction centers. These datasets are now widely used by the scientific community in a variety of applications including atmosphere-ocean interactions, seasonal prediction, climate monitoring, the hydrological cycle, and a host of regional and other diagnostic studies. These reanalyses, however, had problems that made them sub-optimal or even unusable for some applications. Perhaps the most serious problem for climate applications was that, while the assimilation system remained fixed, changes in the observing systems did produce spurious changes in the perceived climate. The first generation reanalysis products also exposed problems with physical consistency of the products and the accurate representation of physical processes in the climate system. Examples are bias in the estimates of ocean surface fluxes, and inadequate representation of polar hydrology. In this talk, I will describe some initial plans for a national program on reananlysis. The program is envisioned to be part of an on-going activity to maintain, improve, and reprocess our record of climate observations. I will discuss various issues affecting the quality of reanalyses, with a special focus on those relevant to the ocean.

  6. A National Program for Analysis of the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Arkin, Phil; Kalnay, Eugenia; Laver, James; Trenberth, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Perhaps the single greatest roadblock to fundamental advances in our understanding of climate variability and climate change is the lack of robust and unbiased long-term global observations of the climate system. Such observations are critical for the identification and diagnosis of climate variations, and provide the constraints necessary for developing and validating climate models. The first generation of reanalysis efforts, by using fixed analysis systems, eliminated the artificial climate signals that occurred in analyses generated at the operational numerical weather prediction centers. These datasets are now widely used by the scientific community in a variety of applications including atmosphere-ocean interactions, seasonal prediction, climate monitoring, the hydrological cycle, and a host of regional and other diagnostic studies. These reanalyses, however, had problems that made them sub-optimal or even unusable for some applications. Perhaps the most serious problem for climate applications was that, while the assimilation system remained fixed, changes in the observing systems did produce spurious changes in the perceived climate. The first generation reanalysis products also exposed problems with physical consistency of the products and the accurate representation of physical processes in the climate system. Examples are bias in the estimates of ocean surface fluxes, and inadequate representation of polar hydrology. In this talk, I will describe some initial plans for a national program on reananlysis. The program is envisioned to be part of an on-going activity to maintain, improve, and reprocess our record of climate observations. I will discuss various issues affecting the quality of reanalyses, with a special focus on those relevant to the ocean.

  7. Characterization of a multi-user indoor positioning system based on low cost depth vision (Kinect) for monitoring human activity in a smart home.

    PubMed

    Sevrin, Loïc; Noury, Norbert; Abouchi, Nacer; Jumel, Fabrice; Massot, Bertrand; Saraydaryan, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of systems use indoor positioning for many scenarios such as asset tracking, health care, games, manufacturing, logistics, shopping, and security. Many technologies are available and the use of depth cameras is becoming more and more attractive as this kind of device becomes affordable and easy to handle. This paper contributes to the effort of creating an indoor positioning system based on low cost depth cameras (Kinect). A method is proposed to optimize the calibration of the depth cameras, to describe the multi-camera data fusion and to specify a global positioning projection to maintain the compatibility with outdoor positioning systems. The monitoring of the people trajectories at home is intended for the early detection of a shift in daily activities which highlights disabilities and loss of autonomy. This system is meant to improve homecare health management at home for a better end of life at a sustainable cost for the community.

  8. A climate stress-test of the financial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Mandel, Antoine; Monasterolo, Irene; Schütze, Franziska; Visentin, Gabriele

    2017-03-01

    The urgency of estimating the impact of climate risks on the financial system is increasingly recognized among scholars and practitioners. By adopting a network approach to financial dependencies, we look at how climate policy risk might propagate through the financial system. We develop a network-based climate stress-test methodology and apply it to large Euro Area banks in a `green' and a `brown' scenario. We find that direct and indirect exposures to climate-policy-relevant sectors represent a large portion of investors' equity portfolios, especially for investment and pension funds. Additionally, the portion of banks' loan portfolios exposed to these sectors is comparable to banks' capital. Our results suggest that climate policy timing matters. An early and stable policy framework would allow for smooth asset value adjustments and lead to potential net winners and losers. In contrast, a late and abrupt policy framework could have adverse systemic consequences.

  9. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  10. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  11. Gauging the System: Trends in School Climate Measurement and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…

  12. A Systems Perspective on Responses to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    The science of climate change integrates many scientific fields to explain and predict the complex effects of greenhouse gas concentrations on the planet’s energy balance, weather patterns, and ecosystems as well as economic and social systems. A changing climate requires respons...

  13. A Systems Perspective on Responses to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    The science of climate change integrates many scientific fields to explain and predict the complex effects of greenhouse gas concentrations on the planet’s energy balance, weather patterns, and ecosystems as well as economic and social systems. A changing climate requires respons...

  14. Planning for climate change on the National Wildlife Refuge System

    Treesearch

    B. Czech; S. Covington; T. M. Crimmins; J. A. Ericson; C. Flather; M. Gale; K. Gerst; M. Higgins; M. Kaib; E. Marino; T. Moran; J. Morton; N. Niemuth; H. Peckett; D. Savignano; L. Saperstein; S. Skorupa; E. Wagener; B. Wilen; B. Wolfe

    2014-01-01

    This document originated in 2008 as a collaborative project of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the University of Maryland's Graduate Program in Sustainable Development and Conservation Biology. The original title was A Primer on Climate Change for the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Primer has evolved into Planning for Climate Change on the...

  15. Gauging the System: Trends in School Climate Measurement and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…

  16. Applying "Climate" system to teaching basic climatology and raising public awareness of climate change issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    While there is a strong demand for innovation in digital learning, available training programs in the environmental sciences have no time to adapt to rapid changes in the domain content. A joint group of scientists and university teachers develops and implements an educational environment for new learning experiences in basics of climatic science and its applications. This so-called virtual learning laboratory "Climate" contains educational materials and interactive training courses developed to provide undergraduate and graduate students with profound understanding of changes in regional climate and environment. The main feature of this Laboratory is that students perform their computational tasks on climate modeling and evaluation and assessment of climate change using the typical tools of the "Climate" information-computational system, which are usually used by real-life practitioners performing such kind of research. Students have an opportunity to perform computational laboratory works using information-computational tools of the system and improve skills of their usage simultaneously with mastering the subject. We did not create an artificial learning environment to pass the trainings. On the contrary, the main purpose of association of the educational block and computational information system was to familiarize students with the real existing technologies for monitoring and analysis of data on the state of the climate. Trainings are based on technologies and procedures which are typical for Earth system sciences. Educational courses are designed to permit students to conduct their own investigations of ongoing and future climate changes in a manner that is essentially identical to the techniques used by national and international climate research organizations. All trainings are supported by lectures, devoted to the basic aspects of modern climatology, including analysis of current climate change and its possible impacts ensuring effective links between

  17. The validity and reliability of a novel indoor player tracking system for use within wheelchair court sports.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, James; Mason, Barry; Perrat, Bertrand; Smith, Martin; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity and reliability of a radio frequency-based system for accurately tracking athlete movement within wheelchair court sports. Four wheelchair-specific tests were devised to assess the system during (i) static measurements; (ii) incremental fixed speeds; (iii) peak speeds; and (iv) multidirectional movements. During each test, three sampling frequencies (4, 8 and 16 Hz) were compared to a criterion method for distance, mean and peak speeds. Absolute static error remained between 0.19 and 0.32 m across the session. Distance values (test (ii)) showed greatest relative error in 4 Hz tags (1.3%), with significantly lower errors seen in higher frequency tags (<1.0%). Relative peak speed errors of <2.0% (test (iii)) were revealed across all sampling frequencies in relation to the criterion (4.00 ± 0.09 m · s-(1)). Results showed 8 and 16 Hz sampling frequencies displayed the closest-to-criterion values, whilst intra-tag reliability never exceeded 2.0% coefficient of variation (% CV) during peak speed detection. Minimal relative distance errors (<0.2%) were also seen across sampling frequencies (test (iv)). To conclude, the indoor tracking system is deemed an acceptable tool for tracking wheelchair court match play using a tag frequency of 8 or 16 Hz.

  18. Indoor human thermal adaptation: dynamic processes and weighting factors.

    PubMed

    Luo, M; Cao, B; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we explore the correlations between indoor climate change and human thermal adaptation, especially with regard to the timescale and weighting factors of physiological adaptation. A comparative experiment was conducted in China where wintertime indoor climate in the southern region (devoid of space heating) is much colder than in the northern region (with pervasive district heating). Four subject groups with different indoor thermal experiences participated in this climate chamber experiment. The results indicate that previous indoor thermal exposure is an important contributor to occupants' physiological adaptation. More specifically, subjects acclimated to neutral-warm indoors tended to have stronger physiological responses and felt more uncomfortable in moderate cold exposures than those adapted to the cold. As for the driving force of thermal adaptation, physiological acclimation is an important aspect among all the supposed adaptive layers. However, the physiological adaptation speed lags behind changes in the overall subjective perception.

  19. System's flips in climate-related energy (CRE) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjørn; François, Baptiste; Renard, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Several modern environmental questions invite to explore the complex relationships between natural phenomena and human behaviour at a range of space and time scales. This usually involves a number of cause-effect (causal) relationships, linking actions and events. In lay terms, 'effect' can be defined as 'what happened' and 'cause', 'why something happened.' In a changing world or merely moving from one scale to another, shifts in perspective are expected, bringing some phenomena into the foreground and putting others to the background. Systems can thus flip from one set of causal structures to another in response to environmental perturbations and human innovations or behaviors, for instance, as space-time signatures are modified. The identification of these flips helps in better understanding and predicting how societies and stakeholders react to a shift in perspective. In this study, our motivation is to investigate possible consequences of the shift to a low carbon economy in terms of socio-technico systems' flips. The focus is on the regional production of Climate-Related Energy (CRE) (hydro-, wind- and solar-power). We search for information on historic shifts that may help defining the forcing conditions of abrupt changes and extreme situations. We identify and present a series of examples in which we try to distinguish the various tipping points, thresholds, breakpoints and regime shifts that are characteristic of complex systems in the CRE production domain. We expect that with these examples our comprehension of the question will be enriched, providing us the elements needed to better validate modeling attempts, to predict and manage flips of complex CRE production systems. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  20. A personal perspective on modelling the climate system

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Given their increasing relevance for society, I suggest that the climate science community itself does not treat the development of error-free ab initio models of the climate system with sufficient urgency. With increasing levels of difficulty, I discuss a number of proposals for speeding up such development. Firstly, I believe that climate science should make better use of the pool of post-PhD talent in mathematics and physics, for developing next-generation climate models. Secondly, I believe there is more scope for the development of modelling systems which link weather and climate prediction more seamlessly. Finally, here in Europe, I call for a new European Programme on Extreme Computing and Climate to advance our ability to simulate climate extremes, and understand the drivers of such extremes. A key goal for such a programme is the development of a 1 km global climate system model to run on the first exascale supercomputers in the early 2020s. PMID:27274686

  1. Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system Bio-geophysical feedback between marine or continental ecosystems and the atmosphere potentially can alter climate change. A prominent feedback loop which is under discussion since 1983 bases on the emission of biologically produced gases - molecular oxygen, sulphur containing compounds and possibly isoprene, supersaturated in oceanic waters - into the marine troposphere. These by-products of phytoplankton metabolism lead to aerosol production and procure sustained influence on climate via modulation of cloud optical properties. In this contribution some findings related to the above mentioned climate processes are presented with special emphasis on marine ecosystems. A comparison of marine and continental ecosystems is made and different processes with major impact on feedbacks in the climate system are discussed.

  2. 15 Gbit/s indoor optical wireless systems employing fast adaptation and imaging reception in a realistic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaadi, Fuad E.

    2016-03-01

    Optical wireless systems are promising candidates for next-generation indoor communication networks. Optical wireless technology offers freedom from spectrum regulations and, compared to current radio-frequency networks, higher data rates and increased security. This paper presents a fast adaptation method for multibeam angle and delay adaptation systems and a new spot-diffusing geometry, and also considers restrictions needed for complying with eye safety regulations. The fast adaptation algorithm reduces the computational load required to reconfigure the transmitter in the case of transmitter and/or receiver mobility. The beam clustering approach enables the transmitter to assign power to spots within the pixel's field of view (FOV) and increases the number of such spots. Thus, if the power per spot is restricted to comply with eye safety standards, the new approach, in which more spots are visible within the FOV of the pixel, leads to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Simulation results demonstrate that the techniques proposed in this paper lead to SNR improvements that enable reliable operation at data rates as high as 15 Gbit/s. These results are based on simulation and not on actual measurements or experiments.

