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Sample records for indoor resting density

  1. Impact of housing condition on indoor-biting and indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis density in a highland area, central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Animut, Abebe; Balkew, Meshesha; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-11-05

    Exposure of individuals to malaria infection may depend on their housing conditions as houses serve as biting and resting places of vectors. This study describes the association of housing conditions with densities of indoor-biting and indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis in Hobe, Dirama and Wurib villages of a highland area in central Ethiopia. Data on housing conditions, including presence of house apertures, number of occupants and number and the type of domestic animal tethered inside, were collected. Indoor-biting mosquitoes were sampled using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and indoor-resting mosquitoes sampled with pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs) monthly for two years (July 2008 to June 2010). Female anophelines were identified to species and processed. Univariate and general linear estimating equation allowing for repeated measures were used to assess the contribution of housing conditions for indoor-biting and indoor-resting An. arabiensis. About 96% (4,597/4,788) of anophelines were caught inside residential houses. Nine anopheline species were identified, among which An. arabiensis was most prevalent (2,489; 52%). Vectors entering houses were higher in those situated at low (β = 4.475; 95% CI = 3.475-5.476; p <0.001; β = strength of the association) and medium (β = 2.850; 95% CI = 1.975-3.724; p <0.001) altitudes compared to high altitude, and where houses have no windows (β = -0.570; 95% CI = -1.047-0.094; p =0.019) compared with those that have. Numbers of indoor-resting vectors were higher in those situated at low (β = 6.100; 95% CI = 4.571-7.629; p <0.001) and medium (β = 4.411; 95% CI = 2.284-6.537; p <0.001) altitudes compared to high altitudes, and where houses had open eaves (β =1.201; 95% CI = 0.704-1.698; p <0.001) compared with those that had closed eaves. Housing conditions such as presence of open eaves, absence of window, location at low and mid altitudes, were strong predictors of indoor exposure to An. arabiensis bite

  2. Indoor Resting Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Acapulco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Ibarra-López, Jésus; Bibiano Marín, Wilbert; Martini-Jaimes, Andrés; Leyva, Joel Torres; Correa-Morales, Fabián; Huerta, Herón; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

    2017-03-01

    The markedly anthropophilic and endophilic behaviors of Aedes aegypti (L.) make it a very efficient vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Although a large body of research has investigated the immature habitats and conditions for adult emergence, relatively few studies have focused on the indoor resting behavior and distribution of vectors within houses. We investigated the resting behavior of Ae. aegypti indoors in 979 houses of the city of Acapulco, Mexico, by performing exhaustive indoor mosquito collections to describe the rooms and height at which mosquitoes were found resting. In total, 1,403 adult and 747 female Ae. aegypti were collected, primarily indoors (98% adults and 99% females). Primary resting locations included bedrooms (44%), living rooms (25%), and bathrooms (20%), followed by kitchens (9%). Aedes aegypti significantly rested below 1.5 m of height (82% adults, 83% females, and 87% bloodfed females); the odds of finding adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes below 1.5 m was 17 times higher than above 1.5 m. Our findings provide relevant information for the design of insecticide-based interventions selectively targeting the adult resting population, such as indoor residual spraying. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Seasonal variations in indoor resting Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Rishikesh, N; Di Deco, M A; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    1985-06-01

    A longitudinal study in a guinea savanna area in Northern Nigeria showed that indoor resting samples consisted almost entirely of An. gambiae in the wet season, characterized by relatively lower temperature and higher relative humidity, whereas An. arabiensis predominated in the dry season, characterized by relatively higher temperature and lower relative humidity. A significant change was also observed in the frequency of polymorphic chromosomal inversions in the population of An. gambiae. The inverted arrangements 2Rbc, 2Rd and 2La were found more frequent in the dry season samples as compared to the wet season ones.

  4. Comparative evaluation of the Sticky-Resting-Box-Trap, the standardised resting-bucket-trap and indoor aspiration for sampling malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Kreppel, Katharina S; Johnson, P C D; Govella, N J; Pombi, M; Maliti, D; Ferguson, H M

    2015-09-17

    Understanding mosquito resting behaviour is important for the control of vector-borne diseases, but this remains a challenge because of the paucity of efficient sampling tools. We evaluated two novel sampling methods in the field: the Sticky Resting Box (SRB) and the Resting Bucket trap (RBu) to test their efficiency for sampling malaria vectors resting outdoors and inside houses in rural Tanzania. The performance of RBu and SRB was compared outdoors, while indoors SRB were compared with the Back Pack Aspiration method (BP). Trapping was conducted within 4 villages in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania over 14 nights. On each night, the performance for collecting Anopheles vectors and Culicinae was compared in 4 households by SRB and RBu outdoors and by SRB or fixed-time Back Pack aspirator in 2 of the 4 focal households indoors. A total of 619 Anopheles gambiae s.l., 224 Anopheles funestus s.l. and 1737 Culicinae mosquitoes were captured. The mean abundance of An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.l. collected with SRB traps inside and outdoors was significantly lower than with BP or RBu. The SRB however, outperformed BP aspiration for collection of Culicinae indoors. Of the methods trialled indoors (BP and SRB), BP was the most effective, whilst outdoors RBu performed much better than SRB. However, as SRB can passively sample mosquitoes over a week they could provide an alternative to the RBu where daily monitoring is not possible.

  5. Feeding and indoor resting behaviour of the mosquito Anopheles longipalpis in an area of hyperendemic malaria transmission in southern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Kent, R. J.; Coetzee, M.; Mharakurwa, S.; Norris, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles longipalpis (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a predominantly zoophilic mosquito that has not been implicated in malaria transmission. However, this species was collected indoors with An. funestus s.l. in southern Zambia, where transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is hyperendemic, and we initially misidentified it morphologically and molecularly as An. funestus s.l. The indoor resting density and blood-feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis were investigated during the 2004 – 05 and 2005 – 06 transmission seasons in Mufwafwi village in southern Zambia. Numbers of endophilic An. longipalpis increased towards the end of the rainy season. Although specimens were collected during human landing catches, the feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis was significantly biased towards cattle (88.7%), with other bloodmeals originating from dogs, goats and chickens. None of the 177 specimens of An. longipalpis were infected with P. falciparum. These data are consistent with existing reports that An. longipalpis is not involved in malaria transmission. However, more extensive sampling is necessary. Importantly, the correct identification of An. longipalpis is crucial for malaria control programmes in areas where An. funestus s.l and An. longipalpis exist sympatrically so that scarce resources are not wasted on the control of a non-vector. PMID:17199758

  6. Rest

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Rest is a health-related phenomenon. Researchers have explored the phenomenon of rest, but further concept development is recommended. The aim of my study was to develop and describe a concept of rest, from interviews with a total of 63 participants about their lived experiences of rest. I performed the developing process in two stages: first with descriptive phenomenology and second with a hermeneutic approach. The concept of rest is comprised of the essences of both rest and “non-rest,” and there is a current movement between these two conditions in peoples’ lives. The essence of rest is being in harmony in motivation, feeling, and action. The essence of non-rest is being in disharmony in motivation, feeling, and action. The essences reveal some meaning constituents. Health care professionals and researchers can use the concept as a frame of reference in health care praxis and in applied research. PMID:28462307

  7. Density of Indoor Tanning Facilities in 116 Large U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Hoerster, Katherine D.; Garrow, Rebecca L.; Mayer, Joni A.; Clapp, Elizabeth J.; Weeks, John R.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Sallis, James F.; Slymen, Donald J.; Patel, Minal R.; Sybert, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Background U.S. adolescents and young adults are using indoor tanning at high rates, even though it has been linked to both melanoma and squamous cell cancer. Because the availability of commercial indoor tanning facilities may influence use, data are needed on the number and density of such facilities. Methods In March 2006, commercial indoor tanning facilities in 116 large U.S. cities were identified, and the number and density (per 100,000 population) were computed for each city. Bivariate and multivariate analyses conducted in 2008 tested the association between tanning-facility density and selected geographic, climatologic, demographic, and legislative variables. Results Mean facility number and density across cities were 41.8 (SD=30.8) and 11.8 (SD=6.0), respectively. In multivariate analysis, cities with higher percentages of whites and lower ultraviolet (UV)index scores had significantly higher facility densities than those with lower percentages of whites and higher UV index scores. Conclusions These data indicate that commercial indoor tanning is widely available in the urban U.S., and this availability may help explain the high usage of indoor tanning. PMID:19215849

  8. Explaining variation in adult Anopheles indoor resting abundance: the relative effects of larval habitat proximity and insecticide-treated bed net use.

    PubMed

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Giorgi, Emanuele; Walker, Edward D

    2017-07-17

    Spatial determinants of malaria risk within communities are associated with heterogeneity of exposure to vector mosquitoes. The abundance of adult malaria vectors inside people's houses, where most transmission takes place, should be associated with several factors: proximity of houses to larval habitats, structural characteristics of houses, indoor use of vector control tools containing insecticides, and human behavioural and environmental factors in and near houses. While most previous studies have assessed the association of larval habitat proximity in landscapes with relatively low densities of larval habitats, in this study these relationships were analysed in a region of rural, lowland western Kenya with high larval habitat density. 525 houses were sampled for indoor-resting mosquitoes across an 8 by 8 km study area using the pyrethrum spray catch method. A predictive model of larval habitat location in this landscape, previously verified, provided derivations of indices of larval habitat proximity to houses. Using geostatistical regression models, the association of larval habitat proximity, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) use, house structural characteristics (wall type, roof type), and peridomestic variables (cooking in the house, cattle near the house, number of people sleeping in the house) with mosquito abundance in houses was quantified. Vector abundance was low (mean, 1.1 adult Anopheles per house). Proximity of larval habitats was a strong predictor of Anopheles abundance. Houses without an LLIN had more female Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus than houses where some people used an LLIN (rate ratios, 95% CI 0.87, 0.85-0.89; 0.84, 0.82-0.86; 0.38, 0.37-0.40) and houses where everyone used an LLIN (RR, 95% CI 0.49, 0.48-0.50; 0.39, 0.39-0.40; 0.60, 0.58-0.61). Cooking in the house also reduced Anopheles abundance across all species. The number of people sleeping in the house, presence of cattle near the house

  9. [Effect of initial population density on resting egg formation of rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus].

    PubMed

    Xi, Y; Huang, X

    2000-04-01

    With the method of population accumulative culture, the effect of initial population density on the formation of resting eggs of freshwater rotifer(Brachionus calyciflorus), and on the rates of mictic female and fertilization was studied. During 11 days culture, the productivity and the formation efficiency of resting eggs, and the mean rate of mictic female were the biggest when the initial population density was 1.0-10.0 ind.ml-1, second by the density of 20.0 ind.ml-1, and the lowest by the density of 50.0 ind.ml-1. There was no significant effect of initial population density on the fertilization rate. Statistical analysis on maximum formation efficiency of resting eggs, their emergence and productivity showed that when the production of resting eggs was large-scaled proceeded, the feasible initial population density should be 10.0 ind.ml-1, and the corresponding time should be 6 days to obtain a higher yield of resting eggs and a higher formation efficiency.

  10. Comparison of the CDC Backpack aspirator and the Prokopack aspirator for sampling indoor- and outdoor-resting mosquitoes in southern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Maia, Marta F; Robinson, Ailie; John, Alex; Mgando, Joseph; Simfukwe, Emmanuel; Moore, Sarah J

    2011-06-30

    Resting mosquitoes can easily be collected using an aspirating device. The most commonly used mechanical aspirator is the CDC Backpack aspirator. Recently, a simple, and low-cost aspirator called the Prokopack has been devised and proved to have comparable performance. The following study evaluates the Prokopack aspirator compared to the CDC backpack aspirator when sampling resting mosquitoes in rural Tanzania. Mosquitoes were sampled in- and outdoors of 48 typical rural African households using both aspirators. The aspirators were rotated between collectors and households in a randomized, Latin Square design. Outdoor collections were performed using artificial resting places (large barrel and car tyre), underneath the outdoor kitchen (kibanda) roof and from a drop-net. Data were analysed with generalized linear models. The number of mosquitoes collected using the CDC Backpack and the Prokopack aspirator were not significantly different both in- and outdoors (indoors p = 0.735; large barrel p = 0.867; car tyre p = 0.418; kibanda p = 0.519). The Prokopack was superior for sampling of drop-nets due to its smaller size. The number mosquitoes collected per technician was more consistent when using the Prokopack aspirator. The Prokopack was more user-friendly: technicians preferred using the it over the CDC backpack aspirator as it weighs considerably less, retains its charge for longer and is easier to manoeuvre. The Prokopack proved in the field to be more advantageous than the CDC Backpack aspirator. It can be self assembled using simple, low-cost and easily attainable materials. This device is a useful tool for researchers or vector-control surveillance programs operating in rural Africa, as it is far simpler and quicker than traditional means of sampling resting mosquitoes. Further longitudinal evaluations of the Prokopack aspirator versus the gold standard pyrethrum spray catch for indoor resting catches are recommended.

  11. Comparison of the CDC Backpack aspirator and the Prokopack aspirator for sampling indoor- and outdoor-resting mosquitoes in southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Resting mosquitoes can easily be collected using an aspirating device. The most commonly used mechanical aspirator is the CDC Backpack aspirator. Recently, a simple, and low-cost aspirator called the Prokopack has been devised and proved to have comparable performance. The following study evaluates the Prokopack aspirator compared to the CDC backpack aspirator when sampling resting mosquitoes in rural Tanzania. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled in- and outdoors of 48 typical rural African households using both aspirators. The aspirators were rotated between collectors and households in a randomized, Latin Square design. Outdoor collections were performed using artificial resting places (large barrel and car tyre), underneath the outdoor kitchen (kibanda) roof and from a drop-net. Data were analysed with generalized linear models. Results The number of mosquitoes collected using the CDC Backpack and the Prokopack aspirator were not significantly different both in- and outdoors (indoors p = 0.735; large barrel p = 0.867; car tyre p = 0.418; kibanda p = 0.519). The Prokopack was superior for sampling of drop-nets due to its smaller size. The number mosquitoes collected per technician was more consistent when using the Prokopack aspirator. The Prokopack was more user-friendly: technicians preferred using the it over the CDC backpack aspirator as it weighs considerably less, retains its charge for longer and is easier to manoeuvre. Conclusions The Prokopack proved in the field to be more advantageous than the CDC Backpack aspirator. It can be self assembled using simple, low-cost and easily attainable materials. This device is a useful tool for researchers or vector-control surveillance programs operating in rural Africa, as it is far simpler and quicker than traditional means of sampling resting mosquitoes. Further longitudinal evaluations of the Prokopack aspirator versus the gold standard pyrethrum spray catch for indoor resting catches are recommended. PMID

  12. Optimization lighting layout based on gene density improved genetic algorithm for indoor visible light communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanlin; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yong; Kong, Deqian; Xia, Peijie

    2017-05-01

    For indoor visible light communication system, the layout of LED lamps affects the uniformity of the received power on communication plane. In order to find an optimized lighting layout that meets both the lighting needs and communication needs, a gene density genetic algorithm (GDGA) is proposed. In GDGA, a gene indicates a pair of abscissa and ordinate of a LED, and an individual represents a LED layout in the room. The segmented crossover operation and gene mutation strategy based on gene density are put forward to make the received power on communication plane more uniform and increase the population's diversity. A weighted differences function between individuals is designed as the fitness function of GDGA for reserving the population having the useful LED layout genetic information and ensuring the global convergence of GDGA. Comparing square layout and circular layout, with the optimized layout achieved by the GDGA, the power uniformity increases by 83.3%, 83.1% and 55.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the convergence of GDGA is verified compared with evolutionary algorithm (EA). Experimental results show that GDGA can quickly find an approximation of optimal layout.

  13. Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Chronic Pain Display Enhanced Alpha Power Density at Rest.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Francisco M; Queirós, Fernanda C; Montoya, Pedro; Miranda, José G V; Dubois-Mendes, Selena M; Sá, Katia N; Luz-Santos, Cleber; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain due to neuropathy or musculoskeletal injury frequently exhibit reduced alpha and increased theta power densities. However, little is known about electrical brain activity and chronic pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For this purpose, we evaluated power densities of spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) band frequencies (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) in females with persistent pain due to RA. This was a cross-sectional study of 21 participants with RA and 21 healthy controls (mean age = 47.20; SD = 10.40). EEG was recorded at rest over 5 min with participant's eyes closed. Twenty electrodes were placed over five brain regions (frontal, central, parietal, temporal, and occipital). Significant differences were observed in depression and anxiety with higher scores in RA participants than healthy controls (p = 0.002). Participants with RA exhibited increased average absolute alpha power density in all brain regions when compared to controls [F (1.39) = 6.39, p = 0.016], as well as increased average relative alpha power density [F (1.39) = 5.82, p = 0.021] in all regions, except the frontal region, controlling for depression/anxiety. Absolute theta power density also increased in the frontal, central, and parietal regions for participants with RA when compared to controls [F (1, 39) = 4.51, p = 0.040], controlling for depression/anxiety. Differences were not exhibited on beta and delta absolute and relative power densities. The diffuse increased alpha may suggest a possible neurogenic mechanism for chronic pain in individuals with RA.

  14. Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Chronic Pain Display Enhanced Alpha Power Density at Rest

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Francisco M.; Queirós, Fernanda C.; Montoya, Pedro; Miranda, José G. V.; Dubois-Mendes, Selena M.; Sá, Katia N.; Luz-Santos, Cleber; Baptista, Abrahão F.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain due to neuropathy or musculoskeletal injury frequently exhibit reduced alpha and increased theta power densities. However, little is known about electrical brain activity and chronic pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For this purpose, we evaluated power densities of spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) band frequencies (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) in females with persistent pain due to RA. This was a cross-sectional study of 21 participants with RA and 21 healthy controls (mean age = 47.20; SD = 10.40). EEG was recorded at rest over 5 min with participant's eyes closed. Twenty electrodes were placed over five brain regions (frontal, central, parietal, temporal, and occipital). Significant differences were observed in depression and anxiety with higher scores in RA participants than healthy controls (p = 0.002). Participants with RA exhibited increased average absolute alpha power density in all brain regions when compared to controls [F(1.39) = 6.39, p = 0.016], as well as increased average relative alpha power density [F(1.39) = 5.82, p = 0.021] in all regions, except the frontal region, controlling for depression/anxiety. Absolute theta power density also increased in the frontal, central, and parietal regions for participants with RA when compared to controls [F(1, 39) = 4.51, p = 0.040], controlling for depression/anxiety. Differences were not exhibited on beta and delta absolute and relative power densities. The diffuse increased alpha may suggest a possible neurogenic mechanism for chronic pain in individuals with RA. PMID:27540360

  15. Adipokines may mediate the relationship between resting metabolic rates and bone mineral densities in obese women.

    PubMed

    Moradi, S; Mirzaei, K; Abdurahman, A A; Keshavarz, S A

    2017-05-01

    The researchers sought to test the possible link between resting metabolic rate and bone mineral density through four adipokines. Participants with lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) per kilogram demonstrated higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total T-score, and total Z-score. Omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR/kg of body weight and bone parameters. The previous results of studies regarding the links between obesity and bone health are controversial. For this reason, the researchers sought to test the possible link between RMR and BMD through the following four adipokines: vaspin, retinol binding protein 4, angiopoietin-like 6 (ANGPL6), and omentin-1. We enrolled 312 obese Iranian women (30 ≤ body mass index <40) in this cross-sectional study. In order to examine the association of serum adipokine levels with RMR and BMD, the participants were grouped based on RMR per body weight. Body composition, dietary intake, bone mineral density, and resting metabolic rate were assessed in all participants. Serum adipokine levels were quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Low levels of RMR/kg were strongly associated with higher weight, body mass index, fat mass, and visceral fat levels. In fact, participants with an RMR/kg of body weight <20 kcal/24 h/kg were more obese (p < 0.05). Another noteworthy finding was that participants with lower RMR/kg demonstrated higher total BMD, total T-score, and total Z-score. Our results showed that omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR per kilogram of body weight and bone parameters (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, other adipokines such as vaspin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and ANGPL6 did not affect the relationship between RMR and BMD (p > 0.05). The inhibitory effect of omentin-1 on TNF-alpha seems to be able to reduce the amount of circulating leptin as adipokine, affecting energy expenditure and improving bone loss induced by

  16. Human respiration at rest in rapid compression and at high pressures and gas densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelfand, R.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Strauss, R.; Clark, J. M.; Puglia, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The ventilation (V), end-tidal PCO2 (PACO2), and CO2 elimination rate were determined in men at rest breathing CO2-free gas over the pressure range 1-50 ATA and the gas density range 0.4-25 g/l, during slow and rapid compressions, at stable elevated ambient pressures and during slow decompressions. Progressive increase in pulmonary gas flow resistance due to elevation of ambient pressure and inspired gas density to the He-O2 equivalent of 5000 feet of seawater was found to produce a complex pattern of change in PACO2. It was found that as both ambient pressure and pulmonary gas flow resistance were progressively raised, PACO2 at first increased, went through a maximum, and then declined towards values near the 1 ATA level. It is concluded that this pattern of PACO2 change results from the interaction on ventilation of the increase in pulmonary resistance due to the elevation of gas density with the increase in respiratory drive postulated as due to generalized central nervous system excitation associated with exposure to high hydrostatic pressure. It is suggested that a similar interaction exists between increased gas flow resistance and the increase in respiratory drive related to nitrogen partial pressure and the resulting narcosis.

  17. Patella bone density is lower in knee osteoarthritis patients experiencing moderate-to-severe pain at rest.

    PubMed

    Burnett, W; Kontulainen, S; McLennan, C; Hazel, D; Talmo, C; Hunter, D; Wilson, D; Johnston, J

    2016-03-01

    To determine differences in patellar subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients with differing levels of pain at rest. The preoperative knee of 41 total knee replacement (TKR) patients was scanned using QCT and scored for pain using Western Ontario McMasters Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). 'Pain at rest' was defined as average pain while lying//sitting and nocturnal pain. Participants were divided into groups: 'mild-to-no pain at rest' and 'moderate-to-severe pain at rest'. We used a depth-specific CT-based mapping technique to measure patellar subchondral BMD at depths of 0-2.5 mm, 2.5-5 mm, and 5-7.5 mm from the subchondral surface. Mean lateral and medial facet BMD were compared between groups using MANCOVA. Mean adjusted BMD was lower in participants with 'moderate-to-severe pain at rest' over the total lateral facet at depths of 0-2.5 mm (10% lower, p=0.041), 2.5-5 mm (20% lower, p=0.017), and 5-7.5 mm (25% lower, p=0.004), and over the total medial facet at 2.5-5 mm (22% lower, p=0.033) and 5-7.5 mm (28% lower, p=0.016). In OA patients with 'moderate-to-severe pain at rest', depth-specific density measures demonstrated up to 28% lower lateral and medial subchondral BMD. Patients with high levels of pain at rest may have reduced amounts of native bone prior to TKR.

  18. Abnormal functional connectivity density in children with anisometropic amblyopia at resting-state.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyue; Li, Qian; Guo, Mingxia; Peng, Yanmin; Li, Qingji; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2014-05-14

    Amblyopia is a developmental disorder resulting from anomalous binocular visual input in early life. Task-based neuroimaging studies have widely investigated cortical functional impairments in amblyopia, but changes in spontaneous neuronal functional activities in amblyopia remain largely unknown. In the present study, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, an ultrafast data-driven method based on fMRI, was applied for the first time to investigate changes in cortical functional connectivities in amblyopia during the resting-state. We quantified and compared both short- and long-range FCD in both the brains of children with anisometropic amblyopia (AAC) and normal sighted children (NSC). In contrast to the NSC, the AAC showed significantly decreased short-range FCD in the inferior temporal/fusiform gyri, parieto-occipital and rostrolateral prefrontal cortices, as well as decreased long-range FCD in the premotor cortex, dorsal inferior parietal lobule, frontal-insular and dorsal prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, most regions with reduced long-range FCD in the AAC showed decreased functional connectivity with occipital and posterior parietal cortices in the AAC. The results suggest that chronically poor visual input in amblyopia not only impairs the brain's short-range functional connections in visual pathways and in the frontal cortex, which is important for cognitive control, but also affects long-range functional connections among the visual areas, posterior parietal and frontal cortices that subserve visuomotor and visual-guided actions, visuospatial attention modulation and the integration of salient information. This study provides evidence for abnormal spontaneous brain activities in amblyopia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring the Average Evolution of Luminous Galaxies at z < 3: The Rest-Frame Optical Luminosity Density, Spectral Energy Distribution, and Stellar Mass Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Gregory; Labbé, Ivo; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Finlator, Kristian; Kriek, Mariska; Moorwood, Alan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Röttgering, Huub; Trujillo, Ignacio; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2006-10-01

    We present the evolution of the volume-averaged properties of the rest-frame optically luminous (LV>3×1010 h-270 Lsolar) galaxy population to z~3, determined from four disjoint deep fields. We characterize their rest-frame UV through optical properties via the mean SED. To measure evolution, we apply the selection criteria to a sample of galaxies from the SDSS and COMBO-17 survey. The mean rest-frame 2200 Å through V-band SED becomes steadily bluer with increasing redshift, but at all redshifts z<3 the mean SED falls within the range defined by ``normal'' galaxies in the nearby universe. We measure the mean stellar mass-to-light ratios (M*/L) and stellar mass densities (ρ*) by fitting models to the mean rest-frame UV-optical SEDs. The ρ* in galaxies selected at a fixed luminosity has increased by a factor of 3.5-7.9 from z=3 to 0.1. If we instead use our observed M*/LV evolution to select galaxies at a fixed mass, ρ* evolves by a factor of 5.3-16.7. After correcting to total, the measured ρ* at z<2 lie below the integral of the star formation rate density as a function of redshift as derived from UV-selected samples after a standard correction for extinction. We find large discrepancies between recent model predictions for the evolution of ρ* and our results, even when our observational selection is applied to the models. Finally, we determine that distant red galaxies (selected to have Js-Ks>2.3) in our LrestV-selected samples contribute 30% and 64% of the stellar mass budget at z~2 and z~2.8, respectively. These galaxies are largely absent from UV surveys, and this result highlights the need for mass selection of high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatories on

  20. Bone density and amenorrhea in ballet dancers are related to a decreased resting metabolic rate and lower leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Becky A; Warren, Michelle P; Dominguez, Jennifer E; Wang, Jack; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pierson, Richard N

    2002-06-01

    Osteopenia, which is correlated with amenorrhea and poor nutritional habits, has been well documented in elite ballet dancers. Estrogen replacement therapy and recovery from amenorrhea have not been associated with normalization of bone density. Thus, the osteopenia may be related to changes brought about by chronic dieting or other factors, such as a hypometabolic state induced by poor nutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of chronic dieting and resting metabolic rate (RMR) to amenorrhea and bone density. RMR, bone density, eating disorder assessments, leptin levels, and complete menstrual and medical histories were determined in 21 elite ballet dancers and in 27 nondancers (age, 20-30 yr). No significant correlations were found between high EAT26 scores, a measure of disordered eating, and RMR, bone densities, body weight, body fat, or fat-free mass. However, when RMR was adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM), a significant positive correlation was found between RMR/FFM and bone density in both the arms (P < 0.001) and spine (P < 0.05) in ballet dancers, but not in the normal controls. The dancers also demonstrated significantly higher EAT scores (22.9 +/- 10.3 vs. 4.1 +/- 2.4; P < 0.001) and lower RMR/FFM ratios (30.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 32.05 +/- 2.8; P < 0.01). The only variable to predict lower RMR/FFM in the entire sample was ever having had amenorrhea; this group had significantly higher EAT scores (18.0 +/- 13.5 vs. 10.3 +/- 10.2; P < 0.05), lower leptin levels (4.03 +/- 0.625 vs. 7.10 +/- 4.052; P < 0.05), and lower bone mineral density in the spine (0.984 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.10 +/- 0.13; P < 0.05) and arm (0.773 +/- 0.99 vs. 0.818 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05). We hypothesize that the correlation between low RMR and lower leptin levels and bone density may be more strongly related to nutritional habits in ballet dancers, causing significant depression of RMR, particularly for those with a history of amenorrhea.

  1. Resting and stimulated respiration in vitro in the central nervous system. Regional distribution and relation to cell density

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, J. W.

    1967-01-01

    1. The respiratory rates in vitro of ten structures of the rabbit brain were measured in the presence of a normal (5mm) and an elevated (50mm) concentration of K+ ions. The results were expressed on a dry-weight basis and in terms of cell density. 2. On a dry-weight basis, with a normal concentration of K+, there was a steady decrease in respiratory rate on passing from the cerebral cortex through successively lower centres to the brain-stem, i.e. respiration was negatively correlated with phylogenetic age. 3. When the resting respiratory rates were expressed in terms of cell density there was no correlation with phylogenetic age. The neuron-containing structures of the cerebrum and brain-stem had identical respiratory rates with the exception of the cerebral cortex which had a higher rate. 4. The K+-stimulated respiratory rates/cell also showed a negative correlation with phylogenetic age; the higher centres responded with a greater percentage increase than the lower. 5. The results from the cerebellar cortex were anomalous. 6. There were variations of respiratory rate within the diencephalon. The thalamus had a relatively high respiratory rate, the anterior and ventral regions relatively low and the hypothalamus intermediate. 7. The oxygen consumption of white matter was not increased by a high external concentration of K+. PMID:5588375

  2. Short- and long-range functional connectivity density alterations in adolescents with pure conduct disorder at resting-state.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a developmental disorder defined by a repetitive and persistent display of antisocial and aggressive behaviors that violates the rights of others or basic social rules. Recently, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has been widely adopted to investigate the altered intrinsic neural activities and the disrupted endogenous brain connectivity of CD. In this study, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a newly developed ultrafast voxel-wise method based on rsfMRI, was applied for the first time to examine the changes in the brain functional connectivity in CD at the voxel level. We assessed the differences in FCD between eighteen male adolescents with CD and eighteen typically-developing (TD) individuals. Then, the identified brain regions in which CD patients and healthy controls exhibited significant difference in FCD were extracted to calculate the correlations between measures of FCD values and clinical data. We discovered that compared to healthy controls, CD patients showed increased short-range FCD in the default-mode network including the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the bilateral precuneus (PCUN). More importantly, increased short-range FCD values in the bilateral PCC, the bilateral PCUN, and increased long-range FCD values in the left MCC showed significant correlations with the impulsivity. Overall, these results suggested that the FCD abnormalities in CD patients occurred in brain regions known to be involved in cognition, emotion and visual perception.

  3. Resting behaviour, ecology and genetics of malaria vectors in large scale agricultural areas of Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Githeko, A K; Service, M W; Mbogo, C M; Atieli, F K

    1996-12-01

    In Kenya indoor and outdoor resting densities of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus at the Ahero rice irrigation scheme, and Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and An. funestus at the Miwani sugar belt were assessed for 13 months by pyrethrum spray collections in houses and granaries. The vector's house leaving behaviour was evaluated with exit traps and it was noted that early exophily (i.e., deliberate) was not detected in any of the vectors. Assortative indoor/outdoor resting behaviour was studied by a capture-mark-release-recapture method and showed that in An. arabiensis both indoor and outdoor resting traits were present in the same individuals. Samples of half-gravid female An. gambiae s.l. were chromosomally identified either as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or An. arabiensis and in a subsample chromosomal inversions were read. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis had the 2Rb inversion but in addition the 2La inversion was found in An. gambiae s.s. and this is an indication of low chromosomal variation. At Ahero An. arabiensis was most abundant when the rice crop was immature and An. funestus when the crop was mature. This succession of vectors facilitated the transmission of malaria throughout the year. At Miwani, An. gambiae s.l. population peaked during the long rains but the proportion of An. arabiensis was highest during the dry season. The indoor resting density of males of the three vector species was less than half of the females.

  4. Indoor Tanning

    MedlinePlus

    ... UV radiation causes wrinkles and age spots. The theory that adding red light to an indoor tanning ... any use of indoor tanning systems. For More Information To learn more about the risks of tanning, ...

  5. Elite male Flat jockeys display lower bone density and lower resting metabolic rate than their female counterparts: implications for athlete welfare.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Hill, Jerry; Sale, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that daily weight-making is more problematic to health in male compared with female jockeys, we compared the bone density and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in weight-matched male and female Flat jockeys. RMR (kcal·kg(-1) lean mass) was lower in males compared with females as well as lower bone-density Z scores at the hip and lumbar spine. Data suggest the lifestyle of male jockeys compromise health more severely than females, possibly because of making weight more frequently.

  6. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on egg production, laying behaviour and use of veranda and outdoor area are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough and perch access at the lowest stocking density (treatment D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Laying percentage was significantly lower (P<0.05) in D12 compared with the other stocking densities (90.6% v. 94.3% (± 0.7)), most likely due to the concomitant reduction in nest space and drinker availability per hen. No systematic effects of density were found on other laying variables (egg weight, eggs laid outside nests, aviary side preferences). Number of hens using the veranda increased with stocking density. Hens primarily used the range near the house (within 50 m) and hens kept at the lowest stocking density and the smallest group size appeared to use the outdoor area more extensively, based on an assessment of vegetation cover (P<0.05). For the measures reported here, the welfare consequences of increased stocking density were assessed to be minor; additional results are reported in the associated article (Steenfeldt and Nielsen, 2015).

  7. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough, and perch access at the lowest stocking density (D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected by the increase in stocking density through the simultaneous reduction in access to other resources, mainly perches and troughs. The welfare of the hens was mostly affected by these associated constraints, despite all of them being within the allowed minimum requirements for organic production in the EU. Although the welfare consequences reported here were assessed to be moderate to minor, it is important to take into account concurrent constraints on access to other resources when higher stocking densities are used in organic production.

  8. Posterior EEG alpha at rest and during task performance: Comparison of current source density and field potential measures

    PubMed Central

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen; Abraham, Karen; Alvarenga, Jorge E.; Bruder, Gerard E.

