Science.gov

Sample records for induced burial regions

  1. Changed clonal growth form induced by sand burial facilitates the acclimation of Carex brevicuspis to competition.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Xie, Yonghong; Zhu, Lianlian; Jiang, Li; Chen, Xinsheng; Pan, Baihan; Deng, Zhengmiao

    2015-01-01

    guerrilla growth form and spacer elongation induced by sand burial helped C. brevicuspis to acclimate to competition.

  2. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  3. Predicting seabed burial of cylinders by wave-induced scour: Application to the sandy inner shelf off Florida and Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trembanis, A.C.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Richardson, M.D.; Traykovski, P.; Howd, P.A.; Elmore, P.A.; Wever, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    A simple parameterized model for wave-induced burial of mine-like cylinders as a function of grain-size, time-varying, wave orbital velocity and mine diameter was implemented and assessed against results from inert instrumented mines placed off the Indian Rocks Beach (IRB, FL), and off the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO, Edgartown, MA). The steady flow scour parameters provided by Whitehouse (1998) for self-settling cylinders worked well for predicting burial by depth below the ambient seabed for O (0.5 m) diameter mines in fine sand at both sites. By including or excluding scour pit infilling, a range of percent burial by surface area was predicted that was also consistent with observations. Rapid scour pit infilling was often seen at MVCO but never at IRB, suggesting that the environmental presence of fine sediment plays a key role in promoting infilling. Overprediction of mine scour in coarse sand was corrected by assuming a mine within a field of large ripples buries only until it generates no more turbulence than that produced by surrounding bedforms. The feasibility of using a regional wave model to predict mine burial in both hindcast and real-time forecast mode was tested using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, Washington, DC) WaveWatch 3 (WW3) model. Hindcast waves were adequate for useful operational forcing of mine burial predictions, but five-day wave forecasts introduced large errors. This investigation was part of a larger effort to develop simple yet reliable predictions of mine burial suitable for addressing the operational needs of the U.S. Navy. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  4. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  5. Temporal evolution of human-induced carbon burial in terrestrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetterl, S.; van Oost, K.; Quine, T. A.; Six, J.; van Wesemael, B.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is recognized to be an important parameter for the maintenance of soil fertility. Associated with contemporary discussions on Global Climate Change, carbon cycling and the influence of fluxes between atmospheric and terrestrial carbon pools, the importance of research on factors controlling SOC contents has even grown. In recent studies, geomorphologic processes (soil erosion and sedimentation) and site attributes (slope steepness and land use) have been postulated to be the driving factors in human-impacted landscapes for decomposition and stabilization of SOC. Hence, depositional environments are assumed to be strong sinks for terrestrial carbon due to burial of former topsoil horizon SOC in deeper soil layers, leading to reduced decomposition rates. This must be taken into account in estimation of terrestrial carbon stocks and asks for modification of carbon models, considering erosion and sedimentation processes via including lateral and vertical SOC fluxes in time. In order to accurately quantify the human-induced carbon sink there is a need to both (I) increase our understanding of carbon cycling processes in complex terrains under the impact of soil redistribution and (II) improve our estimates of the amount of carbon being laterally transferred and buried in terrestrial environments. Current estimates of continental or global carbon fluxes largely depend on unverified assumptions and model applications that ignore lateral fluxes. The main objective of this study is to quantify the temporal and spatial evolution of carbon fluxes at the continental (and global) scale. We present an overview on the development of colluvial soil formation on large spatial scales, taking into account historical and present human induced erosion processes as well as global land use change. Based on this information, we present an analysis of the temporal evolution of SOC burial. Furthermore, we give an outlook on our future work which aims to link the

  6. Multibeam Observations of Mine Burial Near Clearwater, FL, Including Comparisons to Predictions of Wave-Induced Burial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    of the scour pit over time. The AIMs are also equipped with three-axes accelerometers and three-axes compasses to measure roll , pitch , and heading...percent burial equals the percentage of blocked sensors. Roll and pitch of the FWGs are measured via a three-axes accelerometer, however, the...the order of ±10 cm, and roll , pitch , and yaw measurements accurate to 0.02°. The positioning accuracy is extended to ±1 m based on other