  3. D Reconstruction of Cultural Tourism Attractions from Indoor to Outdoor Based on Portable Four-Camera Stereo Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Z.; Li, C.; Zhong, S.; Liu, B.; Jiang, H.; Wen, X.

    2015-05-01

    Building the fine 3D model from outdoor to indoor is becoming a necessity for protecting the cultural tourism resources. However, the existing 3D modelling technologies mainly focus on outdoor areas. Actually, a 3D model should contain detailed descriptions of both its appearance and its internal structure, including architectural components. In this paper, a portable four-camera stereo photographic measurement system is developed, which can provide a professional solution for fast 3D data acquisition, processing, integration, reconstruction and visualization. Given a specific scene or object, it can directly collect physical geometric information such as positions, sizes and shapes of an object or a scene, as well as physical property information such as the materials and textures. On the basis of the information, 3D model can be automatically constructed. The system has been applied to the indooroutdoor seamless modelling of distinctive architecture existing in two typical cultural tourism zones, that is, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic minority villages in Sichuan Jiuzhaigou Scenic Area and Tujia ethnic minority villages in Hubei Shennongjia Nature Reserve, providing a new method and platform for protection of minority cultural characteristics, 3D reconstruction and cultural tourism.

  4. Indoor and Outdoor Play in Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeker, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain children's indoor and outdoor play in preschool programs in terms of teacher interaction, peer interaction and task orientation. Children's indoor and outdoor play behaviors were compared using the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS). Findings included significant differences on…

  5. Effect of pasture versus indoor feeding systems on raw milk composition and quality over an entire lactation.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Hennessy, Deirdre; McAuliffe, Stephen; Kilcawley, Kieran N; O'Donovan, Michael; Dillon, Pat; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different feeding systems on milk quality and composition. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian lactating cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) to study the effects of 3 feeding systems over a full lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and offered a total mixed ration diet (TMR), group 2 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass pasture (referred to as grass), and group 3 was also grazed outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (referred to as clover). Bulk milk samples were collected from each group at morning and afternoon milkings once weekly from March 11 to October 28 in 2015. Milk from pasture-fed cows (grass and clover) had significantly higher concentrations of fat, protein, true protein, and casein. The pasture feeding systems induced significantly higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids C11:0, C13:0, C15:0, C17:0, C23:0, and unsaturated fatty acids C18:2n-6 trans, C18:3n-3, C20:1, and C20:4n-6 and a greater than 2-fold increase in the conjugated linoleic acid C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 content of milk compared with that of the TMR feeding system. The TMR feeding system resulted in milks with increased concentrations of C16:0, C18:2n-6 cis, C18:3n-6 cis, C22:0 C22:1n-9, and C18:2 cis-10,trans-12. Principal component analysis of average fatty acid profiles showed clear separation of milks from the grazed pasture-based diets to that of a TMR system throughout lactation, offering further insight into the ability to verify pasture-derived milk by fatty acid profiling. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DataStreme Earth's Climate System: Building a Climate Literate Society through Effective Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Effective partnerships are key to increasing climate and overall environmental literacy. Financial support from NSF, NASA, and NOAA has allowed the American Meteorological Society (AMS) to offer DataStreme courses for almost 20 years. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and Earth's Climate System (ECS) are offered each fall and spring semester by Local Implementation Teams (LITs) across the country in coordination with AMS Education Program scientists and educators who develop instructional materials, provide logistical support to the LITs, and administer the project. A long-standing partnership with State University of New York's The College at Brockport gives teachers the opportunity to receive 3 tuition-free graduate credits upon successful completion of each DataStreme course and construction of a Plan of Action for educational peer-training. DataStreme ECS investigates the fundamental science of Earth's climate system, explores humans' impact on it, and identifies actions needed in response to climate change. The course provides participants with the knowledge to make informed climate decisions. In fact, according to a recent three-year study conducted by AMS, 98% of DataStreme ECS participants reported an increase in environmental literacy as a result of the course. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and ECS content has been improved because of AMS partnerships with NOAA and NASA. Specifically, hundreds of NASA and NOAA scientists and faculty from numerous institutions both domestic and abroad have contributed and reviewed DataStreme ECS content. Additional collaborations with Consortium for Ocean Leadership and the U.S. Ice Drilling Program greatly improved the course's paleoclimate content. Looking ahead, the Climate Resilience Toolkit from NOAA's Climate Program Office will further bolster the course this fall. These partnerships have resulted in a powerful, content-rich climate science course for K-12 teachers, building the foundation to a climate literate society.

  7. Urban Climate Map System for Dutch spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chao; Spit, Tejo; Lenzholzer, Sanda; Yim, Hung Lam Steve; Heusinkveld, Bert; van Hove, Bert; Chen, Liang; Kupski, Sebastian; Burghardt, René; Katzschner, Lutz

    2012-08-01

    Facing climate change and global warming, outdoor climatic environment is an important consideration factor for planners and policy makers because improving it can greatly contribute to achieve citizen's thermal comfort and create a better urban living quality for adaptation. Thus, the climatic information must be assessed systematically and applied strategically into the planning process. This paper presents a tool named Urban Climate Map System (UCMS) that has proven capable of helping compact cities to incorporate climate effects in planning processes in a systematic way. UCMS is developed and presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform in which the lessons learned and experience gained from interdisciplinary studies can be included. The methodology of UCMS of compact cities, the construction procedure, and the basic input factors - including the natural climate resources and planning data - are described. Some literatures that shed light on the applicability of UMCS are reported. The Municipality of Arnhem is one of Dutch compact urban areas and still under fast urban development and urban renewal. There is an urgent need for local planners and policy makers to protect local climate and open landscape resources and make climate change adaptation in urban construction. Thus, Arnhem is chosen to carry out a case study of UCMS. Although it is the first work of Urban Climatic Mapping in The Netherlands, it serves as a useful climatic information platform to local planners and policy makers for their daily on-going works. We attempt to use a quick method to collect available climatic and planning data and create an information platform for planning use. It relies mostly on literature and theoretical understanding that has been well practiced elsewhere. The effort here is to synergize the established understanding for a case at hand and demonstrate how useful guidance can still be made for planners and policy makers.

  8. Residential Dehumidification Systems Research for Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-02-01

    Twenty homes were tested and monitored in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, to evaluate the humidity control performance and operating cost of six integrated dehumidification and ventilation systems.

  9. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  10. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  11. Comprehensive climate system modeling on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, M.F.; Eltgroth, P.G.; Mirin, A.A.; Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.G.; Bolstad, J.H.; Wang, H.; Matarazzo, C.M.; Creach, U,E.

    1996-10-01

    A better understanding of both natural and human induced changes to the Earth`s climate is necessary for policy makers to make informed decisions regarding energy usage and other greenhouse gas producing activities. To achieve this, substantial increases in the sophistication of climate models are required. Coupling between the climate subsystems of the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere and biosphere is only now beginning to be explored in global models. the enormous computational expenses of such models is one significant factor limiting progress. A comprehensive climate system model targeted to distributed memory massively parallel processing (MPP) computers is under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This class of computers promises the computational power to permit the timely execution of climate models of substantially more sophistication than current generation models. Our strategy for achieving high performance on large numbers of processors is to exploit the multiple layers of parallelism naturally contained within highly coupled global climate models. The centerpiece of this strategy is the concurrent execution of multiple independently parallelized components of the climate system model. This methodology allows the assignment of an arbitrary number of processors to each of the major climate subsystems. Hence, a higher total number of processors may be efficiently used. Furthermore, load imbalances arising from the coupling of submodels may be minimized by adjusting the distribution of processors among the submodels.

  12. Reconstructing the variability of the climate system: Facts and theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplessy, Jean-Claude; Cortijo, Elsa; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Paillard, Didier

    2005-08-01

    On the 10 2- to 10 3-year timescale, internal reorganizations of the climate system result in abrupt climatic changes of great magnitude. Although a large body of data has been obtained, the physical mechanisms responsible for these changes are still poorly understood. Instrumental data are too short to fully record the variability of the climate system. Palaeoclimatic records provide estimates of the past atmospheric composition, temperature, precipitation, vegetation, extension of glaciers, and past ocean circulation. On the 10 4- to 10 6-year timescale, the astronomical theory of palaeoclimates accounts for most of the reconstructed variations. To cite this article: J.-C. Duplessy et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  13. Agro-climatic adaptation of cropping systems under climate change in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhuoran; Gu, Tingting; Tian, Zhan; Zhong, Honglin; Liang, Yuqi

    2015-09-01

    Climate change affects the heat and water resources required by agriculture, thus shifting cropping rotation and intensity. Shanghai is located in the Taihu Lake basin, a transition zone for various cropping systems. In the basin, moderate climate changes can cause major shifts in cropping intensity and rotation. In the present study, we integrated observational climate data, one regional climate model, land use maps, and agricultural statistics to analyze the relationship between heat resources and multi-cropping potential in Shanghai. The results of agro-climatic assessment showed that climate change over the past 50 years has significantly enhanced regional agroclimatic resources, rendering a shift from double cropping to triple cropping possible. However, a downward trend is evident in the actual multi-cropping index, caused principally by the increasing costs of farming and limitations in the supply of labor. We argue that improving the utilization rate of the enhanced agro-climatic resources is possible by introducing new combinations of cultivars, adopting more laborsaving technologies, and providing incentives to farmers.

  14. Organizational climate, services, and outcomes in child welfare systems.

    PubMed

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and mediating effects of organizational climate and casework services on outcomes. The study applies hierarchical linear models (HLMs) analyses to all 5 waves of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW) with a US nationwide sample of 1,678 maltreated youth aged 4-16 years and 1,696 caseworkers from 88 child welfare systems. Organizational climate is assessed on 2 dimensions, Engagement and Stress, with scales from the well established measure, Organizational Social Context (OSC); youth outcomes are measured as problems in psychosocial functioning with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL); and casework services are assessed with original scales developed for the study and completed by the maltreated youths' primary caregivers and caseworkers. Maltreated youth served by child welfare systems with more engaged organizational climates have significantly better outcomes. Moreover, the quantity and quality of casework services neither mediate nor interact with the effects of organizational climate on youth outcomes. Organizational climate is associated with youth outcomes in child welfare systems, but a better understanding is needed of the mechanisms that link organizational climate to outcomes. In addition, there is a need for evidence-based organizational interventions that can improve the organizational climates and effectiveness of child welfare systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  16. Quantifying the increasing sensitivity of power systems to climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, H. C.; Brayshaw, D. J.; Shaffrey, L. C.; Coker, P. J.; Thornton, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    Large quantities of weather-dependent renewable energy generation are expected in power systems under climate change mitigation policies, yet little attention has been given to the impact of long term climate variability. By combining state-of-the-art multi-decadal meteorological records with a parsimonious representation of a power system, this study characterises the impact of year-to-year climate variability on multiple aspects of the power system of Great Britain (including coal, gas and nuclear generation), demonstrating why multi-decadal approaches are necessary. All aspects of the example system are impacted by inter-annual climate variability, with the impacts being most pronounced for baseload generation. The impacts of inter-annual climate variability increase in a 2025 wind-power scenario, with a 4-fold increase in the inter-annual range of operating hours for baseload such as nuclear. The impacts on peak load and peaking-plant are comparably small. Less than 10 years of power supply and demand data are shown to be insufficient for providing robust power system planning guidance. This suggests renewable integration studies—widely used in policy, investment and system design—should adopt a more robust approach to climate characterisation.