    2015-01-01

    Resting and task-related EEG alpha are used in studies of cognition and psychopathogy. Although Laplacian methods have been applied, apprehensions about loss of global activity dissuade researchers from greater use except as a supplement to reference-dependent measures. The unfortunate result has been continued reliance on reference strategies that differ across labs, and a systemic preference for a montage-dependent average reference over true reference-free measures. We addressed these concerns by comparing resting- and task-related EEG alpha using three EEG transformations: nose- (NR) and average-referenced (AR) EEG, and the corresponding CSD. Amplitude spectra of resting and prestimulus task-related EEG (novelty oddball) and event-related spectral perturbations were scaled to equate each transformation. Alpha measures quantified for 8-12 Hz bands were: 1) net amplitude (eyes-closed minus eyes-open) and 2) overall amplitude (eyes-closed plus eyes-open); 3) task amplitude (prestimulus baseline) and 4) task event-related desynchronization (ERD). Mean topographies unambiguously represented posterior alpha for overall, net and task, as well as poststimulus alpha ERD. Topographies were similar for the three transformations, but differed in dispersion, CSD being sharpest and NR most broadly distributed. Transformations also differed in scale, AR showing less attenuation or spurious secondary maxima at anterior sites, consistent with simulations of distributed posterior generators. Posterior task alpha and alpha ERD were positively correlated with overall alpha, but not with net alpha. CSD topographies consistently and appropriately represented posterior EEG alpha for all measures. PMID:26026372

  9. Power spectral density analysis of physiological, rest and action tremor in Parkinson’s disease patients treated with deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Observation of the signals recorded from the extremities of Parkinson’s disease patients showing rest and/or action tremor reveal a distinct high power resonance peak in the frequency band corresponding to tremor. The aim of the study was to investigate, using quantitative measures, how clinically effective and less effective deep brain stimulation protocols redistribute movement power over the frequency bands associated with movement, pathological and physiological tremor, and whether normal physiological tremor may reappear during those periods that tremor is absent. Methods The power spectral density patterns of rest and action tremor were studied in 7 Parkinson’s disease patients treated with (bilateral) deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. Two tests were carried out: 1) the patient was sitting at rest; 2) the patient performed a hand or foot tapping movement. Each test was repeated four times for each extremity with different stimulation settings applied during each repetition. Tremor intermittency was taken into account by classifying each 3-second window of the recorded angular velocity signals as a tremor or non-tremor window. Results The distribution of power over the low frequency band (<3.5 Hz – voluntary movement), tremor band (3.5-7.5 Hz) and high frequency band (>7.5 Hz – normal physiological tremor) revealed that rest and action tremor show a similar power-frequency shift related to tremor absence and presence: when tremor is present most power is contained in the tremor frequency band; when tremor is absent lower frequencies dominate. Even under resting conditions a relatively large low frequency component became prominent, which seemed to compensate for tremor. Tremor absence did not result in the reappearance of normal physiological tremor. Conclusion Parkinson’s disease patients continuously balance between tremor and tremor suppression or compensation expressed by power shifts between the low frequency band and

  10. Indoor Tanning

    MedlinePlus

    ... young patients for skin cancer. Indoor Tanning vs. Sunlight The sun's rays contain two types of ultraviolet ... Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours ...

  11. OCCIPITAL SOURCES OF RESTING STATE ALPHA RHYTHMS ARE RELATED TO LOCAL GRAY MATTER DENSITY IN SUBJECTS WITH AMNESIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, Babiloni; Claudio, Del Percio; Marina, Boccardi; Roberta, Lizio; Susanna, Lopez; Filippo, Carducci; Nicola, Marzano; Andrea, Soricelli; Raffaele, Ferri; Ivano, Triggiani Antonio; Annapaola, Prestia; Serenella, Salinari; Rasser Paul, E; Erol, Basar; Francesco, Famà; Flavio, Nobili; Görsev, Yener; Durusu, Emek-Savaş Derya; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ciro, Mundi; Thompson Paul, M; Rossini Paolo, M.; Frisoni Giovanni, B

    2014-01-01

    Occipital sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms are abnormal, at the group level, in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we evaluated the hypothesis that amplitude of these occipital sources is related to neurodegeneration in occipital lobe as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Resting-state eyes-closed EEG rhythms were recorded in 45 healthy elderly (Nold), 100 MCI, and 90 AD subjects. Neurodegeneration of occipital lobe was indexed by weighted averages of gray matter density (GMD), estimated from structural MRIs. EEG rhythms of interest were alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz) and alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Results showed a positive correlation between occipital GMD and amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources in Nold, MCI and AD subjects as a whole group (r=0.3, p=0.000004, N=235). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources and cognitive status as revealed by Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score across all subjects (r=0.38, p=0.000001, N=235). Finally, amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources allowed a moderate classification of individual Nold and AD subjects (sensitivity: 87.8%; specificity: 66.7%; area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.81). These results suggest that the amplitude of occipital sources of resting state alpha rhythms is related to AD neurodegeneration in occipital lobe along pathological aging. PMID:25442118

  12. Decreased Coupling Between Functional Connectivity Density and Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation in Non-Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Resting-Stage Functional MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao Dong; Jiang, Xiao Lu; Cheng, Zhen; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhi Qiang; Qi, Rongfeng; Luo, Song; Yun, Yan Su; Chen, Hui Juan; Kong, Xiang; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2016-08-30

    In this study, we seek to explore alterations of coupling between functional connectivity density (FCD) and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in systemic lupus erythematosus patients without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) by using resting-state functional MR imaging. This study was approved by the institutional ethical review board, and all participants signed written informed consent prior to the study. Twenty six non-NPSLE patients and 35 matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MR imaging. The correlation analysis between FCD and ALFF was conducted to assess the imaging coupling. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to correlate imaging variables to clinical and neuropsychological data in non-NPSLE patients. According to the consistent alteration of FCD and ALFF, region of interests were identified including the right inferior temporal gyrus, bilateral hippocampus-parahippocampus (H-PH), left posterior cingulate cortex, superior parietal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and bilateral precuneus. Across-voxel correlation analysis showed decreased coupling strengths in some brain regions. Correlations between FCD, ALFF, and coupling strength in H-PH and C3/C4/MoCA were found. The imaging coupling between FCD and ALFF was decreased in non-NPSLE patients, indicating brain function alteration in non-NPSLE patients, especially the abnormal coupling between FCD and ALFF of the hippocampus-parahippocampus might be an imaging biomarker of brain dysfunction in non-NPSLE patients.

  13. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  14. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel As; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A

    2013-02-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6-2.3 L, with the hands (80-160 g.h-1) and feet (50-150 g.h-1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40-75 g.h-1) and all remaining sites losing 15-60 g.h-1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm-2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm-2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min-1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm-2.min-1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm-2.min-1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm-2.min-1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm-2.min-1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm-2.min-1, sodium losses of 26.5-49.7 mmol.L-1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8-36.7 mmol.L-1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise.

  15. Resting energy expenditure: a stronger marker than body weight for bone mineral density in white women but not men? The Rancho Bernardo study.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Afrooz; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the association between resting energy expenditure (REE) and bone mineral density (BMD) in white adults. Cross-sectional study. White, middle-class to upper middle-class community-dwelling adults. Women (n = 996) and men (n = 686) aged 36 to 97 years. REE calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1 to L4), total hip, and total body measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. REE was lower in women than in men (1220 versus 1566 kcal/day, P < 0.0001); women also had lower BMI. After adjusting for lean body mass (LBM), REE was higher in women than men (1407 versus 1296 kcal/kg LBM/d, P < 0.0001). In stepwise multiple linear regression models, REE explained 13% of variance in spine BMD in women and 6% in men, 33% of variance in hip BMD in women and 22% in men, and 32% of variance in total body BMD in women and 22% in men. In women, weight explained 10% less of the hip BMD variance and 6% less of the total body BMD variance than REE. In men, weight explained 4% more of the spine BMD variance and 1% more of the total body BMD variance than REE. REE explained more of the BMD variance than weight in women, and the reverse was true in men. These sex differences were largely explained by sex differences in LBM or weight.

  16. Indoor radon.

    PubMed

    Polpong, P; Bovornkitti, S

    1998-01-01

    The naturally radioactive but chemically inert gas, radon, is formed from the radioactive decay of radium which is part of the uranium series. Radon gas, which has a half life of 3.8 days, must escape from soil particles through air-filled pores in order to enter the atmosphere following the decay of radium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies, depending on the place, time, height above the ground and meteorological conditions. It is thus an inescapable source of radiation exposure, both at home and at work. The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from indoor radon gas and its daughter products are of great concern worldwide. Noting of an excessive lung cancer risk among several groups of underground miners exposed to radon and its daughter products, studies on radon concentrations in the workplace and in dwellings have been conducted in many countries. The results have shown that the distribution of radon concentrations are approximately lognormal from which population weighted; the arithmetic mean of radon concentration of 40 Bq.m-3 has been adopted worldwide for dwellings and workplaces. The principal methods for reducing a high indoor radon concentration are: reducing the radon supply by reversing the pressure difference between the building and the soil; raising the resistance of the foundations to soil gas entry; removing the radon sources such as water or underlying soil; diluting the concentration by increasing the ventilation rate; and reducing the concentration of radon progeny by filtering and increasing the circulation of indoor air. Buildings which have a radon concentration higher than 200 Bq.m-3 should be investigated by the national authorities concerned; meanwhile, householders should be advised to take simple temporary precautions, such as increasing ventilation, until a permanent remedy can be effected.

  17. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  18. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  19. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low

  20. The Associations of High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses With Insulin and Glucose Levels, Physical Activity, Resting Heart Rate, and Regional Adiposity in Men With Coronary Artery Disease: The Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project Baseline Survey

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.; Haskell, William L.; Vranizan, Karen M.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses with adiposity, physical activity, resting heart rate (an indicator of sympathetic drive), and plasma insulin and glucose levels in 97 men with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. These men neither smoked nor used medications known to affect lipoproteins. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.01 nm within five HDL subclasses: HDL3c (7.2 to 7.8 nm), HDL3b (7.8 to 8.2 nm), HDL3a (8.2 to 8.8 nm), HDL2a (8.8 to 9.7 nm), and HDL2b (9.7 to 12 nm). HDL peak diameter was determined from the predominant peak of the HDL particle distribution when plotted against particle diameter. Four men who were non-insulin-dependent diabetics as defined by a fasting glucose exceeding 140 mg/dL had significantly higher plasma HDL3b levels and significantly smaller HDL peak diameters than nondiabetic men, and were therefore excluded from further analyses. In the remaining 93 nondiabetic men, plasma HDL3b levels correlated positively with indices of truncal obesity (waist to hip ratio and subscapular skinfold), whereas plasma HDL2b levels correlated negatively with indices of total adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) and truncal obesity (subscapular and abdominal skinfold). Fasting plasma insulin levels correlated negatively with HDL3a, HDL2a, and HDL2b. Obesity significantly affected the relationships of resting heart rate with insulin and HDL subclasses. In heavier men (BMI > 25.8 kg/m2) but not in the less-obese men (BMI < 25.8 kg/m2), resting heart rate was negatively correlated with HDL3a, HDL2a, and HDL2b levels and HDL peak diameter and positively correlated with fasting plasma insulin concentrations. Although the reported physical activity in heavier men also correlated with HDL3a, HDL2a, and resting heart rate, the associations of resting heart rate with HDL3a, HDL2a, and HDL

  1. Indoor air pollution and preventions in college libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zengzhang

    2017-05-01

    The college library is a place where it gets the comparatively high density of students often staying long time with it. Therefore, the indoor air quality will affect directly reading effect and physical health of teachers and students in colleges and universities. The paper analyzes the influenced factors in indoor air pollution of the library from the selection of green-environmental decorating materials and furniture, good ventilation maintaining, electromagnetic radiation reducing, regular disinfection, indoor green building and awareness of health and environmental protection strengthening etc. six aspects to put forward the ideas for preventions of indoor air pollution and construction of the green low-carbon library.

  2. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  3. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  4. Productivity, utilization, and nutritive quality of dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum) as influenced by stocking density and rest period under continuous or rotational stocking.

    PubMed

    Bungenstab, E J; Pereira, A C; Lin, J C; Holliman, J L; Muntifering, R B

    2011-02-01

    Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum) is well adapted to the Black Belt physiographic region of the southeastern United States, and information on its productivity and nutritive quality as influenced by grazing management is needed. In a 2-yr grazing experiment, replicate 0.40-ha paddocks in established dallisgrass pasture were continuously stocked, or replicate 0.40-ha paddocks were subdivided into two 0.20-ha (RS2), three 0.13-ha (RS3), or four 0.10-ha (RS4) cells and rotationally stocked with yearling beef steers. Individual cells within the RS2, RS3, and RS4 treatments were stocked for 7 d followed by 7, 14, or 21 d of rest, respectively. In 2007, 3 Angus × Simmental crossbred steers (initial BW, 354 ± 6 kg) were assigned randomly to each paddock on July 16; in 2008, 3 Angus × Simmental crossbred steers (initial BW, 310 ± 6 kg) were assigned randomly to each paddock on July 14. In 2007, there was no effect (P = 0.25) of stocking treatment on ADG. Steers grazing RS4, RS2, and continuously stocked paddocks had 106 (P = 0.01), 86 (P = 0.03), and 83 (P = 0.03) kg greater total BW gain per ha, respectively, than steers grazing RS3 paddocks. In 2008, there were no differences among treatments in ADG (P = 0.43) or total BW gain per ha (P = 0.90). Correlation and regression analyses revealed positive associations between steer performance and forage concentration of CP, areal mass (kg/ha) of forage DM, and areal mass of forage CP. Results indicate that productivity and quality of dallisgrass for stocker cattle production were comparable between continuous and rotational-stocking methods.

  5. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  6. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  7. Your Indoor Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the July 24, 2007 edition of "ExchangeEveryday", readers were asked to submit great indoor space elements from their early childhood programs. Readers sent photographs and brief descriptions of creative elements of their indoor environments. A sampling of ideas are shown on this article.

  8. [Indoor air pollution in southeast Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Pino, P; Oyarzún, M; Walter, T; von Baer, D; Romieu, I

    1998-04-01

    Indoor air pollution could play an important role in the susceptibility to respiratory diseases of vulnerable individuals, such as elders and infants. To evaluate indoor air pollution in a low income population of South East Santiago. A domiciliary survey of contaminant sources was carried out in the bouses of a cohort of 522 children less than one year old. Using a case-control design, 121 children consulting for respiratory diseases were considered as cases and 131 healthy infants of the same age and sex were considered as controls. In the houses of both groups, active monitors for particulate matter (PM10) and passive monitors for NO2 were installed. Forty two percent of fathers and 30% of mothers were smokers, and in two thirds of the families there was at least one smoker. Eighty five percent used portable heaters in winter. Of these, 77% used kerosene as fuel. Only 27% had water heating appliances. The rest heated water on the kitchen store or on bonfires. Most kitchen stoves used liquid gas as fuel. Twenty four hour PM10 was 109 +/- 3.2 micrograms/m3. Mean indoor and outdoor NO2 in 24 h was 108 +/- 76.3 and 84 +/- 53.6 micrograms/m3 respectively. Indoor NO2 levels were related to the use of heating devices and smoking. No differences in PM10 and NO2 levels were observed between cases and controls. There is a clear relationship between indoor pollution and contaminating sources. Indoor NO2 levels are higher than outdoors.

  9. Indoor particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nazaroff, W W

    2004-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter is a diverse pollutant class whose excessive presence in indoor air contributes to an array of adverse health and material-damage effects. Particles are classified according to their diameter into three size modes: ultrafine (0.1 microm), accumulation (0.1-2 microm), and coarse (= 2 microm). These modes have largely distinct sources and composition, and they exhibit different dynamic behaviors. The concept of mass conservation or material balance provides a foundation for quantitatively and mechanistically linking important outcome variables, such as concentrations and exposures, to the influencing input parameters. The factors governing indoor particle concentrations include direct emissions from indoor sources, ventilation supply from outdoor air, filtration, deposition onto indoor surfaces, and removal from indoor air by means of ventilation. In some circumstances, transport and transformation processes within indoor environments may also play an important role in influencing particle concentrations and consequences. Such processes include mixing, interzonal transport, resuspension, coagulation, and phase change. The paper gives a practical overview of issues related to particulate matter indoors, as well as valuable information for understanding filtration and how particles contribute to adverse health effects.

  10. [Free and conjugated plasma catecholamines, lactate behavior and oxygen uptake at rest and in staged physical exertion as well as alpha receptor density in intact thrombocytes in trained athletes].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Jakob, E; Spöri, U; Bergdolt, E; Keul, J

    1985-01-01

    The influence of chronic static training on free and conjugated plasma catecholamines was investigated in 8 statically trained athletes (21 +/- 2 years of age) at rest and during incremental ergometric cycling. Plasma catecholamines are seen as biochemical indicators of the over-all sympathetic activity. Alpha-2-adrenoreceptors were additionally determined as one parameter of the organism's sensitivity to catecholamines. During modest and heavy exercise, free plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline are comparably low in statically and endurance trained athletes. They are lower than in untrained subjects. During exhaustion, however, free adrenaline responses of the statically trained athletes only amount to 30-50% of the concentrations observed in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects. Free plasma dopamine and conjugated plasma catecholamines do not show any significant changes during ergometric exercise. Free and conjugated catecholamines correlate positively. Positive correlations are also observed between blood pressure and plasma catecholamines. These correlations however are clearer between conjugated catecholamines and blood pressure. This is also recognizable for the negative correlation between alpha-2-receptor density on intact platelets (1078 +/- 323 binding sites per cell) and conjugated catecholamines. In conclusion, statically trained athletes also show an alteration of sympathetic tone (catecholamines) comparable to that observed in endurance trained athletes. Maximal adrenaline responses however are lower in statically trained athletes than in endurance trained or untrained subjects. The alpha-adrenoreceptor density on intact thrombocytes seems to be increased in statically trained athletes.

  11. Combination of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying in Northern Tanzania Provides Additional Reduction in Vector Population Density and Malaria Transmission Rates Compared to Insecticide Treated Nets Alone: A Randomised Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Wright, Alexandra; West, Philippa A; Tigererwa, Robinson; Mosha, Franklin W; Kisinza, William; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rowland, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) combined with insecticide treated nets (ITN) has been implemented together in several sub-Saharan countries with inconclusive evidence that the combined intervention provides added benefit. The impact on malaria transmission was evaluated in a cluster randomised trial comparing two rounds of IRS with bendiocarb plus universal coverage ITNs, with ITNs alone in northern Tanzania. From April 2011 to December 2012, eight houses in 20 clusters per study arm were sampled monthly for one night with CDC light trap collections. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were identified to species using real time PCR Taq Man and tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. ITN and IRS coverage was estimated from household surveys. IRS coverage was more than 85% in two rounds of spraying in January and April 2012. Household coverage with at least one ITN per house was 94.7% after the universal coverage net campaign in the baseline year and the proportion of household with all sleeping places covered by LLIN was 50.1% decreasing to 39.1% by the end of the intervention year. An.gambiae s.s. comprised 80% and An.arabiensis 18.3% of the anopheline collection in the baseline year. Mean An.gambiae s.l. density in the ITN+IRS arm was reduced by 84% (95%CI: 56%-94%, p = 0.001) relative to the ITN arm. In the stratum of clusters categorised as high anopheline density at baseline EIR was lower in the ITN+IRS arm compared to the ITN arm (0.5 versus 5.4 per house per month, Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01–0.66, p-value for interaction <0.001). This trial provides conclusive evidence that combining carbamate IRS and ITNs produces major reduction in Anopheles density and entomological inoculation rate compared to ITN alone in an area of moderate coverage of LLIN and high pyrethroid resistance in An.gambiae s.s. PMID:26569492

  12. Combination of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying in Northern Tanzania Provides Additional Reduction in Vector Population Density and Malaria Transmission Rates Compared to Insecticide Treated Nets Alone: A Randomised Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Wright, Alexandra; West, Philippa A; Tigererwa, Robinson; Mosha, Franklin W; Kisinza, William; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rowland, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) combined with insecticide treated nets (ITN) has been implemented together in several sub-Saharan countries with inconclusive evidence that the combined intervention provides added benefit. The impact on malaria transmission was evaluated in a cluster randomised trial comparing two rounds of IRS with bendiocarb plus universal coverage ITNs, with ITNs alone in northern Tanzania. From April 2011 to December 2012, eight houses in 20 clusters per study arm were sampled monthly for one night with CDC light trap collections. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were identified to species using real time PCR Taq Man and tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. ITN and IRS coverage was estimated from household surveys. IRS coverage was more than 85% in two rounds of spraying in January and April 2012. Household coverage with at least one ITN per house was 94.7% after the universal coverage net campaign in the baseline year and the proportion of household with all sleeping places covered by LLIN was 50.1% decreasing to 39.1% by the end of the intervention year. An.gambiae s.s. comprised 80% and An.arabiensis 18.3% of the anopheline collection in the baseline year. Mean An.gambiae s.l. density in the ITN+IRS arm was reduced by 84% (95%CI: 56%-94%, p = 0.001) relative to the ITN arm. In the stratum of clusters categorised as high anopheline density at baseline EIR was lower in the ITN+IRS arm compared to the ITN arm (0.5 versus 5.4 per house per month, Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01-0.66, p-value for interaction <0.001). This trial provides conclusive evidence that combining carbamate IRS and ITNs produces major reduction in Anopheles density and entomological inoculation rate compared to ITN alone in an area of moderate coverage of LLIN and high pyrethroid resistance in An.gambiae s.s.

  13. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  14. QUANTIFYING INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing awareness that indoor molds/fungi may be connected to such conditions as asthma, allergies, hemorrhaging, chronic rhinosinusitis, memory loss, and a symptom complex called sick-building-syndrome. In addition, molds cause frequently fatal nosocomical infections. ...

  15. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  16. QUANTIFYING INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing awareness that indoor molds/fungi may be connected to such conditions as asthma, allergies, hemorrhaging, chronic rhinosinusitis, memory loss, and a symptom complex called sick-building-syndrome. In addition, molds cause frequently fatal nosocomical infections. ...

  17. Clay-shoveler's fracture during indoor rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Kaloostian, Paul E; Kim, Jennifer E; Calabresi, Peter A; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Indoor rock climbing is becoming more popular for people of all ages. Despite the tremendous interest in this competitive sport, participants are made aware of the dangers associated with participating. The authors present the first reported case of a clay-shoveler's fracture at the T1 spinous process during indoor rock climbing. They describe the management and natural history of this fracture and discuss management strategies for this increasingly popular recreational sport.A 14-year-old competitive indoor rock climber presented with acute-onset midline thoracic pain at T1 while indoor rock climbing. He reported no recent falls or trauma but stated that the pain came on abruptly while rock climbing. On examination, he was neurologically intact except for significant tenderness to palpation at the T1 spinous process. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a minimally displaced T1 spinous process fracture with evidence of significant surrounding muscular edema, suggesting an acute fracture. He was treated conservatively with anti-inflammatory drugs, complete climbing restriction, and rest. He continued to have focal upper back pain at the level of the fracture over the next 4 months. He was unable to climb for 4 months until his pain resolved after conservative treatment of climbing restriction, pain control, and rest.This is the first documented case of a clay-shoveler's fracture sustained in a pediatric patient directly attributable to indoor rock climbing. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. A View Indoors, Indoor Environment Division's e-Article Series

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  19. Sampling Outdoor, Resting Anopheles gambiae and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Western Kenya with Clay Pots

    PubMed Central

    Odiere, M.; Bayoh, M. N.; Gimnig, J.; Vulule, J.; Irungu, L.; Walker, E.

    2014-01-01

    Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them. PMID:17294916

  20. Sampling outdoor, resting Anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya with clay pots.

    PubMed

    Odiere, M; Bayoh, M N; Gimnig, J; Vulule, J; Irungu, L; Walker, E

    2007-01-01

    Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them.

  1. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily. PMID:21736735

  2. Indoor acoustic gain design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  3. Indoor Confined Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Daniel L; Kroll, Lee Anne K

    2015-07-01

    Indoor confined feedlots offer advantages that make them desirable in northern climates where high rainfall and snowfall occur. These facilities increase the risk of certain health risks, including lameness and tail injuries. Closed confinement can also facilitate the rapid spread of infectious disease. Veterinarians can help to manage these health risks by implementing management practices to reduce their occurrence.

  4. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  5. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  6. Indoor and outdoor sources of size-resolved mass concentration of particulate matter in a school gym-implications for exposure of exercising children.

    PubMed

    Braniš, Martin; Safránek, Jiří; Hytychová, Adéla

    2011-05-01

    It has been noticed many times that schools are buildings with high levels of particulate matter concentrations. Several authors documented that concentrations of particulate matter in indoor school microenvironments exceed limits recommended by WHO namely when school buildings are situated near major roads with high traffic densities. In addition, exercise under conditions of high particulate concentrations may increase the adverse health effects, as the total particle deposition increases in proportion to minute ventilation, and the deposition fraction nearly doubles from rest to intense exercise. Mass concentrations of size-segregated aerosol were measured simultaneously in an elementary school gym and an adjacent outdoor site in the central part of Prague by two pairs of collocated aerosol monitors-a fast responding photometer DusTrak and a five stage cascade impactor. To encompass seasonal and annual differences, 89 days of measurements were performed during ten campaigns between 2005 and 2009. The average (all campaigns) outdoor concentration of PM(2.5) (28.3 μg m(-3)) measured by the cascade impactors was higher than the indoor value (22.3 μg m(-3)) and the corresponding average from the nearest fixed site monitor (23.6 μg m(-3)). Indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the WHO recommended 24-h limit in 42% and 49% of the days measured, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between corresponding outdoor and indoor aerosol sizes increased with decreasing aerodynamic diameter of the collected particles (r = 0.32-0.87), suggesting a higher infiltration rate of fine and quasi-ultrafine particles. Principal component analysis revealed five factors explaining more than 82% of the data variability. The first two factors reflected a close association between outdoor and indoor fine and quasi-ultrafine particles confirming the hypothesis of high infiltration rate of particles from outdoors. The third factor indicated that human

  7. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indoor Subspacing to Implement Indoorgml for Indoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.

  9. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy problems, including: High blood pressure Premature or preterm changes in the cervix Problems with the placenta ... shown that being on bed rest can prevent preterm birth or other pregnancy problems. And some complications ...

  10. FRS REST Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FRS exposes several REST services that allows developers to utilize a live feed of data from the FRS database. This web page is intended for a technical audience and describes the content and purpose of each service available.

  11. Microbiological Quality of Indoor Air in University Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hayleeyesus, Samuel Fekadu; Manaye, Abayneh Melaku

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the concentration of bacteria and fungi in the indoor environment of Jimma University libraries, so as to estimate the health hazard and to create standards for indoor air quality control. Methods The microbial quality of indoor air of eight libraries of Jimma University was determined. The settle plate method using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media was employed to collect sample twice daily. Isolates were identified according to standard methods. Results The concentrations of bacteria and fungi aerosols in the indoor environment of the university libraries ranged between 367-2595 CFU/m3. According to the sanitary standards classification of European Commission, almost all the libraries indoor air of Jimma University was heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. In spite of their major source difference, the average fungi density found in the indoor air of libraries did appear to follow the same trend with bacterial density (P=0.001). The bacteria isolates included Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus sp. and Neisseria sp. while Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the most isolated fungi. Conclusions The indoor air of all libraries were in the range above highly contaminated according to European Commission classification and the most isolates are considered as potential candidates involved in the establishment of sick building syndromes and often associated with clinical manifestations like allergy, rhinitis, asthma and conjunctivitis. Thus, attention must be given to control those environmental factors which favor the growth and multiplication of microbes in indoor environment of libraries to safeguard the health of users and workers. PMID:25183103

  12. Microbiological quality of indoor air in university libraries.

    PubMed

    Hayleeyesus, Samuel Fekadu; Manaye, Abayneh Melaku

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the concentration of bacteria and fungi in the indoor environment of Jimma University libraries, so as to estimate the health hazard and to create standards for indoor air quality control. The microbial quality of indoor air of eight libraries of Jimma University was determined. The settle plate method using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media was employed to collect sample twice daily. Isolates were identified according to standard methods. The concentrations of bacteria and fungi aerosols in the indoor environment of the university libraries ranged between 367-2595 CFU/m(3). According to the sanitary standards classification of European Commission, almost all the libraries indoor air of Jimma University was heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. In spite of their major source difference, the average fungi density found in the indoor air of libraries did appear to follow the same trend with bacterial density (P=0.001). The bacteria isolates included Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus sp. and Neisseria sp. while Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the most isolated fungi. The indoor air of all libraries were in the range above highly contaminated according to European Commission classification and the most isolates are considered as potential candidates involved in the establishment of sick building syndromes and often associated with clinical manifestations like allergy, rhinitis, asthma and conjunctivitis. Thus, attention must be given to control those environmental factors which favor the growth and multiplication of microbes in indoor environment of libraries to safeguard the health of users and workers.

  13. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  14. State indoor tanning laws and adolescent indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Guy, Gery P; Berkowitz, Zahava; Jones, Sherry Everett; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Miyamoto, Justin N; Michael, Shannon L; Saraiya, Mona

    2014-04-01

    Recently, several state indoor tanning laws, including age restrictions, were promulgated to reduce indoor tanning among minors. We examined the effects of these laws on adolescent indoor tanning. We used nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 31 835). Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning among US high school students. Female students in states with indoor tanning laws were less likely to engage in indoor tanning than those in states without any laws. We observed a stronger association among female students in states with systems access, parental permission, and age restriction laws than among those in states without any laws. We found no significant association among female students in states with only systems access and parental permission laws or among male students. Indoor tanning laws, particularly those including age restrictions, may be effective in reducing indoor tanning among female high school students, for whom rates are the highest. Such reductions have the potential to reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer.

  15. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Adolescent Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Gery P.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Jones, Sherry Everett; O’Malley Olsen, Emily; Miyamoto, Justin N.; Michael, Shannon L.; Saraiya, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recently, several state indoor tanning laws, including age restrictions, were promulgated to reduce indoor tanning among minors. We examined the effects of these laws on adolescent indoor tanning. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 31 835). Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning among US high school students. Results. Female students in states with indoor tanning laws were less likely to engage in indoor tanning than those in states without any laws. We observed a stronger association among female students in states with systems access, parental permission, and age restriction laws than among those in states without any laws. We found no significant association among female students in states with only systems access and parental permission laws or among male students. Conclusions. Indoor tanning laws, particularly those including age restrictions, may be effective in reducing indoor tanning among female high school students, for whom rates are the highest. Such reductions have the potential to reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:24524515

  16. Indoor air quality medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Ross, C S; Lockey, J E

    1994-08-01

    The regulatory and legal communities have begun only recently to address the medicolegal issues surrounding indoor air quality. No single governmental agency is responsible for indoor air quality issues. The focus of the federal government's indoor air quality programs is on the gathering and dissemination of information rather than on the regulation of indoor air pollution. State and local regulatory controls vary but may include antismoking ordinances, building codes, and contractor certification programs. Numerous lawsuits involving various parties and legal theories have been filed on the basis of illness allegedly related to indoor air quality. Further regulatory and legal review of indoor air problems will likely occur in the near future, particularly as a result of the characterization of environmental tobacco smoke as a class A carcinogen.

  17. Indoor Radon Measurement in Van

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Celebi, N.; Dogan, I.

    2007-04-23

    In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

  18. Fundamentals of Indoor Air Quality in Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module provides the fundamentals to understanding indoor air quality. It provides a rudimentary framework for understanding how indoor and outdoor sources of pollution affect the indoor air quality of buildings.

  19. Indoor Air vs. Indoor Construction: A New Beginning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicone, Santo

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the steps that can be taken to lessen the impact of indoor air pollution created from indoor renovation projects, including project management tips to help contractors avoid creating unnecessary air pollution. Final comments address air pollution control when installing new furniture, smoking restrictions, occupant relations, and the…

  20. Indoor Air vs. Indoor Construction: A New Beginning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicone, Santo

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the steps that can be taken to lessen the impact of indoor air pollution created from indoor renovation projects, including project management tips to help contractors avoid creating unnecessary air pollution. Final comments address air pollution control when installing new furniture, smoking restrictions, occupant relations, and the…

  1. Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; hide

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.

  2. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  3. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy.

  4. MODELING INDOOR CONCENTRATIONS AND EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of an indoor air quality model, EXPOSURE, to predict pollutant concentrations and exposures. The effects of indoor air pollutants depend on the concentrations of the pollutants and the exposure of individuals to the pollutants. The air pollutant concen...

  5. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: effects on behaviour and welfare.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2017-06-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing within Australia and research is needed to determine optimal outdoor stocking densities. Six small (n=150 hens) experimental flocks of ISA Brown laying hens were housed with access to ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities with two pen replicates per density: 2000 hens/ha, 10 000 hens/ha or 20 000 hens/ha. Birds were provided daily range access from 21 to 36 weeks of age and the range usage of 50% of hens was tracked using radio-frequency identification technology. Throughout the study, basic external health assessments following a modified version of the Welfare Quality® protocol showed most birds were in visibly good condition (although keel damage was increasingly present with age) with few differences between stocking densities. Toenail length at 36 weeks of age was negatively correlated with hours spent ranging for all pens of birds (all r⩾-0.23, P⩽0.04). At 23 weeks of age, there were no differences between outdoor stocking densities in albumen corticosterone concentrations (P=0.44). At 35 weeks of age, density effects were significant (P<0.001) where the eggs from hens in the highest outdoor stocking density showed the highest albumen corticosterone concentrations, although eggs from hens in the 10 000 hens/ha density showed the lowest concentrations (P<0.017). Behavioural observations of hens both on the range and indoors showed more dust bathing and foraging (scratching followed by ground-pecking) was performed outdoors, but more resting indoors (all P<0.001). Hens from the 2000 hens/ha densities showed the least foraging on the range but the most resting outdoors, with hens from the 20 000 hens/ha densities showing the least amount of resting outdoors (all P<0.017). Proportions of dust bathing outdoors tended to differ between the stocking densities (P=0.08). For each of the health and behavioural measures there were differences between pen replicates within stocking densities. These

  6. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  7. Current Indoor Air Quality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    People spend more than two thirds of their daily time indoors. Hence, maintaining a healthy indoor environment is indispensable for the prevention of building related illness. In Japan, guidelines for indoor air quality have been established for 13 volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). These guidelines are now under revision by the Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution. In order to gain information on the current indoor air pollutants and their levels, we carried out a nation-wide survey of VOCs and aldehydes in indoor residential air during 2012-2013. In this review, I concisely summarized the current indoor air quality of Japan.

  8. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  9. Indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gold, D R

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and "tight building" syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.

  10. Indoor Environment Program. 1992 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides.

  11. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  12. Indoor Air Quality in Apartments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Apartments can have the same indoor air problems as single-family homes because many of the pollution sources, such as the interior building materials, furnishings, and household products, are similar.

  13. Indoor Pollution: The Invisible Enemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruba, Alan

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with poor indoor air quality in school and university facilities are more serious than is generally recognized. Common pollutants in educational and office facilities are listed, and possible adverse effects are cited. (TE)

  14. Indoor Pollution: The Invisible Enemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruba, Alan

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with poor indoor air quality in school and university facilities are more serious than is generally recognized. Common pollutants in educational and office facilities are listed, and possible adverse effects are cited. (TE)

  15. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... as conditions caused by outdoor impacts (such as climate change). Many reports and studies indicate that the following ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup IAQ at Home Indoor airPLUS Mold ...