  7. Multibeam observations of mine burial near Clearwater, FL, including comparisons to predictions of wave-induced burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfson, M.L.; Naar, D.F.; Howd, P.A.; Locker, S.D.; Donahue, B.T.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Trembanis, A.C.; Richardson, M.D.; Wever, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    A Kongsberg Simrad EM 3000 multibeam sonar (Kongsberg Simrad, Kongsberg, Norway) was used to conduct a set of six repeat high-resolution bathymetric surveys west of Indian Rocks Beach (IRB), just to the south of Clearwater, FL, between January and March 2003, to observe in situ scour and burial of instrumented inert mines and mine-like cylinders. Three closely located study sites were chosen: two fine-sand sites, a shallow one located in ??? 13 m of water depth and a deep site located in ???14 m of water depth; and a coarse-sand site in ???13 m. Results from these surveys indicate that mines deployed in fine sand are nearly buried within two months of deployment (i.e., they sunk 74.5% or more below the ambient seafloor depth). Mines deployed in coarse sand showed a lesser amount of scour, burying until they present roughly the same hydrodynamic roughness as the surrounding rippled bedforms. These data were also used to test the validity of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS, Gloucester Point, VA) 2-D burial model. The model worked well in areas of fine sand, sufficiently predicting burial over the course of the experiment. In the area of coarse sand, the model greatly overpredicted the amount of burial. This is believed to be due to the presence of rippled bedforms around the mines, which affect local bottom morphodynamics and are not accounted for in the model, an issue currently being addressed by the modelers. This paper focuses specifically on two instrumented mines: an acoustic mine located in fine sand and an optical instrumented mine located in coarse sand. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  8. Structure of AscE and induced burial regions in AscE and AscG upon formation of the chaperone needle-subunit complex of type III secretion system in Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yih Wan; Yu, Hong Bing; Leung, Ka Yin; Sivaraman, J.; Mok, Yu-Keung

    2008-01-01

    In the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Aeromonas hydrophila, the putative needle complex subunit AscF requires both putative chaperones AscE and AscG for formation of a ternary complex to avoid premature assembly. Here we report the crystal structure of AscE at 2.7 Å resolution and the mapping of buried regions of AscE, AscG, and AscF in the AscEG and AscEFG complexes using limited protease digestion. The dimeric AscE is comprised of two helix–turn–helix monomers packed in an antiparallel fashion. The N-terminal 13 residues of AscE are buried only upon binding with AscG, but this region is found to be nonessential for the interaction. AscE functions as a monomer and can be coexpressed with AscG or with both AscG and AscF to form soluble complexes. The AscE binding region of AscG in the AscEG complex is identified to be within the N-terminal 61 residues of AscG. The exposed C-terminal substrate-binding region of AscG in the AscEG complex is induced to be buried only upon binding to AscF. However, the N-terminal 52 residues of AscF remain exposed even in the ternary AscEFG complex. On the other hand, the 35-residue C-terminal region of AscF in the complex is resistant to protease digestion in the AscEFG complex. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that two C-terminal hydrophobic residues, Ile83 and Leu84, of AscF are essential for chaperone binding. PMID:18662905

  9. Legacy of human-induced C erosion and burial on soil-atmosphere C exchange.

    PubMed

    Van Oost, Kristof; Verstraeten, Gert; Doetterl, Sebastian; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Wiaux, François; Broothaerts, Nils; Six, Johan

    2012-11-20

    Carbon exchange associated with accelerated erosion following land cover change is an important component of the global C cycle. In current assessments, however, this component is not accounted for. Here, we integrate the effects of accelerated C erosion across point, hillslope, and catchment scale for the 780-km(2) Dijle River catchment over the period 4000 B.C. to A.D. 2000 to demonstrate that accelerated erosion results in a net C sink. We found this long-term C sink to be equivalent to 43% of the eroded C and to have offset 39% (17-66%) of the C emissions due to anthropogenic land cover change since the advent of agriculture. Nevertheless, the erosion-induced C sink strength is limited by a significant loss of buried C in terrestrial depositional stores, which lagged the burial. The time lag between burial and subsequent loss at this study site implies that the C buried in eroded terrestrial deposits during the agricultural expansion of the last 150 y cannot be assumed to be inert to further destabilization, and indeed might become a significant C source. Our analysis exemplifies that accounting for the non-steady-state C dynamics in geomorphic active systems is pertinent to understanding both past and future anthropogenic global change.