  17. INTRODUCTION: Focus on Climate Engineering: Intentional Intervention in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    Geoengineering techniques for countering climate change have been receiving much press recently as a `Plan B' if a global deal to tackle climate change is not agreed at the COP15 negotiations in Copenhagen this December. However, the field is controversial as the methods may have unforeseen consequences, potentially making temperatures rise in some regions or reducing rainfall, and many aspects remain under-researched. This focus issue of Environmental Research Letters is a collection of research articles, invited by David Keith, University of Calgary, and Ken Caldeira, Carnegie Institution, that present and evaluate different methods for engineering the Earth's climate. Not only do the letters in this issue highlight various methods of climate engineering but they also detail the arguments for and against climate engineering as a concept. Further reading Focus on Geoengineering at http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/subject/tag=geoengineering IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science is an open-access proceedings service available at www.iop.org/EJ/journal/ees Focus on Climate Engineering: Intentional Intervention in the Climate System Contents Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming David L Mitchell and William Finnegan Climate engineering and the risk of rapid climate change Andrew Ross and H Damon Matthews Researching geoengineering: should not or could not? Martin Bunzl Of mongooses and mitigation: ecological analogues to geoengineering H Damon Matthews and Sarah E Turner Toward ethical norms and institutions for climate engineering research David R Morrow, Robert E Kopp and Michael Oppenheimer On the possible use of geoengineering to moderate specific climate change impacts Michael C MacCracken The impact of geoengineering aerosols on stratospheric temperature and ozone P Heckendorn, D Weisenstein, S Fueglistaler, B P Luo, E Rozanov, M Schraner, L W Thomason and T Peter The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered

  18. Advanced Indoor Module Light-Soaking Facility

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Osterwald, C.; Pruett, J.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the accelerated, indoor light-soaking test station is presented in this paper, along with data obtained for six modules that underwent exposure. The station comprises a climate-controlled chamber equipped with a solar simulator that allows 1-sun light intensity exposure. Concurrently, we monitor the electrical characteristics of multiple PV modules and exercise active control over their electrical bias using programmable electronic loads, interfaced to a data acquisition system that acquires power-tracking and current-voltage data. This capability allows us to the test different bias conditions and to cyclically alternate between them. Additionally, we can vary the light intensity and module temperatures to garner realistic temperature coefficients of module performance. Data obtained on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) modules are presented.

  19. The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems.

    PubMed

    Harley, Christopher D G; Randall Hughes, A; Hultgren, Kristin M; Miner, Benjamin G; Sorte, Cascade J B; Thornber, Carol S; Rodriguez, Laura F; Tomanek, Lars; Williams, Susan L

    2006-02-01

    Anthropogenically induced global climate change has profound implications for marine ecosystems and the economic and social systems that depend upon them. The relationship between temperature and individual performance is reasonably well understood, and much climate-related research has focused on potential shifts in distribution and abundance driven directly by temperature. However, recent work has revealed that both abiotic changes and biological responses in the ocean will be substantially more complex. For example, changes in ocean chemistry may be more important than changes in temperature for the performance and survival of many organisms. Ocean circulation, which drives larval transport, will also change, with important consequences for population dynamics. Furthermore, climatic impacts on one or a few 'leverage species' may result in sweeping community-level changes. Finally, synergistic effects between climate and other anthropogenic variables, particularly fishing pressure, will likely exacerbate climate-induced changes. Efforts to manage and conserve living marine systems in the face of climate change will require improvements to the existing predictive framework. Key directions for future research include identifying key demographic transitions that influence population dynamics, predicting changes in the community-level impacts of ecologically dominant species, incorporating populations' ability to evolve (adapt), and understanding the scales over which climate will change and living systems will respond.

  20. Ultrasound indoor positioning system based on a low-power wireless sensor network providing sub-centimeter accuracy.

    PubMed

    Medina, Carlos; Segura, José Carlos; De la Torre, Ángel

    2013-03-13

    This paper describes the TELIAMADE system, a new indoor positioning system based on time-of-flight (TOF) of ultrasonic signal to estimate the distance between a receiver node and a transmitter node. TELIAMADE system consists of a set of wireless nodes equipped with a radio module for communication and a module for the transmission and reception of ultrasound. The access to the ultrasonic channel is managed by applying a synchronization algorithm based on a time-division multiplexing (TDMA) scheme. The ultrasonic signal is transmitted using a carrier frequency of 40 kHz and the TOF measurement is estimated by applying a quadrature detector to the signal obtained at the A/D converter output. Low sampling frequencies of 17.78 kHz or even 12.31 kHz are possible using quadrature sampling in order to optimize memory requirements and to reduce the computational cost in signal processing. The distance is calculated from the TOF taking into account the speed of sound. An excellent accuracy in the estimation of the TOF is achieved using parabolic interpolation to detect of maximum of the signal envelope at the matched filter output. The signal phase information is also used for enhancing the TOF measurement accuracy. Experimental results show a root mean square error (rmse) less than 2 mm and a standard deviation less than 0.3 mm for pseudorange measurements in the range of distances between 2 and 6 m. The system location accuracy is also evaluated by applying multilateration. A sub-centimeter location accuracy is achieved with an average rmse of 9.6 mm.

  1. Light use efficiency for vegetables production in protected and indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocetta, Giacomo; Casciani, Daria; Bulgari, Roberta; Musante, Fulvio; Kołton, Anna; Rossi, Maurizio; Ferrante, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there is a growing interest for vegetables production in indoor or disadvantaged climatic zones by using greenhouses. The main problem of crop growing indoor or in environment with limited light availability is the correct choice of light source and the quality of lighting spectrum. In greenhouse and indoor cultivations, plant density is higher than in the open field and plants have to compete for light and nutrients. Nowadays, advanced systems for indoor horticulture use light emitting diodes (LED) for improving crop growth, enhancing the plant productivity and favouring the best nutritional quality formation. In closed environments, as indoor growing modules, the lighting system represents the only source of light and its features are fundamental for obtaining the best lighting performances for plant and the most efficient solution. LED lighting engines are more efficient compared to the lighting sources used traditionally in horticulture and allow light spectrum and intensity modulations to enhance the light use efficiency for plants. The lighting distribution and the digital controls are fundamental for tailoring the spectral distribution on each plant in specific moments of its growth and play an important role for optimizing growth and produce high-quality vegetables. LED lights can increase plant growth and yield, but also nutraceutical quality, since some light intensities increase pigments biosynthesis and enhance the antioxidants content of leaves or fruits: in this regards the selection of LED primary light sources in relation to the peaks of the absorbance curve of the plants is important.

  2. Climate Change Impact Assessments for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of climate change impact assessments evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when assessing the potential impacts of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially impacted by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the assessment process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change assessments for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an impact assessment for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into impact assessments, and modification of international trade models for use in impact studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the assessment outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change impacts and an assessment product of potentially greater

  3. Organizational Reward Systems: Implications for Climate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    engage in behaviors that lead to desired reinforcements produces learned helplessness and reduced effort ( Seligman , 1975). Thus, clarity about...Climate 35 Schrauger, J. S. Responses to evaluation as a function of initial self- perceptions. Psychological Bulletin, 1975, 82, 581-596. Seligman , M...Dorothy Benson, Linda Dutton, Deborah Main, and Barbara Olson for their assistance. LIST l/Mandatory LIST 2/ONR Field (continued) Defense Technical

  4. Developing a National Climate Indicators System to Track Climate Changes, Impacts, Vulnerabilities, and Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, M. A.; Janetos, A. C.; Arndt, D.; Chen, R. S.; Pouyat, R.; Anderson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. Part of the vision, which is now under development, for the sustained National Climate Assessment (NCA) process is a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public with scientifically valid information that is useful to inform decision-making processes such as the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies in a particular sector or region. These indicators will be tracked as a part of ongoing assessment activities, with adjustments as necessary to adapt to changing conditions and understanding. The indicators will be reviewed and updated so that the system adapts to new information. The NCA indicator system is not intended to serve as a vehicle for documenting rigorous cause and effect relationships. It is reasonable, however, for it to serve as a guide to those factors that affect the evolution of variability and change in the climate system, the resources and sectors of concern that are affected by it, and how society chooses to respond. Different components of the end-to-end climate issue serve as categories within which to organize an end-to-end system of indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, Atmospheric Composition, Physical Climate Variability and Change, Sectors and Resources of Concern, and Adaptation and Mitigation Responses. This framing has several advantages. It can be used to identify the different components of the end-to-end climate issue that both decision-makers and researchers are interested in. It is independent of scale, and therefore allows the indicators themselves to be described at spatial

  5. Safety climate and culture: Integrating psychological and systems perspectives.

    PubMed

    Casey, Tristan; Griffin, Mark A; Flatau Harrison, Huw; Neal, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Safety climate research has reached a mature stage of development, with a number of meta-analyses demonstrating the link between safety climate and safety outcomes. More recently, there has been interest from systems theorists in integrating the concept of safety culture and to a lesser extent, safety climate into systems-based models of organizational safety. Such models represent a theoretical and practical development of the safety climate concept by positioning climate as part of a dynamic work system in which perceptions of safety act to constrain and shape employee behavior. We propose safety climate and safety culture constitute part of the enabling capitals through which organizations build safety capability. We discuss how organizations can deploy different configurations of enabling capital to exert control over work systems and maintain safe and productive performance. We outline 4 key strategies through which organizations to reconcile the system control problems of promotion versus prevention, and stability versus flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Comments on Current Space Systems Observing the Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, L. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), which was established in 1992, has been effective in specifying the observations needed for climate studies, and advocating that these observations be made. As a result, there are essential climate variables being observed, particularly from space, and these have formed the basis for our ever-improving models of how the Earth system functions and the human impact on it. We cannot conclude, however, that the current observing system in space is adequate. Climate change is accelerating, and we need to ensure that our observations capture, with completeness and with proper resolution and cadence, the most important changes. Perhaps of most significance, we need to use observations from space to guide the mitigation and adaptation strategies on which at last our civilization seems prepared to embark. And we need to use our observations to educate particularly policy makers on the reality of climate change, so that none deny the need to act. COSPAR is determined to play its part in highlighting the need to strengthen the climate observing system and notably its research component. This is being accomplished through events like the present roundtable, through the work of its Scientific Commission A, its Task Group on GEO (where COSPAR is serving as a member of its Program Board), and by promoting among space agencies and policy-makers the recently released scientific roadmap on Integrated Earth System Science for the period 2016-2025.

  7. Massive MIMO-OFDM indoor visible light communication system downlink architecture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Tian; Li, Zening; Chen, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique is now used in most new broadband communication system, and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is also utilized within current 4th generation (4G) of mobile telecommunication technology. With MIMO and OFDM combined, visible light communication (VLC) system's diversity gain is increase, yet system capacity for dispersive channels is also enhanced. Moreover, with the emerging massive MIMO-OFDM VLC system, there are significant advantages than smaller systems' such as channel hardening, further increasing of energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE) based on law of large number. This paper addresses one of the major technological challenges, system architecture design, which was solved by semispherical beehive structure (SBS) receiver and so that diversity gain can be identified and applied in Massive MIMO VLC system. Simulation results shows that the proposed design clearly presents a spatial diversity over conventional VLC systems.

  8. Prediction of indoor radon concentrations in dwellings in the Oslo region - a model based on geographical information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerud, R.; Blaasaas, K.; Ganerød, G.; Daviknes, H. K.; Aune, E.; Claussen, B.

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to estimate the radon concentration inside each dwelling in the Oslo region, Norway. The model was based on indoor radon measurements from dwellings at predefined distances from the unmeasured dwellings. The results were evaluated by comparing them with actual indoor measurements, airborne gamma ray spectrometry measurements and bedrock geology. It is the first study to evaluate the reliability between estimated indoor radon in each dwelling with airborne measurements (eK, eTh and eU) and underlying geology around the house in a large population. A total of 28 396 indoor radon measurements showed that 42.2% of the dwellings had a radon value higher than the threshold limit of 100 Bq m-3. 18.9% of the dwellings were above the maximum action level of 200 Bq m-3. A positive correlation was found between indoor radon concentration, bedrock geology and airborne gamma measurements (Pearson correlation: eK: 0.42, eTh: 0.67 and eU: 0.65). Highest correlation was found in areas with alum shale (eU: 0.74). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) showed a good agreement between radon estimates from our method and radon estimates from the regression model with ICC values between 0.54 and 0.67.

  9. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  10. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  11. Investigations of the Climate System Response to Climate Engineering in a Hierarchy of Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Kelly E.