  16. Strategies to Reduce Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Glenn, Jeffrey D.; Guy, Gery P.; Watson, Meg; Baker, Katie; Cokkinides, Vilma; Gottlieb, Mark; Lazovich, DeAnn; Perna, Frank M.; Sampson, Blake P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning device use is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, including risk of malignant melanoma, and is an urgent public health problem. By reducing indoor tanning, future cases of skin cancer could be prevented, along with the associated morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. On August 20, 2012, the CDC hosted a meeting to discuss the current body of evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning as well as research gaps. Using the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Overarching Goals as a framework, the current paper provides highlights on the topics that were discussed, including (1) the state of the evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning; (2) the tools necessary to effectively assess, monitor, and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of interventions designed to reduce indoor tanning; and (3) strategies to align efforts at the national, state, and local levels through transdisciplinary collaboration and coordination across multiple sectors. Although many challenges and barriers exist, a coordinated, multilevel, transdisciplinary approach has the potential to reduce indoor tanning and prevent future cases of skin cancer. PMID:23683986

  17. Indoor fungi: companions and contaminants.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, A; Täubel, M; Hyvärinen, A

    2015-04-01

    This review discusses the role of fungi and fungal products in indoor environments, especially as agents of human exposure. Fungi are present everywhere, and knowledge for indoor environments is extensive on their occurrence and ecology, concentrations, and determinants. Problems of dampness and mold have dominated the discussion on indoor fungi. However, the role of fungi in human health is still not well understood. In this review, we take a look back to integrate what cultivation-based research has taught us alongside more recent work with cultivation-independent techniques. We attempt to summarize what is known today and to point out where more data is needed for risk assessment associated with indoor fungal exposures. New data have demonstrated qualitative and quantitative richness of fungal material inside and outside buildings. Research on mycotoxins shows that just as microbes are everywhere in our indoor environments, so too are their metabolic products. Assessment of fungal exposures is notoriously challenging due to the numerous factors that contribute to the variation of fungal concentrations in indoor environments. We also may have to acknowledge and incorporate into our understanding the complexity of interactions between multiple biological agents in assessing their effects on human health and well-being.

  18. Indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  19. Removable partial dentures without rests.

    PubMed

    Meinig, D A

    1994-04-01

    Ever since Bonwill recommended the use of rests on removable partial dentures in 1899, rests have been universally considered inviolate and have gone unchallenged and untested. The author claims that removable partial dentures without rests may not cause the adverse conditions usually predicted, such as gingival stripping, gingival inflammation, mutilated residual ridges, or extensive and rapid resorption of the alveolar ridges. In removable partial dentures made by the author for several patients, the residual ridge remained stable and in physiologic equilibrium when rests were not used. A history of the long-term effect on patients wearing partial dentures with and without rests is presented.

  20. Indoor Microgravity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secco, Richard A.; Sukara, Reynold E.

    2016-04-01

    There are many lab exercises for upper-level school students and freshman undergraduates to measure the value of the local acceleration due to gravity (g) near Earth's surface. In these exercises, the value of g is usually taken to be constant. The approach is often based on measuring the period of a pendulum that is inversely proportional to the square root of g. Traditional measurements of the period of a simple or inclined pendulum involve use of a stopwatch to measure the time required to complete a number of oscillations, but other more sophisticated measurement techniques for greater accuracy, such as a photogate timing system, measuring the time-dependent tension on the string, or using a stepper motor connected to a conical pendulum have been described. Using video imaging, the mechanics of objects dropped from some height has also been used to determine g. In physics courses where physical principles are applied to Earth problems, however, the goal is usually to measure a change in a potential field, such as Earth's gravitational field, in order to determine anomalous subsurface characteristics. In this paper, we describe an indoor exercise to measure the local change in g resulting from a large anomalous mass near the observation location.

  1. Indoor carbon dioxide monitoring with diode laser absorption at 2 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinyi; Du, Zhenhui; Ma, Yiwen; Liu, Jingwang

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the variation of indoor carbon dioxide concentration and how it changes with human activities, a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system was used to monitor the indoor CO2 concentration. Based on Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy double frequency detection (WMS-2f), the 2v1+v3 characteristic line (4991.26 cm-1) of CO2 was measured by a DFB laser. The measured concentration values were calibrated by means of a cell filled with reference gas. The results show that the daily average indoor CO2 concentrations is about 419ppm which is slightly higher than that of the outdoor and the changing range is between 380ppm and 510ppm in a day. The indoor CO2 concentration was influenced by the change of ventilation and indoor staff. The respiration of the indoor staff makes a greater impact on a relatively confined indoor CO2 concentration. The CO2 increasing rate is measured to be 80ppm/hour in the case of occupant density of 0.06 people/m3. Therefore, the staff crowded indoor should ventilate timely to prevent excessive CO2 causing people discomfort.

  2. Respiration of resting honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Hetz, Stefan K.; Petz, Markus; Crailsheim, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The relation between the respiratory activity of resting honeybees and ambient temperature (Ta) was investigated in the range of 5–40 °C. Bees were kept in a temperature controlled flow through respirometer chamber where their locomotor and endothermic activity, as well as abdominal ventilatory movements was recorded by infrared thermography. Surprisingly, true resting bees were often weakly endothermic (thorax surface up to 2.8 °C warmer than abdomen) at a Ta of 14–30 °C. Above 33 °C many bees cooled their body via evaporation from their mouthparts. A novel mathematical model allows description of the relationship of resting (standard) metabolic rate and temperature across the entire functional temperature range of bees. In chill coma (<11 °C) bees were ectothermic and CO2 release was mostly continuous. CO2 release rate (nl s−1) decreased from 9.3 at 9.7 °C to 5.4 at 5 °C. At a Ta of >11 °C CO2 was released discontinuously. In the bees’ active temperature range mean CO2 production rate (nl s−1) increased sigmoidally (10.6 at 14.1 °C, 24.1 at 26.5 °C, and 55.2 at 38.1 °C), coming to a halt towards the upper lethal temperature. This was primarily accomplished by an exponential increase in gas exchange frequency (0.54 and 3.1 breaths min−1 at 14.1 and 38.1 °C) but not in released CO2 volume per respiratory cycle (1487 and 1083 nl cycle−1 at 14.1 and 38.1 °C). Emission of CO2 bursts was mostly (98%) accompanied by abdominal ventilation movements even in small CO2 bursts. Larger bursts coincided with a longer duration of active ventilation. An increased amount of CO2 expelled per unit time of ventilation indicates a higher efficiency of ventilation at high ambient temperatures. PMID:17707395

  3. Resting cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  4. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    PubMed

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  5. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts. PMID:26633448

  6. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  7. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  8. Partially sparse imaging of stationary indoor scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.; Dogaru, Traian

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we exploit the notion of partial sparsity for scene reconstruction associated with through-the-wall radar imaging of stationary targets under reduced data volume. Partial sparsity implies that the scene being imaged consists of a sparse part and a dense part, with the support of the latter assumed to be known. For the problem at hand, sparsity is represented by a few stationary indoor targets, whereas the high scene density is defined by exterior and interior walls. Prior knowledge of wall positions and extent may be available either through building blueprints or from prior surveillance operations. The contributions of the exterior and interior walls are removed from the data through the use of projection matrices, which are determined from wall- and corner-specific dictionaries. The projected data, with enhanced sparsity, is then processed using l 1 norm reconstruction techniques. Numerical electromagnetic data is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for imaging stationary indoor scenes using a reduced set of measurements.

  9. Biting and resting behaviour of anophelines in western Venezuela and implications for control of malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Curtis, C F

    1992-10-01

    A study was conducted in three villages in western Venezuela between February 1988 and October 1989 to determine the biting and resting activity of anophelines in relation to human habits, rainfall and fenitrothion spraying of houses. Mosquitoes were collected landing on humans inside and outside experimental huts throughout the night. Only three mosquitoes were found resting in the huts in the morning, but 2470 were collected resting on vegetation in the early morning. The collections yielded eleven species of anopheline, the most abundant being Anopheles nuneztovari, comprising over 75% of the total anophelines collected, followed by An.triannulatus, An.albitarsis s.l. and An.oswaldoi. The four most abundant species showed different diel patterns of biting. For An.nuneztovari the peak of activity was close to midnight indoors and outdoors, for An.triannulatus between 19.00 and 20.00 hours outdoors, for An.albitarsis mainly before midnight indoors and outdoors and for An.oswaldoi outdoors at 19.00 hours, with an additional smaller peak indoors at midnight. Most of the human population use bednets, go to bed before 22.00 hours and are therefore most exposed to mosquitoes that bite outdoors early in the night. Fenitrothion house-spraying failed to prevent large mosquito populations developing in the wet season, presumably because of their exophilic resting habits. The possible advantages of impregnation of existing bednets with pyrethroids, and provision of nets for people who do not have them, are discussed.

  10. Indoor airPLUS Web Linking Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As an Indoor airPLUS partner, your organization is listed on the EPA Indoor airPLUS Partner List. Your listing can also include a link to your organization's website when you meet the following requirements.

  11. Cooperative Agreement Funding for Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  12. Antimicrobial Treatments of Indoor Mold and Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological contaminants especially mold in buildings are known to act as sources of indoor air pollution, discomfort, asthma and pulmonary disease to building occupants. Sick buildings are evidence of extremely problematic indoor air quality (IAQ), often resulting from unacceptab...

  13. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  14. Teachers and Healthy Indoor School Environments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Teachers can be powerful advocates for creating healthy indoor environments, including improving school indoor air quality (IAQ). As they are on the front lines, teachers can perceive when IAQ changes affect students and themselves.

  15. Indoor Air Quality and Ice Arenas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All recreational facilities including ice arenas should use good ventilation practices especially where children are present. It is critical that indoor air quality is protected particularly when using fuel-burning equipment indoors.

  16. Antimicrobial Treatments of Indoor Mold and Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological contaminants especially mold in buildings are known to act as sources of indoor air pollution, discomfort, asthma and pulmonary disease to building occupants. Sick buildings are evidence of extremely problematic indoor air quality (IAQ), often resulting from unacceptab...

  17. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  18. Rest tremor suppression may separate essential from parkinsonian rest tremor.

    PubMed

    Papengut, Frank; Raethjen, Jan; Binder, Andreas; Deuschl, Günther

    2013-07-01

    Rest tremor at 4-6 Hz is typical for classical rest tremor (PT) of Parkinson's disease (PD). But rest tremor also appears in other tremor syndromes and may therefore cause a misdiagnosis. In this study we evaluated if suppression of tremor during movement onset is a characteristic feature of Parkinsonian Tremor distinguishing PT from Essential tremor (ET) and if this sign can be reliably diagnosed. Clinically diagnosed patients with PT (n = 44) and ET (n = 22) with rest tremor were included. Video sequences were recorded according to a standardized protocol focusing on the change of tremor amplitude during transition from rest to posture (test 1) or to a target-directed movement (test 2). These videos were assessed for rest tremor suppression by 4 reviewers (2 specialists and 2 residents) blinded to the clinical diagnosis and were compared to the personal assessment of an unblinded movement disorder specialist. Rest tremor suppression was found in 39/44 PD patients and in 2/22 patients with ET during the personal assessment. Rest tremor suppression showed a high sensitivity (0.92-1.00) and an acceptable specificity (0.69-0.95) for PD tremor in both tests. The interrater-reliability of the video-sequences was good to very good (κ 0.73-0.91). Less than 3% of the video sequences were misclassified. We conclude that the assessment of the suppression of rest tremor during movement initiation is a simple and reliable tool to separate PT from rest tremor in ET also suggesting that the mechanisms of rest tremor in these two diseases are different.

  19. Energy expenditure and physiological responses during indoor rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Mermier, C M; Robergs, R A; McMinn, S M; Heyward, V H

    1997-09-01

    To report the physiological responses of indoor rock climbing. Fourteen experienced climbers (nine men, five women) performed three climbing trials on an indoor climbing wall. Subjects performed three trials of increasing difficulty: (a) an easy 90 degrees vertical wall, (b) a moderately difficult negatively angled wall (106 degrees), and (c) a difficult horizontal overhang (151 degrees). At least 15 minutes separated each trial. Expired air was collected in a Douglas bag after four minutes of climbing and heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously using a telemetry unit. Arterialised blood samples were obtained from a hyperaemised ear lobe at rest and one or two minutes after each trial for measurement of blood lactate. Significant differences were found between trials for HR, lactate, oxygen consumption (VO2), and energy expenditure, but not for respiratory exchange ratio. Analysis of the HR and VO2 responses indicated that rock climbing does not elicit the traditional linear HR-VO2 relationship characteristic of treadmill and cycle ergometry exercise. During the three trials, HR increased to 74-85% of predicted maximal values and energy expenditure was similar to that reported for running at a moderate pace (8-11 minutes per mile). These data indicate that indoor rock climbing is a good activity to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance. In addition, the traditional HR-VO2 relationship should not be used in the analysis of this sport, or for prescribing exercise intensity for climbing.

  20. 9 CFR 3.102 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... changes in air and water temperatures shall be avoided. (b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities shall... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.102 Facilities, indoor. (a) Ambient temperature. The air and water temperatures in indoor facilities shall be sufficiently regulated by heating...

  1. 9 CFR 3.102 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... changes in air and water temperatures shall be avoided. (b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities shall... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.102 Facilities, indoor. (a) Ambient temperature. The air and water temperatures in indoor facilities shall be sufficiently regulated by heating...

  2. Channel equalization for indoor lighting communications networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiloucas, S.; Hashem, A.; Becerra, V. M.; Galvão, R. K. H.

    2013-06-01

    We consider indoors communications networks using modulated LEDs to transmit the information packets. A generic indoor channel equalization formulation is proposed assuming the existence of both line of sight and diffuse emitters. The proposed approach is of relevance to emergent indoors distributed sensing modalities for which various lighting based network communications protocols are considered.

  3. EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children now spend more than 90% of their time indoors. Thus, any exposure to indoor pollutants may be critical to their health. Molds are one of the most important pollutants children are exposed to indoors. Molds produce hundreds of allergens and toxins. These products ha...

  4. 9 CFR 3.102 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.102 Facilities, indoor. (a) Ambient temperature. The air and water temperatures in indoor facilities shall be sufficiently regulated by heating or... changes in air and water temperatures shall be avoided. (b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities shall...

  5. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  6. Contribution of indoor and outdoor nitrogen dioxide to indoor air quality of wayside shops.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Jianfei; Yang, Wonho; Ahn, Hogi; Kim, Sunshin; Lee, Seokyong; Yoon, Sung-Uk

    2013-06-01

    Indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) concentration is an important factor for personal exposure despite the wide distribution of its sources. Exposure to NO₂ may produce adverse health effects. The aims of this study were to characterize the indoor air quality of wayside shops using multiple NO₂ measurements, and to estimate the contribution of outdoor NO₂ sources such as vehicle emission to indoor air quality. Daily indoor and outdoor NO₂ concentrations were measured for 21 consecutive days in wayside shops (5 convenience stores, 5 coffee shops, and 5 restaurants). Contributions of outdoor NO₂ sources to indoor air quality were calculated with penetration factors and source strength factors by indoor mass balance model in winter and summer, respectively. Most wayside shops had significant differences in indoor and outdoor NO₂ concentrations both in winter and in summer. Indoor NO₂ concentrations in restaurants were twice more than those in convenience stores and coffee shops in winter. While outdoor NO₂ contributions in indoor convenience stores and coffee shops were dominant, indoor NO₂ contributions were dominant in restaurants. These could be explained that indoor NO₂ sources such as gas range and smoking mainly affect indoor concentrations comparing to outdoor sources such as vehicle emission. The indoor mass balance model by multiple measurements suggests that quantitative contribution of outdoor air on indoor air quality might be estimated without measurements of ventilation, indoor generation and decay rate.

  7. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  8. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  9. Indoor air and respiratory health in preadolescent children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomzi, M.

    The effect of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, particulate matter and parental tobacco smoke on respiratory health was studied over a period of six months in all second graders born and living in two area of continental Croatia 8-10 yr of age. The study group was divided into two sections corresponding to area of residence (industrial/rural). Information on respiratory symptoms was collected from a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents of the children. The mean values of concentrations of indoor air pollution that had been recorded in 24-h samples of air collected at schools were mostly below threshold limit for ambient pollution. In addition, information on parental smoking, the density of habitation and the type of fuel used for heating and/or cooking in the home was obtained by a questionnaire. In the investigated period the prevalence of respiratory illness was 22% in the children exposed to lower indoor air pollution and 25% in those exposed to higher indoor air pollution. Exposure to parental smoking was also associated with more respiratory symptoms (28 : 19%). The results indicate that the measured air pollutants only had a slight effect on the respiratory health of preadolescent children. However, the effect of exposure to parental smoking was more pronounced.

  10. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  11. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  12. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  13. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  14. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  15. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-01-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure. PMID:1821378

  16. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  17. INDOOR EMISSIONS FROM CONVERSION VARNISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion varnishes are two-component, acid-catalyzed varnishes that are commonly used to finish cabinets. They are valued for their water- and stain-resistance, as well as their appearance. They have been found, however, to contribute to indoor emissions of organic compounds. F...

  18. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  19. INDOOR AEROSOLS AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of both indoor aerosol concentration measurements, and the considerations for assessment of exposure to aerosols in non-occupational settings. The fixed-location measurements of concentration at an outdoor location, while commuting inside an a...

  20. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  1. INDOOR EMISSIONS FROM CONVERSION VARNISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion varnishes are two-component, acid-catalyzed varnishes that are commonly used to finish cabinets. They are valued for their water- and stain-resistance, as well as their appearance. They have been found, however, to contribute to indoor emissions of organic compounds. F...

  2. INDOOR AEROSOLS AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of both indoor aerosol concentration measurements, and the considerations for assessment of exposure to aerosols in non-occupational settings. The fixed-location measurements of concentration at an outdoor location, while commuting inside an a...

  3. [Indoor air quality in schools].

    PubMed

    Cartieaux, E; Rzepka, M-A; Cuny, D

    2011-07-01

    Indoor air quality in schools has received particular attention over the past several years. Children are considered as one of the most sensitive groups to atmospheric pollution because their bodies are actively growing and they breathe higher volumes of air relative to their body weights than adults do. They also spend more time in school or group structures (preschools, day nurseries) than in any indoor environments other than the home. The analysis of children's exposure to air pollution at school requires the identification of the main pollutant sources present in these educational institutions. Both a strong contribution of outdoor pollution and a very specific pollution bound to school activities such as the use of paints, markers, glues, and manufactured ink eraser pens, exist. The ventilation in school buildings also plays an important role in air quality. A higher air exchange may improve thermal comfort and air quality. The cause of indoor air pollution is a combinatory effect of physical, chemical, and biological factors, and the adequacy of ventilation in the environment. Several pollutants have been reported to exist in classrooms such as bacteria, molds, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants and microparticles. There is a correlation between the concentrations of the pollutants and onset of health problems in schoolchildren. We observe predominantly respiratory symptoms as well as a prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. This study shows that poor indoor air quality affects children's health.

  4. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  5. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION UNIT CONVERSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is called vapor intrusion (VI). Volatile organic chemicals in contaminated soils or groundwater can emit vapors, which can migrate through subsurface soils and may enter the indoor air of overlying buil...

  6. Indoor Climbing Structure Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Discusses purposes and effectiveness of indoor climbing structures and offers general safety guidelines. Provides a guide to products from 14 companies. The guide describes the equipment, age and weight range, guarantees, price range, and shipping. Addresses, telephone, and FAX numbers of each company are listed. (SH)

  7. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  8. Indoor Air Quality and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the quality of indoor (i.e., residential) as well as outdoor (i.e., environmental) air is increasing. Accordingly, owners of companion animals may approach their veterinarian about the potential for airborne irritants, allergens, pollutants, or infectious agents to n...

  9. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  10. Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between cognitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact

  11. a Framework of Cognitive Indoor Navigation Based on Characteristics of Indoor Spatial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, R.; Arikawa, M.

    2015-05-01

    People are easy to get confused in indoor spatial environment. Thus, indoor navigation systems on mobile devices are expected in a wide variety of application domains. Limited by the accuracy of indoor positioning, indoor navigating systems are not common in our society. However, automatic positioning is not all about location-based services (LBS), other factors, such as good map design and user interfaces, are also important to satisfy users of LBS. Indoor spatial environment and people's indoor spatial cognition are different than those in outdoor environment, which asks for different design of LBS. This paper introduces our design methods of indoor navigation system based on the characteristics of indoor spatial environment and indoor spatial cognition.

  12. Support for indoor tanning policies among young adult women who indoor tan.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Murphy, Sarah E; Bubly, Rachel; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study to examine support for indoor tanning policies and correlates of policy support among young adult women who indoor tan. Non-Hispanic white women ages 18-30 who indoor tanned in the past year (n = 356, M 23.3 age, SD 3.1) recruited in the Washington, DC area from 2013 to 2016 completed measures of indoor tanning behaviors, attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and policy support. Most women in the sample supported policies to prevent children under the age of 18 from indoor tanning (74.0 %) and stronger warnings about the risks of indoor tanning on tanning devices (77.6 %); only 10.1 % supported a total ban. In multivariable analyses, support for individual indoor tanning policies varied by demographics (e.g., age), frequent indoor tanning behavior, indoor tanning beliefs, and risk perceptions. Non-Hispanic white young adult women who indoor tan, the primary consumers of indoor tanning, and a high-risk population, largely support indoor tanning prevention policies implemented by many state governments and those currently under review for national enactment. Given low levels of support for a total indoor tanning ban, support for other potential policies (e.g., increasing the minimum age to 21) should be investigated to inform future steps to reduce indoor tanning and the associated health risks.

  13. Indoorgml - a Standard for Indoor Spatial Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ki-Joune

    2016-06-01

    With recent progress of mobile devices and indoor positioning technologies, it becomes possible to provide location-based services in indoor space as well as outdoor space. It is in a seamless way between indoor and outdoor spaces or in an independent way only for indoor space. However, we cannot simply apply spatial models developed for outdoor space to indoor space due to their differences. For example, coordinate reference systems are employed to indicate a specific position in outdoor space, while the location in indoor space is rather specified by cell number such as room number. Unlike outdoor space, the distance between two points in indoor space is not determined by the length of the straight line but the constraints given by indoor components such as walls, stairs, and doors. For this reason, we need to establish a new framework for indoor space from fundamental theoretical basis, indoor spatial data models, and information systems to store, manage, and analyse indoor spatial data. In order to provide this framework, an international standard, called IndoorGML has been developed and published by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). This standard is based on a cellular notion of space, which considers an indoor space as a set of non-overlapping cells. It consists of two types of modules; core module and extension module. While core module consists of four basic conceptual and implementation modeling components (geometric model for cell, topology between cells, semantic model of cell, and multi-layered space model), extension modules may be defined on the top of the core module to support an application area. As the first version of the standard, we provide an extension for indoor navigation.

  14. RESTful Web Services at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, R.

    2011-06-14

    RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web services are an alternative implementation to SOAP/RPC web services in a client/server model. BNLs IT Division has started deploying RESTful Web Services for enterprise data retrieval and manipulation. Data is currently used by system administrators for tracking configuration information and as it is expanded will be used by Cyber Security for vulnerability management and as an aid to cyber investigations. This talk will describe the implementation and outstanding issues as well as some of the reasons for choosing RESTful over SOAP/RPC and future directions.

  15. Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

    2011-10-10

    Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for.

  16. Traffic-related differences in indoor and personal absorption coefficient measurements in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, Janine; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; van der Zee, Saskia; Brunekreef, Bert

    Population studies indicate that study participants living near major roads are more prone to chronic respiratory symptoms, lung function decrements and hospital admissions for asthma. The majority of the studies used proxy measures, such as distance to major roads or traffic intensity in the surroundings of the home. Few studies have communicated findings of concurrently performed measurements of outdoor, indoor and personal air pollution in urban streets with high- and low-traffic density. Measuring light absorption or reflectance of particulate matter (PM) collected on filters is an alternative method to determine elemental carbon, a marker for particles produced by incomplete combustion, compared to expensive and destructive analytical methods. This study sets out to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in personal and indoor filter absorption coefficients for participants living along busy and quiet roads in Amsterdam. In one study we measured personal and indoor absorption coefficients in a sample of adults (50-70 years) and, in another study, the indoor levels in a population of adults (50-70 years) and school children (10-12 years). In the first study, the ratios of personal and indoor absorption coefficients in homes along busy roads compared with homes on quiet streets were significantly higher by 29% for personal measurements ( n=16 days, p<0.001), and by 19% for indoor measurements ( n=20, p<0.001), while in the second study, the ratio for the indoor measurements was higher by 26% ( n=25 days, p<0.05). Exposure differences between homes along busy compared to homes along quiet streets remained and significant after adjustment for potential indoor sources (such as cooking and use of unvented heating appliances). This study therefore provides tentative support for the use of the type of road as proxy measure for indoor and personal absorption coefficient measurements in epidemiological studies due to the limitations of the study.

  17. An assessment of indoor geolocation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progri, Ilir Fiqiri

    2003-10-01

    Currently there is a need to design, develop, and deploy autonomous and portable indoor geolocation systems to fulfil the needs of military, civilian, governmental and commercial customers where GPS and GLONASS signals are not available due to the limitations of both GPS and GLONASS signal structure designs. The goal of this dissertation is (1) to introduce geolocation systems; (2) to classify the state of the art geolocation systems; (3) to identify the issues with the state of the art indoor geolocation systems; and (4) to propose and assess four WPI indoor geolocation systems. It is assessed that the current GPS and GLONASS signal structures are inadequate to overcome two main design concerns; namely, (1) the near-far effect and (2)the multipath effect. We propose four WPI indoor geolocation systems as an alternative solution to near-far and multipath effects. The WPI indoor geolocation systems are (1) a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system, (2) a DSSS/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system, (3) a DSSS/OFDM/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system, and (4) an OFDM/FDMA indoor geolocation system. Each system is researched, discussed, and analyzed based on its principle of operation, its transmitter, the indoor channel, and its receiver design and issues associated with obtaining an observable to achieve indoor navigation. Our assessment of these systems concludes the following. First, a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system is inadequate to neither overcome the near-far effect not mitigate cross-channel interference due to the multipath. Second, a DSSS/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system is a potential candidate for indoor positioning, with data rate up to 3.2 KBPS, pseudorange error, less than to 2 m and phase error less than 5 mm. Third, a DSSS/OFDM/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system is a potential candidate to achieve similar or better navigation accuracy than a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system and data rate up to 5 MBPS. Fourth, an OFDM/FDMA indoor geolocation

  18. A Smartphone Camera-Based Indoor Positioning Algorithm of Crowded Scenarios with the Assistance of Deep CNN

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jichao; Li, Fei; Deng, Zhongliang; Ma, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    Considering the installation cost and coverage, the received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based indoor positioning system is widely used across the world. However, the indoor positioning performance, due to the interference of wireless signals that are caused by the complex indoor environment that includes a crowded population, cannot achieve the demands of indoor location-based services. In this paper, we focus on increasing the signal strength estimation accuracy considering the population density, which is different to the other RSSI-based indoor positioning methods. Therefore, we propose a new wireless signal compensation model considering the population density, distance, and frequency. First of all, the number of individuals in an indoor crowded scenario can be calculated by our convolutional neural network (CNN)-based human detection approach. Then, the relationship between the population density and the signal attenuation is described in our model. Finally, we use the trilateral positioning principle to realize the pedestrian location. According to the simulation and tests in the crowded scenarios, the proposed model increases the accuracy of the signal strength estimation by 1.53 times compared to that without considering the human body. Therefore, the localization accuracy is less than 1.37 m, which indicates that our algorithm can improve the indoor positioning performance and is superior to other RSSI models. PMID:28350357

  19. Aldehyde emissions from particleboard and medium density fiberboard products

    Treesearch

    Melissa G. D. Baumann; Linda F. Lorenz; Stuart A. Batterman; Guo-Zheng Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Indoor air quality problems resulting from the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have become an issue of increasing concern. Emissions from building and furnishing materials, which are frequently constructed from particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF), are a potentially important contributor of indoor VOCs. In this research, VOC emissions from...

  20. Spatial indoor radon distribution in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Franco-Marina, Francisco; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Segovia, Nuria; Tavera, Leticia

    2003-12-30

    We present a spatial analysis of residential radon concentrations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, which we intend to use to assign radon exposure in an ongoing case-control study. As part of a probabilistic household survey, carried out between May and June 1999, 501 dwellings were selected for indoor placement of solid state nuclear track detectors (LR 115) in a cup array over a period of approximately 90 days. As part of the sampling design, the city was grid partitioned into nine zones and a sample of dwellings was selected in each zone. All zones were simultaneously surveyed. The stratified sampling design allowed us to obtain radon geometric means, adjusted for household characteristics, week of detector placement and number of days of measurement for these zones. Additionally, adjusted geometric means were estimated for the 100 census tracts surveyed and this information was used to obtain a more detailed spatial distribution of residential radon levels through kriging interpolation and surface contouring. Radon levels depended on the room of placement, the floor level and the ventilation habits but not on building materials. Regarding the city zone, the highest adjusted geometric mean was found in the southwest (136 Bqm(-3)), where 46% of the households had an estimated radon level in excess of 200 Bqm(-3). In the rest of the city, the geometric mean concentration ranged between 41 and 98 Bqm(-3). A more detailed spatial distribution showed that, in general, most of the eastern and middle zones of the city had estimated radon geometric means below 74 Bqm(-3), while the western ones had geometric means above this concentration. Very high geometric means, exceeding 111 Bqm(-3) and even reaching 288 Bqm(-3), are estimated for some areas located in the southern and western zones of Mexico City. The obtained spatial distribution shows that the areas with very high estimated residential radon concentrations are close to inactive volcanic mountains. We

  1. Including indoor offgassed emissions in the life cycle inventories of wood products.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-12-16

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that negatively affect human health are emitted from wood products used indoors. However, the existing life cycle inventories of these products only document the emissions occurring during production and disposal phases. Consequently, the life cycle assessment (LCA) of indoor wooden products conducted using these inventories neglect the use-phase impacts from exposure to offgassed VOCs and therefore underestimate the product's total environmental impact. This study demonstrates a methodology to calculate the use phase inventory and the corresponding human health impacts resulting from indoor use of any VOC emitting product. For the five most commonly used types of boards used in indoor wood products, the mass of each VOC emitted into the indoor compartment over their service life was calculated by statistically analyzing data from 50 published chamber testing studies. Uncertainty was assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated inventory data were used in a case study to calculate and compare the health impacts of five different wooden floorings made of above materials. The results show that the use-phase human-toxicity impacts are an order of magnitude higher than those occurring during the rest of the flooring's life cycle. The factors influencing the offgassing of VOCs from wood products and measures to reduce exposure are discussed.

  2. Extraction of the 3D Free Space from Building Models for Indoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakité, A. A.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-10-01

    For several decades, indoor navigation has been exclusively investigated in a 2D perspective, based on floor plans, projection and other 2D representations of buildings. Nevertheless, 3D representations are closer to our reality and offer a more intuitive description of the space configuration. Thanks to recent advances in 3D modelling, 3D navigation is timidly but increasingly gaining in interest through the indoor applications. But, because the structure of indoor environment is often more complex than outdoor, very simplified models are used and obstacles are not considered for indoor navigation leading to limited possibilities in complex buildings. In this paper we consider the entire configuration of the indoor environment in 3D and introduce a method to extract from it the actual navigable space as a network of connected 3D spaces (volumes). We describe how to construct such 3D free spaces from semantically rich and furnished IFC models. The approach combines the geometric, the topological and the semantic information available in a 3D model to isolate the free space from the rest of the components. Furthermore, the extraction of such navigable spaces in building models lacking of semantic information is also considered. A data structure named combinatorial maps is used to support the operations required by the process while preserving the topological and semantic information of the input models.

  3. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  4. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a PMID:9769764

  5. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  6. Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Toonen, Marcel; Ribot, Simon; Thissen, Jac

    2006-09-01

    To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully developed flower bud ready for harvesting. Using eight additional characteristics describing the grow room and cultivation parameters, regression analysis with subset selection was carried out to develop two models for the yield of indoor cannabis cultivation. The median Dutch illicit grow room consists of 259 cannabis plants, has a plant density of 15 plants/m(2), and 510 W of growth lamps per m(2). For the median Dutch grow room, the predicted yield of female flower buds at the harvestable developmental stage (stage 10) was 33.7 g/plant or 505 g/m(2).

  7. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein. PMID:28250718

  8. [Indoor environments, work and health].

    PubMed

    Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects.

  9. Indoor Environment Program 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Because humans spend an average of 85% to 90% of their time indoors, energy usage by the buildings sector can have a significant impact on human comfort, health and productivity. To advance energy conservation technologies while maintaining indoor air quality, research in the Indoor Environment Program (IEP) is directed toward understanding relations between building energy (usage and technologies), indoor air quality, and human health, comfort and productivity. The IEP addresses the issue of optimizing the health, comfort and productivity of a building's occupants while maintaining the building's energy efficiency. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants with indoor sources, reduced ventilation may produce undesirable effects on indoor air quality and on the health, comfort, and productivity of a building's occupants. This issue is an important theme for the research of other research groups and projects within IEP.

  10. Indoor Environment Program 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Because humans spend an average of 85% to 90% of their time indoors, energy usage by the buildings sector can have a significant impact on human comfort, health and productivity. To advance energy conservation technologies while maintaining indoor air quality, research in the Indoor Environment Program (IEP) is directed toward understanding relations between building energy (usage and technologies), indoor air quality, and human health, comfort and productivity. The IEP addresses the issue of optimizing the health, comfort and productivity of a building`s occupants while maintaining the building`s energy efficiency. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants with indoor sources, reduced ventilation may produce undesirable effects on indoor air quality and on the health, comfort, and productivity of a building`s occupants. This issue is an important theme for the research of other research groups and projects within IEP.

  11. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Martin D.; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Recent findings Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Summary Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy. PMID:27184001

  12. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy.

  13. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  14. Indoor air quality: A psychosocial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  15. Indoor air quality: a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Boxer, P A

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  16. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  17. Concentrated and piped sunlight for indoor illumination.

    PubMed

    Fraas, L M; Pyle, W R; Ryason, P R

    1983-02-15

    A concept for indoor illumination of buildings using sunlight is described. For this system, a tracking concentrator on the building roof follows the sun and focuses sunlight into a lightguide. A system of transparent lightguides distributes the sunlight to interior rooms. Recent advances in the transparency of acrylic plastic optical fibers suggest that acrylic lightguides could be successfully used for piping sunlight. The proposed system displaces electricity currently used for indoor lighting. It is argued that using sunlight directly for indoor illumination would be about twenty-five times more cost-effective than using sunlight to generate electricity with solar cells for powering electric lamps for indoor lighting.