  10. Burial diagenesis in the Upper Devonian reef complexes of the Geikie Gorge region, Canning basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M.W. ); Kerans, C. ); Playford, P.E. ); McManus, A. )

    1991-06-01

    The Devonian carbonates of the Geikie Gorge region, Canning basin, have undergone a long and complex diagenetic history that began in Devonian seawater with extensive marine cementation of platform-margin lithologies. Devonian-Lower Carboniferous burial diagenesis was the most important porosity occluding episode because almost all primary porosity was destroyed by equant calcite cements during this interval. Dolomitization and consequent secondary porosity development also occurred during early burial diagenesis. The distribution and geochemistry of the major calcite cements and dolomite types are consistent with these phases having been precipitated from connate marine or basinal brines. Karstification and minor calcite cementation took place during late Carboniferous subaerial exposure. Minor calcite cementation occurred during Permian-Cenozoic burial, predominantly in secondary porosity within pervasively dolomitized lithologies. Karstification, dedolomitization, and calcite recrystallization took place in association with Cenozoic meteoric diagenesis. Secondary moldic and intercrystalline porosity within the completely dolomitized lithologies were the longest lived porosity types in the carbonates. Some secondary porosity escaped both Devonian-Carboniferous and Permian-Cenozoic burial cementation, probably due to a lack of nucleation sites for calcite cements within completely dolomitized lithologies.

  11. Earthquake-induced subsidence and burial of late holocene archaeological sites, northern Oregon coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, R.; Grant, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Fire hearths associated with prehistoric Native American occupation lie within the youngest buried lowland soil of the estuaries along the Salmon and Nehalem rivers on the northern Oregon coast. This buried soil is the result of sudden subsidence induced by a great earthquake about 300 years ago along the Cascadia subduction zone, which extends offshore along the North Pacific Coast from Vancouver Island to northern California. The earthquake 300 years ago was the latest in a series of subsidence events along the Cascadia subduction zone over the last several thousand years. Over the long term, subsidence and burial of prehistoric settlements as a result of Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes have almost certainly been an important factor contributing to the limited time depth of the archaeological record along this section of the North Pacific Coast. Copyright ?? by the Society for American Archaeology.

  12. Earthquake-induced burial of archaeological sites along the southern Washington coast about A.D. 1700

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, S.C.; Atwater, B.F.; McCutcheon, P.T.; Stein, J.K.; Hemphill-Haley, E.

    1996-01-01

    Although inhabited by thousands of people when first reached by Europeans, the Pacific coast of southern Washington has little recognized evidence of prehistoric human occupation. This apparent contradiction may be explained partly by geologic evidence for coastal submergence during prehistoric earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone. Recently discovered archaeological sites, exposed in the banks of two tidal streams, show evidence for earthquake-induced submergence and consequent burial by intertidal mud about A.D. 1700. We surmise that, because of prehistoric earthquakes, other archaeological sites may now lie hidden beneath the surfaces of modern tidelands. Such burial of archaeological sites raises questions about the estimation of prehistoric human population densities along coasts subject to earthquake-induced submergence. ?? 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR BURIAL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-05-01

    A burial assembly is shown whereby an entire reactor core may be encased with lead shielding, withdrawn from the reactor site and buried. This is made possible by a five-piece interlocking arrangement that may be easily put together by remote control with no aligning of bolt holes or other such close adjustments being necessary.

  14. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  15. Carbon Burial Rates in Sediments and a Carbon Mass Balance for the Herbert River Region of the Great Barrier Reef Continental Shelf, North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunskill, G. J.; Zagorskis, I.; Pfitzner, J.