    Global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases is causing negative impacts on diverse ecological and human systems around the globe, and these impacts are projected to worsen as climate continues to warm. In the absence of meaningful greenhouse gas emissions reductions, new strategies have been proposed to engineer the climate, with the aim of preventing further warming and avoiding associated climate impacts. We investigate one such strategy here, falling under the umbrella of `solar radiation management', in which sulfate aerosols are injected into the stratosphere. We use a global climate model with a coupled mixed-layer depth ocean and with a fully-coupled ocean general circulation model to simulate the stabilization of climate by balancing increasing carbon dioxide with increasing stratospheric sulfate concentrations. We evaluate whether or not severe climate impacts, such as melting Arctic sea ice, tropical crop failure, or destabilization of the West Antarctic ice sheet, could be avoided. We find that while tropical climate emergencies might be avoided by use of stratospheric aerosol injections, avoiding polar emergencies cannot be guaranteed due to large residual climate changes in those regions, which are in part due to residual atmospheric circulation anomalies. We also find that the inclusion of a fully-coupled ocean is important for determining the regional climate response because of its dynamical feedbacks. The efficacy of stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections, and solar radiation management more generally, depends on its ability to be maintained indefinitely, without interruption from a variety of possible sources, such as technological failure, a breakdown in global cooperation, lack of funding, or negative unintended consequences. We next consider the scenario in which stratospheric sulfate injections are abruptly terminated after a multi- decadal period of implementation while greenhouse gas emissions have continued unabated

  12. Developing a System of National Climate Assessment Indicators to Track Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerabilities, and Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetos, A. C.; Kenney, M. A.; Chen, R. S.; Arndt, D.

    2012-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/). Part of the vision for the sustained National Climate Assessment (NCA) process is a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public with scientifically valid information that is useful to inform decision-making processes such as the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies in a particular sector or region. These indicators will be tracked as a part of ongoing assessment activities, with adjustments as necessary to adapt to changing conditions and understanding. The indicators will be reviewed and updated so that the system adapts to new information. The NCA indicator system is not intended to serve as a vehicle for documenting rigorous cause and effect relationships. It is reasonable, however, for it to serve as a guide to those factors that affect the evolution of variability and change in the climate system, the resources and sectors of concern that are affected by it, and how society chooses to respond. Different components of the end-to-end climate issue serve as categories within which to organize an end-to-end system of indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks Atmospheric Composition Physical Climate Variability and Change Sectors and Resources of Concern Adaptation and Mitigation Responses This framing has several advantages. It can be used to identify the different components of the end-to-end climate issue that both decision-makers and researchers are interested in. It is independent of scale, and therefore allows the indicators themselves to be described at

  13. Thermodynamic efficiency and entropy production in the climate system.

    PubMed

    Lucarini, Valerio

    2009-08-01

    We present an outlook on the climate system thermodynamics. First, we construct an equivalent Carnot engine with efficiency eta and frame the Lorenz energy cycle in a macroscale thermodynamic context. Then, by exploiting the second law, we prove that the lower bound to the entropy production is eta times the integrated absolute value of the internal entropy fluctuations. An exergetic interpretation is also proposed. Finally, the controversial maximum entropy production principle is reinterpreted as requiring the joint optimization of heat transport and mechanical work production. These results provide tools for climate change analysis and for climate models' validation.

  14. Arctic melt ponds and energy balance in the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudakov, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Elements of Earth's cryosphere, such as the summer Arctic sea ice pack, are melting at precipitous rates that have far outpaced the projections of large scale climate models. Understanding key processes, such as the evolution of melt ponds that form atop Arctic sea ice and control its optical properties, is crucial to improving climate projections. These types of critical phenomena in the cryosphere are of increasing interest as the climate system warms, and are crucial for predicting its stability. In this paper, we consider how geometrical properties of melt ponds can influence ice-albedo feedback and how it can influence the equilibria in the energy balance of the planet.

  15. An Example and Analysis for Ambiguity Resolution in the Indoor ZigBee Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Joanna; Rapinski, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents ambiguity resolution in the range-based ZigBee positioning system. The system is using the phase shift measurements to determine the distances between user and anchors. In this paper, the ambiguity is defined as the number of full reps of a certain distance added to the measurement result. The way of resolving ambiguities in the positioning system is described and an experiment results are presented. Featured algorithm is successful in finding ambiguities and correct location of the user.

  16. Performance evaluation of an acoustic indoor localization system based on a fingerprinting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Nadia; Raoof, Kosai; Bouallegue, Ammar; Letourneur, Stephane; Zaibi, Sonia

    2014-12-01

    We present an acoustic location system that adopts the time of arrival of the path of maximum amplitude as a signature and estimates the target position through nonparametric kernel regression. The system was evaluated in experiments for two main configurations: a privacy-oriented configuration with code division multiple access operation and a centralized configuration with time division multiple access operation. The effects of the number and positions of sources on the performance of the privacy-oriented system was studied. Moreover, the effect of the number of fingerprint positions on the performance of both systems was investigated. Results showed that our privacy-oriented scheme provides an accuracy of 8.5 cm with 87% precision, whereas our centralized system provides an accuracy of 2.7 cm for 93% of measurements. A comparison between our privacy-oriented system and another acoustic location system based on code division multiple access operation and lateration was conducted on our test bench and revealed that the cumulative error distribution function of the fingerprint-based system is better than that of the lateration-based system. This result is similar to that found for Wi-Fi radio-based localization. However, our experiments are the first to demonstrate the detrimental effect that reverberation has on naive acoustic localization approaches.

  17. Implications of climate change (global warming) for the healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Raffa, R B; Eltoukhy, N S; Raffa, K F

    2012-10-01

    Temperature-sensitive pathogenic species and their vectors and hosts are emerging in previously colder regions as a consequence of several factors, including global warming. As a result, an increasing number of people will be exposed to pathogens against which they have not previously needed defences. We illustrate this with a specific example of recent emergence of Cryptococcus gattii infections in more temperate climates. The outbreaks in more temperate climates of the highly virulent--but usually tropically restricted--C. gattii is illustrative of an anticipated growing challenge for the healthcare system. There is a need for preparedness by healthcare professionals in anticipation and for management of such outbreaks, including other infections whose recent increased prevalence in temperate climates can be at least partly associated with global warming. (Re)emergence of temperature-sensitive pathogenic species in more temperate climates will present new challenges for healthcare systems. Preparation for outbreaks should precede their occurrence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Regional decadal predictions of coupled climate-human systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curchitser, E. N.; Lawrence, P.; Felder, F.; Large, W.; Bacmeister, J. T.; Andrews, C.; Kopp, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    We present results from a project to develop a framework for investigating the interactions between human activity and the climate system using state-of-the-art multi-scale, climate and economic models. The model is applied to the highly industrialized and urbanized coastal region of the northeast US with an emphasis on New Jersey. The framework is developed around the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM). The CESM model capabilities are augmented with enhanced resolution of the atmosphere (25 km), land surface (I km) and ocean models (7 km) in our region of interest. To the climate model, we couple human activity models for the utility sector and a 300-equation econometric model with sectorial details of an input-output model for the New Jersey economy. We will present results to date showing the potential impact of climate change on electricity markets on its consequences on economic activity in the region.

  19. The Community Climate System Model Project from an Interagency Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D C; Bamzai, A; Fein, J; Patrinos, A; Leinen, M

    2005-06-16

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will publish its Fourth Assessment Report of the Scientific Basis of Climate Change (AR4). A significant portion of the AR4 will be the analysis of coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulations of the climate of the past century as well as scenarios of future climates under prescribed emission scenarios. Modeling groups worldwide have contributed to AR4, including three from the U.S., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) project, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Sciences, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This collection of model results is providing a wealth of new information that will be used to examine the state of climate science, the potential impacts from climate changes, and the policy consequences that they imply. Our focus here is on the CCSM project. Although it is centered at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the CCSM version 3 (CCSM3) was designed, developed, and applied in a uniquely distributed fashion with participation by many institutions. This model has produced some of the most scientifically complete and highest resolution simulations of climate change to date, thanks to the teamwork of many scientists and software engineers. Their contributions will become obvious as a steady stream of peer-reviewed publications appears in the scientific literature. Less obvious, however, is the largely hidden, unprecedented level of interagency cooperation and multi-institutional coordination that provided the direction and resources necessary to make the CCSM project successful. Contrary to the widely-held opinion that the US climate research effort in general, and the climate modeling effort in particular, is fragmented and disorganized (NRC 1998, 2001), the success of the CCSM project demonstrates that a uniquely US approach to model

  20. Use of an Acoustic Orientation System for Indoor Travel with a Spatially Disabled Blind Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, G. E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An acoustic orientation system was developed that employed a portable remote control device keyed to trigger audio tones from modules placed at key locations throughout the user's home and work environments. Results found that the system helped a blind subject to move and work successfully in both settings, and the subject found it easy and…

  1. An Indoor Obstacle Detection System Using Depth Information and Region Growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsieh-Chang; Hsieh, Ching-Tang; Yeh, Cheng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an obstacle detection method that uses depth information to allow the visually impaired to avoid obstacles when they move in an unfamiliar environment. The system is composed of three parts: scene detection, obstacle detection and a vocal announcement. This study proposes a new method to remove the ground plane that overcomes the over-segmentation problem. This system addresses the over-segmentation problem by removing the edge and the initial seed position problem for the region growth method using the Connected Component Method (CCM). This system can detect static and dynamic obstacles. The system is simple, robust and efficient. The experimental results show that the proposed system is both robust and convenient. PMID:26512674

  2. An Indoor Obstacle Detection System Using Depth Information and Region Growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsieh-Chang; Hsieh, Ching-Tang; Yeh, Cheng-Hsiang

    2015-10-23

    This study proposes an obstacle detection method that uses depth information to allow the visually impaired to avoid obstacles when they move in an unfamiliar environment. The system is composed of three parts: scene detection, obstacle detection and a vocal announcement. This study proposes a new method to remove the ground plane that overcomes the over-segmentation problem. This system addresses the over-segmentation problem by removing the edge and the initial seed position problem for the region growth method using the Connected Component Method (CCM). This system can detect static and dynamic obstacles. The system is simple, robust and efficient. The experimental results show that the proposed system is both robust and convenient.

  3. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Around 50% of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m3, 350.7 μg/m3 and 16.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m3, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m3 and 1.5 ng/m3, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants’ concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system. PMID:26712773

  4. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System.

    PubMed

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2015-12-24

    Around 50% of the world's population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m³, 350.7 μg/m³ and 16.8 μg/m³ respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m³, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m³ and 1.5 ng/m³, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants' concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system.

  5. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  7. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  8. Climate information for public health: the role of the IRI climate data library in an integrated knowledge system.

    PubMed

    del Corral, John; Blumenthal, M Benno; Mantilla, Gilma; Ceccato, Pietro; Connor, Stephen J; Thomson, Madeleine C

    2012-09-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of climate variability and change on health outcomes. Protecting public health from the vagaries of climate requires new working relationships between the public health sector and the providers of climate data and information. The Climate Information for Public Health Action initiative at the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is designed to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use and demand appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of the climate. Significant challenges to building the capacity of health professionals to use climate information in research and decision-making include the difficulties experienced by many in accessing relevant and timely quality controlled data and information in formats that can be readily incorporated into specific analysis with other data sources. We present here the capacities of the IRI climate data library and show how we have used it to build an integrated knowledge system in the support of the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive decision-making with respect to health. Initiated as an aid facilitating exploratory data analysis for climate scientists, the IRI climate data library has emerged as a powerful tool for interdisciplinary researchers focused on topics related to climate impacts on society, including health.

  9. Modeling of multi-channel MIMO-VLC systems in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The article presents a concept of simultaneous using multiple channels for data transmission (an approach MIMO- multiple input multiple output) in the visible light communication systems (VLC), which are considered here as their implementation inside buildings, in the aspect of their numerical modeling. There was presented both a mathematical description (a model) of such systems as well as obtained on this basis results in relation to the instances of MIMO-VLC system with two and four channels, respectively. The so-called non-imaging detectors were used at the receiver side . Obtained results allowed to gain a few valuable conclusions that were included in the last section of article.

  10. Indoor Recreational Places as Glazed Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cold, Birgit

    This paper describes how creation of a varied, imaginative, and cultivated environment can recreate the pleasure of learning. The development of an indoor-outdoor, public-private, and half-climatized glazed (glass covered) space at the University of Dragvoll in Trondheim, Norway, is described. Well-planned glazed spaces can increase social…

  11. Follow-up durability measurements and mitigation-performance improvement tests in 38 Eastern Pennsylvania houses having indoor radon-reduction systems. Final report, Oct 89-Feb 90

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, W.O.; Robertson, A.; Scott, A.G.