  18. Indoor air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.

    1985-01-01

    The air inside buildings can contain various threats to human health: cigarette smoke, fumes from fires and cookers, microbes, gases, allergens and fumes produced by household products or building materials. Higher standards of insulation and draught-proofing and more use of air conditioning can increase the problems. This book provides a summary of indoor air quality problems in homes, offices and public buildings. Contents: Preface; Introduction; Formaledhyde and other household contaminants; Radon; Particulates; Combustion products; Involuntary smoking; Energy-efficient buildings and indoor air quality; Control of indoor air pollutants; Indoor air quality problems in office buildings; Legal and regulatory issues; Appendices; Sources and suggested reading; Glossary; Index.

  19. Energy, Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change presents many challenges, including the production of severe weather events. These events and efforts to minimize their effects through weatherization can adversely affect indoor environments.

  20. Indoor airPLUS Videos, Podcasts, Webinars and Interviews

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Webinar presentations will help you discover how Indoor airPLUS homes are designed to improve indoor air quality and increase energy efficiency and learn about the key design and construction features included in Indoor airPLUS homes.

  1. Effect Of Leg Exercise On Vascular Volumes During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on effects of no-exercise regimen and of two leg-exercise regimens on volumes of plasma, volumes of red blood cells, densities of bodies, and water balances of 19 men (32 to 42 years old) confined to minus 6 degrees-head-down bed rest for 30 days. Purpose of study to determine whether either or both exercise regimens maintain plasma volume and to relate levels of hypovolemia to body fluid balances. Results showed during bed rest, plasma volume maintained in isotomic group but not in other two groups, and no significant differences in body densities, body weights, or water balances among three groups. Concludes isotonic-exercise regimen better than isokinetic-exercise regimen for maintaining plasma volume during prolonged exposure to bed rest.

  2. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    PubMed

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  3. [Rest for safety: which stakes?].

    PubMed

    Mion, G; Ricouard, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 were promulgated the texts regulating rest and safety, in the USA (approved by the ACGME) and in France (January 9th, 2001 and September 14th, 2001). The institution of the "rest for safety", an eleven hours duration interruption of activity, immediately after a night-call, can be viewed as a progress in the search for safety. Several studies showed a link between excessive work hours and occurrence of medical incidents related to tiredness. However published data do not show a link between tiredness and patients endangering. The tiredness resulting from sleep deprivation and disturbances in circadian rhythms is a cumulative phenomenon erased by a period of rest. In spite of a large individual variability, tiredness increases anxiety scores, irritability, depression and it deteriorates cognitive performances. The concept of "prophylactic" rest considers that a subject cannot start, rested, a work if he did not sleep at least 5 hours the previous night, or 12 hours during the previous 48 hours. The second important aspect of the rest for safety is the long-term prevention of potential pathologies in medical staff, in particular burnout syndrome. In our profession, night calls are considered most stressful; the psychological stress related to anticipation and night context causes measurable cardiovascular disturbances in anesthesiologists. Shift-work sleep disorders may induce gastric ulcers, heart attacks, metabolic syndrome, depression and accidents related to somnolence. Long duration work-hours, accompanied by sleep deprivation, may double the risk of car accidents in junior physicians, in whom vigilance levels can compare with those of patients concerned by narcolepsy or with the cognitive disturbances induced by alcohol intoxication. Reduced work-hours improve vigilance and divide by three the rate of serious medical errors. True opportunities of sleep and control of sleep duration at the individual level could be suggested. The idea that taking the

  4. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  5. Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

  6. A brief review of control measures for indoor formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    Indoor environments contain a variety of consumer and construction products that emit formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) vapor. The strongest CH/sub 2/O emitters are typically particleboard underlayment and industrial particleboard, hardwood plywood paneling, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and medium density fiberboard, all of which contain urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. The contribution of individual products to indoor CH/sub 2/O levels depends on several parameters, including the quantity and age of the product, building ventilation rate, presence of permeation barriers, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and CH/sub 2/O vapor concentration resulting from all of the CH/sub 2/O emitters (1,3-8). Combustion sources (e.g., kerosene heaters, gas stoves and cigarettes), carpet and carpet padding, resilient flooring (e.g., linoleum), gypsum board, non-apparel and apparel textiles, ceiling tiles, fibrous glass insulation and softwood plywood subflooring are generally weak emitters that do not contribute significantly to steady-state, indoor CH/sub 2/O levels. Control measures exist to reduce CH/sub 2/O emissions from consumer and construction products during their manufacturer and in post-installation applications. This note summarized the effectiveness of the following subset of post-installation control measures: product aging, installations of permeation barriers (i.e., flooring) and increased building ventilation. 14 refs.

  7. Become an Indoor airPLUS Verifier

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the Indoor airPLUS Program, 3rd-party verifiers help ensure that EPA's high standards, based on leading building science, are applied by the builder during home design and construction to meet the Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications.

  8. Curbing indoor mold growth with mold inhibitors

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally acceptable mold inhibitors are needed to curb the growth of mold fungi in woodframe housing when moisture management measures fail. Excess indoor moisture can lead to rapid mold establishment which, in turn, can have deleterious affects on indoor air quality. Compounds with known mold inhibitory properties and low mammalian toxicity, such as food...

  9. Indoor and Outdoor Play in Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeker, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain children's indoor and outdoor play in preschool programs in terms of teacher interaction, peer interaction and task orientation. Children's indoor and outdoor play behaviors were compared using the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS). Findings included significant differences on…

  10. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  12. Indoor Pollutants: Environmental Hazards to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Alerts parents, teachers, and others to some of the leading indoor environmental hazards to young children which are caused by various types of indoor pollutants: cigarette smoke; heating/cooking equipment; asbestos; pesticides; art supplies; radon; and lead. Also suggests ways to reduce these health hazards. (BB)

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  14. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.26 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at...

  15. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.26 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at...

  16. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.26 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at...

  17. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.26 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at...

  18. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  19. INDOOR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS: ASSESSING THE ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment has increased in importance to children's health with children now spending more than 90% of their time indoors. Molds are an important component of this environment and have been associated with exacerbation of asthma as well as a number of other health e...

  20. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Indoor air quality is a major concern for educators involved in the development of new school facilities, or the remodeling and maintenance of existing ones. This guide addresses the issue of air quality, the health concerns involved, and procedures for minimizing the impact of pollutants in the school environment. It defines common indoor air…

  1. Indoor Pollutants: Environmental Hazards to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Alerts parents, teachers, and others to some of the leading indoor environmental hazards to young children which are caused by various types of indoor pollutants: cigarette smoke; heating/cooking equipment; asbestos; pesticides; art supplies; radon; and lead. Also suggests ways to reduce these health hazards. (BB)

  2. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert S., Jr.

    This report provides information and practical guidance on how to prevent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools, and it describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources. It includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems, guidelines on specific indoor contaminants, recommendations…

  3. Indoor particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Shahana S; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Kinney, Kerry A

    2014-07-01

    Despite the fact that precursors to reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prevalent indoors, the concentration of ROS inside buildings is unknown. ROS on PM2.5 was measured inside and outside twelve residential buildings and eleven institutional and retail buildings. The mean (± s.d.) concentration of ROS on PM2.5 inside homes (1.37 ± 1.2 nmoles/m(3)) was not significantly different from the outdoor concentration (1.41 ± 1.0 nmoles/m(3)). Similarly, the indoor and outdoor concentrations of ROS on PM2.5 at institutional buildings (1.16 ± 0.38 nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.68 ± 1.3 nmoles/m(3) outdoors) and retail stores (1.09 ± 0.93 nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.12 ± 1.1 nmoles/m(3) outdoors) were not significantly different and were comparable to those in residential buildings. The indoor concentration of particulate ROS cannot be predicted based on the measurement of other common indoor pollutants, indicating that it is important to separately assess the concentration of particulate ROS in air quality studies. Daytime indoor occupational and residential exposure to particulate ROS dominates daytime outdoor exposure to particulate ROS. These findings highlight the need for further study of ROS in indoor microenvironments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Indoor Air Quality Science and Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems. Some pollutants can be chemicals, gases, and living or

  5. Determinants of indoor benzene in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. K.; Jantunen, M. J.; Künzli, N.; Kulinskaya, E.; Colvile, R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.

    This study identified the key determinants associated with the indoor benzene concentrations that were measured between 1996 and 2000 using the EXPOLIS protocol in the residences of six European cities, including Athens (Greece), Basel (Switzerland), Helsinki (Finland), Milan (Italy), Oxford (United Kingdom), and Prague (Czech Republic). Two consecutive days of home indoor and home outdoor measurements of benzene were carried out at the homes of adult participants on different dates and seasons during the sampling period. Regression models, with interactions searched by all-possible subset method, were used to assess the city effects and the determinants of home indoor benzene (adjusted R2=0.57, n=412). Outdoor benzene concentrations, outdoor temperature, wind speed, the use of anti-moth products, and indoor smoking in terms of number of cigarettes consumed per day were shown to be the key determinants of indoor benzene concentrations. The model was further used to predict the indoor benzene levels in cities. Non-linear relationships were commonly found, indicating that a unit change in the indoor concentration cannot be simply estimated by a proportional change of the determinant, and the pattern of relationships could be differed in different places. This finding is important in formulating indoor air quality guidelines as well as calculating an accurate health risk estimate based on the estimates of population's lifetime exposure levels.

  6. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  7. 9 CFR 3.126 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... at all times. Such facilities shall be provided with fresh air either by means of windows, doors... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.126 Section 3... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.126 Facilities, indoor. (a) Ambient...

  8. Indoor concentration modeling of aerosol strong acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenka, M.; Waldman, J.; Suh, H.; Koutrakis, P.

    1993-01-01

    A model for estimating indoor concentrations of acid aerosol was applied to data collected during the summer of 1989, in a densely populated location in New Jersey. The model, from a study of a semi-rural community in Pennsylvania, was used to estimate indoor concentrations of aerosol strong acidity (H+) at an elderly care residence in suburban New Jersey. The purpose of the present work is to assess the applicability of the model for predicting H+ exposures in a suburban environment and to evaluate the models performance for daytime and nighttime periods. Indoor and outdoor samples were taken at an elderly care home between June 20 and July 30, 1989. The indoor and outdoor monitoring schedule collected two 12-h samples per day. Samples were taken with the Indoor Denuder Sampler (IDS). Samples were analyzed for indoor and outdoor concentrations of aerosol strong acidity (H+), ammonia (NH3), and anion determination. The model generally underestimated the indoor H+ concentration. Slight improvement was seen in the model estimate of H+ for the nighttime period (7:00 pm to 7:00 am, local time). The model applied to the site in New Jersey did not predict the indoor H+ concentrations as well as it did for the experiment from which it was developed.

  9. INDOOR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS: ASSESSING THE ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment has increased in importance to children's health with children now spending more than 90% of their time indoors. Molds are an important component of this environment and have been associated with exacerbation of asthma as well as a number of other health e...

  10. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  11. Indoor Air Quality Basics for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This fact sheet details important information on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in school buildings, problems associated with IAQ, and various prevention and problem-solving strategies. Most people spend 90 percent of their time indoors, therefore the Environmental Protection Agency ranks IAQ in the top four environmental risks to the public. The…

  12. 9 CFR 3.102 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.102 Section 3.102 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.102 Facilities, indoor. (a) Ambient temperature...

  13. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.26 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  15. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  17. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economicbenefits

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific evidence that improved indoor environmental quality can improve work performance and health. The review indicates that work and school work performance is affected by indoor temperature and ventilation rate. Pollutant source removal can sometimes improve work performance. Based on formal statistical analyses of existing research results, quantitative relationships are provided for the linkages of work performance with indoor temperature and outdoor air ventilation rate. The review also indicates that improved health and related financial savings are obtainable from reduced indoor tobacco smoking, prevention and remediation of building dampness, and increased ventilation. Example cost-benefit analyses indicate that many measures to improve indoor temperature control and increase ventilation rates will be highly cost effective, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 80 and annual economic benefits as high as $700 per person.

  18. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  19. Carbon adsorption for indoor air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdell, D.W.; Sparks, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Gas-phase air filtration equipment (GPAFE) has been applied for many years to control industrial gaseous contaminants. Interest in cleaning recirculation air to provide ventilation without the need to condition excessive outdoor air has promoted increased interest in GPAFE as indoor air control devices. The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using granular activated carbon (GAC) is the focus of this article. First, the authors present performance measurements for GAC at low challenge VOC concentrations that might be encountered indoors. Unlike previously reported tests, these were continued long enough to directly determine the GAC`s expected lifetime. The results suggest that test results obtained at high challenge concentrations may be extrapolated to low, indoor concentrations. Further study is needed, but these data are encouraging. Second, they will discuss the implications of these performance measurements for the use of GAC to remove VOCs and improve indoor air quality (IAQ) using an indoor air building simulation model.

  20. Spatial Database Modeling for Indoor Navigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotlib, Dariusz; Gnat, Miłosz

    2013-12-01

    For many years, cartographers are involved in designing GIS and navigation systems. Most GIS applications use the outdoor data. Increasingly, similar applications are used inside buildings. Therefore it is important to find the proper model of indoor spatial database. The development of indoor navigation systems should utilize advanced teleinformation, geoinformatics, geodetic and cartographical knowledge. The authors present the fundamental requirements for the indoor data model for navigation purposes. Presenting some of the solutions adopted in the world they emphasize that navigation applications require specific data to present the navigation routes in the right way. There is presented original solution for indoor data model created by authors on the basis of BISDM model. Its purpose is to expand the opportunities for use in indoor navigation.

  1. Resting habitat selection by fishers in California

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Richard L. Truex; Gregory A. Schmidt; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Kristin N. Schmidt; Reginald H. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    We studied the resting habitat ecology of fishers (Martes pennanti) in 2 disjunct populations in California, USA: the northwestern coastal mountains (hereafter, Coastal) and the southern Sierra Nevada (hereafter, Sierra). We described resting structures and compared features surrounding resting structures (the resting site) with those at randomly...

  2. 29 CFR 785.18 - Rest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rest. 785.18 Section 785.18 Labor Regulations Relating to... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Rest and Meal Periods § 785.18 Rest. Rest periods of short duration, running from 5 minutes to about 20 minutes, are common in...

  3. 29 CFR 785.18 - Rest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rest. 785.18 Section 785.18 Labor Regulations Relating to... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Rest and Meal Periods § 785.18 Rest. Rest periods of short duration, running from 5 minutes to about 20 minutes, are common in...

  4. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  5. [Indoor air and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kunkel, G; Rudolph, R; Muckelmann, R

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infects of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chimico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  6. Unusually high indoor radon concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennemoser, O.; Ambach, W.; Brunner, P.; Schneider, P.; Oberaigner, W.; Purtscheller, F.; Stingl, V.

    Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the village Umhausen (2600 inhabitants, Ötztal valley, Tyrol, Austria) revealed unusually high indoor radon concentrations up to 274,000 Bq m -3. The medians measured on the basements were 3750 Bq m -3 in winter and 361 Bq m -3 in summer, those on the ground floors were 1180 Bq m -3 and 210 Bq m -3, respectively. Seventy-one per cent of the houses showed basement radon concentrations above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq m -3 in winter, 33% in summer. There are indications that the high radon concentrations are due to a giant rock slide about 8700 years ago. The unusually high radon concentrations in Umhausen coincide with a statistically significant increase in lung cancer mortality. For the period 1970-1991 the age and sex standardized mortality rate is 3.85 (95% confidence interval: 2.9 to 5.1). The control population is the total population of Tyrol (630,000 inhabitants).

  7. Left Ventricular Adaptation to 12 Weeks of Indoor Cycling at the Gym in Untrained Females.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Kristofer; Bjarnegård, Niclas; Länne, Toste

    2017-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies provide evidence of larger cardiac dimensions and mass in endurance trained than in untrained females. Much less is known regarding adaptations in cardiac function following training in untrained subjects. We aimed to study left ventricular (LV) adaptation to indoor cycling in previously untrained females, in regard of LV dimensions, mass and function. 42 sedentary females were divided into 2 equally sized groups, either training indoor cycling at regular classes at a local gym for 12 weeks, in average 2.6 times per week, or maintaining their sedentary lifestyle. Echocardiography at rest and a maximal exercise test were performed before and after the intervention. Exercise capacity increased in average 16% in the exercise group (p<0.001), together with decreased heart rate at rest (p<0.05) and at 120 watts steady-state (p<0.001). There were no difference in systolic or diastolic function following the intervention and minimal increases in LV internal diameter in diastole (+1 mm, p<0.01). LV mass was unchanged with training (137±25 vs. 137±28 g, p=0.911). Our findings indicate that attending indoor cycling classes at a gym 2-to-3 times per week for 12 weeks is enough to improve exercise capacity, while a higher volume of training is required to elicit cardiac adaptations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, K.W.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures.

  9. Evaluating heterogeneity in indoor and outdoor air pollution using land-use regression and constrained factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Clougherty, Jane E; Baxter, Lisa K; Houseman, E Andres; Paciorek, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    using exposure models derived from validation studies with the use of other surrogate models with varying amounts of measurement error. The concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 were strongly associated with the central site monitor data, whereas EC concentrations showed greater spatial variability, especially during colder months, and were predicted by the length of roadway within 200 m of the home. Outdoor NO2 also showed significant spatial variability, predicted in part by population density and roadway length within 50 m of the home. Our constrained factor analysis of outdoor concentrations produced loadings indicating long-range transport, brake wear and traffic exhaust, diesel exhaust, fuel oil combustion, and resuspended road dust as sources; corresponding LUR models largely corroborated these factor interpretations through covariate significance. For example, long-range transport was predicted by central site PM2.5, and season, brake wear and traffic exhaust and resuspended road dust by traffic and residential density, diesel exhaust by the percentage of diesel traffic on the nearest major road, and fuel oil combustion by population density. Our modeling of the concentrations of indoor pollutants demonstrated substantial variability in indoor-outdoor relationships across constituents, helping to separate constituents dominated by outdoor sources (e.g., S, Se, and V) from those dominated by indoor sources (e.g., Ca and Si). Regression models indicated that indoor PM2.5 was not influenced substantially by local traffic but had significant indoor sources (cooking activity and occupant density), while EC was associated with distance to the nearest designated truck route, and NO2 was associated with both traffic density within 50 m of the home and gas stove usage. Our constrained factor analysis of indoor concentrations helped to separate outdoor-dominated factors from indoor-dominated factors, though some factors appeared to be influenced by both indoor and outdoor

  10. Indoor air quality in Virginia waterpipe cafes.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Caroline Oates; Vansickel, Andrea Rae; Blank, Melissa D; Jentink, Kade; Travers, Mark J; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    A revised indoor air quality law has been implemented in Virginia to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke exposure. This legislation contains exemptions that include allowances for smoking in a room that is structurally separated and separately ventilated. The objective of the current study was to examine the impact of this law on air quality in waterpipe cafés, as well as to compare the air quality in these cafés to restaurants that allow cigarette smoking and those where no smoking is permitted. Indoor air quality in 28 venues (17 waterpipe cafés, five cigarette smoking-permitted restaurants and six smoke-free restaurants (five with valid data)) in Virginia was assessed during 4 March to 27 May 2011. Real-time measurements of particulate matter (PM) with 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were obtained and occupant behaviour/venue characteristics were assessed. The highest mean PM2.5 concentration was observed for waterpipe café smoking rooms (374 μg/m(3), n=17) followed by waterpipe café non-smoking rooms (123 μg/m(3), n=11), cigarette smoking-permitted restaurant smoking rooms (119 μg/m(3), n=5), cigarette smoking-permitted restaurant non-smoking rooms (26 μg/m(3), n=5) and smoke-free restaurants (9 μg/m(3), n=5). Smoking density was positively correlated with PM2.5 across smoking rooms and the smoke-free restaurants. In addition, PM2.5 was positively correlated between smoking and non-smoking rooms of venues. The PM2.5 concentrations observed among the waterpipe cafés sampled here indicated air quality in the waterpipe café smoking rooms was worse than restaurant rooms in which cigarette smoking was permitted, and state-required non-smoking rooms in waterpipe cafés may expose patrons and employees to PM2.5 concentrations above national and international air quality standards. Reducing the health risks of secondhand smoke may require smoke-free establishments in which tobacco smoking sources such as water

  11. Issue Backgrounder : Energy Efficient New Homes and Indoor Air Pollutants.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-07-01

    This booklet discusses what indoor air pollution is and how it can affect your health. It describes how energy-efficient new homes can affect indoor air quality. It also describes features that can help ensure clean indoor air, and tells how to detect and control indoor pollutants commonly found in homes.

  12. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  13. The Isprs Benchmark on Indoor Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshelham, K.; Díaz Vilariño, L.; Peter, M.; Kang, Z.; Acharya, D.

    2017-09-01

    Automated generation of 3D indoor models from point cloud data has been a topic of intensive research in recent years. While results on various datasets have been reported in literature, a comparison of the performance of different methods has not been possible due to the lack of benchmark datasets and a common evaluation framework. The ISPRS benchmark on indoor modelling aims to address this issue by providing a public benchmark dataset and an evaluation framework for performance comparison of indoor modelling methods. In this paper, we present the benchmark dataset comprising several point clouds of indoor environments captured by different sensors. We also discuss the evaluation and comparison of indoor modelling methods based on manually created reference models and appropriate quality evaluation criteria. The benchmark dataset is available for download at: indoor-modelling.html"target="_blank">http://www2.isprs.org/commissions/comm4/wg5/benchmark-on-indoor-modelling.html.

  14. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  15. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-06-20

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  16. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  17. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame retardants. This paper critically examines equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs among indoor compartments. It proceeds to evaluate kinetic constraints on sorptive partitioning to organic matter on fixed surfaces and airborne particles. Analyses indicate that equilibrium partitioning is achieved faster for particles than for typical indoor surfaces; indeed, for a strongly sorbing SVOC and a thick sorptive reservoir, equilibrium partitioning is never achieved. Mass-balance considerations are used to develop physical-science-based models that connect source- and sink-rates to airborne concentrations for commonly encountered situations, such as the application of a pesticide or the emission of a plasticizer or flame retardant from its host material. Calculations suggest that many SVOCs have long indoor persistence, even after the primary source is removed. If the only removal mechanism is ventilation, moderately sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 10) may persist indoors for hundreds to thousands of hours, while strongly sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 12) may persist for years. The paper concludes by applying the newly developed framework to explore exposure pathways of building occupants to indoor SVOCs. Accumulation of SVOCs as a consequence of direct air-to-human transport is shown to be potentially large, with a maximum indoor-air processing rate of 10-20 m 3/h for SVOC uptake by human skin, hair and clothing. Levels on human skin calculated with a simple model of direct air-to-skin transfer agree remarkably well with levels measured in dermal hand wipes for SVOCs possessing a wide range of octanol-air partition coefficients.

  18. Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment: Part I. Indoor versus outdoor sources, the influence of traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgen, Elke; Karfich, Natascha; Levsen, Karsten; Angerer, Jürgen; Schneider, Peter; Heinrich, Joachim; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Dunemann, Lothar; Begerow, Jutta

    Six aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in the indoor and outdoor air of 115 private non-smoker homes (˜380 rooms), about half of which were located in two city streets in Hannover (Northern Germany) with high traffic density, the other half in rural areas with hardly any traffic at all. This environmental monitoring was complemented by human biomonitoring (i.e. the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in blood and exhaled air). Particular attention was paid to benzene as a result of its carcinogenicity. In the city streets with high traffic density, an average benzene concentration of 3.1 μg m -3 and in the rural areas of 1.8 μg m -3 was found in these non-smoker homes (all data=geometric means), which reflects the influence of the traffic (automobile exhaust) on the benzene level found indoors. Source identification is also possible by determining the indoor/outdoor ( I/ O) concentration ratio. For the rooms facing the city street, this I/ O ratio is close to 1 for all aromatic hydrocarbons studied with the exception of toluene ( I/ O=3.5), while in the rural areas I/ O ratios for the individual compounds ranging in 6-9 were determined, with the exception of benzene where the I/ O ratio is only 1.5. These I/ O ratios in the city street with high traffic density indicate that an equilibrium between indoor and outdoor air is almost reached. Indoor sources prevail only in the case of toluene. In contrast, in the rural area, indoor sources dominate for all aromatic hydrocarbons except benzene, the indoor level of which is mainly influenced by the outdoor air even in areas of very low traffic density. However, weak indoor sources must exist also for this compound even in non-smoker homes. The internal exposure of the non-smoking inhabitants of these homes to benzene is very low. Depending on the living area, mean values of 61-67 ng l -1 benzene in blood and 0.9-1.2 μg m -3 in the exhaled air were

  19. Rest in underperforming elite competitors.

    PubMed Central

    Koutedakis, Y; Budgett, R; Faulmann, L

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 3-5 weeks of physical rest on selected physical, physiological and psychological parameters obtained from 12 Olympic but latterly underperforming competitors and their matched control subjects. Cardiorespiratory data were directly determined from their work to volitional exhaustion on either a treadmill, cycle, or rowing ergometer. Anaerobic power and capacity were evaluated through modified Wingate tests. For psychometric assessments, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used. For the Olympic competitors, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant increases (p less than 0.05) in body weight, maximum respiratory exchange ratio, maximum oxygen consumption, and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, following the rest period. There was also a significant reduction in fatigue and mood profile score, and a significant increase in vigour. No significant changes were found in the matched control subjects. The present data show that resting for 3-5 weeks assists underperforming elite competitors to improve their aerobic performance. PMID:2097024

  20. Indoor radon survey in Visegrad countries.

    PubMed

    Műllerová, Monika; Kozak, Krzysztof; Kovács, Tibor; Smetanová, Iveta; Csordás, Anita; Grzadziel, Dominik; Holý, Karol; Mazur, Jadwiga; Moravcsík, Attila; Neznal, Martin; Neznal, Matej

    2016-04-01

    The indoor radon measurements were carried out in 123 residential buildings and 33 schools in Visegrad countries (Slovakia, Hungary and Poland). In 13.2% of rooms radon concentration exceeded 300Bqm(-3), the reference value recommended in the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM. Indoor radon in houses shows the typical radon behavior, with a minimum in the summer and a maximum in the winter season, whereas in 32% of schools the maximum indoor radon was reached in the summer months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Normal and seasonally amplified indoor radon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; King, D.

    1995-01-01

    Winter and summer indoor radon measurements are reported for 121 houses in Freehold, New Jersey. When presented as winter:summer ratios of indoor radon, the data closely approximate a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean is 1.49. Freehold is located on the fairly flat coastal plain. The winter:summer ratios are believed to represent the norm for regions of the U.S. with cold winters and hot summers. The Freehold data set can be compared to corresponding data sets from other locations to suggest seasonal perturbations of indoor radon arising from unusual causes.

  2. Photocatalytic disinfection of indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.Y.; Trivedi, D.M.; Block, S.S.

    1997-02-01

    The present study demonstrated the antibacterial effect of photocatalytic oxidation in indoor air using titanium dioxide as the catalyst. Through a series of experiments, it was determined that titanium dioxide did enhance the inactivation rate of the microorganisms under certain conditions. In these experiments the air velocity, relative humidity, and UV (350 nm) intensity were varied. It was found that higher velocities retarded the destruction rate due to the low retention time in the reactor. TiO{sub 2} also did not accelerate the reaction at low humidities (30%). At a relative humidity of 50%, there was complete inactivation of the organisms, but at higher humidities (85%), 10% of the organisms were still viable. The experiments showed that at higher UV intensities, most of the activation was done by the UV photons. However, the photons were not able to completely inactivate the microorganisms. In the photocatalysis experiments there was complete inactivation of the bacteria.

  3. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    SciTech Connect

    Hammell, B.D.; Scheuerle, A.

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  4. Use of a portable indoor environmental quality logger for indoor environmental quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, D.W.T.; Burnett, J.; Mui, H.K.W.

    1999-07-01

    The authors conducted a large-scale study in Hong Kong on the indoor environment in high-rise office buildings. The indoor environmental quality assessment covered thermal, indoor air, visual, and aural comforts. The assessment had two parts--physical measurements by laboratory grade instruments and a survey of subjective responses. However, the approach of study requires sophisticated instrumentation together with an intensive questionnaire. Based on the experience gained from this comprehensive study, a portable indoor environmental quality logger has been developed as a tool to more conveniently assess the indoor environmental quality by building operators, occupants, and facility managers. This instrument incorporates sensors for measuring essential physical parameters. In addition, switches are provided on the front panel to allow occupants to record directly their sensation votes on the acceptability of their immediate microenvironment, focusing on four indoor environmental qualifiers and the overall acceptability. The physical parameters and the subjective responses are all automatically logged for analysis. This indoor environmental quality logger not only provides an easy method for assessment of the indoor environment, but it can also be used as a diary logger for detailed analysis of localized problems in the indoor spaces. This comprehensive environmental quality concept can be further developed to a control algorithm for HVAC systems.

  5. Indoor Air '90: the 5th in a series of international conferences on the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Walkinshaw, D

    1992-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate: INDOOR AIR '90 continued a series of international scientific conferences begun in 1978 on a complex, interdisciplinary subject increasingly recognized to be of importance to human comfort, health and productivity, and having important implications for building design and furnishing, office equipment, appliances, cleaning, heating, ventilating, humidifying and air-conditioning. INDOOR AIR '90 constituted a week long program of 542 paper and poster presentations and forum discussions, 100 exhibits, and a public forum. This paper summarizes some of the highlights of this conference and links these to some of the studies reported at earlier INDOOR AIR Conference.

  6. Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke emission levels in six Lebanese cities.

    PubMed

    Saade, Georges; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Rees, Vaughan W; Otrock, Zaher; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-04-01

    To date, Lebanon has failed to enact comprehensive clean indoor air laws despite ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which calls for the protection of non-smokers from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). Complicating the problem of SHS exposure in Lebanon is the widespread use of the tobacco water-pipe. While most research on SHS has involved cigarette smoking as a source of emissions, other sources, including tobacco water-pipes, may be an important contributor. PM(2.5) concentrations (microg/m(3)) were measured in a sample of 28 public venues located in six major Lebanese cities. Active smoker density (number of smokers/100 m(3)) was calculated for both water-pipe and cigarette smokers. Venues were then categorised as having higher density of water-pipe smokers or higher density of cigarette smokers, and resultant emission levels were compared between the two groups. Cigarette and water-pipe smoking was observed in 14 venues, while cigarette smoking only and water-pipe smoking only were found in 12 venues and one venue, respectively. Among all smoking-permitted venues, the mean PM(2.5) concentration was 342 microg/m(3). Venues with a higher density of water-pipe smokers (n =14) showed a similar median PM(2.5) concentration (349 microg/m(3)) compared with venues with a higher density of cigarette smokers (n =13; 241 microg/m(3); p=0.159). The mean PM(2.5) concentration in the single venue with a voluntary smoke-free policy was 6 microg/m(3). Despite ratification of the FCTC in 2005, both cigarette and water-pipe smoking are commonly practised in enclosed public places throughout Lebanon, leading to unsafe levels of indoor particulate pollution. Smoke-free policies are needed in Lebanon to protect the public's health, and should apply to all forms of tobacco smoking.

  7. Comparison between an indoor and an outdoor 6-minute walk test among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Dina; Solway, Sherra; Weinacht, Krisztina; Wang, David; Thomas, Scott

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the feasibility of an outdoor 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as a measure of functional status among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to examine the relationship between performance on an indoor and an outdoor 6MWT. An experimental, repeated-measures crossover design. Subjects were studied on 2 separate days in the same week. Two 6MWTs-one indoors and the other outdoors-were performed on each study day, with a rest in between. The test order was randomly selected on the first day and reversed on the second day. Outdoor tests were performed on days of moderate weather conditions (mean temperature +/- standard deviation, 21 degrees +/-3 degrees C; mean wind speed, 15+/-7km/h; no precipitation) and on a flat surface (sidewalk). Outpatient rehabilitation program in Ontario. Eighteen subjects with COPD (10 men, 8 women; age, 70+/-8y), 5 using supplemental oxygen at rest (forced expiratory volume in 1s, 1.0+/-0.3L; 42%+/-8% of predicted). Not applicable. Distance walked in 6 minutes (in meters), duration of rest (in seconds), and change in rate of perceived dyspnea. There was no significant effect of setting (indoors vs outdoors) on distance walked (394+/-86m vs 398+/-84m, P=0.4), duration of rest (13+/-28s vs 9+/-20s, P=0.4), or change in rate of perceived dyspnea (2.3+/-1.7 vs 2.3+/-2.0, P=0.8). Testing day had no significant effect on walk test performance (all P>0.1). The results indicate that the 6MWT performed outdoors within reasonable climatic parameters may be reflective of 6MWT performance indoors.

  8. EVALUATION OF VENTILATION PERFORMANCE FOR INDOOR SPACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a personal-computer-based application of computational fluid dynamics that can be used to determine the turbulent flow field and time-dependent/steady-state contaminant concentration distributions within isothermal indoor space. (NOTE: Ventilation performance ...

  9. Studying the microbiology of the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Scott T; Gilbert, Jack A

    2013-02-28

    The majority of people in the developed world spend more than 90% of their lives indoors. Here, we examine our understanding of the bacteria that co-inhabit our artificial world and how they might influence human health.

  10. Classroom Air Quality: Exploring the Indoor Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a teacher's experiences with Global Lab, which is depicted as a real-world networked science laboratory connecting individuals investigating global and local environmental change. Focuses on techniques to monitor indoor air quality. (DDR)

  11. Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Bois Forte Indoor Air Quality Program acted swiftly and aggressively to tackle mold and moisture problems in its community members’ homes after several residents became ill as a result of environmental exposures.

  12. Publications about Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Publications and resources that relate to indoor air quality in schools, and design tools for schools. These publications cover a wide range of issues, including IAQ management, student performance, asthma, mold and moisture, and radon.

  13. Indoor Tanning: The Risks of Ultraviolet Rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Indoor Tanning: The ... Products Improving Your Odds for Cervical Health Related Consumer Updates 5 Tips for a Healthy Vacation More ...

  14. Nitrogen Dioxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The two most prevalent oxides of nitrogen are nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO). Both are toxic gases with NO2 being a highly reactive oxidant and corrosive. The primary sources indoors are combustion processes.

  15. Studying the microbiology of the indoor environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The majority of people in the developed world spend more than 90% of their lives indoors. Here, we examine our understanding of the bacteria that co-inhabit our artificial world and how they might influence human health. PMID:23514020

  16. Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA completed an extensive modeling study to assess the compatibilities and trade-offs between energy, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort objectives for HVAC systems and to formulate strategies for superior performance across all areas.

  17. EVALUATION OF VENTILATION PERFORMANCE FOR INDOOR SPACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a personal-computer-based application of computational fluid dynamics that can be used to determine the turbulent flow field and time-dependent/steady-state contaminant concentration distributions within isothermal indoor space. (NOTE: Ventilation performance ...