    2002-04-01

    The largest century scale carbon reservoir in the Herbert River sector of the Great Barrier Reef continental shelf is carbonate carbon. This carbonate carbon is produced by corals, coralline algae, and other benthic organisms, and is stored on less than 13% of the area of the shelf. Maximum organic carbon burial rates (1-28 mol m -2 yr -1) occur within a wind-protected <20 m water depth embayment (<1% area of the shelf), where the highest bulk sedimentation rates (1-12 kg m -2 yr -1) were determined from 210Pb and 137 Cs profiles in 1-4 m cores. Sediment, organic carbon (OC), and carbonate carbon (CC) accumulation rates are very low in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon shelf and slope, where most annual productivity (8-15 mol OC m -2 yr -1) is decomposed by algal and microbial respiration. A carbon mass balance indicated that approximately 1% of combined river and marine organic carbon production was preserved in across-shelf sedimentation, but 3% of river and mangrove organic carbon input was preserved in this small wind-protected embayment. An across-shelf carbon mass balance model predicted average shelf organic matter respiration correctly, and the ratio of organic carbon fixation to respiration (corrected for burial losses) was 1·06.

  16. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M; Habas, Susan E; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-02-21

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  17. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P.; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M.; Habas, Susan e.; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-06-29

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  18. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  19. Indien Personhood III: Water Burial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Water burial is a way to return a body to its key primal element. It revives and transforms both the soul and the person. Sometimes water burial leads to a new life floating in a womb. Sometimes it disperses to provide a moist and nutrient-rich medium for a vast variety of other lives, making a contribution to the much larger whole. In this…

  20. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1610 Burial in national cemeteries; burial...

  1. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1610 Burial in national cemeteries; burial...

  2. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1610 Burial in national cemeteries; burial...

  3. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1610 Burial in national cemeteries; burial...

  4. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1610 Burial in national cemeteries; burial...

  5. Superfund record of decision (EPA region 10): Idaho National Engineering Lab, (USDOE) Operable Unit 26 (Stationary Low-Power Reactor-1 and Boiling Water Reactor Experiment-I Burial Grounds), Idaho Falls, ID, December 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This document presents the selected remedial action for the Stationary Low-Power Reactor-1 (SL-1) burial ground, the Boiling Water Reactor Experiment-I (BORAX-I) burial ground, and 10 no action sites in Waste Area Group 5. Actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances from the SL-1 and BORAX-I burial grounds, if not addressed by implementing the response action selected in this Record of Decision, may present a current or potential threat to public health, welfare, or the environment. The 10 no action sites do not present a threat to human health or the environment.

  6. Burial Level Change Defines a High Energetic Relevance for Protein Binding Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhua; He, Ying; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interfaces defined through atomic contact or solvent accessibility change are widely adopted in structural biology studies. But, these definitions cannot precisely capture energetically important regions at protein interfaces. The burial depth of an atom in a protein is related to the atom's energy. This work investigates how closely the change in burial level of an atom/residue upon complexation is related to the binding. Burial level change is different from burial level itself. An atom deeply buried in a monomer with a high burial level may not change its burial level after an interaction and it may have little burial level change. We hypothesize that an interface is a region of residues all undergoing burial level changes after interaction. By this definition, an interface can be decomposed into an onion-like structure according to the burial level change extent. We found that our defined interfaces cover energetically important residues more precisely, and that the binding free energy of an interface is distributed progressively from the outermost layer to the core. These observations are used to predict binding hot spots. Our approach's F-measure performance on a benchmark dataset of alanine mutagenesis residues is much superior or similar to those by complicated energy modeling or machine learning approaches.

  7. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... include burial allowances for service-connected and non-service-connected deaths, a plot or interment... and plot or interment allowances that are equal to the maximum benefit authorized by law, and priority... allowance for service-connected deaths (38 U.S.C. 2307). Congress also authorized VA to pay a plot...

  8. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists as a regional environmental impact and little resea...