    1991-03-01

    The report gives results of follow-up tests in 38 difficult-to-mitigate Pennsylvania houses where indoor radon reduction systems had been installed 2 to 4 years earlier. Objectives were to assess system durability, methods for improving performance, and methods for reducing installation and operating costs. The durability tests indicated that the 38 systems have not experienced any significant degradation in indoor radon levels or in system flows/suctions, except in 6 houses where system fans failed, and in houses where homeowners turned off the systems. Tests to improve performance indicated that nearly all of the elevated residual radon levels are due to re-entrainment back into the house of very-high-radon exhaust gas from the soil depressurization systems, and to radon release from well water. Tests to reduce system costs showed that premitigation sub-slab suction field measurements can help prevent installation of too many suction pipes when communication is good, but suggest a need for too many pipes when communication is poor. Soil depressurization fans could not be turned down to the extent expected in some systems that were over-designed. Between 6 and 42% of the exhausted air was withdrawn from the house.

  12. Is there a Climate Network - A Backbone of the Climate System? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, J.

    2010-12-01

    We consider an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This technique is then applied to reanalysis and model surface air temperature data. Parameters of this network, as betweenness centrality, uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. We especially study the role of hubs and of long range connections, called teleconnections, in the flows of energy and matter in the climate system. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. References Arenas, A., A. Diaz-Guilera, J. Kurths, Y. Moreno, and C. Zhou, Phys. Reports 2008, 469, 93. Donges, J., Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Europ. Phys. J. ST 2009, 174, 157-179. Donges, J., Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Europhys. Lett. 2009, 87, 48007. Nawrath, J. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2010, 104, 038701. Donner, R., Y. Zou, J. Donges, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 2010, 81, 015101(R ).

  13. Incorporating climate-system and carbon-cycle uncertainties in integrated assessments of climate change. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, J.; McCollum, D. L.; Reisinger, A.; Knutti, R.; Riahi, K.; Meinshausen, M.

    2013-12-01

    The field of integrated assessment draws from a large body of knowledge across a range of disciplines to gain robust insights about possible interactions, trade-offs, and synergies. Integrated assessment of climate change, for example, uses knowledge from the fields of energy system science, economics, geophysics, demography, climate change impacts, and many others. Each of these fields comes with its associated caveats and uncertainties, which should be taken into account when assessing any results. The geophysical system and its associated uncertainties are often represented by models of reduced complexity in integrated assessment modelling frameworks. Such models include simple representations of the carbon-cycle and climate system, and are often based on the global energy balance equation. A prominent example of such model is the 'Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change', MAGICC. Here we show how a model like MAGICC can be used for the representation of geophysical uncertainties. Its strengths, weaknesses, and limitations are discussed and illustrated by means of an analysis which attempts to integrate socio-economic and geophysical uncertainties. These uncertainties in the geophysical response of the Earth system to greenhouse gases remains key for estimating the cost of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios. We look at uncertainties in four dimensions: geophysical, technological, social and political. Our results indicate that while geophysical uncertainties are an important factor influencing projections of mitigation costs, political choices that delay mitigation by one or two decades a much more pronounced effect.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

  16. Embedded DSP-based telehealth radar system for remote in-door fall detection.

    PubMed

    Garripoli, Carmine; Mercuri, Marco; Karsmakers, Peter; Jack Soh, Ping; Crupi, Giovanni; Vandenbosch, Guy A E; Pace, Calogero; Leroux, Paul; Schreurs, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Telehealth systems and applications are extensively investigated nowadays to enhance the quality-of-care and, in particular, to detect emergency situations and to monitor the well-being of elderly people, allowing them to stay at home independently as long as possible. In this paper, an embedded telehealth system for continuous, automatic, and remote monitoring of real-time fall emergencies is presented and discussed. The system, consisting of a radar sensor and base station, represents a cost-effective and efficient healthcare solution. The implementation of the fall detection data processing technique, based on the least-square support vector machines, through a digital signal processor and the management of the communication between radar sensor and base station are detailed. Experimental tests, for a total of 65 mimicked fall incidents, recorded with 16 human subjects (14 men and two women) that have been monitored for 320 min, have been used to validate the proposed system under real circumstances. The subjects' weight is between 55 and 90 kg with heights between 1.65 and 1.82 m, while their age is between 25 and 39 years. The experimental results have shown a sensitivity to detect the fall events in real time of 100% without reporting false positives. The tests have been performed in an area where the radar's operation was not limited by practical situations, namely, signal power, coverage of the antennas, and presence of obstacles between the subject and the antennas.

  17. Modeling lakes and reservoirs in the climate system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKay, M.D.; Neale, P.J.; Arp, C.D.; De Senerpont Domis, L. N.; Fang, X.; Gal, G.; Jo, K.D.; Kirillin, G.; Lenters, J.D.; Litchman, E.; MacIntyre, S.; Marsh, P.; Melack, J.; Mooij, W.M.; Peeters, F.; Quesada, A.; Schladow, S.G.; Schmid, M.; Spence, C.; Stokes, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling studies examining the effect of lakes on regional and global climate, as well as studies on the influence of climate variability and change on aquatic ecosystems, are surveyed. Fully coupled atmosphere-land surface-lake climate models that could be used for both of these types of study simultaneously do not presently exist, though there are many applications that would benefit from such models. It is argued here that current understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in freshwater systems is sufficient to begin to construct such models, and a path forward is proposed. The largest impediment to fully representing lakes in the climate system lies in the handling of lakes that are too small to be explicitly resolved by the climate model, and that make up the majority of the lake-covered area at the resolutions currently used by global and regional climate models. Ongoing development within the hydrological sciences community and continual improvements in model resolution should help ameliorate this issue.

  18. Terrestrial biogeochemistry in the community climate system model (CCSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Forrest; Fung, Inez; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter; Foley, Jon; Covey, Curtis; John, Jasmin; Levis, Samuel; MacPost, W.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Stöckli, Reto; Running, Steve; Heinsch, Faith Ann; Erickson, David; Drake, John

    2006-09-01

    Described here is the formulation of the CASA' biogeochemistry model of Fung, et al., which has recently been coupled to the Community Land Model Version 3 (CLM3) and the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). This model is presently being used for Coupled Climate/Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) Phase 1 experiments. In addition, CASA' is one of three models - in addition to CN (Thornton, et al.) and IBIS (Thompson, et al.) - that are being run within CCSM to investigate their suitability for use in climate change predictions in a future version of CCSM. All of these biogeochemistry experiments are being performed on the Computational Climate Science End Station (Dr. Warren Washington, Principle Investigator) at the National Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. Chapman Conference Probes Water Vapor in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, William P.; Gaffen, Dian J.

    About 125 scientists from 11 countries met in Jekyll Island, Ga., in October to discuss the unique role that water vapor plays in the climate system. Water vapor links the surface and atmospheric branches of the global hydrologic cycle. Its horizontal and vertical fluxes are key to the energy cycle, and its radiative effects are the major factor in the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Theoretical calculations indicate that global climate is highly sensitive to small changes in humidity at all levels in the atmosphere, but observations to test this hypothesis are lacking. Because few high-quality humidity observations exist, especially in the upper troposphere, researchers are uncertain of the nature and strength of climate feedback mechanisms involving water vapor and its distribution and long-term changes. Consequently, water vapor is not well treated in global climate models and requires more attention.

  20. Use of a portable indoor environmental quality logger for indoor environmental quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, D.W.T.; Burnett, J.; Mui, H.K.W.

    1999-07-01

    The authors conducted a large-scale study in Hong Kong on the indoor environment in high-rise office buildings. The indoor environmental quality assessment covered thermal, indoor air, visual, and aural comforts. The assessment had two parts--physical measurements by laboratory grade instruments and a survey of subjective responses. However, the approach of study requires sophisticated instrumentation together with an intensive questionnaire. Based on the experience gained from this comprehensive study, a portable indoor environmental quality logger has been developed as a tool to more conveniently assess the indoor environmental quality by building operators, occupants, and facility managers. This instrument incorporates sensors for measuring essential physical parameters. In addition, switches are provided on the front panel to allow occupants to record directly their sensation votes on the acceptability of their immediate microenvironment, focusing on four indoor environmental qualifiers and the overall acceptability. The physical parameters and the subjective responses are all automatically logged for analysis. This indoor environmental quality logger not only provides an easy method for assessment of the indoor environment, but it can also be used as a diary logger for detailed analysis of localized problems in the indoor spaces. This comprehensive environmental quality concept can be further developed to a control algorithm for HVAC systems.

  1. Performance analysis of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing wireless system in additive white Gaussian noise and indoor multipath channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjha, Bilal; Zhou, Zhou; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    We have compared the bit error rate (BER) performance of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) and pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) optical wireless (OW) systems in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and indoor multipath frequency selective channel. Simulation and analytical results show that precoding schemes such as discrete Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, and Zadoff-Chu sequences do not affect the performance of the OW systems in the AWGN channel while they do reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM output signal. However, in a multipath indoor channel, using zero forcing frequency domain equalization precoding-based systems give better BER performance than their conventional counterparts. With additional clipping to further reduce the PAPR, precoding-based systems also show better BER performance compared to nonprecoded systems when clipped relative to the peak of nonprecoded systems. Therefore, precoding-based ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT systems offer better BER performance, zero signaling overhead, and low PAPR compared to conventional systems.

  2. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2016-07-29

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot.

  3. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot. PMID:27483279

  4. Rainwater catchment system design using simulated future climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Corey D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Arabi, Mazdak

    2015-10-01

    Rainwater harvesting techniques are used worldwide to augment potable water supply, provide water for small-scale irrigation practices, increase rainwater-use efficiency for sustained crop growth in arid and semi-arid regions, decrease urban stormwater flow volumes, and in general to relieve dependency on urban water resources cycles. A number of methods have been established in recent years to estimate reliability of rainwater catchment systems (RWCS) and thereby properly size the components (roof catchment area, storage tank size) of the system for a given climatic region. These methods typically use historical or stochastically-generated rainfall patterns to quantify system performance and optimally size the system, with the latter accounting for possible rainfall scenarios based on statistical relationships of historical rainfall patterns. To design RWCS systems that can sustainably meet water demand under future climate conditions, this paper introduces a method that employs climatic data from general circulation models (GCMs) to develop a suite of catchment area vs. storage size design curves that capture uncertainty in future climate scenarios. Monthly rainfall data for the 2010-2050 time period is statistically downscaled to daily values using a Markov chain algorithm, with results used only from GCMs that yield rainfall patterns that are statistically consistent with historical rainfall patterns. The process is demonstrated through application to two climatic regions of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) in the western Pacific, wherein the majority of the population relies on rainwater harvesting for potable water supply. Through the use of design curves, communities can provide household RWCS that achieve a certain degree of storage reliability. The method described herein can be applied generally to any geographic region. It can be used to first, assess the future performance of existing household systems; and second, to design or modify systems

  5. Overview of the North America Climate Extremes Monitoring (NACEM) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrimore, J. H.; Heim, R. R.

    2007-05-01

    The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report and other climate assessments have documented an increasing trend in temperature and precipitation extremes, including hot days and nights, heavy precipitation events, and area affected by droughts. Extreme weather and climate events such as these often result in significant socioeconomic and environmental costs within affected areas. This reality along with the likelihood that trends toward more frequent and intense extreme events will increase in a warming world has focused attention on programs that can provide information to decision makers responsible for planning, response, and mitigation activities. Several government and university institutions throughout the U.S., Canada, and Mexico have partnered to improve monitoring of extremes across the North American Continent. This effort began in late 2002 with establishment of the North America Drought Monitor (NADM), an operational program for monitoring continent-scale drought conditions on an ongoing basis. Following the NADM, this trilateral partnership initiated development of a web- based climate extremes system to expand the capacity to monitor a wider range of climate extremes. Using daily data from stations across these three countries, the North American Climate Extremes Monitoring (NACEM) system now provides decision makers with the ability to monitor and analyze climate extremes on the continent. The U.S. and Canada are also collaborating in the creation of a near-real time operational component to monitor the occurrence of new daily, monthly, and all-time records for temperature, precipitation, and snowfall as they occur. Parallel development of a North American gridded database of daily temperature and precipitation supports these activities and will soon provide for the analysis of extremes on a regional, country, and continental-scale basis. This presentation will include an overview of the NACEM system and its products, the supporting database, observed changes in

  6. Advanced Integration of WiFi and Inertial Navigation Systems for Indoor Mobile Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evennou, Frédéric; Marx, François

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents an aided dead-reckoning navigation structure and signal processing algorithms for self localization of an autonomous mobile device by fusing pedestrian dead reckoning and WiFi signal strength measurements. WiFi and inertial navigation systems (INS) are used for positioning and attitude determination in a wide range of applications. Over the last few years, a number of low-cost inertial sensors have become available. Although they exhibit large errors, WiFi measurements can be used to correct the drift weakening the navigation based on this technology. On the other hand, INS sensors can interact with the WiFi positioning system as they provide high-accuracy real-time navigation. A structure based on a Kalman filter and a particle filter is proposed. It fuses the heterogeneous information coming from those two independent technologies. Finally, the benefits of the proposed architecture are evaluated and compared with the pure WiFi and INS positioning systems.