  18. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

  19. Indoor-Breeding of Aedes albopictus in Northern Peninsular Malaysia and Its Potential Epidemiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dieng, Hamady; Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, M. R. Che; Boots, Michael; Satho, Tomomitsu; Jaal, Zairi; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities. Methodology/Principal Findings In a series of experiments involving outdoors and indoors breeding populations, we found that Ae. albopictus lives longer in the indoor environment. We also observed increased nighttime biting activity and lifetime fecundity in indoor/domestic adapted females, although they were similar to recently colonized females in body size. Conclusion/Significance Taken together these data suggest that accommodation of Ae. albopictus to indoor/domestic environment may increase its lifespan, blood feeding success, nuisance and thus vectorial capacity (both in terms of increased vector-host contacts and vector population density). These changes in the breeding behavior of Ae. albopictus, a potential vector of several human pathogens including dengue viruses, require special attention. PMID:20668543

  20. Light use efficiency for vegetables production in protected and indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocetta, Giacomo; Casciani, Daria; Bulgari, Roberta; Musante, Fulvio; Kołton, Anna; Rossi, Maurizio; Ferrante, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there is a growing interest for vegetables production in indoor or disadvantaged climatic zones by using greenhouses. The main problem of crop growing indoor or in environment with limited light availability is the correct choice of light source and the quality of lighting spectrum. In greenhouse and indoor cultivations, plant density is higher than in the open field and plants have to compete for light and nutrients. Nowadays, advanced systems for indoor horticulture use light emitting diodes (LED) for improving crop growth, enhancing the plant productivity and favouring the best nutritional quality formation. In closed environments, as indoor growing modules, the lighting system represents the only source of light and its features are fundamental for obtaining the best lighting performances for plant and the most efficient solution. LED lighting engines are more efficient compared to the lighting sources used traditionally in horticulture and allow light spectrum and intensity modulations to enhance the light use efficiency for plants. The lighting distribution and the digital controls are fundamental for tailoring the spectral distribution on each plant in specific moments of its growth and play an important role for optimizing growth and produce high-quality vegetables. LED lights can increase plant growth and yield, but also nutraceutical quality, since some light intensities increase pigments biosynthesis and enhance the antioxidants content of leaves or fruits: in this regards the selection of LED primary light sources in relation to the peaks of the absorbance curve of the plants is important.

  1. On detailed 3D reconstruction of large indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, Egor

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present techniques for highly detailed 3D reconstruction of extra large indoor environments. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of low-range, far-range and hybrid sensing and reconstruction approaches. The proposed techniques for low-range and hybrid reconstruction, enabling the reconstruction density of 125 points/cm3 on large 100.000 m3 models, are presented in detail. The techniques tackle the core challenges for the above requirements, such as a multi-modal data fusion (fusion of a LIDAR data with a Kinect data), accurate sensor pose estimation, high-density scanning and depth data noise filtering. Other important aspects for extra large 3D indoor reconstruction are the point cloud decimation and real-time rendering. In this paper, we present a method for planar-based point cloud decimation, allowing for reduction of a point cloud size by 80-95%. Besides this, we introduce a method for online rendering of extra large point clouds enabling real-time visualization of huge cloud spaces in conventional web browsers.

  2. A resting platform for dog pens.

    PubMed

    Feldhaus, R A

    1980-08-01

    After converting our dog holding facilities from commercial dog cages to pen type enclosures, it became apparent that suitable resting platforms were needed. Clear acrylic plastic was used to construct the resting platforms.

  3. Measuring indoor air quality of hookah lounges.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Steven C; Morris, Daniel S; Pawlak, Rebecca L

    2012-11-01

    Many states have implemented smoke-free workplace laws to protect employees and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke. However, exemptions in these laws have allowed indoor tobacco smoking in hookah lounges to proliferate in recent years. To describe the amount of secondhand smoke in hookah lounges, we measured the indoor air quality of 10 hookah lounges in Oregon. Air quality measurements ranged from "unhealthy" to "hazardous" according to Environmental Protection Agency standards, indicating a potential health risk for patrons and employees.

  4. Building materials and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Levin, H

    1989-01-01

    New building materials, products, and furnishings are known to emit a large number of organic chemicals into indoor air. The author addresses the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on building occupants, including building materials evaluation and strategies to reduce airborne concentrations. A major problem is that little is known about the specific health effects of most VOCs at the low concentrations usually found in indoor environments.

  5. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  6. Resting energy expenditure among Japanese.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, N; Mitsuhashi, F; Sugiyama, M

    2002-10-01

    1. Resting energy expenditure (REE) provides appropriate basic data for the calculation of energy requirements. 2. The REE of 6498 subjects according to sex and age (1 year stratification), with a minimum of 10 subjects per group, was measured systematically using the easy portable calorimeter (Metavine; Vine, Tokyo, Japan). 3. The REE or the REE/kg according to age and sex was observed to obtain the amount of standard deviation (20-25%). 4. The REE/kg for male and female subjects was maintained at a steady level after the age of 15 years and was estimated to be around 29 kcal/kg.

  7. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  9. Indoor radon prediction from soil gas measurements.

    PubMed

    Varley, N R; Flowers, A G

    1998-06-01

    This study of radon levels in southwest England investigates the correlation between indoor and soil gas radon concentrations and considers the influence of geology, meteorological variables, spatial and depth variations. This paper examines the value of soil gas measurements as an indicator of potential indoor radon concentrations and highlights a number of factors that need to be considered. Only a very weak correlation was obtained between the overall 222Rn concentration in soil gas and inside the home. However, for high soil gas concentrations a stronger correlation with the indoor level was observed. Typically, the soil gas concentration was between a factor of 10 and 1,000 times greater than that indoors. Levels as low as 10 kBq m(-3) in the soil could produce an indoor concentration above the UK action level of 200 Bq m(-3). The moisture content and the inhomogeneity of soil permeability were identified as chiefly responsible for any perturbation of a soil gas concentration associated with a particular geology. Alone, measured soil gas concentrations have only a limited use in the prediction of indoor 222Rn concentrations.

  10. Indoor air quality investigations at five classrooms.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Chang, M

    1999-06-01

    Five classrooms, air-conditioned or naturally ventilated, at five different schools were chosen for comparison of indoor and outdoor air quality. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with diameter less than 10 microns (PM10), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total bacteria counts were monitored at indoor and outdoor locations simultaneously. Respirable particulate matter was found to be the worst among parameters measured in this study. The indoor and outdoor average PM10 concentrations exceeded the Hong Kong standards, and the maximum indoor PM10 level was even at 472 micrograms/m3. Air cleaners could be used in classrooms to reduce the high PM10 concentration. Indoor CO2 concentrations often exceeded 1,000 microliters/l indicating inadequate ventilation. Lowering the occupancy and increasing breaks between classes could alleviate the high CO2 concentrations. Though the maximum indoor CO2 level reached 5,900 microliters/l during class at one of the sites, CO2 concentrations were still at levels that pose no health threats.

  11. International standards for the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Olesen, B W

    2004-01-01

    On the international level, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards and that will require the revision of existing standards? Critical issues are: adaptation, the effect of increased air velocity, humidity, type of indoor pollutant sources, etc. This paper will present an overview of existing methods, and discuss areas where revision of present standards or the development of new standards, are needed. The international standards for the indoor environment provide the designer with criteria, which are internationally recognized, for the design of buildings and systems.

  12. NFC Internal: An Indoor Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Ozdenizci, Busra; Coskun, Vedat; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability. PMID:25825976

  13. Indoor allergen exposure and asthma outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, William J.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to discuss updates on research regarding the relationship between indoor allergen exposure and childhood asthma with a focus on clinical effects, locations of exposure, and novel treatments. Recent findings Recent data continue to demonstrate that early life sensitization to indoor allergens is a predictor of asthma development later in life. Furthermore, avoidance of exposure to these allergens continues to be important especially given that the vast majority of children with asthma are sensitized to at least one indoor allergen. New research suggests that mouse allergen, more so than cockroach allergen, may be the most relevant urban allergen. Recent evidence reminds us that children are exposed to clinically important levels of indoor allergens in locations away from their home, such as schools and daycare centers. Exposure to increased levels of indoor mold in childhood has been associated with asthma development and exacerbation of current asthma; however, emerging evidence suggests that early exposure to higher fungal diversity may actually be protective for asthma development. Novel treatments have been developed that target TH2 pathways thus decreasing asthmatic responses to allergens. These therapies show promise for the treatment of severe allergic asthma refractory to avoidance strategies and standard therapies. Summary Understanding the relationship between indoor allergens and asthma outcomes is a constantly evolving study of timing, location, and amount of exposure. PMID:27653703

  14. Indoor air pollution: an edifice complex.

    PubMed

    Brooks, B O; Utter, G M; DeBroy, J A; Schimke, R D

    1991-01-01

    The collision of escalating technological sophistication and surging environmental awareness has caused the reexamination of many societal paradigms. Horror stories about lethal chemical exposures involving isolated cases of ignorance, carelessness or greed have caused the public to demand constant vigilance to prevent exposure to potentially hazardous substances. Accordingly, much time and resource has been expanded by the U.S. government and citizens to abate and prevent air and water pollution. While these efforts have met with measurable success, there is increasing public concern about a new generation of pollution-related human illness in office, home and transportation environments. New instances of Sick Building Syndrome or Building Related Illness are reported daily by the popular press. Human health effects such as cancer, infectious disease, allergy and irritation have been ascribed to indoor air pollution. The clinical aspects of indoor air pollution are often discounted by consulting engineers and industrial hygienists involved in indoor air quality. Physicians and clinically-trained scientists have received a "Macedonian call" to sift clinical relevance from the emotional aspects of indoor air quality problems. Point sources of pollutants, associated human health effects, and problem solving approaches associated with indoor air pollution are described. Regulatory and litigational aspects of indoor air pollution are also discussed.

  15. NFC internal: an indoor navigation system.

    PubMed

    Ozdenizci, Busra; Coskun, Vedat; Ok, Kerem

    2015-03-27

    Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability.

  16. Workgroup Report: Indoor Chemistry and Health

    PubMed Central

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wells, J.R.; Poppendieck, Dustin; Hubbard, Heidi; Pearce, Terri A.

    2006-01-01

    Chemicals present in indoor air can react with one another, either in the gas phase or on surfaces, altering the concentrations of both reactants and products. Such chemistry is often the major source of free radicals and other short-lived reactive species in indoor environments. To what extent do the products of indoor chemistry affect human health? To address this question, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health sponsored a workshop titled “Indoor Chemistry and Health” on 12–15 July 2004 at the University of California–Santa Cruz. Approximately 70 experts from eight countries participated. Objectives included enhancing communications between researchers in indoor chemistry and health professionals, as well as defining a list of priority research needs related to the topic of the workshop. The ultimate challenges in this emerging field are defining exposures to the products of indoor chemistry and developing an understanding of the links between these exposures and various health outcomes. The workshop was a step toward meeting these challenges. This summary presents the issues discussed at the workshop and the priority research needs identified by the attendees. PMID:16507469

  17. Indoor environment program - 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  18. Aeromycological profile of indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena; Delgado, José Luís; Abreu, Ilda

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the differences between indoor and outdoor aeromicological composition. The aerobiological study was performed, from 15 January to 14 April 2008, using two volumetric spore traps, one placed indoors and another positioned outdoors on the roof of the Faculdade de Ciências building. A total of 23 000 spores were sampled outdoors and 15 500 spores were identified indoors. In both environments, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Aspergillus/Penicillium, Agaricus, Rusts, Agrocybe and Lepthosphaeria. Moreover, Alternaria, Botrytis, Coprinus, Fusarium and Ganoderma spores were also detected in the outdoor air. The outdoor maximum (858 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was registered on the 9 February whereas the indoor peak (614 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was reached two days later. Qualitative similarities were found between the indoor and outdoor aeromicological content however quantitatively spore concentrations differed, suggesting the existence of airflows between the two environments due to ventilation, inefficient isolation or passive transport of spores. The majority of the selected fungal types were night sporulators, the exceptions were Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium, with daily maximum values during the morning and the afternoon, respectively. Several of the identified spores have been proved as causal agents of respiratory problems. Therefore, it is important to know the microbial composition of indoor air in order to take measures to improve air quality helping to reduce health problems related to respiratory allergic diseases in sensitized patients.

  19. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Rasheed, F.N. )

    1993-03-27

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm[sup 3]. This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group.

  20. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  1. 78 FR 66865 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 135 Interpretation of Rest Requirements AGENCY... application of certain rest requirements during on-demand operations. Section 346 of the FAA Modernization and... finalize the interpretation proposed in Docket No. FAA-2010-1259, relating to rest requirements, and...

  2. Human exposure to anopheline mosquitoes occurs primarily indoors, even for users of insecticide-treated nets in Luangwa Valley, South-east Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current front line malaria vector control methods such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), rely upon the preference of many primary vectors to feed and/or rest inside human habitations where they can be targeted with domestically-applied insecticidal products. We studied the human biting behaviour of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus Giles and the potential malaria vector Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald in Luangwa valley, south-east Zambia. Methods Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch in blocks of houses with either combined use of deltamethrin-based IRS and LLINs or LLINs alone. Human behaviour data were collected to estimate how much exposure to mosquito bites indoors and outdoors occurred at various times of the night for LLIN users and non-users. Results Anopheles funestus and An. quadriannulatus did not show preference to bite either indoors or outdoors: the proportions [95% confidence interval] caught indoors were 0.586 [0.303, 0.821] and 0.624 [0.324, 0.852], respectively. However, the overwhelming majority of both species were caught at times when most people are indoors. The proportion of mosquitoes caught at a time when most people are indoors were 0.981 [0.881, 0.997] and 0.897 [0.731, 0.965], respectively, so the proportion of human exposure to both species occuring indoors was high for individuals lacking LLINs (An. funestus: 0.983 and An. quadriannulatus: 0.970, respectively). While LLIN users were better protected, more than half of their exposure was nevertheless estimated to occur indoors (An. funestus: 0.570 and An. quadriannulatus: 0.584). Conclusions The proportion of human exposure to both An. funestus and An. quadriannulatus occuring indoors was high in the area and hence both species might be responsive to further peri-domestic measures if these mosquitoes are susceptible to insecticidal products. PMID:22647493

  3. The Resting Brain of Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Jung, Young-Chul; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects multiple cognitive processes supported by far-reaching cerebral networks. To identify neurofunctional mechanisms underlying selective deficits, 27 sober alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity analysis assessed the default mode network (DMN); integrative executive control (EC), salience (SA), and attention (AT) networks; primary somatosensory, auditory, and visual (VI) input networks; and subcortical reward (RW) and emotion (EM) networks. The groups showed an extensive overlap of intrinsic connectivity in all brain networks examined, suggesting overall integrity of large-scale functional networks. Despite these similar patterns, connectivity analyses identified network-specific differences of weaker within-network connectivity and expanded connectivity to regions outside the main networks in alcoholics compared with controls. For AT and VI networks, better task performance was related to expanded connectivity in alcoholism, supporting the concept of network expansion as a neural mechanism for functional compensation. For default mode, SA, RW, and EC networks, both weaker within-network and expanded outside-network connectivity correlated with poorer performance and mood. Current smoking contributed to some of these abnormalities in connectivity. The observed pattern of resting-state connectivity might reflect neural vulnerability of intrinsic networking in alcoholics and suggests a mechanism to explain signature impairments in EM, RW evaluation, and EC ability. PMID:24935777

  4. Physiology of prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Bed rest has been a normal procedure used by physicians for centuries in the treatment of injury and disease. Exposure of patients to prolonged bed rest in the horizontal position induces adaptive deconditioning responses. While deconditioning responses are appropriate for patients or test subjects in the horizontal position, they usually result in adverse physiological responses (fainting, muscular weakness) when the patient assume the upright posture. These deconditioning responses result from reduction in hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, virtual elimination of longitudinal pressure on the long bones, some decrease in total body metabolism, changes in diet, and perhaps psychological impact from the different environment. Almost every system in the body is affected. An early stimulus is the cephalic shift of fluid from the legs which increases atrial pressure and induces compensatory responses for fluid and electrolyte redistribution. Without countermeasures, deterioration in strength and muscle function occurs within 1 wk while increased calcium loss may continue for months. Research should also focus on drug and carbohydrate metabolism.

  5. Variation of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in different outdoor and indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Boev, Blazo; Zunic, Zora S; Ivanova, Kremena; Ristova, Mimoza; Tsenova, Martina; Ajka, Sorsa; Janevik, Emilija; Taleski, Vaso; Bossew, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Subject of this study is an investigation of the variations of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in outdoor and indoor environments of 40 dwellings, 31 elementary schools and five kindergartens. The buildings are located in three municipalities of two, geologically different, areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track detectors, deployed in the most occupied room of the building, between June 2013 and May 2014. During the deploying campaign, indoor and outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were measured simultaneously at the same location. It appeared that the measured values varied from 22 to 990 Bq/m(3) for indoor radon concentrations, from 50 to 195 nSv/h for outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates, and from 38 to 184 nSv/h for indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. The geometric mean value of indoor to outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates was found to be 0.88, i.e. the outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were on average higher than the indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. All measured can reasonably well be described by log-normal distributions. A detailed statistical analysis of factors which influence the measured quantities is reported.

  6. Seasonal changes of viable diatom resting stages in bottom sediments of Xiamen Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang-ping; Sun, Lin; Gao, Ya-hui; Zhou, Qian-qian; Zheng, Min-hua; Li, Bin-qian; Yu, Yang; Lu, Dou-ding

    2009-02-01

    The seasonal abundance of planktonic diatoms in the water column of Xiamen Bay, China, was investigated monthly during 2007 and 2008, and the viability of their resting stages in the bottom sediments was estimated using the extinction dilution method (most probable number method, MPN). The dominant genera in the planktonic diatom community were Skeletonema, Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira, whose viable resting stages were also the most abundant in the sediments. The highest concentration of viable diatom resting stages occurred 1 to 2 months after the maximum cell density of diatom communities occurred in the water column. The viability of Skeletonema resting cells increased in the sediments in either April or May at each station before the start of a Skeletonema bloom in June or July, suggesting that the germination of resting cells suspended in water could have influenced the blooming of Skeletonema species in the summer. Canonical correspondence analysis and multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the MPN of viable diatom resting stages was negatively correlated with silicate ( p < 0.05) and nitrate concentration ( p > 0.05). The distribution of viable Chaetoceros resting spores and viable Skeletonema resting cells was different, possibly due to the different silicate cost in sea water during the formation of resting spores and resting cells, and also their survival ability in unfavorable environments.

  7. Low Cost and Efficient 3d Indoor Mapping Using Multiple Consumer Rgb-D Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Yang, B. S.; Song, S.

    2016-06-01

    Kinect are calibrated using a chess board pattern; 3, the external parameters between every Kinect are firstly calculated using a pre-set calibration field and further refined by an iterative closet point algorithm. Experiments are carried out to validate the proposed method upon RGB-D datasets collected by the indoor mapping suite prototype. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing the point clouds derived from the prototype with ground truth data collected by commercial terrestrial laser scanner at ultra-high density. The overall analysis of the results shows that the proposed method achieves seamless integration of multiple point clouds form different RGB-D cameras collected at 30 frame per second.

  8. Medical management after indoor fires: a review.

    PubMed

    Welling, L; van Harten, S M; Patka, P; Bierens, J J L M; Boers, M; Luitse, J S K; Mackie, D P; Trouwborst, A; Gouma, D J; Kreis, R W

    2005-09-01

    Fires involving mass burn casualties require extreme efforts and flexibility from the regular health care system. The café fire in Volendam, which occurred shortly after midnight on the first of January 2001, resulted in the worst indoor mass burns incident in Dutch history. During the extensive medical evaluation of this disaster, it became obvious that information on similar incidents is relatively scarce in the literature. This article systematically reviews the existing information in the medical literature on indoor fires and provides findings and knowledge used in the evaluation of the medical management after indoor fires and for future mass burn casualty preparedness, mitigation and response. A literature review was undertaken for burn disasters with characteristics similar to the indoor Volendam fire disaster. In all fires, the following aspects were investigated: characteristics of the fire; the initial emergency response; triage and on-site treatment; primary and secondary distribution; hospital admission; severity of the sustained injuries and mortality. A total of nine similar indoor fires were selected. The number of people involved was reported in seven fires (range 137-6000). All reports provided the mortality rate (range 1.4% to over 50%). Data regarding the emergency response could be collected in half of the studies. On-scene triage was performed in five fires. The number of hospitals participating in the primary distribution ranged from 1 to 19. Except for the Volendam fire, all patients were primarily distributed to general hospitals. Characteristics of indoor fires, which are relevant for disaster preparedness, mitigation and response are not frequently reported in medical literature. The current articles on indoor fires, mainly report on numbers of casualties and the mortality. Limited data are available to provide insight in the characteristics of management and medical treatment and to come up with suggestions for improvement of future

  9. THz channel characterization for future wireless gigabit indoor communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesiewicz, Radoslaw; Jemai, Jaouhar; Koch, Martin; Kurner, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Short range wireless communication systems are expanding at rapid rate, finding application in offices, congested urban areas and homes. Development of wireless local area networks is accompanied by a steady increase in the demand for ever higher data rates. This in turn entails the necessity to develop communication systems which operate at higher frequencies. Currently WLAN works at a few GHz, while systems operating at several ten GHz appear already feasible. It can be expected that wireless short-range communication networks will soon push towards the THz frequency range and that systems which handle high-density information and support wider bandwidth communications will be developed in a few years time. Since THz radiation is strongly absorbed by the atmosphere, working distances may be short and individual THz pico-cells may cover only single rooms or at most one building. For an indoor system of practical importance it must be robust against shadowing. Recently, flexible all-plastic mirrors, supporting specular reflections in the THz range have been demonstrated. They are cheap and easy to produce and can be used as frequency selective wall-paper to enhance the reflectivity of walls and hence facilitate non-line-of-sight communication in a THz cell. For this case the spatial and temporal characteristics of the indoor THz propagation channel in a room with randomly placed objects and moving people are derived with ray-tracing methodology and Monte Carlo simulations. Our simulations show that high-gain antennas will be needed for the realization of THz communication in indoor environments. Furthermore, indirect transmission paths between transmitter and receiver, supported by dielectric mirrors make the communication channel much more robust against shadowing.

  10. Adolescents’ Use of Indoor Tanning: A Large-Scale Evaluation of Psychosocial, Environmental, and Policy-Level Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Susan I.; Slymen, Donald J.; Sallis, James F.; Forster, Jean L.; Clapp, Elizabeth J.; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Pichon, Latrice C.; Weeks, John R.; Belch, George E.; Weinstock, Martin A.; Gilmer, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated psychosocial, built-environmental, and policy-related correlates of adolescents’ indoor tanning use. Methods. We developed 5 discrete data sets in the 100 most populous US cities, based on interviews of 6125 adolescents (aged 14–17 years) and their parents, analysis of state indoor tanning laws, interviews with enforcement experts, computed density of tanning facilities, and evaluations of these 3399 facilities’ practices regarding access by youths. After univariate analyses, we constructed multilevel models with generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). Results. In the past year, 17.1% of girls and 3.2% of boys had used indoor tanning. The GLMMs indicated that several psychosocial or demographic variables significantly predicted use, including being female, older, and White; having a larger allowance and a parent who used indoor tanning and allowed their adolescent to use it; and holding certain beliefs about indoor tanning's consequences. Living within 2 miles of a tanning facility also was a significant predictor. Residing in a state with youth-access legislation was not significantly associated with use. Conclusions. Current laws appear ineffective in reducing indoor tanning; bans likely are needed. Parents have an important role in prevention efforts. PMID:21421947

  11. Indoor air quality in a dentistry clinic.

    PubMed

    Helmis, C G; Tzoutzas, J; Flocas, H A; Halios, C H; Stathopoulou, O I; Assimakopoulos, V D; Panis, V; Apostolatou, M; Sgouros, G; Adam, E

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to assess, both experimentally and theoretically the status of air quality in a dentistry clinic of the Athens University Dentistry Faculty with respect to chemical pollutants and identify the indoor sources associated with dental activities. Total VOCs, CO(2), PM(10), PM(2.5), NO(x) and SO(2) were measured over a period of approximately three months in a selected dentistry clinic. High pollution levels during the operation hours regarding CO(2), total VOCs and Particulate Matter were found, while in the non-working periods lower levels were recorded. On the contrary, NO(x) and SO(2) remained at low levels for the whole experimental period. These conditions were associated with the number of occupants, the nature of the dental clinical procedures, the materials used and the ventilation schemes, which lead to high concentrations, far above the limits that are set by international organizations and concern human exposure. The indoor environmental conditions were investigated using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model PHOENICS for inert gases simulation. The results revealed diagonal temperature stratification and low air velocities leading to pollution stratification, accompanied by accumulation of inert gaseous species in certain areas of the room. Different schemes of natural ventilation were also applied in order to examine their effect on the indoor comfort conditions for the occupants, in terms of air renewal and double cross ventilation was found to be most effective. The relative contribution of the indoor sources, which are mainly associated with indoor activities, was assessed by application of the Multi Chamber Indoor Air Quality Model (MIAQ) to the experimental data. It was found that deposition onto indoor surfaces is an important removal mechanism while a great amount of particulate matter emitted in the Clinic burdened severely the indoor air quality. The natural ventilation of the room seemed to reduce the levels of

  12. [Project, natural lighting and comfort indoor].

    PubMed

    Buffoli, M; Capolongo, S; Cattaneo, M; Signorelli, C

    2007-01-01

    The present research aims at analyzing the relationship between the project, the natural lighting, and the residential indoor environments. The reasons that lead to this research are to be found in the complex relationship between natural lighting, sunlight, and health in indoor environments and in the oncoming research of project and technological solutions in order to guarantee an adequate level of indoor health while preserving the environment. After describing the physical and hygienic characteristics of the natural lighting, the various laws (in particular the Italian ones) were taken into account according to the definition of the minimal performance and project requirements concerning the natural lighting of the indoor residential environments. The minimal requirements for the Coefficient of Daily Lighting--CDL (illumination levels on horizontal surface inside the room/illumination levels on the same horizontal surface situated outside, closed to the windows) were satisfied on average during the project phase with a lighting ratio (area of the windows hole/floor area) more than 12.5% (1/8) for every habitable rooms. An analysis based on CDL was then performed, since it is able to estimate the level of lighting of different indoor environments for dimensional and geometric aspects, for specific characteristics of each window opening and for the context situation of the building. During the analysis, the CDL of some rooms (42) was taken and analyzed according to the specific features of the indoor environment in order to evaluate the appropriateness of the current laws on the subject, which are too often recognized as only prescriptive. In conclusion, the current laws, considering the complex reciprocity between natural lighting and indoor environments, are not very adequate in orienting the architect towards more innovative quality and performance oriented choices. According to these deficiencies, it was proposed to integrate those laws with more adequate

  13. Indoor radon concentrations in Taiwanese homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, I.F.; Yu, C.C.; Tung, C.J. ); Yang, Y.C.; Chou, K.D. )

    1994-10-01

    Many air pollutants may be present in the indoor environment. Commonly reported pollutants are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, radon and its progeny, asbestos fibers and airborne particles. Among these indoor pollutants, radon and its progeny have been known to increase the risk of lung cancer in the U.S. Various studies also found in general higher concentrations of air pollutants in the indoor environment. It is a serious concern to us because of the long periods of time we spend indoors. In this study, the alpha-track radon monitor was used in the screening of higher risk buildings in Taipei and Hsinchu city. None of the homes in the 32 buildings surveyed in these cities had air concentrations of radon exceeding the action level of 4 pCi/l recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Different sources to indoor radon concentrations are the underlying soil, building materials, outdoor air, water and gaseous fuels. Ventilation of the homes and seasonal variations are major factors of higher radon concentrations. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

  15. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 μg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem. PMID:25019268

  16. Multi-Level Indoor Path Planning Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Du, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zeng, L.

    2015-05-01

    Indoor navigation is increasingly widespread in complex indoor environments, and indoor path planning is the most important part of indoor navigation. Path planning generally refers to finding the most suitable path connecting two locations, while avoiding collision with obstacles. However, it is a fundamental problem, especially for 3D complex building model. A common way to solve the issue in some applications has been approached in a number of relevant literature, which primarily operates on 2D drawings or building layouts, possibly with few attached attributes for obstacles. Although several digital building models in the format of 3D CAD have been used for path planning, they usually contain only geometric information while losing abundant semantic information of building components (e.g. types and attributes of building components and their simple relationships). Therefore, it becomes important to develop a reliable method that can enhance application of path planning by combining both geometric and semantic information of building components. This paper introduces a method that support 3D indoor path planning with semantic information.

  17. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning.

  18. [Indoor air guide values for benzaldehyde].

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    To protect public health the German Working Group on Indoor Guidelines of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency and the States' Health Authorities is issuing indoor air guide values. For health evaluation of benzaldehyde in indoor air only two poorly documented human studies and a valid subacute inhalation animal study are available. Occupational exposure data suggest a lowest observed adverse effect level of 5 mg benzaldehyde per cubic meter for the endpoint irritation. This was used as pivotal information for the risk assessment by the Working Group. A safe LOAEL could not be derived from the subacute animal study due to several limitations. By applying a factor of 3 for extrapolation to continuous exposure, a factor of 5 for interindividual variability and a modifying factor of 2 regarding data gaps especially for children a tentative health hazard guide value (RW II) of 0.2 mg benzaldehyde/m3 indoor air is obtained. To protect from unpleasant odour a tentative health precaution guide value (RW I) of 0.02 mg benzaldehyde/m3 indoor is recommended.

  19. Predicting indoor radon-222 concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, M.H.

    1994-12-31

    Radon, a cause of lung cancer among miners, is being investigated as a source of lung cancer in the general population due to long-term low-level exposures in residences. Assessment of cumulative residential radon exposure entails measurements in past residences, some of which no longer exist or are not accessible. Estimates of radon concentrations in these missing homes are necessary for analysis of the radon-lung cancer association. Various approaches have been used by researchers attempting to predict the distribution of radon measurements in homes from specified geological and building characteristics. This study has modelled the set of basement radon measurements of 3788 Connecticut homes with several of these approaches, in addition to a descriptive tree method not previously utilized, and compared their validity on a random subset of homes not used in model construction. Each geographical and geological variable was more predictive of radon concentration than any of the housing characteristics. The single variable which explained the largest fraction of the variability in radon readings was the mean radon concentration for the zipcode area in which the house was located (R{sup 2} = .157). Soil characteristics at individual housing sites were not available for these analyses. They would be expected to increase the predictive power of the models. Multiple regression models, both additive and multiplicative, were not able to explain more than 22% of the variation in radon readings. Variables found to be significant in these models were zipcode mean, residential radon mean of bedrock unit, building age, type of foundation walls, type of water supply, aeroradioactivity reading, and lithology of the bedrock. A site potential index, based upon a classification of the bedrock underlying the house, was a better predictor of indoor radon level than other single geological variables, yet only explained 8% of the radon variability.

  20. Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Woong; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Park, Jong Youn; Hong, Chang Gi; Chung, Jae Seung; Chung, Ee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage. PMID:25949208

  1. Scalable Indoor Localization via Mobile Crowdsourcing and Gaussian Process.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei; Wang, Weiping

    2016-03-16

    Indoor localization using Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) fingerprinting has been extensively studied for decades. The positioning accuracy is highly dependent on the density of the signal database. In areas without calibration data, however, this algorithm breaks down. Building and updating a dense signal database is labor intensive, expensive, and even impossible in some areas. Researchers are continually searching for better algorithms to create and update dense databases more efficiently. In this paper, we propose a scalable indoor positioning algorithm that works both in surveyed and unsurveyed areas. We first propose Minimum Inverse Distance (MID) algorithm to build a virtual database with uniformly distributed virtual Reference Points (RP). The area covered by the virtual RPs can be larger than the surveyed area. A Local Gaussian Process (LGP) is then applied to estimate the virtual RPs' RSSI values based on the crowdsourced training data. Finally, we improve the Bayesian algorithm to estimate the user's location using the virtual database. All the parameters are optimized by simulations, and the new algorithm is tested on real-case scenarios. The results show that the new algorithm improves the accuracy by 25.5% in the surveyed area, with an average positioning error below 2.2 m for 80% of the cases. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can localize the users in the neighboring unsurveyed area.

  2. Scalable Indoor Localization via Mobile Crowdsourcing and Gaussian Process

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei; Wang, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Indoor localization using Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) fingerprinting has been extensively studied for decades. The positioning accuracy is highly dependent on the density of the signal database. In areas without calibration data, however, this algorithm breaks down. Building and updating a dense signal database is labor intensive, expensive, and even impossible in some areas. Researchers are continually searching for better algorithms to create and update dense databases more efficiently. In this paper, we propose a scalable indoor positioning algorithm that works both in surveyed and unsurveyed areas. We first propose Minimum Inverse Distance (MID) algorithm to build a virtual database with uniformly distributed virtual Reference Points (RP). The area covered by the virtual RPs can be larger than the surveyed area. A Local Gaussian Process (LGP) is then applied to estimate the virtual RPs’ RSSI values based on the crowdsourced training data. Finally, we improve the Bayesian algorithm to estimate the user’s location using the virtual database. All the parameters are optimized by simulations, and the new algorithm is tested on real-case scenarios. The results show that the new algorithm improves the accuracy by 25.5% in the surveyed area, with an average positioning error below 2.2 m for 80% of the cases. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can localize the users in the neighboring unsurveyed area. PMID:26999139

  3. Efficacy of intermittent ventilation for providing acceptable indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    2004-10-01

    Ventilation standards and guidelines typically treat ventilation as a constant and specify its value. In many circumstances a designer wishes to use intermittent ventilation, rather than constant ventilation, but there are no easy equivalencies available. This report develops a model of efficacy that allows one to calculate how much intermittent ventilation one needs to get the same indoor air quality as a the continuous value specified. We have found that there is a simple relationship between three dimensionless quantities: the temporal ventilation effectiveness (which we call the efficacy), the nominal turn-over and the under-ventilation fraction. This relationship allows the calculation of intermittent ventilation for a wide variety of parameters and conditions. We can use the relationship to define a critical time that separates the regime in which ventilation variations can be averaged over from the regime in which variable ventilation is of low effectiveness. We have found that ventilation load-shifting, temporary protection against poor outdoor air quality and dynamic ventilation strategies can be quite effective in low-density buildings such as single-family houses or office spaces. The results of this work enable ventilation standards and guidelines to allow this extra flexibility and still provide acceptable indoor air quality.

  4. Publications and Resources About Indoor airPLUS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presented are useful materials to help you build homes that meet Indoor airPLUS specifications and to promote Indoor airPLUS qualified homes. These materials are FREE of charge and are available in PDF.