  9. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  10. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  11. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  12. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  13. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  14. Controls on biogenic silica burial in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Zanna; Kohfeld, Karen E.; Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the controls on opal export in the Southern Ocean can inform both the prediction of how the leakage of silicic acid from the Southern Ocean responds to climate and the interpretation of paleo-proxies. We have compiled a database of 185 230Thorium-normalized opal burial rates and 493 opal concentration measurements in Southern Ocean sediments and matched these with environmental climatologies. By subdividing the Southern Ocean on the basis of oceanographic regions and interpolating the opal burial rates, we estimate a total biogenic Si burial south of 40°S of 2.3 ± 1.0 Tmol Si yr-1. In both the seasonally ice-covered and permanently ice-free regions we can explain 73% of opal burial variability from surface ocean properties. Where sea ice is present for at least part of the year, the length of the ice-free season determines the upper limit of opal burial in the underlying sediments. In the ice-free regions of the Southern Ocean, the supply of silicic acid through winter mixing is the most important factor. Our results do not support a strong role of iron in controlling opal burial. We do however find that satellite-derived net primary production increases with increasing (modeled) dust delivery. These findings support the decoupling between carbon and opal fluxes in the Southern Ocean. When corrected for opal dissolution, the observed opal fluxes are in reasonable agreement with fluxes simulated using an ocean biogeochemical model. However, the results suggest current preservation algorithms for opal could be improved by incorporating the composition of particle flux, not only its magnitude.

  15. 38 CFR 3.1700 - Types of VA burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of VA burial... ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1700 Types of VA burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. (a) Burial benefits. VA provides the following types of burial benefits, which are discussed in §§...

  16. Effects of sand burial on the survival and growth of two shrubs dominant in different habitats of northern China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Zuo, Xiao-An; Wang, Shao-Kun; Chen, Min

    2017-04-01

    Plants that grow in dune ecosystems always suffer from sand burial. Shrubs play implications on the healthy functioning of dune ecosystems due to control blowing sand. However, the survival and growth responses of shrubs to sand burial remain poorly understood. The survival rate and seedling height of two shrubs (Artemisia halodendron and Lespedeza davurica) along with the soil properties under different burial depths were examined in order to reveal the causing ecophysiological attributes of sand burial on shrubs in the desertified region. It was found that A. halodendron can survive a burial depth of 6 cm greater than its seedling height, which is a dominant shrub in mobile dunes with intense burial, whereas a burial depth equivalent to three fourths of its seedling height is detrimental to L. davurica, which is dominant in fixed dunes with less burial. The reasons for the shrub death under sand burial were associated with the physical barrier to vertical growth and the reduction in photosynthetic area. In conclusion, A. halodendron can facilitate the stabilization of mobile dunes because of their high tolerance to the frequent and intensive sand burial, while L. davurica can be beneficial for the recovery process because of their higher survival rates under shallow burial following restoration of mobile dunes.

  17. Changes in CaCO3 Burial Trump the Biological Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toggweiler, J.; Dunne, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 at the ends of ice ages are usually attributed to a one-two punch coming from the ocean. First, a weakened biological pump vents organically cycled CO2 from the deep ocean via changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica. The initial CO2 increase is then augmented by an enhancement of CaCO3 burial due to a process called CaCO3 compensation (after Broecker, W. S and T.-H. Peng, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 1, 15-29, 1987). Here, we argue that the importance of the biological pump has been exaggerated. The main effect comes from circulation-induced changes in the burial of CaCO3. As shown in a recent paper by Andreas Schmittner and co-authors (Schmittner, A., E. Brook and J. Ahn, Impact of the ocean's overturning circulation on atmospheric CO2, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, Geophys. Monogr. 173, A. Schmittner, J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, eds., pp. 209-246, AGU, 2007) changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica gave rise to 20-30 ppm increases in atmospheric CO2 every 5,000-7,000 years during isotope stages 3 and 4 (30,000 to 70,000 years ago). None of these venting events gave rise to a compensation response. Meanwhile, Jaccard et al. (Science, 308, 1003-1006, 2005) show that all the big CO2 increases during terminations through stage 11 were accompanied by huge increases in CaCO3 burial. This suggests that the enhanced burial of CaCO3 is obligatory rather than compensatory with respect to the dramatic CO2 increases. Broecker and Peng's compensation idea is based on an assumption that the rain of CaCO3 to the sea floor is the same everywhere. More specifically, it assumes that there is no spatial correlation between the production of CaCO3 at the surface and the burial on the sea floor. We find instead that the production and burial of CaCO3 tend to be co-located in regional "hot spots" and that burial in the hot spots balances the input of Ca++ and HCO3- ions in rivers. The