  7. Web Enabled Collaborative Climate Visualization in the Earth System Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Wesley; Glatter, Markus; Huang, Jian; Hoffman, Forrest M; Bernholdt, David E

    2008-01-01

    The recent advances in high performance computing, storage and networking technologies have enabled fundamental changes in current climate research. While sharing datasets and results is already common practice in climate modeling, direct sharing of the analysis and visualization process is also becoming feasible. We report our efforts to develop a capability, coupled with the Earth System Grid (ESG), for sharing an entire executable workspace of visualization among collaborators. Evolutionary history of visualizations of research findings can also be captured and shared. The data intensive nature of the visualization system requires using several advanced techniques of visualization and parallel computing. With visualization clients implemented through standard web browsers, however, the ensuing complexity is made transparent to end-users. We demonstrate the efficacy of our system using cutting edge climate datasets.

  8. Implications of Changes in Water Use, Population, and Climate on Performance and Planning of Wastewater Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. M.; Samaras, C.; VanBriesen, J.

    2016-12-01

    The installation of water-efficient indoor appliances and fixtures - such as those meeting standards set by the 1992 Energy Policy Act - has led to a significant decline in residential water use over the past 30 years. Other water conservation strategies, like leak repair and greywater reuse, have also contributed to changes in the amount of potable water used by cities. These changes affect downstream systems like wastewater collection and treatment. During the 1970s drought in California, mandatory water conservation measures led to a reduction in wastewater flows by up to 60%, leading to an increase in pipe corrosion, solids settling, and odor due to lower flow velocities. Performance and design of wastewater systems over time is, however, a complex system affected by external drivers, like climate, population and land use, policy and public changes that influence water use, and water utility practices such as maintenance and green infrastructure installation that can reduce flows into the system. This research demonstrates how the use of active water management, e.g. measures that increase water use efficiency or decrease the amount of infiltration and inflow (I&I), may help offset exogenous factors, preventing or delaying the need for upgrades to existing water infrastructure systems. This is evaluated through a scenario analysis of flows to a wastewater treatment Plant, located in Portland, Oregon. Future wastewater flows were projected to 2040 using potential changes in per capita wastewater production, industrial wastewater production, population growth, and ranges of infiltration and inflow. Results show that with current efficiency trends in Portland, rapid population growth could be offset, leading to stabilization of wastewater flows over the next several decades, and elimination of the need for capital expansion. Climate drivers leading to an increase in stormwater inflows have the potential to outweigh declines in wastewater due to efficiency; yet the

  9. Comparative Climates of the Trappist-1 Planetary System: Results from a Simple Climate-vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The recent discovery of the planetary system hosted by the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 could open new paths for investigations of the planetary climates of Earth-sized exoplanets, their atmospheres, and their possible habitability. In this paper, we use a simple climate-vegetation energy-balance model to study the climate of the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets and the climate dependence on various factors: the global albedo, the fraction of vegetation that could cover their surfaces, and the different greenhouse conditions. The model allows us to investigate whether liquid water could be maintained on the planetary surfaces (i.e., by defining a “surface water zone (SWZ)”) in different planetary conditions, with or without the presence of a greenhouse effect. It is shown that planet TRAPPIST-1d seems to be the most stable from an Earth-like perspective, since it resides in the SWZ for a wide range of reasonable values of the model parameters. Moreover, according to the model, outer planets (f, g, and h) cannot host liquid water on their surfaces, even with Earth-like conditions, entering a snowball state. Although very simple, the model allows us to extract the main features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary climates.

  10. An early warning system for high climate sensitivity? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R.

    2010-12-01

    The scientific case for the clear and present danger of global warming has been unassailable at least since the release of the Charney Report more than thirty years ago, if not longer. While prompt action to begin decarbonizing energy systems could still head off much of the potential warming, it is distinctly possible that emissions will continue unabated in the coming decades, leading to a doubling or more of pre-industrial carbon dioxide concentrations. At present, we are in the unenviable position of not even knowing how bad things will get if this scenario comes to pass, because of the uncertainty in climate sensitivity. If climate sensitivity is high, then the consequences will be dire, perhaps even catastrophic. As the world continues to warm in response to continued carbon dioxide emissions, will we at least be able to monitor the climate and provide an early warning that the planet is on a high-sensitivity track, if such turns out to be the case? At what point will we actually know the climate sensitivity? It has long been recognized that the prime contributor to uncertainty in climate sensitivity is uncertainty in cloud feedbacks. Study of paleoclimate and climate of the past century has not been able to resolve which models do cloud feedback most correctly, because of uncertainties in radiative forcing. In this talk, I will discuss monitoring requirements, and analysis techniques, that might have the potential to determine which climate models most faithfully represent climate feedbacks, and thus determine which models provide the best estimate of climate sensitivity. The endeavor is complicated by the distinction between transient climate response and equilibrium climate sensitivity. I will discuss the particular challenges posed by this issue, particularly in light of recent indications that the pattern of ocean heat storage may lead to different cloud feedbacks in the transient warming stage than apply once the system has reached equilibrium. Apart

  11. Climate observing system studies: An element of the NASA Climate Research Program: Workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Plans for NASA's efforts in climatology were discussed. Targets for a comprehensive observing system for the early 1990's were considered. A program to provide useful data in the near and mid-term, and a program to provide for a feasibility assessment of instruments and methods for the development of a long-term system were discussed. Climate parameters that cannot be measured from space were identified. Long-term calibration, intercomparison, standards, and ground truth were discussed.

  12. A power-efficient ZF precoding scheme for multi-user indoor visible light communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiong; Fan, Yangyu; Deng, Lijun; Kang, Bochao

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we propose a power-efficient ZF precoding scheme for visible light communication (VLC) downlink multi-user multiple-input-single-output (MU-MISO) systems, which incorporates the zero-forcing (ZF) and the characteristics of VLC systems. The main idea of this scheme is that the channel matrix used to perform pseudoinverse comes from the set of optical Access Points (APs) shared by more than one user, instead of the set of all involved serving APs as the existing ZF precoding schemes often used. By doing this, the waste of power, which is caused by the transmission of one user's data in the un-serving APs, can be avoided. In addition, the size of the channel matrix needs to perform pseudoinverse becomes smaller, which helps to reduce the computation complexity. Simulation results in two scenarios show that the proposed ZF precoding scheme has higher power efficiency, better bit error rate (BER) performance and lower computation complexity compared with traditional ZF precoding schemes.

  13. Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA completed an extensive modeling study to assess the compatibilities and trade-offs between energy, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort objectives for HVAC systems and to formulate strategies for superior performance across all areas.

  14. Guiding climate change adaptation within vulnerable natural resource management systems.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Douglas K; Sweeney, Susan M

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  15. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  16. Effects of changes in climate on landscape and regional processes, and feedbacks to the climate system.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    Biological and physical processes in the Arctic system operate at various temporal and spatial scales to impact large-scale feedbacks and interactions with the earth system. There are four main potential feedback mechanisms between the impacts of climate change on the Arctic and the global climate system: albedo, greenhouse gas emissions or uptake by ecosystems, greenhouse gas emissions from methane hydrates, and increased freshwater fluxes that could affect the thermohaline circulation. All these feedbacks are controlled to some extent by changes in ecosystem distribution and character and particularly by large-scale movement of vegetation zones. Indications from a few, full annual measurements of CO2 fluxes are that currently the source areas exceed sink areas in geographical distribution. The little available information on CH4 sources indicates that emissions at the landscape level are of great importance for the total greenhouse balance of the circumpolar North. Energy and water balances of Arctic landscapes are also important feedback mechanisms in a changing climate. Increasing density and spatial expansion of vegetation will cause a lowering of the albedo and more energy to be absorbed on the ground. This effect is likely to exceed the negative feedback of increased C sequestration in greater primary productivity resulting from the displacements of areas of polar desert by tundra, and areas of tundra by forest. The degradation of permafrost has complex consequences for trace gas dynamics. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, warming, will lead to a complete loss of the permafrost. Depending on local hydrological conditions this may in turn lead to a wetting or drying of the environment with subsequent implications for greenhouse gas fluxes. Overall, the complex interactions between processes contributing to feedbacks, variability over time and space in these processes, and insufficient data have generated considerable uncertainties in estimating the net

  17. Quality characteristics, chemical composition, and sensory properties of butter from cows on pasture versus indoor feeding systems.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Faulkner, Hope; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hennessy, Deirdre; Dillon, Pat; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 widely practiced cow feeding systems in the United States, Europe, and Southern Hemisphere regions on the characteristics, quality, and consumer perception of sweet cream butter. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a total mixed ration diet (TMR) of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass-only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV). Mid-lactation butter was manufactured in triplicate with milk from each group in June 2015 (137±7d in milk) and was analyzed over a 6-mo storage period at 5°C for textural and thermal properties, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, and volatile compounds. The nutritional value of butters was improved by pasture feeding, and butter from pasture-fed cows had significantly lower thrombogenicity index scores compared with butters from TMR-fed cows. In line with these results, pasture-derived milks (GRS and CLV) produced butter with significantly higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11) and trans-β-carotene than TMR butter. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of butter contributed to significant differences in textural and thermal properties of the butters. Total mixed ration-derived butters had significantly higher hardness scores at room temperature than those of GRS and CLV. Onset of crystallization for TMR butters also occurred at significantly higher temperatures compared with pasture butters. Volatile analysis of butter by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 25 compounds present in each of the butters, 5 of which differed significantly based on feeding system, including acetone, 2-butanone, 1-pentenol, toluene, and β-pinene. Toluene was very significantly correlated with pasture-derived butter. Sensory analysis

  18. Climate impacts, climate policies, and the role of adaptation through the lens of water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    Recognizing the critical role of water in human-Earth system interactions, most integrated assessment models are moving to incorporate water within their modeling frameworks and climate change impacts more broadly. However, none of the IA models used in generating the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) incorporated the potential feedbacks of water limitations on other modeled systems, meaning that these assessments did not consider the joint interactions between hydrologic and human systems simultaneously adapting to and mitigating climate change. Yet, hydrologic systems could impose severe limitations on both energy and land decisions. Also, previous efforts have been limited to taking information from IA and Earth system models and passing that information to global water management and hydrologic models with the implicit assumption that all unmet water demands are taken from non-renewable water resources, generally fossil groundwater. However, extracting and depleting water resources (e.g., aquifers) could have drastic impacts on both energy and land use systems and the ability to mitigate climate change. In this study, we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), where interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources interact simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system, to investigate: 1) how water scarcity affects energy and land use decisions as well as mitigation policies, 2) the effects of climate change impacts on the food-energy-water nexus, 3) how these impacts evolve in the context of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) with specific details on water technologies, 4) the effects of different adaptation measures and their associate investment costs, and 5) the relative contributions of climate and human systems on water scarcity. We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated, as our simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter

  19. Operating Water Resources Systems Under Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.

    2002-12-01

    Population and industrial growth has resulted in intense demands on the quantity and quality of water resources worldwide. Moreover, climate change/variability is making a growing percentage of the earth's population vulnerable to extreme weather events (drought and flood). The 1996 Saguenay flood, 1997 Red River flood, the 1998 ice storm, and recent droughts in prairies are few examples of extreme weather events in Canada. Rising economic prosperity, growth in urban population, aging infrastructure, and a changing climate are increasing the vulnerability of Canadians to even more serious impacts. This growing threat can seriously undermine the social and economic viability of the country. Our ability to understand the impacts of climate change/variability on water quantity, quality, and its distribution in time and space can prepare us for sustainable management of this precious resource. The sustainability of water resources, over the medium to long-term, is critically dependent on the ability to manage (plan and operate) water resource systems under a more variable and perhaps warmer future climate. Studying the impacts of climate change/variability on water resources is complex and challenging. It is further complicated by the fact that impacts vary with time and are different at different locations. This study deals with the impacts of climate change/variability on water resources in a portion of the Red River Basin in Canada, both in terms of change in quantity and spatial-temporal distribution. A System Dynamics model is developed to describe the operation of the Shellmouth Reservoir located on the Red River in Canada. The climate data from Canadian Global Coupled Model, CGCM1 is used. The spatial system dynamics approach, based on distributed parameter control theory, is used to model the impacts of climate change/variability on water resources in time and space. A decision support system is developed to help reservoir operators and decision makers in

  20. ARCAS (ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System) -- a Web Access System for Climate Model Data Access, Visualization and Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkarinen, C.; Brown, D.; Callahan, J.; hankin, S.; de Koningh, M.; Middleton-Link, D.; Wigley, T.