  5. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  6. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  7. Care for Your Air: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems.

  8. PASSIVE/DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS FOR PESTICIDES IN RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides applied indoors vaporize from treated surfaces (e.g., carpets and baseboards) resulting in elevated air concentrations that may persist for long periods after applications. Estimating long-term respiratory exposures to pesticide vapors in residential indoor environme...

  9. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  10. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  11. Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the EPA-developed Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades, a PDF guide that provides a set of best practices for improving indoor air quality in conjunction with energy upgrade work in homes.

  12. Indoor airPLUS Sales and Marketing Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presented are useful materials to help you build homes that meet Indoor airPLUS specifications and to promote Indoor airPLUS qualified homes. These materials are FREE of charge and are available in PDF.

  13. Use of an indoor air quality model (IAQM) to estimate indoor ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Hayes, S R

    1991-02-01

    Currently, outdoor ozone levels in many U.S. cities exceed the primary health-based national ambient air quality standard. While outdoor ozone levels are an important measure of the severity of those exceedances, people typically spend more than 80 percent of their time indoors, where ozone levels are lower. Indoor ozone levels range from 10 to 80 percent of outdoor levels, with many people receiving a substantial portion of their ozone exposure while indoors. This paper uses an indoor air quality model (IAQM) to estimate indoor ozone levels by microenvironment type (home, office, and vehicle) and configuration (windows open, windows closed, older construction, weatherized, and air conditioned). The formulation of IAQM is discussed, along with specification of model parameters for ozone. The multicompartment version of IAQM is described, with a single-compartment version used for the analyses. IAQM-calculated ozone indoor-outdoor ratios compare well with research-reported values. Results indicate that ozone peak-concentration indoor-outdoor ratios range as follows: home--0.65 (windows open), 0.36 (air conditioned), 0.23 (typical construction, windows closed), and 0.05 (energy-efficient construction, windows closed); office--0.82 (heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems supplying 100 percent outdoor air), 0.60 (typical HVAC), and 0.32 (energy-efficient HVAC); and vehicle--0.41 (85 mph), 0.33 (55 mph), and 0.21 (10 mph). Analysis results are presented to characterize IAQM's sensitivity to assumed model parameters.

  14. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Miksch, R.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Traynor, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminants and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. These air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings were measured and analyzed with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency.

  15. Quality of indoor residential air and health

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert; Liu, Ling; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Gilbert, Nicolas L.

    2008-01-01

    About 90% of our time is spent indoors where we are exposed to chemical and biological contaminants and possibly to carcinogens. These agents may influence the risk of developing nonspecific respiratory and neurologic symptoms, allergies, asthma and lung cancer. We review the sources, health effects and control strategies for several of these agents. There are conflicting data about indoor allergens. Early exposure may increase or may decrease the risk of future sensitization. Reports of indoor moulds or dampness or both are consistently associated with increased respiratory symptoms but causality has not been established. After cigarette smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon are the most common causes of lung cancer. Homeowners can improve the air quality in their homes, often with relatively simple measures, which should provide health benefits. PMID:18625986

  16. Indoor radon in the region of Brussels

    SciTech Connect

    Tondeur, F.; Gerardy, I.; Christiaens, D.; Hallez, S.; Flemal, J.M.

    1999-12-01

    The indoor radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration has been measured by charcoal detectors in 278 buildings in the region of Brussels, Belgium. The correlation with the nature of the subsoil can be studied in detail thanks to the available geotechnical map. With a geometrical mean indoor radon concentration of 19 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, Brussels can be considered as generally unaffected by the radon problem. No value higher than 400 Bq m{sup {minus}3} (the EU reference level for existing houses) was measured in an occupied room. However, two factors that may enhance the risk are identified: the absence of a basement or a ventilated crawl space, and the presence of loess, under the house. About one third of the houses without basements or ventilated crawl spaces built on loess show an indoor radon concentration above 200 Bq m{sup {minus}3} (the EU reference level for new houses).

  17. Indoor air pollution: a new concern

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Radon, asbestos, and formaldehyde are emerging as major health hazards because home-winterization efforts are trapping toxic agents indoors. Other pollution sources, such as tobacco smoke and unvented heating units, also lower indoor air quality. Radon decay products present in the structural materials of well-insulated homes are linked to lung-cancer deaths. Exposure to asbestos fibers has been identified as a problem in many school buildings, while physical discomfort caused by urea-formaldehyde foam insulation has affected the health of many homeowners. The Environmental Protection Agency is collecting and disseminating information to help local officials and homeowners understand the risks and is urging building auditors to inform clients about indoor air pollution. (DCK)

  18. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  19. A proposed UAV for indoor patient care.

    PubMed

    Todd, Catherine; Watfa, Mohamed; El Mouden, Yassine; Sahir, Sana; Ali, Afrah; Niavarani, Ali; Lutfi, Aoun; Copiaco, Abigail; Agarwal, Vaibhavi; Afsari, Kiyan; Johnathon, Chris; Okafor, Onyeka; Ayad, Marina

    2015-09-10

    Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy, a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.

  20. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza Regaçone, Simone; Baptista de Lima, Daiane Damaris; Engrácia Valenti, Vitor; Figueiredo Frizzo, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR) and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs) at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX) and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration). There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR. PMID:26504838

  1. Indoor Environmental Control Practices and Asthma Management.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Elizabeth C; Abramson, Stuart L; Sandel, Megan T

    2016-11-01

    Indoor environmental exposures, particularly allergens and pollutants, are major contributors to asthma morbidity in children; environmental control practices aimed at reducing these exposures are an integral component of asthma management. Some individually tailored environmental control practices that have been shown to reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations are similar in efficacy and cost to controller medications. As a part of developing tailored strategies regarding environmental control measures, an environmental history can be obtained to evaluate the key indoor environmental exposures that are known to trigger asthma symptoms and exacerbations, including both indoor pollutants and allergens. An environmental history includes questions regarding the presence of pets or pests or evidence of pests in the home, as well as knowledge regarding whether the climatic characteristics in the community favor dust mites. In addition, the history focuses on sources of indoor air pollution, including the presence of smokers who live in the home or care for children and the use of gas stoves and appliances in the home. Serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E antibody tests can be performed or the patient can be referred for allergy skin testing to identify indoor allergens that are most likely to be clinically relevant. Environmental control strategies are tailored to each potentially relevant indoor exposure and are based on knowledge of the sources and underlying characteristics of the exposure. Strategies include source removal, source control, and mitigation strategies, such as high-efficiency particulate air purifiers and allergen-proof mattress and pillow encasements, as well as education, which can be delivered by primary care pediatricians, allergists, pediatric pulmonologists, other health care workers, or community health workers trained in asthma environmental control and asthma education.

  2. Mass versus relativistic and rest masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okun, L. B.

    2009-05-01

    The concept of relativistic mass, which increases with velocity, is not compatible with the standard language of relativity theory and impedes the understanding and learning of the theory by beginners. The same difficulty occurs with the term rest mass. To get rid of relativistic mass and rest mass it is appropriate to replace the equation E =mc2 by the true Einstein's equation E0=mc2, where E0 is the rest energy and m is the mass.

  3. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin

  4. The status of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A

    1985-01-01

    Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research. PMID:4085429

  5. Measuring Indoor Air Quality of Hookah Lounges

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Steven C.; Pawlak, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Many states have implemented smoke-free workplace laws to protect employees and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke. However, exemptions in these laws have allowed indoor tobacco smoking in hookah lounges to proliferate in recent years. To describe the amount of secondhand smoke in hookah lounges, we measured the indoor air quality of 10 hookah lounges in Oregon. Air quality measurements ranged from “unhealthy” to “hazardous” according to Environmental Protection Agency standards, indicating a potential health risk for patrons and employees. PMID:22994168

  6. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Lackey, Robert S.; Fagan, Jr., Thomas J.; Veyo, Stephen E.; Humphrey, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  7. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings.

    PubMed

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskın, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2015-12-01

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3.

  8. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  9. Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

  10. Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposure (Highlights)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine issued this report in 2000 describing the role of indoor environmental pollutants in the development and exacerbation of asthma. The report concludes that exposure to indoor pollutants is an important contributor to the asthma problem in this nation. Asthma sufferers should consult with their doctor about reducing their exposure indoor air pollutants.

  11. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  12. Safe as houses? Indoor air pollution and health.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Indoor air pollution has long been the Cinderella of the environmental world: left at home, out of sight and out of mind. But as our knowledge of indoor pollution grows, policy-makers are coming to realise that improving indoor environments can deliver big gains for public health. The new front line on air quality will be on our own doorsteps.

  13. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  14. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  15. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  16. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  17. EVALUATION OF AIR PURIFICATION DEVICES FOR CONTROL OF INDOOR PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because people spend most of their time indoors (89%), the indoor environment is a primary determinant of particle exposure. The indoor environment is especially an important determinant for the very young, the very old, and those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease because...

  18. 78 FR 34874 - Indoor Tanning Services; Excise Taxes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ...-3130 (not a toll-free number). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Paperwork Reduction Act The collection of... purchase price to those services. Free indoor tanning services; bonus points. Commenters requested guidance on the application of the tax to free indoor tanning services and indoor tanning services that...

  19. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  20. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  1. REVIEW OF INDOOR EMISSION SOURCE MODELS--PART 1. OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor emission source models are mainly used as a component in indoor air quality (IAQ) and exposure modeling. They are also widely used to interpret the experimental data obtained from environmental chambers and buildings. This paper compiles 46 indoor emission source models fo...

  2. EVALUATION OF AIR PURIFICATION DEVICES FOR CONTROL OF INDOOR PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because people spend most of their time indoors (89%), the indoor environment is a primary determinant of particle exposure. The indoor environment is especially an important determinant for the very young, the very old, and those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease because...

  3. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other other applications. This allows individuals to provide direct access to EPA's metadata outside the EDG interface. The EDG REST Interface allows each users to query the catalog through a URL using REST syntax. Accessing individual metadata documents through their REST URLs, or groups of documents that match specific search criteria through a REST-formatted search URL, provides powerful functionality for searching, viewing, and sharing EDG records.

  4. The influence of house construction on the indoor abundance of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Howell, Paul I; Chadee, Dave D

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the potential effects of different house construction features on the indoor abundance of culicine mosquitoes in Trinidad (TT) and the Dominican Republic (DR) using xenomonitoring surveys. To assess these effects, a survey was taken of different homes in both countries alongside concurrent indoor resting mosquito collections to determine which features may be correlated with a greater abundance. Between June 2002 and April 2003 data were collected from 104 homes in TT and 121 homes in the DR. In TT, 61 (58.65%) of the homes were located in urban areas and 43 (41.35%) were located in rural villages, whereas in the DR 40 (33.06%) were located in rural areas, and 81 (66.94%) in the urban area. Overall, a total of 1,630 mosquitoes were collected in TT, of which 77% were Culex quinquefasciatus, whereas 459 mosquitoes were collected from the DR, of which 46% were Cx. quinquefasciatus. It was found that in TT and the DR the mean number of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes was greater in cement homes than in either wood or other poorer quality homes (TT cement 17.43, others 14.43; DR cement 4.24, others 3.41). In TT it was found that homes that had painted interiors were significantly more likely to have a high abundance of mosquitoes resting indoors compared to homes without painted interiors (OR 2.90, CI 1.09-8.72). Likewise, having a painted exterior was not significant, but only slightly so, in TT as having a detrimental effect (OR 2.14, CI 0.89-6.67). Similarly, having a painted interior or exterior was also found to be a predictor of a high abundance of indoor resting mosquitoes in the DR (interior OR 3.13, CI 1.41-6.92; exterior OR 1.97, CI .91-4.26). Reduced adult abundance in TT was correlated with homes being built on stilts, with more than four people sleeping in the home, and having a painted interior. In the DR, reductions were correlated with homes where residents slept under a bed net and with people who lived in a rural location. Changes

  5. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  6. An Indoor Space Partition Method and its Fingerprint Positioning Optimization Considering Pedestrian Accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Shi, Yong; Zheng, Xingyu; Long, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Fingerprint positioning method is generally the first choice in indoor navigation system due to its high accuracy and low cost. The accuracy depends on partition density to the indoor space. The accuracy will be higher with higher grid resolution. But the high grid resolution leads to significantly increasing work of the fingerprint data collection, processing and maintenance. This also might decrease the performance, portability and robustness of the navigation system. Meanwhile, traditional fingerprint positioning method use equational grid to partition the indoor space. While used for pedestrian navigation, sometimes a person can be located at the area where he or she cannot access. This paper studied these two issues, proposed a new indoor space partition method considering pedestrian accessibility, which can increase the accuracy of pedestrian position, and decrease the volume of the fingerprint data. Based on this proposed partition method, an optimized algorithm for fingerprint position was also designed. A across linker structure was used for fingerprint point index and matching. Experiment based on the proposed method and algorithm showed that the workload of fingerprint collection and maintenance were effectively decreased, and poisoning efficiency and accuracy was effectively increased

  7. A simple method for screening emission sources of carbonyl compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shohei; Kume, Kazunari; Horiike, Toshiyuki; Honma, Nobuyuki; Fusaya, Masahiro; Ohura, Takeshi; Amagai, Takashi

    2010-06-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from building and furnishing materials are frequently observed in high concentrations in indoor air. Nondestructive analytical methods that determine the main parameters influencing concentration of the chemical substances are necessary to screen for sources of VOC emissions. Toward this goal, we have developed a new flux sampler, referred to herein as an emission cell for simultaneous multi-sampling (ECSMS), that is used for screening indoor emission sources of VOCs and for determining the emission rates of these sources. Because the ECSMS is based on passive sampling, it can be easily used on-site at a low cost. Among VOCs, low-molecular-weight carbonyl compounds including formaldehyde are frequently detected at high concentrations in indoor environments. In this study, we determined the reliability of the ECSMS for the collection of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds emitted from wood-based composites of medium density fiberboards and particleboards. We then used emission rates determined by the ECSMS to predict airborne concentrations of formaldehyde emitted from a bookshelf in a large chamber, and these data were compared to formaldehyde concentrations that were acquired simultaneously by means of an active sampling method. The values obtained from the two methods were quite similar, suggesting that ECSMS measurement is an effective method for screening primary sources influencing indoor concentrations of formaldehyde. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Can we use indoor fungi as bioindicators of indoor air quality? Historical perspectives and open questions.

    PubMed

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-09-15

    Microbiological analysis of atmospheres witnessed substantial technical improvements in the 1940s to 1960s. May's cascade impactor and Hirst's spore trap allowed the counting of total cells but had limited capacity for identification of the spores. Bourdillon's sampler enabled the counting of cultivable fungi and their identification. A great step forward was given with the Andersen's six-stage impactor, which allowed discrimination of particles by size, counting of cultivable cells, and species identification. This period also witnessed the development of impingers, namely, the AGI-30 described by Malligo and Idoine, and the three-stage model designed by K. R. May. The 1990s to 2000s witnessed innovative discoveries on the biology of indoor fungi. Work carried out in several laboratories showed that indoor fungi can release groups of spores, individual spores and fungal fragments, and produce volatile organic compounds and mycotoxins. Integrating all findings a holistic interpretation emerged for the sick building syndrome. Healthy houses and buildings, with low indoor humidity, display no appreciable indoor fungal growth, and outdoor Cladosporium dominates. On the contrary, in sick houses and buildings, high indoor humidity allows fungal growth (mainly of Penicillium and Aspergillus), with concomitant release of conidia and fragments into the atmosphere. The intoxication probably results from a chronic exposure to volatile organic compounds and mycotoxins produced by Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Stachybotrys. Very clean atmospheres are difficult to study by conventional methods. However, some of these atmospheres, namely, those of hospital rooms, should be monitored. Sedimentary sampling, chemical methods applied to impinger's collection liquid, and selected molecular methods can be useful in this context. It was concluded that fungi can be useful indicators of indoor air quality and that it is important to deepen the studies of indoor atmospheres in order to

  9. Stereo Vision Tracking of Multiple Objects in Complex Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Marrón-Romera, Marta; García, Juan C.; Sotelo, Miguel A.; Pizarro, Daniel; Mazo, Manuel; Cañas, José M.; Losada, Cristina; Marcos, Álvaro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system capable of solving the problem of tracking multiple targets in a crowded, complex and dynamic indoor environment, like those typical of mobile robot applications. The proposed solution is based on a stereo vision set in the acquisition step and a probabilistic algorithm in the obstacles position estimation process. The system obtains 3D position and speed information related to each object in the robot’s environment; then it achieves a classification between building elements (ceiling, walls, columns and so on) and the rest of items in robot surroundings. All objects in robot surroundings, both dynamic and static, are considered to be obstacles but the structure of the environment itself. A combination of a Bayesian algorithm and a deterministic clustering process is used in order to obtain a multimodal representation of speed and position of detected obstacles. Performance of the final system has been tested against state of the art proposals; test results validate the authors’ proposal. The designed algorithms and procedures provide a solution to those applications where similar multimodal data structures are found. PMID:22163385

  10. Stereo vision tracking of multiple objects in complex indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Marrón-Romera, Marta; García, Juan C; Sotelo, Miguel A; Pizarro, Daniel; Mazo, Manuel; Cañas, José M; Losada, Cristina; Marcos, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system capable of solving the problem of tracking multiple targets in a crowded, complex and dynamic indoor environment, like those typical of mobile robot applications. The proposed solution is based on a stereo vision set in the acquisition step and a probabilistic algorithm in the obstacles position estimation process. The system obtains 3D position and speed information related to each object in the robot's environment; then it achieves a classification between building elements (ceiling, walls, columns and so on) and the rest of items in robot surroundings. All objects in robot surroundings, both dynamic and static, are considered to be obstacles but the structure of the environment itself. A combination of a Bayesian algorithm and a deterministic clustering process is used in order to obtain a multimodal representation of speed and position of detected obstacles. Performance of the final system has been tested against state of the art proposals; test results validate the authors' proposal. The designed algorithms and procedures provide a solution to those applications where similar multimodal data structures are found.

  11. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management

    PubMed Central

    Haleem Khan, A.A.; Mohan Karuppayil, S.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health. PMID:23961203

  12. A review on mathematical models for estimating indoor radon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Jinheum

    2016-01-01

    Radiation from natural sources is one of causes of the environmental diseases. Radon is the leading environmental cause of lung cancer next to smoking. To investigate the relationship between indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer, researchers must be able to estimate an individual's cumulative level of indoor radon exposure and to do so, one must first be able to assess indoor radon concentrations. In this article, we outline factors affecting indoor radon concentrations and review related mathematical models based on the mass balance equation and the differential equations. Furthermore, we suggest the necessities of applying time-dependent functions for indoor radon concentrations and developing stochastic models.

  13. 9 CFR 3.102 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cooling to protect the marine mammals from extremes of temperature, to provide for their good health and... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.102 Facilities, indoor. (a) Ambient temperature... be ventilated by natural or artificial means to provide a flow of fresh air for the marine mammals...

  14. Guide for Indoor Air Quality Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Influencing Indoor Air Quality ................... 5 Carbon Dioxide and Fresh Air ........................ 6 Relative Humidity...037, A Procedural Guide on Sick Building Syndrome (Liebhaber, 1987), and supplements AFOEHL Report 90-169, Recommended Carbon Dioxide and Relative...symptoms. The causes most implicated in the literature include comfort parameters such as carbon dioxide (C02) concentration, relative humidity

  15. 9 CFR 3.51 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.51 Section 3.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  16. Teacher's Guide to Indoor Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Health Center.

    This guide, designed for fourth- through sixth-grade classrooms, contains information teachers will need to teach an educational unit on indoor air quality. It draws on a variety of students' skills, including science, vocabulary, reasoning, math, and basic biology. Each lesson comes with suggested activities that highlight and reinforce what is…

  17. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  18. The Benefits of Improving Indoor Environmental Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamping, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    As school funding levels nationwide continue to plummet amid public demands for increased student performance, an expanding body of research in the field of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is providing greater statistical validity about the relationship between environmental conditions in school facilities and student achievement. Since the…

  19. Indoor Recreational Places as Glazed Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cold, Birgit

    This paper describes how creation of a varied, imaginative, and cultivated environment can recreate the pleasure of learning. The development of an indoor-outdoor, public-private, and half-climatized glazed (glass covered) space at the University of Dragvoll in Trondheim, Norway, is described. Well-planned glazed spaces can increase social…

  20. Indoor Radon Measurements in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, James S; Espinosa Garcia, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Mexico City is one of the most populated cities in the world with almost 22 million inhabitants, located at an altitude of 2200 m. The old city was founded on an ancient lake and the zone is known by its high seismicity; indoor radon determination is an important public health issue. In this paper the data of indoor radon levels in Mexico City, measured independently by two research groups, both using Nuclear Track Detector systems but different methodologies, are correlated. The measurements were done during similar exposure periods of time, at family houses from the political administrative regions of the city. The results indicate a correlation coefficient between the two sets of data of R = 0.886. Most of the differences between the two sets of data are inherent to houses having extreme (very high or very low indoor radon) included in the statistics of each group. The total average indoor radon found in Mexico City considering the two methods was 87 Bq m{sup -3}.

  1. When Poor Indoor Air Causes a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    An air quality problem originating with a steam leak in an improperly maintained heating system resulted in unanticipated expenses of $420,000 for the Lakeview (Michigan) School District. Indoor air quality complaints require immediate investigation and action; clear communication to parents, staff, and media representatives; competent…

  2. The Benefits of Improving Indoor Environmental Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamping, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    As school funding levels nationwide continue to plummet amid public demands for increased student performance, an expanding body of research in the field of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is providing greater statistical validity about the relationship between environmental conditions in school facilities and student achievement. Since the…

  3. A smart indoor air quality sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jin

    2006-03-01

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) has an important impact on public health. Currently, the indoor air pollution, caused by gas, particle, and bio-aerosol pollutants, is considered as the top five environmental risks to public health and has an estimated cost of $2 billion/year due to medical cost and lost productivity. Furthermore, current buildings are especially vulnerable for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent contamination because the central air conditioning and ventilation system serve as a nature carrier to spread the released agent from one location to the whole indoor environment within a short time period. To assure the IAQ and safety for either new or existing buildings, real time comprehensive IAQ and CBW measurements are needed. With the development of new sensing technologies, economic and reliable comprehensive IAQ and CBW sensors become promising. However, few studies exist that examine the design and evaluation issues related to IAQ and CBW sensor network. In this paper, relevant research areas including IAQ and CBW sensor development, demand control ventilation, indoor CBW sensor system design, and sensor system design for other areas such as water system protection, fault detection and diagnosis, are reviewed and summarized. Potential research opportunities for IAQ and CBW sensor system design and evaluation are discussed.

  4. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  5. CARBON ADSORPTION FOR INDOOR AIR CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of carbon adsorption for indoor air cleaning, focusing on the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using granular activated carbon (GAC). It addresses GAC performance in two directions. Initially, it presents performance measurements for GAC at...

  6. When Poor Indoor Air Causes a Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    An air quality problem originating with a steam leak in an improperly maintained heating system resulted in unanticipated expenses of $420,000 for the Lakeview (Michigan) School District. Indoor air quality complaints require immediate investigation and action; clear communication to parents, staff, and media representatives; competent…

  7. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Humans Indoors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaochen; Misztal, Pawel K; Nazaroff, William W; Goldstein, Allen H

    2016-12-06

    Research on the sources of indoor airborne chemicals has traditionally focused on outdoor air, building materials, furnishings, and activities such as smoking, cooking, and cleaning. Relatively little research has examined the direct role of occupant emissions, even though this source clearly contributes to indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and influences indoor chemistry. In this work, we quantify occupant-related gaseous VOC emissions in a university classroom using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Time-resolved concentrations of VOCs in room air and supply air were measured continuously during occupied and unoccupied periods. The emission factor for each human-emitted VOC was determined by dividing the occupant-associated source rate by the corresponding occupancy. Among the most abundant species detected were compounds associated with personal care products. Also prominent were human metabolic emissions, such as isoprene, methanol, acetone, and acetic acid. Additional sources included human skin oil oxidation by ozone, producing compounds such as 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO). By mass, human-emitted VOCs were the dominant source (57%) during occupied periods in a well-ventilated classroom, with ventilation supply air the second most important (35%), and indoor nonoccupant emissions the least (8%). The total occupant-associated VOC emission factor was 6.3 mg h(-1) per person.

  8. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  9. 9 CFR 3.51 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.51 Section 3.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at all times. Such facilities shall...

  10. 9 CFR 3.51 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.51 Section 3.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at all times. Such facilities shall...

  11. 9 CFR 3.51 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.51 Section 3.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at all times. Such facilities shall...

  12. 9 CFR 3.51 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.51 Section 3.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at all times. Such facilities shall...

  13. 9 CFR 3.126 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.126 Section 3.126 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Large Indoor Sports and Recreation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Todd

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of field houses, stadiums, arenas, and campus recreation centers. All are large indoor sports or recreation facilities. In general, stadiums and arenas are spectator facilities while field houses and campus recreation centers are primarily designed for activity. A college field house is a structure that…

  15. Human physiological responses to wooden indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Lian, Zhiwei; Wu, Yong

    2017-03-02

    Previous studies are mainly focused on non-wooden environments, whereas few are concerned with wooden ones. How wooden indoor environments impact the physiology of the occupants is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the distinct physiological responses to wooden and non-wooden indoor environments, assessed by physiological parameters tests including blood pressure, electrocardiogram measurements, electro-dermal activity, oxyhemoglobin saturation, skin temperature, and near distance vision. Twenty healthy adults participated in this experiment, and their physiological responses were evaluated in a 90minute investigation. The results illustrated that; less tension and fatigue were generated in the wooden rooms than in the non-wooden rooms when the participants did their work. In addition, the study also found that the wooden environments benefit the autonomic nervous system, respiratory system, and visual system. Moreover, wooden rooms play a valuable role in physiological regulation and ease function especially after a consecutive period of work. These results provide an experimental basis to support that wooden environment is beneficial to indoor occupants than the non-wooden indoor environment.

  16. Quantitative filter forensics for indoor particle sampling.

    PubMed

    Haaland, D; Siegel, J A

    2017-03-01

    Filter forensics is a promising indoor air investigation technique involving the analysis of dust which has collected on filters in central forced-air heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) or portable systems to determine the presence of indoor particle-bound contaminants. In this study, we summarize past filter forensics research to explore what it reveals about the sampling technique and the indoor environment. There are 60 investigations in the literature that have used this sampling technique for a variety of biotic and abiotic contaminants. Many studies identified differences between contaminant concentrations in different buildings using this technique. Based on this literature review, we identified a lack of quantification as a gap in the past literature. Accordingly, we propose an approach to quantitatively link contaminants extracted from HVAC filter dust to time-averaged integrated air concentrations. This quantitative filter forensics approach has great potential to measure indoor air concentrations of a wide variety of particle-bound contaminants. Future studies directly comparing quantitative filter forensics to alternative sampling techniques are required to fully assess this approach, but analysis of past research suggests the enormous possibility of this approach. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Exposure to asbestos and the indoor environment].

    PubMed

    Billon-Galland, M-A; Martinon, L; Andujar, P; Ameille, J; Paris, C; Brochard, P; Pairon, J-C

    2011-06-01

    A link between the inhalation of asbestos fibres and the outcome of benign and malignant respiratory diseases has been established from numerous epidemiological data in occupational settings. Occupational exposure limit values have been established with a gradual lowering of these over time. Conversely, there are few epidemiological data dealing with exposure in the indoor environment. However, numerous materials and products containing asbestos (MPCA) are present in the indoor environment, due to their widespread use in the construction sector in the years between 1960 and 1990. The regulations were changed from the late 1990s, leading to a systematic inventory of the presence of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. The aim of this manuscript is to clarify the different types of MPCA encountered in the indoor environment, to describe the techniques used to highlight asbestos depending on the nature of the materials, the regulatory requirements relating to asbestos in non-occupational situations, and to update on the state of knowledge on asbestos-related diseases in the indoor environment.

  18. Indoor Environment Program 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Much of this energy can be saved by reducing buildings` air infiltration and ventilation, since the heat load associated with these processes is about 13 quads per year. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants that originate indoors, reducing ventilation can cause undesirable side effects such as lowering indoor air quality and adversely affecting the health, comfort and productivity of building occupants. The purpose of this research is to increase the energy efficiency of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The research explores energy use and efficiency of buildings; building ventilation and infiltration; the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and exposure and risk assessment for indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}. The Program also conducts multidisciplinary studies on relationships between occupant health and comfort symptoms and factors within a building`s environment. Air infiltration and ventilation rates are measured and modeled for residential and commercial buildings in order to understand energy transport and thermal losses from various components of building shells and ventilation systems. Methods for reducing energy losses are based on these studies. The effectiveness of various ventilation systems for pollutant removal is also investigated. Methods for characterizing ventilation and building energy use are developed for experimental and applied uses.

  19. Indoor Environment Program 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Much of this energy can be saved by reducing buildings' air infiltration and ventilation, since the heat load associated with these processes is about 13 quads per year. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants that originate indoors, reducing ventilation can cause undesirable side effects such as lowering indoor air quality and adversely affecting the health, comfort and productivity of building occupants. The purpose of this research is to increase the energy efficiency of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The research explores energy use and efficiency of buildings; building ventilation and infiltration; the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and exposure and risk assessment for indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO[sub x]. The Program also conducts multidisciplinary studies on relationships between occupant health and comfort symptoms and factors within a building's environment. Air infiltration and ventilation rates are measured and modeled for residential and commercial buildings in order to understand energy transport and thermal losses from various components of building shells and ventilation systems. Methods for reducing energy losses are based on these studies. The effectiveness of various ventilation systems for pollutant removal is also investigated. Methods for characterizing ventilation and building energy use are developed for experimental and applied uses.

  20. Large Indoor Sports and Recreation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Todd

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of field houses, stadiums, arenas, and campus recreation centers. All are large indoor sports or recreation facilities. In general, stadiums and arenas are spectator facilities while field houses and campus recreation centers are primarily designed for activity. A college field house is a structure that…

  1. MANAGING INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of managing indoor air quality (IAQ) in the U.S. In contrast to outdoor air, which is regulated through various federal and state statutes, there is no unified and comprehensive governmental regulation of IAQ. Therefore, IAQ is managed through variou...

  2. MANAGING INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of managing indoor air quality (IAQ) in the U.S. In contrast to outdoor air, which is regulated through various federal and state statutes, there is no unified and comprehensive governmental regulation of IAQ. Therefore, IAQ is managed through variou...

  3. 9 CFR 3.126 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.126 Section 3.126 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine...

  4. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  5. Geothermal applications for highway rest areas

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, J.A.; Engen, I.A.

    1982-02-01

    A feasibility study, made for the South Dakota Department of Transportation, regarding geothermal applications for highway rest areas is described. This preliminary information indicated that the retrofit of the heating systems in the rest area structures was feasible. Specific design assumptions, equipment selections, costs, and other data are reported. This information is conceptual in nature.

  6. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  7. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  8. Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure.

    PubMed

    Hurraß, Julia; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A

    2017-04-01

    In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects. Apart from the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and the mycoses caused by mold, there is only sufficient evidence for the following associations between moisture/mold damages and different health effects: Allergic respiratory diseases, asthma (manifestation, progression, exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, exogenous allergic alveolitis and respiratory tract infections/bronchitis. In comparison to other environmental allergens, the sensitizing potential of molds is estimated to be low. Recent studies show a prevalence of sensitization of 3-10% in the total population of Europe. The evidence for associations to mucous membrane irritation and atopic eczema (manifestation, progression, exacerbation) is classified as limited or suspected. Inadequate or insufficient evidence for an association is given for COPD, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in children, rheumatism/arthritis, sarcoidosis, and cancer. The risk of infections from indoor molds is low for healthy individuals. Only molds that are capable to form toxins can cause intoxications. The environmental and growth conditions and especially the substrate determine whether toxin formation occurs, but indoor air concentrations are always very low. In the case of indoor moisture/mold damages, everyone can be affected by odor effects and

  9. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael D; Greicius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  10. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kathleen H

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis format. The importance of rest is discussed as a nursing intervention, and model cases are presented to clarify the concept. Three defining attributes of cognitive rest are established: freedom from physical or mental discomfort, abstinence from mental exertion, and mental and emotional balance. Empirical referents are given as well as a suggested protocol to enable school nurses to form cognitive rest and return-to-classroom protocols that can be adapted to individual school settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Clinical Applications of Resting State Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Michael D.; Greicius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm. PMID:20592951

  12. Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke emission levels in six Lebanese cities

    PubMed Central

    Saade, Georges; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Otrock, Zaher; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, Lebanon has failed to enact comprehensive clean indoor air laws despite ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which calls for the protection of non-smokers from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). Complicating the problem of SHS exposure in Lebanon is the widespread use of the tobacco water-pipe. While most research on SHS has involved cigarette smoking as a source of emissions, other sources, including tobacco water-pipes, may be an important contributor. Methods PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m3) were measured in a sample of 28 public venues located in six major Lebanese cities. Active smoker density (number of smokers/100 m3) was calculated for both water-pipe and cigarette smokers. Venues were then categorised as having higher density of water-pipe smokers or higher density of cigarette smokers, and resultant emission levels were compared between the two groups. Results Cigarette and water-pipe smoking was observed in 14 venues, while cigarette smoking only and water-pipe smoking only were found in 12 venues and one venue, respectively. Among all smoking-permitted venues, the mean PM2.5 concentration was 342 μg/m3. Venues with a higher density of water-pipe smokers (n =14) showed a similar median PM2.5 concentration (349 μg/m3) compared with venues with a higher density of cigarette smokers (n =13; 241 μg/m3; p=0.159). The mean PM2.5 concentration in the single venue with a voluntary smoke-free policy was 6 μg/m3. Conclusions Despite ratification of the FCTC in 2005, both cigarette and water-pipe smoking are commonly practised in enclosed public places throughout Lebanon, leading to unsafe levels of indoor particulate pollution. Smoke-free policies are needed in Lebanon to protect the public's health, and should apply to all forms of tobacco smoking. PMID:20378588

  13. Update on indoor tanning legislation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael; Geller, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been increasing over the past several decades, with notable increases in the pediatric and adolescent population. Indoor tanning has been proven carcinogenic and is associated with an increased risk of melanoma, especially when used at a young age. The incidence and frequency of usage of indoor tanning in the United States is high, particularly among adolescents, with roughly 20% reporting using a tanning bed at least once. The Food and Drug Administration recently made changes to its regulation of indoor tanning devices, reclassifying them as class II devices necessitating stricter premarket review, and strengthened its warnings for these devices; however, federal regulation of indoor tanning is still limited and most regulation of indoor tanning in minors is done on a state-by-state basis. Three types of legislation exist: (1) absolute ban on minor use of indoor tanning devices, (2) age restriction of minor usage of indoor tanning devices other than age 18 years, and (3) requirement of parental consent. These regulations are inconsistent, and enforcement efforts are often limited. In this contribution, we provide an update on the prevalence of indoor tanning, the risks associated with indoor tanning, and the current federal and state legislation and enforcement efforts in the United States with regard to indoor tanning. Although efforts are being made to ban all use of indoor tanning devices by minors, there is still more work to be done before this becomes a reality in the United States.