  18. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  19. 38 CFR 3.1703 - Claims for burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims for burial... ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1703 Claims for burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt... section, VA must receive a claim for the non-service-connected burial allowance no later than 2...

  20. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  1. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  2. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  3. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  4. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  5. Relative Burial Depths of Nakhlites: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Koizumi, E.; Makishima, J.; McKay, G.

    2006-03-01

    We updated our model of the nakhlite igneous body in terms of their relative burial depths. Olivine chemical zoning gave burial depths of 1-2 m for NWA817, 4 m for MIL03346, 7 m for Y000593, 10 m for Nakhla/Gov. Val. and >30 m for Lafayette/ NWA998.

  6. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  7. View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, Benjamin Carr Farm in distance through the trees - Friends' Burial Ground, Eldred & Beacon Avenues, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  8. Land-use change, not climate, controls organic carbon burial in lakes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N J; Dietz, R D; Engstrom, D R

    2013-10-22

    Lakes are a central component of the carbon cycle, both mineralizing terrestrially derived organic matter and storing substantial amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. However, the rates and controls on OC burial by lakes remain uncertain, as do the possible effects of future global change processes. To address these issues, we derived OC burial rates in (210)Pb-dated sediment cores from 116 small Minnesota lakes that cover major climate and land-use gradients. Rates for individual lakes presently range from 7 to 127 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and have increased by up to a factor of 8 since Euro-American settlement (mean increase: 2.8×). Mean pre-disturbance OC burial rates were similar (14-22 g C m(-2) yr(-1)) across all land-cover categories (prairie, mixed deciduous and boreal forest), indicating minimal effect of the regional temperature gradient (approx. 4 °C) on background carbon burial. The relationship between modern OC burial rates and temperature was also not significant after removal of the effect of total phosphorus. Contemporary burial rates were strongly correlated with lake-water nutrients and the extent of agricultural land cover in the catchment. Increased OC burial, documented even in relatively undisturbed boreal lake ecosystems, indicates a possible role for atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results suggest that globally, future land-cover change, intensification of agriculture and associated nutrient loading together with atmospheric N-deposition will enhance OC sequestration by lakes.

  9. Organic Carbon Burial in Lakes and Reservoirs of the Conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Clow, David W; Stackpoole, Sarah M; Verdin, Kristine L; Butman, David E; Zhu, Zhiliang; Krabbenhoft, David P; Striegl, Robert G

    2015-07-07

    Organic carbon (OC) burial in lacustrine sediments represents an important sink in the global carbon cycle; however, large-scale OC burial rates are poorly constrained, primarily because of the sparseness of available data sets. Here we present an analysis of OC burial rates in water bodies of the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) that takes advantage of recently developed national-scale data sets on reservoir sedimentation rates, sediment OC concentrations, lake OC burial rates, and water body distributions. We relate these data to basin characteristics and land use in a geostatistical analysis to develop an empirical model of OC burial in water bodies of the CONUS. Our results indicate that CONUS water bodies sequester 20.8 (95% CI: 9.4-65.8) Tg C yr(-1), and spatial patterns in OC burial are strongly influenced by water body type, size, and abundance; land use; and soil and vegetation characteristics in surrounding areas. Carbon burial is greatest in the central and southeastern regions of the CONUS, where cultivation and an abundance of small water bodies enhance accumulation of sediment and OC in aquatic environments.