    2001-05-01

    A Web-based access system to climate model output data sets for intercomparison and analysis has been produced, using the NOAA-PMEL developed Live Access Server software as host server and Ferret as the data serving and visualization engine. Called ARCAS ("ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System"), and publicly accessible at http://dataserver.ucar.edu/arcas, the site currently serves climate model outputs from runs of the NCAR Climate System Model for the 21st century, for Business as Usual and Stabilization of Greenhouse Gas Emission scenarios. Users can select, download, and graphically display single variables or comparisons of two variables from either or both of the CSM model runs, averaged for monthly, seasonal, or annual time resolutions. The time length of the averaging period, and the geographical domain for download and display, are fully selectable by the user. A variety of arithmetic operations on the data variables can be computed "on-the-fly", as defined by the user. Expansions of the user-selectable options for defining analysis options, and for accessing other DOD-compatible ("Distributed Ocean Data System-compatible") data sets, residing at locations other than the NCAR hardware server on which ARCAS operates, are planned for this year. These expansions are designed to allow users quick and easy-to-operate web-based access to the largest possible selection of climate model output data sets available throughout the world.

  1. Terrestrial Biosphere Dynamics in the Climate System: Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J.; Whitlock, C.; Huntley, B.

    2002-12-01

    The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that climate change as large as is likely to occur in the next two centuries will drive change in the terrestrial biosphere that is both large and difficult to predict, or plan for. Many species, communities and ecosystems could experience rates of climate change, and "destination climates" that are unprecedented in their time on earth. The paleorecord also makes it clear that a wide range of possible climate system behavior, such as decades-long droughts, increases in large storm and flood frequency, and rapid sea level rise, all occurred repeatedly in the past, and for poorly understood reasons. These types of events, if they were to reoccur in the future, could have especially devastating impacts on biodiversity, both because their timing and spatial extent cannot be anticipated, and because the biota's natural defenses have been compromised by land-use, reductions in genetic flexibility, pollution, excess water utilization, invasive species, and other human influences. Vegetation disturbance (e.g., by disease, pests and fire) will undoubtedly be exacerbated by climate change (stress), but could also speed the rate at which terrestrial biosphere change takes place in the future. The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that major scientific challenges include an improved ability to model regional biospheric change, both past and future. This in turn will be a prerequisite to obtaining realistic estimates of future biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks, and thus to obtaining better assessments of future climate change. These steps will help generate the improved understanding of climate variability that is needed to manage global biodiversity. However, the most troubling message from the paleoenvironmental record is that unchecked anthropogenic climate change could make the Earth's 6th major mass extinction unavoidable.

  2. DESYCO: a Decision Support System to provide climate services for coastal stakeholders dealing with climate change impacts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresan, S.; Gallina, V.; Giannini, V.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2012-04-01

    At the international level climate services are recognized as innovative tools aimed at providing and distributing climate data and information according to the needs of end-users. Furthermore, needs-based climate services are extremely effective to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. To date, climate services are mainly related to climate models that supply climate data (e.g. temperature, precipitations) at different spatial and time scales. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. DESYCO is a GIS-Decision Support System aimed at the integrated assessment of multiple climate change impacts on vulnerable coastal systems (e.g. beaches, river deltas, estuaries and lagoons, wetlands, agricultural and urban areas). It is an open source software that manages different input data (e.g. raster or shapefiles) coming from climate models (e.g. global and regional climate projections) and high resolution impact models (e.g. hydrodynamic, hydrological and biogeochemical simulations) in order to provide hazard, exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps for the identification and prioritization of hot-spot areas and to provide a basis for the definition of coastal adaptation and management strategies. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7) DESYCO is proposed as an helpful tool to bridge the gap between climate data and stakeholder needs and will be applied to the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to provide climate services for local authorities involved in coastal zone management. Accordingly, a first workshop was held in Venice (Italy) with coastal authorities, climate experts and climate change risk experts, in order to start an iterative exchange of information about the knowledge related to climate change, climate

  3. Indoor location system based on discriminant-adaptive neural network in IEEE 802.11 environments.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shih-Hau; Lin, Tsung-Nan

    2008-11-01

    This brief paper presents a novel localization algorithm, named discriminant-adaptive neural network (DANN), which takes the received signal strength (RSS) from the access points (APs) as inputs to infer the client position in the wireless local area network (LAN) environment. We extract the useful information into discriminative components (DCs) for network learning. The nonlinear relationship between RSS and the position is then accurately constructed by incrementally inserting the DCs and recursively updating the weightings in the network until no further improvement is required. Our localization system is developed in a real-world wireless LAN WLAN environment, where the realistic RSS measurement is collected. We implement the traditional approaches on the same test bed, including weighted kappa-nearest neighbor (WKNN), maximum likelihood (ML), and multilayer perceptron (MLP), and compare the results. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is much higher in accuracy compared with other examined techniques. The improvement can be attributed to that only the useful information is efficiently extracted for positioning while the redundant information is regarded as noise and discarded. Finally, the analysis shows that our network intelligently accomplishes learning while the inserted DCs provide sufficient information.

  4. Utilizing Climate Forecasts for Improving Water and Power Systems Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, S.; Queiroz, A.; Patskoski, J.; Mahinthakumar, K.; DeCarolis, J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate forecasts, typically monthly-to-seasonal precipitation forecasts, are commonly used to develop streamflow forecasts for improving reservoir management. Irrespective of their high skill in forecasting, temperature forecasts in developing power demand forecasts are not often considered along with streamflow forecasts for improving water and power systems coordination. In this study, we consider a prototype system to analyze the utility of climate forecasts, both precipitation and temperature, for improving water and power systems coordination. The prototype system, a unit-commitment model that schedules power generation from various sources, is considered and its performance is compared with an energy system model having an equivalent reservoir representation. Different skill sets of streamflow forecasts and power demand forecasts are forced on both water and power systems representations for understanding the level of model complexity required for utilizing monthly-to-seasonal climate forecasts to improve coordination between these two systems. The analyses also identify various decision-making strategies - forward purchasing of fuel stocks, scheduled maintenance of various power systems and tradeoff on water appropriation between hydropower and other uses - in the context of various water and power systems configurations. Potential application of such analyses for integrating large power systems with multiple river basins is also discussed.

  5. Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Denman, Kenneth L.; Brasseur , Guy; Chidthaisong, Amnat; Ciais, Philippe; Cox, Peter M.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Hauglustaine, Didier; Heinze, Christoph; Holland, Elisabeth; Jacob , Daniel; Lohmann, Ulrike; Ramachandran, Srikanthan; Leite da Silva Dias, Pedro; Wofsy, Steven C.; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2007-10-01

    The Earth's climate is determined by a number of complex connected physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the atmosphere, land and ocean. The radiative properties of the atmosphere, a major controlling factor of the Earth's climate, are strongly affected by the biophysical state of the Earth's surface and by the atmospheric abundance of a variety of trace constituents. These constituents include long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), as well as other radiatively active constituents such as ozone and different types of aerosol particles. The composition of the atmosphere is determined by processes such as natural and anthropogenic emissions of gases and aerosols, transport at a variety of scales, chemical and microphysical transformations, wet scavenging and surface uptake by the land and terrestrial ecosystems, and by the ocean and its ecosystems. These processes and, more generally the rates of biogeochemical cycling, are affected by climate change, and involve interactions between and within the different components of the Earth system. These interactions are generally nonlinear and may produce negative or positive feedbacks to the climate system. An important aspect of climate research is to identify potential feedbacks and assess if such feedbacks could produce large and undesired responses to perturbations resulting from human activities. Studies of past climate evolution on different time scales can elucidate mechanisms that could trigger nonlinear responses to external forcing. The purpose of this chapter is to identify the major biogeochemical feedbacks of significance to the climate system, and to assess current knowledge of their magnitudes and trends. Specifically, this chapter will examine the relationships between the physical climate system and the land surface, the carbon cycle, chemically reactive atmospheric gases and aerosol particles. It also

  6. A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Yoram J; Tanré, Didier; Boucher, Olivier

    2002-09-12

    Anthropogenic aerosols are intricately linked to the climate system and to the hydrologic cycle. The net effect of aerosols is to cool the climate system by reflecting sunlight. Depending on their composition, aerosols can also absorb sunlight in the atmosphere, further cooling the surface but warming the atmosphere in the process. These effects of aerosols on the temperature profile, along with the role of aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei, impact the hydrologic cycle, through changes in cloud cover, cloud properties and precipitation. Unravelling these feedbacks is particularly difficult because aerosols take a multitude of shapes and forms, ranging from desert dust to urban pollution, and because aerosol concentrations vary strongly over time and space. To accurately study aerosol distribution and composition therefore requires continuous observations from satellites, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. Increases in aerosol concentration and changes in their composition, driven by industrialization and an expanding population, may adversely affect the Earth's climate and water supply.

  7. A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Boucher, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are intricately linked to the climate system and to the hydrologic cycle. The net effect of aerosols is to cool the climate system by reflecting sunlight. Depending on their composition, aerosols can also absorb sunlight in the atmosphere, further cooling the surface but warming the atmosphere in the process. These effects of aerosols on the temperature profile, along with the role of aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei, impact the hydrologic cycle, through changes in cloud cover, cloud properties and precipitation. Unravelling these feedbacks is particularly difficult because aerosols take a multitude of shapes and forms, ranging from desert dust to urban pollution, and because aerosol concentrations vary strongly over time and space. To accurately study aerosol distribution and composition therefore requires continuous observations from satellites, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. Increases in aerosol concentration and changes in their composition, driven by industrialization and an expanding population, may adversely affect the Earth's climate and water supply.

  8. A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Boucher, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are intricately linked to the climate system and to the hydrologic cycle. The net effect of aerosols is to cool the climate system by reflecting sunlight. Depending on their composition, aerosols can also absorb sunlight in the atmosphere, further cooling the surface but warming the atmosphere in the process. These effects of aerosols on the temperature profile, along with the role of aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei, impact the hydrologic cycle, through changes in cloud cover, cloud properties and precipitation. Unravelling these feedbacks is particularly difficult because aerosols take a multitude of shapes and forms, ranging from desert dust to urban pollution, and because aerosol concentrations vary strongly over time and space. To accurately study aerosol distribution and composition therefore requires continuous observations from satellites, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. Increases in aerosol concentration and changes in their composition, driven by industrialization and an expanding population, may adversely affect the Earth's climate and water supply.

  9. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  10. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  11. A Standardized Evaluation System for Decadal Climate Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadow, C.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-12-01

    The evaluation of decadal prediction systems is a scientific challenge as well as a technical challenge in the climate research. The major project MiKlip (www.fona-miklip.de) for medium-term climate prediction funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) has the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal forecasts on climate and weather. The model system to be developed will be novel in several aspects, with great challenges for the methodology development. This concerns especially the determination of the initial conditions, the inclusion into the model of processes relevant to decadal predictions, the increase of the spatial resolution through regionalisation, the improvement or adjustment of statistical post-processing, and finally the synthesis and validation of the entire model system. Therefore, a standardized evaluation system will be part of the MiKlip system to validate it - developed by the project 'Integrated data and evaluation system for decadal scale prediction' (INTEGRATION). The presentation gives an overview of the different linkages of such a project, shows the different development stages and gives an outlook for users and possible end users in climate service. The technical interface combines all projects inside of MiKlip and invites them to participate in a common evaluation system. The system design and the validation strategy from a standalone tool in the beginning to a user friendly web based system using GRID technologies to an integrated part of the operational MiKlip system for industry and society will give the opportunity to enhance the MiKlip strategy. First results of different possibilities of such a system will be shown to present the scientific background through Taylor diagrams, ensemble skill scores and e.g. climatological means to show the usability and possibilities of MiKlip and the INTEGRATION project.