  14. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations☆

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures’ responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 °C, 13.8 °C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings PMID:22071034

  15. Source characterization of BTEX in indoor microenvironments in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Lee, S. C.; Li, W. M.; Cao, J. J.

    Levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylenes (BTEX) in different indoor microenvironments such as offices, homes, schools, shopping malls and restaurants were investigated in Hong Kong. Different indoor environments including six offices, six homes, six air-conditioned classrooms, six shopping malls and four restaurants were selected in Hong Kong for indoor and outdoor BTEX measurement. This study is aimed to determine qualitatively or semi-quantitatively sources of BTEX. Source identification is possible by determining the indoor/outdoor ( I/ O) concentration ratio. An I/ O ratio>1 was considered as an indicator for indoor sources. For BTEX in different indoor environments except for schools, some of the pollutants were dominated by outdoor sources while others mainly originated from indoor sources. In schools, however, the BTEX predominantly originated from outdoor sources. The potential sources of BTEX in indoor environments were also identified by using principal component analysis and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The number of variables was reduced to two and one new factors for indoor and outdoor data, respectively. These factors were related to certain source characteristics. It is shown that the type of land use, the use of printers, the traffic condition, the cooking style, the type of gas stove, smoking and internal decoration strongly influence the indoor concentrations of BTEX ( p<0.05). Significant difference of BTEX concentrations in the five types of indoor environments were also observed ( p<0.05).

  16. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  17. USE OF REAL-TIME LIGHT SCATTERING DATA TO ESTIMATE THE CONTRIBUTION OF INFILTRATED AND INDOOR-GENERATED PARTICLES TO INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of outdoor particulate matter (PM) to residential indoor concentrations is currently not well understood. Most importantly, separating indoor PM into indoor- and outdoor-generated components will greatly enhance our knowledge of the outdoor contribution to tot...

  18. USE OF REAL-TIME LIGHT SCATTERING DATA TO ESTIMATE THE CONTRIBUTION OF INFILTRATED AND INDOOR-GENERATED PARTICLES TO INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of outdoor particulate matter (PM) to residential indoor concentrations is currently not well understood. Most importantly, separating indoor PM into indoor- and outdoor-generated components will greatly enhance our knowledge of the outdoor contribution to tot...

  19. Indoor air problems in hospitals: a challenge for occupational health.

    PubMed

    Hellgren, Ulla-Maija; Reijula, Kari

    2011-03-01

    Indoor air problems, caused by moisture damage and limited ventilation, have been detected in Finnish hospital buildings. A recent survey found that hospital personnel experience indoor air-related symptoms more often than office workers. The aim of this study was to assess the role, capabilities, and methods of hospital occupational health professionals in handling indoor air problems. Data were generated through semi-structured interviews. Representatives of occupational health, occupational safety, and infection control were interviewed in seven central hospitals. The data were analyzed using qualitative methods. According to interviewed professionals, indoor air problems are difficult to tackle. The evaluation of health risks and risk communication were considered particularly difficult. A uniform action model for resolving indoor air problems should be created. An interprofessional indoor air group to handle indoor air problems should be created in all hospitals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, S.M.; Karol, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

  1. Sex‐specific responses of bone metabolism and renal stone risk during bed rest

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Heer, Martina; Hargens, Alan R.; Macias, Brandon R.; Hudson, Edgar K.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to directly assess sex differences in bone loss, bone biochemistry, and renal stone risk in bed rest. Bed rest simulates some spaceflight effects on human physiology and can be used to address the potential existence of sex‐specific effects on bone metabolism and renal stone risk in space. We combined data from the control subjects in five head‐down‐tilt bed rest studies (combined n = 50 men, 24 women) of differing durations (14–90 days). All subjects were healthy volunteers. Mean age was 35 ± 9 years for women and 33 ± 8 years for men. The main outcome measures were bone density and biochemistry, and renal stone risk chemistry. Before bed rest began, men had higher bone mineral density and content (P < 0.001), and excreted more biomarkers of bone resorption and calcium per day than did women (P < 0.05). These differences remained during bed rest. A number of urine chemistry analytes increased (e.g., calcium) or decreased (e.g., sodium, citrate, and urine volume) significantly for men and women during bed rest. These changes may predispose men to higher stone risk. Men and women do not have substantially different responses to the skeletal unloading of bed rest. PMID:25107989

  2. Indoor Environment Program - 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Indoor Environment Program

    1996-11-01

    The forty-five chemists, physicists, biologists, architects, engineers, staff, and students of the Indoor Environment Program are all working to solve the problems of indoor air quality, health, comfort, and energy use associated with the indoor environment. A common thread throughout this work is the importance of ventilation--both for its role in supporting human health and comfort as well as for its liability in requiring large amounts of energy to heat and cool it. The importance of understanding these interactions can be illustrated by two examples: the health and productivity of workers (Fisk and Rosenfeld, 1996) and the performance of sensitive equipment in clean room environments (Faulkner, et d., 1996). During the past year, we estimated the magnitudes of health and productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments. The ratio of the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments to the costs of the improvements ranges between 20 and 50. A second example is from our Clean Room Energy Efficiency Study: Clean rooms utilize large amounts of electricity to operate fans that recirculate air at very high flow rates through particle filters. Usually, the fans operate continuously at full speed, even when the clean room is unused. To reduce the energy use in a research clean room, the rate of air recirculation was controlled in response to real-time measurements of particle concentration. With this new control system, fan energy use decreased by 65% to 85% while maintaining particle concentrations below the allowable limits except during occasional one-minute periods. The estimated payback period for this technology is one to four years.

  3. Recovery to resting metabolic state after walking.

    PubMed

    Frankenfield, David C; Coleman, Abigail

    2009-11-01

    Metabolic rate is usually measured in a resting state. To achieve this, a period of up to 30 minutes is given to recover from walking prior to the test. A work group from the American Dietetic Association recommends that 10 to 20 minutes is sufficient to achieve rest, but supporting data are limited. The purpose of this prospective observational study then was to determine how much time is needed for adults to recover to rest after walking 300 meters. Each participant's metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry for 30 minutes after a 30-minute rest. The participant then walked 300 meters on a measured course, and metabolic rate was measured again for 30 minutes. Recovery to rest was considered to have occurred when the measured metabolic rate returned to a level of less than 6% above the resting measurement. Forty healthy ambulatory adults completed this study. Analysis of variance indicated that after a 300-meter walk, resting level of metabolic rate was achieved by the 10th minute of rest. However, it took 20 minutes for 95% of all participants to meet the 6% threshold (the remaining 5% who did not reach the threshold were observed to be moving during the measurement). The results of this study indicate that if a person lies still, recovery to rest after walking occurs by 20 minutes, validating the recommendation made by the expert panel of the American Dietetic Association's work group on indirect calorimetry. Rest periods of 30 minutes are not required, but the person should be observed for movement.

  4. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, F.; Calamari, L.; Frazzi, E.

    2016-04-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  5. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn.

    PubMed

    Calegari, F; Calamari, L; Frazzi, E

    2016-04-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  6. A new application of high-efficient silver salts-based photocatalyst under natural indoor weak light for wastewater cleaning.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xia; Teng, Fei; Zhao, Yunxuan; Xu, Juan; Xu, Chuangye; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qiqi; Paul, Shashi; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Mindong; Zhao, Xudong

    2015-09-15

    As a high-quantum-efficiency photocatalyst, the serious photo-corrosion of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4), limits the practical applications in water purification and challenges us. Herein, Ag3PO4 is found to have a high stability under natural indoor weak light irradiation, suggesting that we can employ it by adopting a new application strategy. In our studies, rhodamine B (RhB, cationic dye), methyl orange (MO, anionic dye) and RhB-MO mixture aqueous solutions are used as the probing reaction for the degradation of organic wastewater. It is found that RhB, MO and RhB-MO can be completely degraded after 28 h under natural indoor weak light irradiation, indicating that multi-component organic contaminants can be efficiently degraded by Ag3PO4 under natural indoor weak light irradiation. The density of natural indoor weak light is measured to be 72cd, which is merely one-thousandth of 300 W xenon lamp (68.2 × 10(3)cd). Most importantly, Ag3PO4 shows a high stability under natural indoor weak light irradiation, demonstrated by the formation of fairly rare Ag. Furthermore, we also investigate the influence of inorganic ions on organic dyes degradation. It shows that the Cl(-) and Cr(6+) ions with high concentrations in wastewater have significantly decreased the degradation rate. From the viewpoint of energy saving and stability, this study shows us that we can utilize the Ag-containing photocatalysts under natural indoor weak light, which could be extended to indoor air cleaning process.

  7. Nasolabial angle at rest and upon smiling.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Janson, Guilherme; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cardoso, Camila Lopes

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the mean and SD of the nasolabial angle (NLA) and the linear measure pronasale (Prn)-A' at rest and upon smiling and 2) to determine the difference between smile and rest in participants with normal occlusion and facial harmony. The sample consisted of 40 white Brazilian participants (20 of each gender) aged 20 to 30 years and with normal occlusion, a pleasant profile, and facial harmony. The measures NLA and Prn-A' were analyzed in profile photographs at rest and during smile, with a millimeter ruler in front of the profile during use of the Dolphin software. The statistical analysis included dependent t tests to compare the rest and smiling variables. The mean of the NLA at rest was 104.93°; it was 110.67° during smile; and the difference between them was statistically significant, with a mean of 5.74°. The mean of the linear variable Prn-A' at rest was 23.25 mm, whereas during smile it was 24.04 mm, and the difference between them was statistically significant, with a mean of 0.79 mm. The variability in the NLA and Prn-A' at rest and upon smiling was found to be significant in a normal sample, and it should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the treatment planning for sagittal dentoskeletal deformities. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Indoor air quality in homes, offices and restaurants in Korean urban areas—indoor/outdoor relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Kim, Yoon-Shin; Perry, Roger

    Air quality monitoring was carried out to collect data on the levels of various indoor and ambient air constituents in two cities in Korea (Seoul and Taegu). Sampling was conducted simultaneously indoors and outdoors at six residences, six offices and six restaurants in each city during summer 1994 and winter 1994-1995. Measured pollutants were respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, in order to evaluate the effect of smoking on indoor air quality, analyses of parameters associated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were undertaken, which are nicotine, ultraviolet (UVPM), fluorescence (FPM) and solanesol particulate matter (SolPM). The results of this study have confirmed the importance of ambient air in determining the quality of air indoors in two major Korean cities. The majority of VOCs measured in both indoor and outdoor environments were derived from outdoor sources, probably motor vehicles. Benzene and other VOC concentrations were much higher during the winter months than the summer months and were not significantly greater in the smoking sites examined. Heating and cooking practices, coupled with generally inadequate ventilation, also were shown to influence indoor air quality. In smoking sites, ETS appears to be a minor contributor to VOC levels as no statistically significant relationships were identified with ETS components and VOCs, whereas very strong correlations were found between indoor and outdoor levels of vehicle-related pollutants. The average contribution of ETS to total RSP concentrations was estimated to range from 10 to 20%.

  9. Levels and indoor-outdoor relationships of PM 10 and soluble inorganic ions in Beirut, Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, N. A.; Atallah, M.; Al-Kadamany, G.

    2009-03-01

    PM 10, which is considered among the major indoor and outdoor pollutants, was measured in several residential homes and corresponding outdoor environments in the Great Beirut area over the summer and winter seasons of 2005. Few studies on PM 10 levels indoors in Beirut are restricted to short-term periods in public places. In this study, 78 PM 10 samples were collected on Teflon filters using an active sampler at a flow rate of 5 L/min. PM 10 mass concentrations were determined by gravimetric analysis, and inorganic chemical speciation was carried out using ion chromatography. Outdoors, PM 10 elevated mass concentrations correlated well with high traffic density. The observed high intra-site temporal variation (minimum of 34 and a maximum of 120 μg/m 3) was attributed to the dynamic air masses passing over the Eastern Mediterranean region. Indoors, PM 10 levels were highly affected by outdoor levels, but were enhanced over those of outdoors when smoking activities were recorded. In winter, the overall average outdoor concentration dropped by 19%, whereas the average indoor concentration increased by 50% over the ones calculated for the summer. Ventilation and air exchange rates were found to be approximately equal to unity during summer since most doors and windows remain open. This rate drops to almost half during winter. As for particulate ions namely nitrates and sulfates, the former showed concentrations that are higher than the values reported in the region in both winter and summer seasons, suggesting high emissions from local vehicles. However, SO 42- average concentrations were comparable to values reported in other studies conducted in Eastern Mediterranean sites. Soluble particulate nitrates and sulfates exhibited similar indoor and outdoor levels in non-smoking homes (IO ~ 1), but in smoking homes the drop in nitrate concentrations reached around 70%, indicating a high anionic reactivity with tobacco smokes.

  10. Problems In Indoor Mapping and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanova, S.; Sithole, G.; Nakagawa, M.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-11-01

    Research in support of indoor mapping and modelling (IMM) has been active for over thirty years. This research has come in the form of As-Built surveys, Data structuring, Visualisation techniques, Navigation models and so forth. Much of this research is founded on advancements in photogrammetry, computer vision and image analysis, computer graphics, robotics, laser scanning and many others. While IMM used to be the privy of engineers, planners, consultants, contractors, and designers, this is no longer the case as commercial enterprises and individuals are also beginning to apply indoor models in their business process and applications. There are three main reasons for this. Firstly, the last two decades have seen greater use of spatial information by enterprises and the public. Secondly, IMM has been complimented by advancements in mobile computing and internet communications, making it easier than ever to access and interact with spatial information. Thirdly, indoor modelling has been advanced geometrically and semantically, opening doors for developing user-oriented, context-aware applications. This reshaping of the public's attitude and expectations with regards to spatial information has realised new applications and spurred demand for indoor models and the tools to use them. This paper examines the present state of IMM and considers the research areas that deserve attention in the future. In particular the paper considers problems in IMM that are relevant to commercial enterprises and the general public, groups this paper expects will emerge as the greatest users IMM. The subject of indoor modelling and mapping is discussed here in terms of Acquisitions and Sensors, Data Structures and Modelling, Visualisation, Applications, Legal Issues and Standards. Problems are discussed in terms of those that exist and those that are emerging. Existing problems are those that are currently being researched. Emerging problems are those problems or demands that are

  11. Mathematical models for predicting indoor air quality from smoking activity.

    PubMed

    Ott, W R

    1999-05-01

    Much progress has been made over four decades in developing, testing, and evaluating the performance of mathematical models for predicting pollutant concentrations from smoking in indoor settings. Although largely overlooked by the regulatory community, these models provide regulators and risk assessors with practical tools for quantitatively estimating the exposure level that people receive indoors for a given level of smoking activity. This article reviews the development of the mass balance model and its application to predicting indoor pollutant concentrations from cigarette smoke and derives the time-averaged version of the model from the basic laws of conservation of mass. A simple table is provided of computed respirable particulate concentrations for any indoor location for which the active smoking count, volume, and concentration decay rate (deposition rate combined with air exchange rate) are known. Using the indoor ventilatory air exchange rate causes slightly higher indoor concentrations and therefore errs on the side of protecting health, since it excludes particle deposition effects, whereas using the observed particle decay rate gives a more accurate prediction of indoor concentrations. This table permits easy comparisons of indoor concentrations with air quality guidelines and indoor standards for different combinations of active smoking counts and air exchange rates. The published literature on mathematical models of environmental tobacco smoke also is reviewed and indicates that these models generally give good agreement between predicted concentrations and actual indoor measurements.

  12. An Automated 3d Indoor Topological Navigation Network Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), 3D indoor modelling and 3D indoor navigation models. In this paper, an automated 3D topological indoor network generated from inaccurate 3D building models is proposed. In a normal scenario, 3D indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate 3D models with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The modelling results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.

  13. Study of Relation between Indoor Radon in Multi-storey Building and Outdoor Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Muellerova, Monika; Holy, Karol

    2010-01-05

    A continuous radon monitoring in indoor and outdoor air was carried out for the period of one year. The relation between indoor radon and indoor-outdoor temperature difference, as well as between indoor radon and outdoor radon was investigated. The best correlation was obtained between indoor and outdoor radon concentrations.

  14. 14 CFR 117.25 - Rest period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimum of 8 uninterrupted hours of sleep opportunity. (f) If a flightcrew member determines that a rest period under paragraph (e) of this section will not provide eight uninterrupted hours of sleep...

  15. Resting heart rate estimation using PIR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapu, Hemanth; Saraswat, Kavisha; Ozturk, Yusuf; Cetin, A. Enis

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a non-invasive and non-contact system of estimating resting heart rate (RHR) using a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor. This infrared system monitors and records the chest motion of a subject using the analog output signal of the PIR sensor. The analog output signal represents the composite motion due to inhale-exhale process with magnitude much larger than the minute vibrations of heartbeat. Since the acceleration of the heart activity is much faster than breathing the second derivative of the PIR sensor signal monitoring the chest of the subject is used to estimate the resting heart rate. Experimental results indicate that this ambient sensor can measure resting heart rate with a chi-square significance level of α = 0.05 compared to an industry standard PPG sensor. This new system provides a low cost and an effective way to estimate the resting heart rate, which is an important biological marker.

  16. Is bed rest following embryo transfer necessary?

    PubMed

    Sharif, K; Afnan, M; Lashen, H; Elgendy, M; Morgan, C; Sinclair, L

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of no bed rest following ET on the results of an IVF program. Historical cohort-control study. A University-based assisted conception unit. One thousand and nineteen (1019) IVF cycles were performed at our unit from June 1994 to August 1996. The historical control consisted of all the 19,697 IVF cycles reported in the United Kingdom national database from April 1994 to March 1995. No bed rest following ET in our patients. Pregnancy rate (PR) and clinical PR per cycles started and per ET procedure. The clinical PR per ET was significantly higher in our patients than in the national data (30% versus 22.9%), as was the clinical PR per cycle (23.5% versus 18.6%). The implantation rate in our patients was 17.2%. The favorable PR in our patients despite no bed rest following ET suggests the bed rest is not necessary.

  17. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  18. Effects Of Exercise During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, Edmund M.

    1993-01-01

    Pair of reports adds to growing body of knowledge of physical deconditioning caused by prolonged bed rest and effectiveness of various exercise regimens in preserving or restoring fitness. Major objective to determine what regimens to prescribe to astronauts before flight, during prolonged weightlessness, and immediately before returning to Earth. Knowledge also benefits patients confined by illness or injury. First report discusses experiment on effects of two types of periodic, intense, short-duration exercise during bed rest. Experiment also discussed in documents "Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest" (ARC-12190), and "Isotonic And Isokinetic Exercise During Bed Rest" (ARC-12180). Second report reviews knowledge acquired with view toward development of protocols for exercise regimens.

  19. Examining antecedents of clean indoor air policy support: implications for campaigns promoting clean indoor air.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Bates, Benjamin R; Romina, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to examine the association between knowledge of the risks associated with environmental tobacco smoke and voter support for clean indoor air policies. In doing so, 2 antecedents were employed to enhance understanding of this relationship: attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, differences between nonsmokers and smokers were assessed across the aforementioned variables. The study sampled participants (N = 550) living in the Appalachian foothills as a means of conducting formative research prior to developing messages promoting clean indoor air policies. The study controlled for tobacco usage, age, biological sex, and income. Results revealed that awareness of risk is a good predictor of attitudes and social norms, and in return, attitudes and social norms are good predictors of support for clean indoor air policies. In addition, results reveal that nonsmokers maintain a significantly stronger belief in the dangers associated with environmental tobacco smoke, as well as more favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and support for clean indoor air policies when compared with smokers. These findings are discussed with a focus on message design strategies for practitioners and academics with interests in promoting clean indoor air policies.

  20. Feature analysis for indoor radar target classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufler, Travis D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyzes the spectral features from human beings and indoor clutter for building and tuning Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers for the purpose of classifying stationary human targets. The spectral characteristics were obtained through simulations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) techniques where the radar cross section (RCS) of humans and indoor clutter objects were captured over a wide range of frequencies, polarizations, aspect angles, and materials. Additionally, experimental data was obtained using a vector network analyzer. Two different feature sets for class discrimination are used from the acquired target and clutter RCS spectral data sets. The first feature vectors consist of the raw spectral characteristics, while the second set of feature vectors are statistical features extracted over a set frequency interval. Utilizing variables of frequency and polarization, a SVM classifier can be trained to classify unknown targets as a human or clutter. Classification accuracy over 80% can be effectively achieved given appropriate features.

  1. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  2. ReSTful OSGi Web Applications Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja; Norris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation accompanies a tutorial on the ReSTful (Representational State Transfer) web application. Using Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi), ReST uses HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites. It also uses Eclipse for the rapid development, the Eclipse debugger, the test application, and the ease of export to production servers.

  3. ReSTful OSGi Web Applications Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja; Norris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation accompanies a tutorial on the ReSTful (Representational State Transfer) web application. Using Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi), ReST uses HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites. It also uses Eclipse for the rapid development, the Eclipse debugger, the test application, and the ease of export to production servers.

  4. Indoor waypoint navigation via magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Condon, John P; Sheikh, Suneel I; Hedin, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    A wide assortment of technologies have been proposed to construct indoor navigation services for the blind and vision impaired. Proximity-based systems and multilateration systems have been successfully demonstrated and employed. Despite the technical success of these technologies, broad adoption has been limited due to their significant infrastructure and maintenance costs. An alternative approach utilizing the indoor magnetic signatures inherent to steel-frame buildings solves the infrastructure cost problem; in effect the existing building is the location system infrastructure. Although magnetic indoor navigation does not require the installation of dedicated hardware, the dedication of resources to produce precise survey maps of magnetic anomalies represents a further barrier to adoption. In the present work an alternative leader-follower form of waypoint-navigation system has been developed that works without surveyed magnetic maps of a site. Instead the wayfarer's magnetometer readings are compared to a pre-recorded magnetic "leader" trace containing magnetic data collected along a route and annotated with waypoint information. The goal of the navigation system is to correlate the follower's magnetometer data with the leader's to trigger audio cues at precise points along the route, thus providing location-based guidance to the user. The system should also provide early indications of off-route conditions. As part of the research effort a smartphone based application was created to record and annotate leader traces with audio and numeric data at waypoints of interest, and algorithms were developed to determine (1) when the follower reaches a waypoint and (2) when the follower goes off-route. A navigation system utilizing this technology would enable a low-cost indoor navigation system capable of replaying audio annotations at precise locations along pre-recorded routes.

  5. Indoor air quality and health in schools.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana Maria da Conceição; Cardoso, Massano

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations.

  6. Indoor air quality and health in schools*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria da Conceição; Cardoso, Massano

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Methods: We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. Results: In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Conclusions: Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations. PMID:25029649

  7. Reduction of Radon Progeny in Indoor Air.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    methods that can be used to lower radon progeny concentra- tions in homes. V.- Radon in Indoor Air. Radon -222 occurs midway through the Uranium -238...as metals and remain at the site of their formation, radon is a noble gas and is thus able to diffuse away from its forma- tion site. It is through... radon progeny reduction by forced ventilation alone was evaluated because the 1/4 inch metal pre-filter screens for this air cleaner remained installed

  8. Maximizing Spatial Reuse in Indoor Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    This is the most straightforward solution that most exist- ing indoor directional deployments use (Xirrus sectored WiFi array [8], Phocus array [3...Directional Antenna Systems Existing commercial directional antenna systems (Xirrus sectored WiFi array [8], Phocus ar- ray [3], Ruckus BeamFlex [5...a network with rate diversity. We satisfy these constraints by fragmenting and padding data frames to the airtime required for transmitting 1500 byte

  9. Indoor location estimation using radio beacons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Uzair; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoug; Park, Chongkug

    2007-12-01

    We present a simple location estimation method for developing radio beacon based location system in the indoor environments. It employs an online learning approach for making large scale location systems in a short time collaboratively. The salient features of our method are low memory requirements and simple computations which make it suitable for both distributed location-aware applications based on client-server model as well as privacy sensitive applications residing on stand alone devices.

  10. Calculating Least Risk Paths in 3d Indoor Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanclooster, A.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Fack, V.; Van de Weghe, N.

    2013-08-01

    Over the last couple of years, research on indoor environments has gained a fresh impetus; more specifically applications that support navigation and wayfinding have become one of the booming industries. Indoor navigation research currently covers the technological aspect of indoor positioning and the modelling of indoor space. The algorithmic development to support navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. However, alternative algorithms for outdoor navigation have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behaviour (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). These algorithms are currently restricted to outdoor applications. The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). As such, the clarity and easiness of route instructions is of paramount importance when distributing indoor routes. A shortest or fastest path indoors not necessarily aligns with the cognitive mapping of the building. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-storey building. The results of several least risk path calculations are compared to the shortest paths in indoor environments in terms of total length, improvement in route description complexity and number of turns. Several scenarios are tested in this comparison: paths covering a single floor, paths crossing several building wings and/or floors. Adjustments to the algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the

  11. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  12. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  13. Adsorption of Phthalates on Impervious Indoor Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaoxing; Eichler, Clara M A; Leng, Weinan; Cox, Steven S; Marr, Linsey C; Little, John C

    2017-02-13

    Sorption of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) onto interior surfaces, often referred to as the "sink effect", and their subsequent re-emission significantly affect the fate and transport of indoor SVOCs and the resulting human exposure. Unfortunately, experimental challenges and the large number of SVOC/surface combinations have impeded progress in understanding sorption of SVOCs on indoor surfaces. An experimental approach based on a diffusion model was thus developed to determine the surface/air partition coefficient K of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on typical impervious surfaces including aluminum, steel, glass, and acrylic. The results indicate that surface roughness plays an important role in the adsorption process. Although larger data sets are needed, the ability to predict K could be greatly improved by establishing the nature of the relationship between surface roughness and K for clean indoor surfaces. Furthermore, different surfaces exhibit nearly identical K values after being exposed to kitchen grime with values that are close to those reported for the octanol/air partition coefficient. This strongly supports the idea that interactions between gas-phase DEHP and soiled surfaces have been reduced to interactions with an organic film. Collectively, the results provide an improved understanding of equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs on impervious surfaces.

  14. Modelling of Indoor Environments Using Lindenmayer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, M.

    2017-09-01

    Documentation of the "as-built" state of building interiors has gained a lot of interest in the recent years. Various data acquisition methods exist, e.g. the extraction from photographed evacuation plans using image processing or, most prominently, indoor mobile laser scanning. Due to clutter or data gaps as well as errors during data acquisition and processing, automatic reconstruction of CAD/BIM-like models from these data sources is not a trivial task. Thus it is often tried to support reconstruction by general rules for the perpendicularity and parallelism which are predominant in man-made structures. Indoor environments of large, public buildings, however, often also follow higher-level rules like symmetry and repetition of e.g. room sizes and corridor widths. In the context of reconstruction of city city elements (e.g. street networks) or building elements (e.g. façade layouts), formal grammars have been put to use. In this paper, we describe the use of Lindenmayer systems - which originally have been developed for the computer-based modelling of plant growth - to model and reproduce the layout of indoor environments in 2D.

  15. Higher prevalence of breathlessness in elderly exposed to indoor aldehydes and VOCs in a representative sample of French dwellings.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Malek; Billionnet, Cécile; Baiz, Nour; Derbez, Mickaël; Kirchner, Séverine; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore respiratory health effects of indoor exposures to aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in elderly living in a population-based representative sample of French dwellings and to compare them to the rest of the occupants of the dwellings. Twenty VOCs were objectively measured in 490 main dwellings. The respiratory conditions were assessed through a standardized questionnaire in 1012 inhabitants aged over 15 years, 144 of whom were aged over 65 years. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model the relationship between respiratory health outcomes and air pollutants concentrations using the median value of the distribution to define elevated exposure. Similar levels of indoor air pollutants were found in elderly and others. However, associations between breathlessness and living in dwellings with elevated concentrations of toluene and o-xylene respectively were statistically significant in elderly but not in the rest of the population (adjusted odds ratios (AOR(95% confidence interval) = 3.36(1.13, 9.98) and 2.85(1.06, 7.68) in elderly vs. 0.91(0.59, 1.39) and 0.79( 0.47, 1.34) in the others respectively). A more pronounced effect of n-decane on past year breathlessness was observed in case of poor ventilation in the dwellings. Our results showed a higher risk of breathlessness in elderly exposed to indoor air pollution than in the rest of the exposed population. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether this is related to frailty in elderly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  17. Indoor-outdoor relationships of respirable sulfates and particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockery, Douglas W.; Spengler, John D.

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of respirable particulates and sulfates have been measured in 68 homes in six cities for at least 1 yr. A conservation of mass model was derived describing indoor concentrations in terms of outdoor concentrations, infiltration and indoor sources. The measured data were analysed to identify important building characteristics and to quantify their effect. The mean infiltration rate of outdoor fine particulates was found to be approximately 70%. Cigarette smoking was found to be the dominant indoor source of respirable particulates. Increased indoor concentrations of sulfates were found to be associated with smoking and also with gas stoves. The effect of full air conditioning of the building was to reduce infiltration of outdoor fine particulates by about one half, while preventing dilution and purging of internally generated pollutants. The model for indoor respirable particulate and sulfate levels was found to compare well with measurements.

  18. On-body calibration and measurements using personal radiofrequency exposimeters in indoor diffuse and specular environments.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh, Reza; Thielens, Arno; Bamba, Aliou; Kone, Lamine; Gaillot, Davy Paul; Lienard, Martine; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, response of personal exposimeters (PEMs) is studied under diffuse field exposure in indoor environments. To this aim, both numerical simulations, using finite-difference time-domain method, and calibration measurements were performed in the range of 880-5875 MHz covering 10 frequency bands in Belgium. Two PEMs were mounted on the body of a human male subject and calibrated on-body in an anechoic chamber (non-diffuse) and a reverberation chamber (RC) (diffuse fields). This was motivated by the fact that electromagnetic waves in indoor environments have both specular and diffuse components. Both calibrations show that PEMs underestimate actual incident electromagnetic fields. This can be compensated by using an on-body response. Moreover, it is shown that these responses are different in anechoic chamber and RC. Therefore, it is advised to use an on-body calibration in an RC in future indoor PEM measurements where diffuse fields are present. Using the response averaged over two PEMs reduced measurement uncertainty compared to single PEMs. Following the calibration, measurements in a realistic indoor environment were done for wireless fidelity (WiFi-5G) band. Measured power density values are maximally 8.9 mW/m(2) and 165.8 μW/m(2) on average. These satisfy reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection in 1998. Power density values obtained by applying on-body calibration in RC are higher than values obtained from no body calibration (only PEMs) and on-body calibration in anechoic room, by factors of 7.55 and 2.21, respectively. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:298-309, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Are Auditory Hallucinations Related to the Brain's Resting State Activity? A 'Neurophenomenal Resting State Hypothesis'

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While several hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been suggested, the exact role of the recently highlighted intrinsic resting state activity of the brain remains unclear. Based on recent findings, we therefore developed what we call the 'resting state hypotheses' of AVH. Our hypothesis suggest that AVH may be traced back to abnormally elevated resting state activity in auditory cortex itself, abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by anterior cortical midline regions as part of the default-mode network, and neural confusion between auditory cortical resting state changes and stimulus-induced activity. We discuss evidence in favour of our 'resting state hypothesis' and show its correspondence with phenomenal, i.e., subjective-experiential features as explored in phenomenological accounts. Therefore I speak of a 'neurophenomenal resting state hypothesis' of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25598821

  20. Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

    2006-05-01

    Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

  1. Indoor Tanning Practices of Colorado High School Students.

    PubMed

    Karimkhani, Chante; Jadotte, Yuri T; Townley, Cate; Collins, Nicole; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the 2013 Colorado Youth Risk Behavior Survey assessed indoor tanning practices of Colorado high school students. The survey revealed that girls are more likely to use indoor tanning devices than boys and that the majority of students who tan do so once or twice annually. Health care professionals and policymakers should focus on these groups in efforts to curtail indoor tanning and the associated risk of skin cancer in youth.

  2. Landmark-Based Indoor Positioning for Visually Impaired Individuals.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Zhang, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2014-10-01

    Position localization is essential for visually impaired individuals to live independently. Comparing with outdoor environment in which the global positioning system (GPS) can be utilized, indoor positioning is more difficult due to the absence of the GPS signal and complex or unfamiliar building structure. In this paper, a novel landmark-based assistive system is presented for indoor positioning. Our preliminary tests in several buildings indicate that this system can provide accurate indoor location information.

  3. Organic compounds in indoor air—their relevance for perceived indoor air quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkoff, Peder; Nielsen, Gunnar D.

    It is generally believed that indoor air pollution, one way or another may cause indoor air complaints. However, any association between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations and increase of indoor climate complaints, like the sick-building syndrome symptoms, is not straightforward. The reported symptom rates of, in particular, eye and upper airway irritation cannot generally be explained by our present knowledge of common chemically non-reactive VOCs measured indoors. Recently, experimental evidence has shown those chemical reactions between ozone (either with or without nitrogen dioxide) and unsaturated organic compounds (e.g. from citrus and pine oils) produce strong eye and airway irritating species. These have not yet been well characterised by conventional sampling and analytical techniques. The chemical reactions can occur indoors, and there is indirect evidence that they are associated with eye and airway irritation. However, many other volatile and non-volatile organic compounds have not generally been measured which could equally well have potent biological effects and cause an increase of complaint rates, and posses a health/comfort risk. As a consequence, it is recommended to use a broader analytical window of organic compounds than the classic VOC window as defined by the World Health Organisation. It may include hitherto not yet sampled or identified intermediary species (e.g., radicals, hydroperoxides and ionic compounds like detergents) as well as species deposited onto particles. Additionally, sampling strategies including emission testing of building products should carefully be linked to the measurement of organic compounds that are expected, based on the best available toxicological knowledge, to have biological effects at indoor concentrations.