  12. Phase Synchronization in Coupled Complex Systems - From Neuroscience to Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, Juergen

    2001-03-01

    The phenomenon of phase synchronization, especially in weakly coupled complex systems will be explained. Next it will be discussed how to identify epochs of phase synchronization in noisy data. In the second part I will demonstrate the potential of this approach for some examples from natural systems; in particular for brain and muscle activity of Parkinsonian patients, cardio-respiratory interactions in humans and rats and for a chaotically forced climate system.

  13. Climates

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The broad range of aspen in North America is evidence of its equally broad tolerance of wide variations in climate (Fowells 1965). Given open space for establishment and not too severe competition from other plants, aspen can survive from timberline on the tundra's edge to very warm temperate climates, and from the wet maritime climates of the coasts to very...

  14. Landmark-Based Indoor Positioning for Visually Impaired Individuals.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Zhang, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2014-10-01

    Position localization is essential for visually impaired individuals to live independently. Comparing with outdoor environment in which the global positioning system (GPS) can be utilized, indoor positioning is more difficult due to the absence of the GPS signal and complex or unfamiliar building structure. In this paper, a novel landmark-based assistive system is presented for indoor positioning. Our preliminary tests in several buildings indicate that this system can provide accurate indoor location information.

  15. The Need to Introduce System Thinking in Teaching Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roychoudhury, Anita; Shepardson, Daniel P.; Hirsch, Andrew; Niyogi, Devdutta; Mehta, Jignesh; Top, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Research related to teaching climate change, system thinking, current reform in science education, and the research on reform-oriented assessment indicate that we need to explore student understanding in greater detail instead of only testing for an incremental gain in disciplinary knowledge. Using open-ended items we assessed details in student…

  16. Resilience of Athabascan subsistence systems to interior Alaska's changing climate

    Treesearch

    Gary P. Kofinas; F. Stuart Chapin; Shauna BurnSilver; Jennifer I. Schmidt; Nancy L. Fresco; Knut Kielland; Stephanie Martin; Anna Springsteen; T. Scott Rupp

    2010-01-01

    Subsistence harvesting and wild food production by Athabascan peoples is part of an integrated social-ecological system of interior Alaska. We describe effects of recent trends and future climate change projections on the boreal ecosystem of interior Alaska and relate changes in ecosystem services to Athabascan subsistence. We focus primarily on moose, a keystone...

  17. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  18. The flow of energy through the earth's climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Stepaniak, David P.

    2004-10-01

    The primary driver of the climate system is the uneven distribution of incoming and outgoing radiation on earth. The incoming radiant energy is transformed into various forms (internal heat, potential energy, latent energy, and kinetic energy), moved around in various ways primarily by the atmosphere and oceans, stored and sequestered in the ocean, land, and ice components of the climate system, and ultimately radiated back to space as infrared radiation. The requirement for an equilibrium climate mandates a balance between the incoming and outgoing radiation, and further mandates that the flows of energy are systematic. These drive the weather systems in the atmosphere, currents in the ocean, and fundamentally determine the climate. Values are provided for the seasonal uptake and release of heat by the oceans that substantially moderate the climate in maritime regions. In the atmosphere, the poleward transports are brought about mainly by large-scale overturning, including the Hadley circulation in low latitudes, and baroclinic storms in the extratropics, but the seamless nature of the transports on about monthly time-scales indicates a fundamental link between the two rather different mechanisms. The flows of energy can be perturbed, causing climate change. This article provides an overview of the flows of energy, its transformations, transports, uptake, storage and release, and the processes involved. The focus is on the region 60°N to 60°S, and results are presented for the solstitial seasons and their differences to highlight the annual cycle. Challenges in better determining the surface heat balance and its changes with time are discussed.

  19. An Indoor Pedestrian Positioning Method Using HMM with a Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Algorithm in a WLAN Fingerprint System

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yepeng; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Shan; Bai, Yaxin

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm into a Hidden Markov Model. The fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm follows the rule that the RSSI fading has a positive correlation to the distance between the measuring point and the AP location even during a dynamic positioning measurement. Through this algorithm, we use the RSSI variation trend to replace the specific RSSI value to achieve a fuzzy positioning. The transition probability of the Hidden Markov Model is trained by the fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm with pedestrian trajectories. Using the Viterbi algorithm with the trained model, we can obtain a set of hidden location states. In our experiments, we demonstrate that, compared with the deterministic pattern matching algorithm, our method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and shows robust environmental adaptability. PMID:27618053

  20. An Indoor Pedestrian Positioning Method Using HMM with a Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Algorithm in a WLAN Fingerprint System.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yepeng; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Shan; Bai, Yaxin

    2016-09-08

    With the rapid development of smartphones and wireless networks, indoor location-based services have become more and more prevalent. Due to the sophisticated propagation of radio signals, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) shows a significant variation during pedestrian walking, which introduces critical errors in deterministic indoor positioning. To solve this problem, we present a novel method to improve the indoor pedestrian positioning accuracy by embedding a fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm into a Hidden Markov Model. The fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm follows the rule that the RSSI fading has a positive correlation to the distance between the measuring point and the AP location even during a dynamic positioning measurement. Through this algorithm, we use the RSSI variation trend to replace the specific RSSI value to achieve a fuzzy positioning. The transition probability of the Hidden Markov Model is trained by the fuzzy pattern recognition algorithm with pedestrian trajectories. Using the Viterbi algorithm with the trained model, we can obtain a set of hidden location states. In our experiments, we demonstrate that, compared with the deterministic pattern matching algorithm, our method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and shows robust environmental adaptability.

  1. Towards a unified Global Weather-Climate Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory has been developing a unified regional-global modeling system with variable resolution capabilities that can be used for severe weather predictions and kilometer scale regional climate simulations within a unified global modeling system. The foundation of this flexible modeling system is the nonhydrostatic Finite-Volume Dynamical Core on the Cubed-Sphere (FV3). A unique aspect of FV3 is that it is "vertically Lagrangian" (Lin 2004), essentially reducing the equation sets to two dimensions, and is the single most important reason why FV3 outperforms other non-hydrostatic cores. Owning to its accuracy, adaptability, and computational efficiency, the FV3 has been selected as the "engine" for NOAA's Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS). We have built into the modeling system a stretched grid, a two-way regional-global nested grid, and an optimal combination of the stretched and two-way nests capability, making kilometer-scale regional simulations within a global modeling system feasible. Our main scientific goal is to enable simulations of high impact weather phenomena (such as tornadoes, thunderstorms, category-5 hurricanes) within an IPCC-class climate modeling system previously regarded as impossible. In this presentation I will demonstrate that, with the FV3, it is computationally feasible to simulate not only super-cell thunderstorms, but also the subsequent genesis of tornado-like vortices using a global model that was originally designed for climate simulations. The development and tuning strategy between traditional weather and climate models are fundamentally different due to different metrics. We were able to adapt and use traditional "climate" metrics or standards, such as angular momentum conservation, energy conservation, and flux balance at top of the atmosphere, and gain insight into problems of traditional weather prediction model for medium-range weather prediction, and vice versa. Therefore, the

  2. Controls on the Archean climate system investigated with a global climate model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E T; Toon, O B

    2014-03-01

    The most obvious means of resolving the faint young Sun paradox is to invoke large quantities of greenhouse gases, namely, CO2 and CH4. However, numerous changes to the Archean climate system have been suggested that may have yielded additional warming, thus easing the required greenhouse gas burden. Here, we use a three-dimensional climate model to examine some of the factors that controlled Archean climate. We examine changes to Earth's rotation rate, surface albedo, cloud properties, and total atmospheric pressure following proposals from the recent literature. While the effects of increased planetary rotation rate on surface temperature are insignificant, plausible changes to the surface albedo, cloud droplet number concentrations, and atmospheric nitrogen inventory may each impart global mean warming of 3-7 K. While none of these changes present a singular solution to the faint young Sun paradox, a combination can have a large impact on climate. Global mean surface temperatures at or above 288 K could easily have been maintained throughout the entirety of the Archean if plausible changes to clouds, surface albedo, and nitrogen content occurred.

  3. Associations between Climate Change and Natural Systems in Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Lynda E.

    2006-02-01

    In the 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report numerous studies of processes and species associated with regional temperature change were listed for the Northern Hemisphere (107 in North America, 458 in Europe, and 14 in Asia), but only a handful of studies for the Southern Hemisphere and, sadly, none for Australia were included. This article looks at the progress that Australia has made in addressing these knowledge gaps during the last three years. The article highlights the need for a national approach to the study of the associations between climate change and natural systems and suggests ways in which this could be achieved.

  4. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) created the first version of the Community Climate Model (CCM) in 1983 as a global atmosphere model. It was improved in 1994 when NCAR, with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), developed and incorporated a Climate System Model (CSM) that included atmosphere, land surface, ocean, and sea ice. As the capabilities of the model grew, so did interest in its applications and changes in how it would be managed. A workshop in 1996 set the future management structure, marked the beginning of the second phase of the model, a phase that included full participation of the scientific community, and also saw additional financial support, including support from the Department of Energy. In recognition of these changes, the model was renamed to the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). It began to function as a model with the interactions of land, sea, and air fully coupled, providing computer simulations of Earth's past climate, its present climate, and its possible future climate. The CCSM website at http://www2.cesm.ucar.edu/ describes some of the research that has been done since then: A 300-year run has been performed using the CSM, and results from this experiment have appeared in a special issue of theJournal of Climate, 11, June, 1998. A 125-year experiment has been carried out in which carbon dioxide was described to increase at 1% per year from its present concentration to approximately three times its present concentration. More recently, the Climate of the 20th Century experiment was run, with carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols prescribed to evolve according to our best knowledge from 1870 to the present. Three scenarios for the 21st century were developed: a "business as usual" experiment, in which greenhouse gases are assumed to increase with no economic constraints; an experiment using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Scenario A1; and a "policy

  5. Climate scenarios for the Truckee-Carson River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, Michael; Sterle, Kelley; Simpson, Karen; Singletary, Loretta; Fitzgerald, Kelsey; McCarthy, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the scenarios ultimately take the form of gridded, daily (maximum and minimum) temperatures and precipitation totals spanning the entire Truckee-Carson River System, from which meteorological inputs to various hydrologic, water-balance and watermanagement models can be extracted by other parts of the Water for the Seasons project and by other studies and stakeholders. Climate scenarios are constructed using: 1) survey data from interviews with 66 Truckee-Carson River System water-management and water-interest organizations to identify plausible drought and high-flow events that could stress the system irreparably; 2) input from the Stakeholder Affiliate Group and other modelers on the Water for the Seasons team to gain additional key stakeholder input with regard to organizational survey results and to identify the most pressing water-management issues being faced in the system; and 3) historical climate datasets used to simulate possible future conditions.

  6. Development and validation of the multidimensional motivational climate observation system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan; Tessier, Damien; Tzioumakis, Yannis; Quested, Eleanor; Appleton, Paul; Sarrazin, Philippe; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Duda, Joan L

    2015-02-01

    This article outlines the development and validation of the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System (MMCOS). Drawing from an integration of the dimensions of the social environment emphasized within achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (as assumed within Duda's [2013] conceptualization of "empowering" and "disempowering" climates), the MMCOS was developed to enable an objective assessment of the coach-created motivational environment in sport. Study 1 supported the initial validity and reliability of the newly developed observation system. Study 2 further examined the interobserver reliability and factorial structure of the MMCOS. Study 3 explored the predictive validity of the observational system in relation to athletes' reported basic psychological need satisfaction. Overall, the results of these studies provide preliminary support for the inter- and intraobserver reliability, as well as factorial and predictive validity of the MMCOS. Suggestions for the use of this observational system in future research in sport are provided.

  7. The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, Jinwon

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model has been under development since 1991. The unique system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post- processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow model, and (4) a suite of crop response models. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. This three-component version of RCSM has been tested, validated, and successfully used for operational quantitative precipitation forecasts and seasonal water resource studies over the southwestern US. We are currently implementation and validating the fourth component, the Decision Support system for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). A description of the UC-LLNL RCSM and some recent results are presented.

  8. Indoor Air Quality Manual.