  4. wayGoo: a platform for geolocating and managing indoor and outdoor spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Karafylli, Christina; Karafylli, Maria; Motos, Dionysis; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Margonis, Christos

    2016-05-01

    wayGoo2 is a platform for Geolocating and Managing indoor and outdoor spaces and content with multidimensional indoor and outdoor Navigation and Guidance. Its main components are a Geographic Information System, a back-end server, front-end applications and a web-based Content Management System (CMS). It constitutes a fully integrated 2D/3D space and content management system that creates a repository that consists of a database, content components and administrative data. wayGoo can connect to any third party database and event management data-source. The platform is secure as the data is only available through a Restful web service using https security protocol in conjunction with an API key used for authentication. To enhance users experience, wayGoo makes the content available by extracting components out of the repository and constructing targeted applications. The wayGoo platform supports geo-referencing of indoor and outdoor information and use of metadata. It also allows the use of existing information such as maps and databases. The platform enables planning through integration of content that is connected either spatially, temporally or contextually, and provides immediate access to all spatial data through interfaces and interactive 2D and 3D representations. wayGoo constitutes a mean to document and preserve assets through computerized techniques and provides a system that enhances the protection of your space, people and guests when combined with wayGoo notification and alert system. It constitutes a strong marketing tool providing staff and visitors with an immersive tool for navigation in indoor spaces and allowing users to organize their agenda and to discover events through wayGoo event scheduler and recommendation system. Furthermore, the wayGoo platform can be used in Security applications and event management, e.g. CBRNE incidents, man-made and natural disasters, etc., to document and geolocate information and sensor data (off line and real time

  5. [Keeping dogs indoor aggravates infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Hizawa, T; Fukuzumi, T; Kataoka, Y

    1999-12-01

    We had a two-month-old girl with severe dermatitis since birth. Her serum RAST to HD, Df and Dp were 1.06, 0.03 and 0.01 Ua/ml respectively. A Yorkshire terrier were kept at her mother's parents' home where the patient had lived for a month since birth. Her eczema, which became markedly aggravated whenever she visited there, improved after the elimination of the dog. We investigated the relationship between keeping dogs and infantile atopic dermatitis. We studied 368 patients under the age of two years (211 boys and 157 girls). Skin symptoms were graded globally mild, moderate or severe. Total serum IgE and specific antibody titer to dog dander were measured. We asked them whether they kept dogs and specifically, where they kept dogs, outdoor, indoor, in their own house, or in their grandparents' house. 197 patients had no contact with dogs, 90 patients kept dogs outdoor and 81 patients did indoor. The positive rate of RAST (> or = 0.7 Ua/ml) to dog dander was 6.1%, 17.8% and 46.9% respectively in these three groups. There were strong statistical differences between three groups. On the other hand, among the 81 patients who kept indoor, the RAST positive rates were almost same regarding where the dogs were kept, in their own house or their grandparents' house. Interestingly this difference happens only with patients under the age of 3 months. Patients older than 4 months showed no significant differences in the positive RAST rates, whether they kept dogs indoor or outdoor. This suggests the sensitization occurs before the age of 3 months. Speaking of symptoms, patients who kept dogs indoor showed significantly more severe symptoms than patients who had no contact with dogs and patients who kept dogs outdoor. There was no significant difference between the symptoms of patients who had no contact with dogs and those of patients who kept dogs outdoor. This implies the patient's symptom will improve only by moving the dog out of the house.

  6. Ozone reactions with indoor materials during building disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Hubbard, H.; Ward, M.; Weschler, C.; Corsi, R. L.

    There is scant information related to heterogeneous indoor chemistry at ozone concentrations necessary for the effective disinfection of buildings, i.e., hundreds to thousands of ppm. In the present study, 24 materials were exposed for 16 h to ozone concentrations of 1000-1200 ppm in the inlet streams of test chambers. Initial ozone deposition velocities were similar to those reported in the published literature for much lower ozone concentrations, but decayed rapidly as reaction sites on material surfaces were consumed. For every material, deposition velocities converged to a relatively constant, and typically low, value after approximately 11 h. The four materials with the highest sustained deposition velocities were ceiling tile, office partition, medium density fiberboard and gypsum wallboard backing. Analysis of ozone reaction probabilities indicated that throughout each experiment, and particularly after several hours of disinfection, surface reaction resistance dominated the overall resistance to ozone deposition for nearly all materials. Total building disinfection by-products (all carbonyls) were quantified per unit area of each material for the experimental period. Paper, office partition, and medium density fiberboard each released greater than 38 mg m -2 of by-products.

  7. Adapting Buildings for Indoor Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change presents many challenges, including the production of severe weather events. These events and efforts to minimize their effects through weatherization can adversely affect indoor environments.

  8. Criegee intermediates in the indoor environment. New insights

    DOE PAGES

    Shallcross, D. E.; Taatjes, C. A.; Percival, C. J.

    2014-03-25

    Criegee intermediates are formed in the ozonolysis of alkenes and play an important role in indoor chemistry, notably as a source of OH radicals. Recent studies have shown that these Criegee intermediates react very quickly with NO2, SO2, and carbonyls, and in this study, steady-state calculations are used to inspect the potential impact of these data on indoor chemistry. It is shown that these reactions could accelerate NO3 formation and SO2 removal in the indoor environment significantly. In addition, reaction between Criegee intermediates and halogenated carbonyls could provide a significant loss process indoors, where currently one does not exist.

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest--exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Han; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2012-05-01

    Neuroimaging research suggests that the resting cerebral physiology is characterized by complex patterns of neuronal activity in widely distributed functional networks. As studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, the resting brain activity is associated with slowly fluctuating hemodynamic signals (~10s). More recently, multimodal functional imaging studies involving simultaneous acquisition of BOLD-fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG) data have suggested that the relatively slow hemodynamic fluctuations of some resting state networks (RSNs) evinced in the BOLD data are related to much faster (~100 ms) transient brain states reflected in EEG signals, that are referred to as "microstates". To further elucidate the relationship between microstates and RSNs, we developed a fully data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneously recorded, high-density EEG and BOLD-fMRI data. Using independent component analysis (ICA) of the combined EEG and fMRI data, we identified thirteen microstates and ten RSNs that are organized independently in their temporal and spatial characteristics, respectively. We hypothesized that the intrinsic brain networks that are active at rest would be reflected in both the EEG data and the fMRI data. To test this hypothesis, the rapid fluctuations associated with each microstate were correlated with the BOLD-fMRI signal associated with each RSN. We found that each RSN was characterized further by a specific electrophysiological signature involving from one to a combination of several microstates. Moreover, by comparing the time course of EEG microstates to that of the whole-brain BOLD signal, on a multi-subject group level, we unraveled for the first time a set of microstate-associated networks that correspond to a range of previously described RSNs, including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, attention, frontal, visceromotor and default mode networks. These

  10. Simulating human space physiology with bed rest.

    PubMed

    Jost, P D

    2008-08-01

    In a recent review on bed rest studies of the past 20 years, it was concluded that head-down bed rest has proved its usefulness as a reliable simulation model for most physiological effects of spaceflight. Much of this research has been conducted to find countermeasures against the negative effects, which are associated with gravitational unloading. There have been partial successes in the prevention of, for example muscle wasting, cardio-vascular deconditioning, adverse metabolic changes, and bone demineralization. Reviews refer to bone-related measurements of the U.S. and Russian space programmes, as well as data from bed rest analogues, and conclude that in spite of the wealth of knowledge obtained thus far, many questions remain regarding bone loss, bone recovery, and the factors affecting these skeletal processes. Bed rest research has also direct relevance for medical science on Earth. Valuable data on physiology and early reversible pathological changes that are associated with a sedentary lifestyle on Earth can be obtained. A good example is the conclusion from a metabolic protocol implemented during the 2001/2002 90-day ESA/CNES/NASDA male bed rest study. The results of that experiment on fatty acid oxidation suggest that Mediterranean diets should be recommended in recumbent patients. Some other unexpected results obtained during the ESA/NASA/CNES/CSA 60-day female bed rest study WISE-2005 may well prompt the development of a treatment for certain cardiac diseases. A nutritional supplement that was designed to alleviate skeletal muscle atrophy turned out to preserve cardiac muscle mass. In order to optimise bed rest research, a systematic and standardised approach will be beneficial. During the last years, serious efforts have been made towards such standardisation on an international level. It is expected that results from future studies, combined with in-flight validation, will provide the answers to many biomedical problems that currently limit safe

  11. A longitudinal test of the Comprehensive Indoor Tanning Expectations Scale: The importance of affective beliefs in predicting indoor tanning behavior.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M; Kelley, Dannielle; Zeitany, Alexandra E; Morales-Pico, Brenda M; Thomas, Nancy E

    2015-07-31

    In order to better understand drivers of dangerous indoor tanning behaviors, researchers developed the Comprehensive Indoor Tanning Expectations scale. To examine the longitudinal effectiveness of Comprehensive Indoor Tanning Expectations, we surveyed young women in the Southeastern United States at two time points (N = 553). The scale demonstrated strong test-retest reliability. Participants who believed indoor tanning would improve their mood and afford social approval were significantly more likely to tan 6 months later, while participants who believed indoor tanning leads to psychological/physical discomfort were significantly less likely to tan 6 months later. Knowing the psychological bases for indoor tanning can inform intervention and message design.

  12. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  13. [Protein and RNA synthesis during the transition of potato tuber meristematic tissue from rest to growth].

    PubMed

    Korableva, N P; Ladyzhenskaia, E P; Metlitskiĭ, L V

    1976-01-01

    The rate of RNA and protein synthesis in resting and growing meristem tissues from isolated tuber growth points under their incubation with labelled precursors is studied. It is found that the label incorporation into RNA is low during deep resting, protein synthesis being rather intensive. Both RNA and protein synthesis is intensified with the beginning of growth period. More homogenous in their metabolic rate set of RNAs is found in resting tissues in contrast with growing ones. The data on fractionation of total RNA preparation on MAK column and in sucrose density gradient showed that synthesis of high molecular weight RNA with metabolic period of 4 hours is stimulated in growing meristems. It is possible that synthesis of certain fractions of RNA and protein is one of regulation mechanisms for resting in meristem tissues.

  14. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  15. Controlling Pollutants and Sources: Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To protect indoor environmental quality the designer should understand indoor air quality problems and seek to eliminate potential sources of contamination that originate from outdoors as well as indoors.

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacci, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan. (PKP)

  17. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacci, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan. (PKP)

  18. The Resting Brain: Unconstrained yet Reliable

    PubMed Central

    Shehzad, Zarrar; Kelly, A. M. Clare; Reiss, Philip T.; Gee, Dylan G.; Gotimer, Kristin; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Lee, Sang Han; Margulies, Daniel S.; Roy, Amy Krain; Biswal, Bharat B.; Petkova, Eva; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the usage of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine functional connectivity (fcMRI), both in normal and pathological populations. Despite this increasing popularity, concerns about the psychologically unconstrained nature of the “resting-state” remain. Across studies, the patterns of functional connectivity detected are remarkably consistent. However, the test–retest reliability for measures of resting state fcMRI measures has not been determined. Here, we quantify the test–retest reliability, using resting scans from 26 participants at 3 different time points. Specifically, we assessed intersession (>5 months apart), intrasession (<1 h apart), and multiscan (across all 3 scans) reliability and consistency for both region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. For both approaches, we observed modest to high reliability across connections, dependent upon 3 predictive factors: 1) correlation significance (significantly nonzero > nonsignificant), 2) correlation valence (positive > negative), and 3) network membership (default mode > task positive network). Short- and long-term measures of the consistency of global connectivity patterns were highly robust. Finally, hierarchical clustering solutions were highly reproducible, both across participants and sessions. Our findings provide a solid foundation for continued examination of resting state fcMRI in typical and atypical populations. PMID:19221144

  19. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  20. Stress Impact on Resting State Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Soares, José Miguel; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Luís Miguel; Santos, Nadine Correia; Marques, Paulo; Marques, Fernanda; Palha, Joana Almeida; Cerqueira, João José; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Resting state brain networks (RSNs) are spatially distributed large-scale networks, evidenced by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Importantly, RSNs are implicated in several relevant brain functions and present abnormal functional patterns in many neuropsychiatric disorders, for which stress exposure is an established risk factor. Yet, so far, little is known about the effect of stress in the architecture of RSNs, both in resting state conditions or during shift to task performance. Herein we assessed the architecture of the RSNs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a cohort of participants exposed to prolonged stress (participants that had just finished their long period of preparation for the medical residence selection exam), and respective gender- and age-matched controls (medical students under normal academic activities). Analysis focused on the pattern of activity in resting state conditions and after deactivation. A volumetric estimation of the RSNs was also performed. Data shows that stressed participants displayed greater activation of the default mode (DMN), dorsal attention (DAN), ventral attention (VAN), sensorimotor (SMN), and primary visual (VN) networks than controls. Importantly, stressed participants also evidenced impairments in the deactivation of resting state-networks when compared to controls. These functional changes are paralleled by a constriction of the DMN that is in line with the pattern of brain atrophy observed after stress exposure. These results reveal that stress impacts on activation-deactivation pattern of RSNs, a finding that may underlie stress-induced changes in several dimensions of brain activity.

  1. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  2. The impact of livestock on the abundance, resting behaviour and sporozoite rate of malaria vectors in southern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mayagaya, Valeriana S; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Lyimo, Issa N; Kihonda, Japheti; Mtambala, Hassan; Ngonyani, Hassan; Russell, Tanya L; Ferguson, Heather M

    2015-01-21

    Increases in the coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have significantly reduced the abundance of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in several African settings, leaving its more zoophagic sibling species Anopheles arabiensis as the primary vector. This study investigated the impact of livestock ownership at the household level on the ecology and malaria infection rate of vectors in an area of Tanzania where An. arabiensis accounts for most malaria transmission. Mosquito vectors were collected resting inside houses, animal sheds and in outdoor resting boxes at households with and without livestock over three years in ten villages of the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Additionally, the abundance and sporozoite rate of vectors attempting to bite indoors at these households was assessed as an index of malaria exposure. The mean abundance of An. gambiae s.l. biting indoors was similar at houses with and without livestock. In all years but one, the relative proportion of An. arabiensis within the An. gambiae s.l. species complex was higher at households with livestock. Livestock presence had a significant impact on malaria vector feeding and resting behaviour. Anopheles arabiensis were generally found resting in cattle sheds where livestock were present, and inside houses when absent. Correspondingly, the human blood index of An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.l. was significant reduced at households with livestock, whereas that of An. gambiae s.s. was unaffected. Whilst there was some evidence that sporozoite rates within the indoor-biting An. gambiae s.l population was significantly reduced at households with livestock, the significance of this effect varied depending on how background spatial variation was accounted for. These results confirm that the presence of cattle at the household level can significantly alter the local species composition, feeding and resting behaviour of malaria vectors. However, the net impact of this livestock-associated variation in

  3. A statistical evaluation of the influence of housing characteristics and geogenic radon potential on indoor radon concentrations in France.

    PubMed

    Demoury, C; Ielsch, G; Hemon, D; Laurent, O; Laurier, D; Clavel, J; Guillevic, J

    2013-12-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive natural gas produced by the decay of radium-226, known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure. Effective risk management needs to determine the areas in which the density of buildings with high radon levels is likely to be highest. Predicting radon exposure from the location and characteristics of a dwelling could also contribute to epidemiological studies. Beginning in the nineteen-eighties, a national radon survey consisting in more than 10,000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations was conducted in French dwellings by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). Housing characteristics, which may influence radon accumulation in dwellings, were also collected. More recently, the IRSN generated a French geogenic radon potential map based on the interpretation of geological features. The present study analyzed the two datasets to investigate the factors influencing indoor radon concentrations using statistical modeling and to determine the optimum use of the information on geogenic radon potential that showed the best statistical association with indoor radon concentration. The results showed that the variables associated with indoor radon concentrations were geogenic radon potential, building material, year of construction, foundation type, building type and floor level. The model, which included the surrounding geogenic radon potential (i.e. the average geogenic radon potential within a disc of radius 20 km centered on the indoor radon measurement point) and variables describing house-specific factors and lifestyle explained about 20% of the overall variability of the logarithm of radon concentration. The surrounding geogenic radon potential was fairly closely associated with the local average indoor radon concentration. The prevalence of exposure to radon above specific thresholds and the average exposures to radon clearly increased with increasing classes of geogenic radon

  4. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Lisa K; Clougherty, Jane E; Paciorek, Chritopher J; Wright, Rosalind J; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and/or factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system (GIS), and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households.As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 - 2005. Elemental carbon concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally-located ambient monitor.The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM(2.5) was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO(2) with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO(2) and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in

  5. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system, and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households. As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally located ambient monitor. The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM 2.5 was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO 2 with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50 m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO 2 and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in the

  6. Changes in population attitudes about where smoking should not be allowed: California versus the rest of the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, E A; Lee, L; Pierce, J P

    2004-03-01

    The decade long California Tobacco Control Program is unique to the nation in its duration, emphasis, and level of funding. Programme emphasis is on changing social norms about smoking as a means to discourage smoking and thus reduce the harmful health effects of tobacco to the population. Data from the 1992-93, 1995-96, and 1998-99 Tobacco Use Supplements to the national Current Population Survey (n > 175 000 each period) were used to examine changes in norms regarding where smoking should "not be allowed at all" in both California and in the rest of the USA. Venues queried were restaurants, hospitals, work areas, bars, indoor sports venues, and indoor shopping malls. There were substantial increases in the percentages of the adult population (18+ years) stating that smoking should not be allowed in the venues queried in California by 1998-99 compared to 1992-93; only modest increases were observed in the rest of the USA. In fact, for most venues, the percentages for the rest of the USA were lower in 1998-99 than in California in 1992-93. Further, the percentage increase over this period in respondents stating that smoking should not be allowed in four or more of the six venues was 30% in California and 23% in the rest of the USA. The most dramatic percentage increase in California occurred among current smokers (93%). A strong, comprehensive tobacco control programme such as California's can influence population norms, including those of smokers, with respect to where smoking should not be allowed.

  7. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  8. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  9. Association Between Resting-State Microstates and Ratings on the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pipinis, Evaldas; Melynyte, Sigita; Koenig, Thomas; Jarutyte, Lina; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Griskova-Bulanova, Inga

    2017-03-01

    There is a gap in understanding on how physiologically observed activity is related to the subjective, internally oriented experience during resting state. Microstate analysis is a frequent approach to evaluate resting-state EEG. But the relationship of commonly observed resting-state microstates to psychological domains of resting is not clear. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ) was recently introduced, offering an effective way to quantify subjective states after a period of resting and associate these quantifiers to psychological and physiological variables. In a sample of 94 healthy volunteers who participated in closed-eyes 5 min resting session with concurrent EEG recording and subsequent filling of the ARSQ we evaluated parameters of microstate Classes A, B, C, D. We showed a moderate negative association between contribution (r = -0.40) of Class C and experienced somatic awareness (SA). The negative correlation between Class C and SA seems reasonable as Class C becomes more dominant when connections to contextual information (and bodily sensations as assessed with SA) are loosened (in reduced attention states, during sleep, hypnosis, or psychosis). We suggest that the use of questionnaires such as the ARSQ is helpful in exploring the variation of resting-state EEG parameters and its relationship to variation in sensory and non-sensory experiences.

  10. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  11. Preliminary background indoor EMF measurements in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kottou, Sofia; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Yannakopoulos, Panayiotis H; Vogiannis, Efstratios; Petraki, Ermioni; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Koulougliotis, Dionysios

    2015-11-01

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate the fluctuation of Greek indoor electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity values and identify peaks that might occur. The scientific interest is mainly focused on the bands of extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and radiofrequency (RF) electric fields which have been suggested to be possibly carcinogenic to humans by the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements were performed in a variety of indoor dwellings, in Attica and in the islands of Zakynthos and Lesvos. A total number of 4540 measurements were taken in a wide frequency range (50 Hz-2100 MHz) of which 3301 in Attica, 963 in Lesvos and 276 in Zakynthos. Statistical analysis of the data revealed specific statistically significant differences between the mean values of the electric (ELF and RF) but not the magnetic (ELF) field strengths measured at different distances from the EMF source, as well as between some of the mean values of the RF electric field at different bands. Some statistically significant differences between mean electric field values at different geographic locations were also identified. As far as the RF electric field is concerned, the maximum values, in most cases, were below 0.5 V/m, however increased values above 1 V/m and up to 5.6 V/m were occasionally observed. The ELF magnetic field values were lower than 1 μT. It may be concluded that overall, the observed indoor EMF intensity values remained well below domestic and European established limits.

  12. Distribution of resting spores of the Lymantria dispar pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga in soil and on bark

    Treesearch

    A. E. Hajek; L. Bauer; M. L. McManus; M. M. Wheeler

    1998-01-01

    Cadavers of late instar Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) larvae killed by the fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga predominantly contain resting spores (azygospores). These cadavers frequently remain attached to tree trunks for several weeks before they detach and fall to the ground. Density gradient centrifugation was used to...

  13. Indoor characterization of reflective concentrator optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Tobias; Frick, Manuel; Hornung, Thorsten; Nitz, Peter

    2013-09-01

    We report about the indoor characterization of small point focusing mirrors at Fraunhofer ISE. The goal is to determine the mean slope error of the concentrator. This is achieved by measuring the concentration distribution in the focal plane of such a mirror. We modified and expanded a test site which is used for Fresnel lens characterization [1]. A modified version of the method presented in [2] is employed to measure the concentration distribution. By comparing ray tracing simulation results of the ideal mirror to the measurement, the mean slope error can be deduced.

  14. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  15. Personal UV biodosimeter for healthy indoor tanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, I. P.; Orlova, T. N.

    2008-04-01

    The practice of indoor tanning has led to the development of a large artificial tanning industry. In addition to psychological benefits, exposure to UVB light helps the body produce the activated form of vitamin D, which is necessary for many cellular functions. But uncontrolled tanning and UV overexposure can increase the risk of skin cancer. For direct checkout of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of a UV source the bio-equivalent UV dosimeter has been developed that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin and makes possible both instrumental and visual indication of vitamin D synthesis.

  16. Is organic photovoltaics promising for indoor applications?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Harrison K. H.; Li, Zhe; Tsoi, Wing C.; Durrant, James R.

    2016-06-20

    This work utilizes organic photovoltaics (OPV) for indoor applications, such as powering small electronic devices or wireless connected Internet of Things. Three representative polymer-based OPV systems, namely, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), poly[N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′, 1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)], and poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  17. Achieving indoor air quality through contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1995-07-10

    Federal laws outlining industry`s responsibilities in creating a healthy, hazard-free workspace are well known. OSHA`s laws on interior air pollution establish threshold limit values (TLVs) and permissible exposure limits (PELs) for more than 500 potentially hazardous substances found in manufacturing operations. Until now, OSHA has promulgated regulations only for the manufacturing environment. However, its recently-proposed indoor air quality (IAQ) ruling, if implemented, will apply to all workspaces. It regulates IAQ, including environmental tobacco smoke, and requires employers to write and implement IAQ compliance plans.

  18. Indoor environment program: FY 1988 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The Indoor Environment Program examines the scientific issues associated with the design and operation of buildings to optimize energy performance and occupant comfort and health. Optimizing occupant health and comfort is addressed in various ways by groups within the Program. To examine energy flow through all elements of the building shell, the Energy Performance of Buildings Group measures air infiltration rates, studies thermal characteristics of structural elements, and develops simplified models of the behavior of complete buildings. Potential savings in the infiltration area are great.

  19. Indoor Navigation using Direction Sensor and Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2004-01-01

    A system for indoor navigation of a mobile robot includes (1) modulated infrared beacons at known positions on the walls and ceiling of a room and (2) a cameralike sensor, comprising a wide-angle lens with a position-sensitive photodetector at the focal plane, mounted in a known position and orientation on the robot. The system also includes a computer running special-purpose software that processes the sensor readings to obtain the position and orientation of the robot in all six degrees of freedom in a coordinate system embedded in the room.

  20. Is organic photovoltaics promising for indoor applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harrison K. H.; Li, Zhe; Durrant, James R.; Tsoi, Wing C.

    2016-06-01

    This work utilizes organic photovoltaics (OPV) for indoor applications, such as powering small electronic devices or wireless connected Internet of Things. Three representative polymer-based OPV systems, namely, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)], and poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  1. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  2. Is the risk of allergic hypersensitivity to fungi increased by indoor exposure to moulds?

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Gutarowska, Beata; Krakowiak, Anna; Pałczyński, Cezary

    2009-01-01

    Moulds are frequently found in the indoor environment of residential houses. An association between domestic mould contamination and respiratory symptoms has been reported, but mould exposure as a risk factor for allergy to moulds is not well documented. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of allergic hypersensitivity to moulds. A group of 243 participants was examined. Of these 118 lived in dwellings with evident signs of fungal contamination (study group) and 125 in non-contaminated sites (controls). An interview, skin prick tests to common and fungal allergens, evaluation of total serum IgE and specific IgE to moulds, resting spirometry as well as mycological analysis in building were performed for each participant. 19.8% subjects were sensitized to at least one mould allergen. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the history of respiratory and skin symptoms, smoking cigarettes in the past and positive skin prick tests (SPT) to common allergens (dust mite and grass pollens) or the presence of a cat as a pet animal were the significant associated factors of hypersensitivity to moulds. The association between indoor fungal exposure and the development of fungal allergy was not confirmed in our study.

  3. Indoor pollutant levels from the use of unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dutton, S J; Hannigan, M P; Miller, S L

    2001-12-01

    High CO and NO2 concentrations have been documented in homes with unvented combustion appliances, such as natural gas fireplaces. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted from incomplete natural gas combustion. The acute health risks of CO and NO2 exposure have been well established for the general population and for certain high-risk groups, including infants, the elderly, and people with heart disease or asthma. Health effects from PAH exposure are less well known, but may include increased risk of cancer. We monitored CO emissions during the operation of unvented natural gas fireplaces in two residences in Boulder, CO, at various times between 1997 and 2000. During 1999, we expanded our tests to include measurements of NO2 and PAH. Results show significant pollutant accumulation indoors when the fireplaces were used for extended periods of time. In one case, CO concentrations greater than 100 ppm accumulated in under 2 hr of operation; a person at rest exposed for 10 hr to this environment would get a mild case of CO poisoning with an estimated 10% carboxyhemoglobin level. Appreciable NO2 concentrations were also detected, with a 4-hr time average reaching 0.36 ppm. Similar time-average total PAH concentrations reached 35 ng/m3. The results of this study provide preliminary insights to potential indoor air quality problems in homes operating unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder.

  4. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition.

    PubMed

    Diaz, B Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Van Someren, Eus J W; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition-and tools to quantify them-have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  5. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease. PMID:23964225

  6. Secondary organic aerosol formation initiated by α-terpineol ozonolysis in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Waring, M S

    2016-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) owing to reactive organic gas (ROG) ozonolysis can be an important indoor particle source. However, SOA formation owing to ozonolysis of α-terpineol, which is emitted by consumer product usage and reacts strongly with ozone, has not been systematically quantified. Therefore, we conducted 21 experiments to investigate the SOA formation initiated by α-terpineol ozonolysis for high (0.84 h(-1) ), moderate (0.61 h(-1) ), and low (0.36 h(-1) ) air exchange rates (AER), which is the frequency with which indoor is replaced by outdoor air. α-Terpineol concentrations of 6.39 to 226 ppb were combined with high ozone (~25 ppm) to ensure rapid and complete ozonolysis. No reactants were replenished, so SOA peaked quickly and then decreased due to AER and surface losses, and peak SOA ranged from 2.03 to 281 μg/m(3) at unit density. SOA mass formation was parameterized with the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), a.k.a. the SOA yield, and AMFs ranged from 0.056 to 0.24. The AMFs strongly and positively correlated with reacted α-terpineol, whereas they weakly and negatively correlated with higher AERs. One-product, two-product, and volatility basis set (VBS) models were fit to the AMF data. Predictive modeling demonstrated that α-terpineol ozonolysis could meaningfully form SOA in indoor air.

  7. Occupant perception of indoor air and comfort in four hospitality environments.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, D J; Chu, P

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of customer and staff perceptions of indoor air quality at two restaurants, a billiard hall, and a casino. The survey was conducted at each environment for 8 days: 2 weekend days on 2 consecutive weekends and 4 weekdays. Before and during the survey, each hospitality environment satisfied ventilation requirements set in ASHRAE Standard 62-1999, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air. An objective of this study was to test the hypothesis: If a hospitality environment satisfies ASHRAE ventilation requirements, then the indoor air is acceptable, that is, fewer than 20% of the exposed occupants perceive the environment as unacceptable. A second objective was to develop a multiple regression model that predicts the dependent variable, the environment is acceptable, as a function of a number of independent perception variables. Occupant perception of environmental, comfort, and physical variables was measured using a questionnaire. This instrument was designed to be efficient and unobtrusive; subjects could complete it within 3 min. Significant differences of occupant environment perception were identified among customers and staff. The dependent variable, the environment is acceptable, is affected by temperature, occupant density, and occupant smoking status, odor perception, health conditions, sensitivity to chemicals, and enjoyment of activities. Depending on the hospitality environment, variation of independent variables explains as much as 77% of the variation of the dependent variable.

  8. Parameter Estimation and Model Selection for Indoor Environments Based on Sparse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbi, Y.; Loch-Dehbi, S.; Plümer, L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the parameter estimation and model selection for the reconstruction of indoor environments based on sparse observations. While most approaches for the reconstruction of indoor models rely on dense observations, we predict scenes of the interior with high accuracy in the absence of indoor measurements. We use a model-based top-down approach and incorporate strong but profound prior knowledge. The latter includes probability density functions for model parameters and sparse observations such as room areas and the building footprint. The floorplan model is characterized by linear and bi-linear relations with discrete and continuous parameters. We focus on the stochastic estimation of model parameters based on a topological model derived by combinatorial reasoning in a first step. A Gauss-Markov model is applied for estimation and simulation of the model parameters. Symmetries are represented and exploited during the estimation process. Background knowledge as well as observations are incorporated in a maximum likelihood estimation and model selection is performed with AIC/BIC. The likelihood is also used for the detection and correction of potential errors in the topological model. Estimation results are presented and discussed.

  9. Continuous Indoor Positioning Fusing WiFi, Smartphone Sensors and Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Qin, Danyang; Na, Zhenyu; Cui, Yang; Chen, Juan

    2016-01-01

    To exploit the complementary strengths of WiFi positioning, pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR), and landmarks, we propose a novel fusion approach based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF). For WiFi positioning, unlike previous fusion approaches setting measurement noise parameters empirically, we deploy a kernel density estimation-based model to adaptively measure the related measurement noise statistics. Furthermore, a trusted area of WiFi positioning defined by fusion results of previous step and WiFi signal outlier detection are exploited to reduce computational cost and improve WiFi positioning accuracy. For PDR, we integrate a gyroscope, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer to determine the user heading based on another EKF model. To reduce accumulation error of PDR and enable continuous indoor positioning, not only the positioning results but also the heading estimations are recalibrated by indoor landmarks. Experimental results in a realistic indoor environment show that the proposed fusion approach achieves substantial positioning accuracy improvement than individual positioning approaches including PDR and WiFi positioning. PMID:27608019

  10. Accuracy Evaluation of Stereo Vision Aided Inertial Navigation for Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griessbach, D. G.; Baumbach, D. B.; Boerner, A. B.; Zuev, S. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of position and orientation is a prerequisite for many applications regarding unmanned navigation, mapping, or environmental modelling. GPS-aided inertial navigation is the preferred solution for outdoor applications. Nevertheless a similar solution for navigation tasks in difficult environments with erroneous or no GPS-data is needed. Therefore a stereo vision aided inertial navigation system is presented which is capable of providing real-time local navigation for indoor applications. A method is described to reconstruct the ego motion of a stereo camera system aided by inertial data. This, in turn, is used to constrain the inertial sensor drift. The optical information is derived from natural landmarks, extracted and tracked over consequent stereo image pairs. Using inertial data for feature tracking effectively reduces computational costs and at the same time increases the reliability due to constrained search areas. Mismatched features, e.g. at repetitive structures typical for indoor environments are avoided. An Integrated Positioning System (IPS) was deployed and tested on an indoor navigation task. IPS was evaluated for accuracy, robustness, and repeatability in a common office environment. In combination with a dense disparity map, derived from the navigation cameras, a high density point cloud is generated to show the capability of the navigation algorithm.

  11. Continuous Indoor Positioning Fusing WiFi, Smartphone Sensors and Landmarks.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Qin, Danyang; Na, Zhenyu; Cui, Yang; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-05

    To exploit the complementary strengths of WiFi positioning, pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR), and landmarks, we propose a novel fusion approach based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF). For WiFi positioning, unlike previous fusion approaches setting measurement noise parameters empirically, we deploy a kernel density estimation-based model to adaptively measure the related measurement noise statistics. Furthermore, a trusted area of WiFi positioning defined by fusion results of previous step and WiFi signal outlier detection are exploited to reduce computational cost and improve WiFi positioning accuracy. For PDR, we integrate a gyroscope, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer to determine the user heading based on another EKF model. To reduce accumulation error of PDR and enable continuous indoor positioning, not only the positioning results but also the heading estimations are recalibrated by indoor landmarks. Experimental results in a realistic indoor environment show that the proposed fusion approach achieves substantial positioning accuracy improvement than individual positioning approaches including PDR and WiFi positioning.

  12. Reference Guide. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the importance of good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is the backbone of developing an effective Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) program. Poor IAQ can lead to a large variety of health problems and potentially affect comfort, concentration, and staff/student performance. In recognition of tight school budgets, this guidance is designed…

  13. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  14. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide...

  15. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide...

  16. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide...

  17. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide...

  18. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide...

  19. Bim-Based Indoor Path Planning Considering Obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Wei, S.; Zlatanova, S.; Zhang, R.

    2017-09-01

    At present, 87 % of people's activities are in indoor environment; indoor navigation has become a research issue. As the building structures for people's daily life are more and more complex, many obstacles influence humans' moving. Therefore it is essential to provide an accurate and efficient indoor path planning. Nowadays there are many challenges and problems in indoor navigation. Most existing path planning approaches are based on 2D plans, pay more attention to the geometric configuration of indoor space, often ignore rich semantic information of building components, and mostly consider simple indoor layout without taking into account the furniture. Addressing the above shortcomings, this paper uses BIM (IFC) as the input data and concentrates on indoor navigation considering obstacles in the multi-floor buildings. After geometric and semantic information are extracted, 2D and 3D space subdivision methods are adopted to build the indoor navigation network and to realize a path planning that avoids obstacles. The 3D space subdivision is based on triangular prism. The two approaches are verified by the experiments.

  20. School policies and practices that improve indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Smith, Alisa M; Wheeler, Lani S; McManus, Tim

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of school health programs and policies at the state, district, and school levels. Using chi-square analyses, the rates of policies and practices that promote indoor air quality were compared between schools with and schools without a formal indoor air quality program. The findings of this study show that 51.4% of schools had a formal indoor air quality management program, and that those schools were significantly more likely than were schools without a program to have policies and use strategies to promote superior indoor air quality. These findings suggest that schools with a formal indoor air quality program are more likely support policies and engage in practices that promote superior indoor air quality.