  10. Organic carbon burial in lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, David W.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Butman, David E.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) burial in lacustrine sediments represents an important sink in the global carbon cycle; however, large-scale OC burial rates are poorly constrained, primarily because of the sparseness of available data sets. Here we present an analysis of OC burial rates in water bodies of the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) that takes advantage of recently developed national-scale data sets on reservoir sedimentation rates, sediment OC concentrations, lake OC burial rates, and water body distributions. We relate these data to basin characteristics and land use in a geostatistical analysis to develop an empirical model of OC burial in water bodies of the CONUS. Our results indicate that CONUS water bodies sequester 20.8 (95% CI: 9.4–65.8) Tg C yr–1, and spatial patterns in OC burial are strongly influenced by water body type, size, and abundance; land use; and soil and vegetation characteristics in surrounding areas. Carbon burial is greatest in the central and southeastern regions of the CONUS, where cultivation and an abundance of small water bodies enhance accumulation of sediment and OC in aquatic environments.

  11. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  12. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Vicki J.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  13. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  14. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  15. Common and distinct responses in phytohormone and vitamin E changes during seed burial and dormancy in Xyris bialata and X. peregrina.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Q S; Giorni, V T; Müller, M; Munné-Bosch, S

    2012-03-01

    Temperature and humidity are the main factors influencing seed viability, dormancy and longevity of buried seeds. Unfortunately, very little is known about such processes in species of tropical regions, where temperature does not show major seasonal variations. The extent to which germination capacity, phytohormones and vitamin E levels were altered after burial of seeds of Xyris bialata and X. peregrina (Xyridaceae), two species endemic to rupestrian fields of Brazil, was examined. After 2 months of burial, seed germination capacity remained constant, which is associated with decreases in ABA and IAA content in both species. During this period, zeatin levels also decreased in X. bialata, but not in X. peregrina, the latter showing much lower levels of ABA. During the summer (rainy season), seeds of both species experienced a progressive, but severe, decrease in germination capacity, which reversed at the end of the winter (dry season), thus suggesting secondary dormancy. This dormancy appeared to be caused by drastic decreases in GAs, rather than increases in ABA. Levels of GA(4) decreased to non-detectable values during dormancy in both species. Furthermore, zeatin levels decreased in X. bialata but not in X.peregrina during this period. Both species accumulated γ-tocopherol as the major vitamin E form, and levels of this antioxidant remained constant or even increased during seed burial; however, X. bialata seeds showed a significant decrease in α-tocopherol during seed burial and dormancy. It is concluded that in X. peregrina and X. bialata, (i) burial causes significant changes in the phytohormone levels of seeds; (ii) secondary dormancy is induced in seeds; (iii) a GA(4) decrease, rather than an ABA increase, seems to be involved in the induction of secondary dormancy; and (iv) reductions in α-tocopherol in buried seeds are not necessarily indicative of reduced germination capacity.

  16. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  17. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  18. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  20. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  1. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  2. Episodic burial metamorphism in the Andes—A viable model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevins, R. E.; Robinson, D.; Aguirre, L.; Vergara, M.

    2003-08-01

    Burial metamorphism of regional extent throughout Mesozoic to Cenozoic sequences in the Andean Mountain belt has been attributed previously to a unique model of metamorphic development, involving episodic ˜40 m.y. cycles of extensional basin formation, burial, metamorphism, and then exhumation. A main premise of this model is that breaks in metamorphic grade occur at major stratigraphic unconformities, so marking successive metamorphic cycles. This model is tested in a Mesozoic Cenozoic sequence east of Santiago, where three metamorphic episodes have been reported on the basis of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at two main unconformities. In metabasites from this area, reaction progress in mafic phyllosilicates shows a continuum across the sequence without breaks at the unconformities. There are differences in mineral assemblages between the various stratigraphic units, from which contrasting subgreenschist facies can be recognized. However, consideration of the controls on mineral paragenesis at subgreenschist facies conditions demonstrates that these different facies cannot be used as evidence of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at unconformities, as has been reported in many previous publications. Thus, metamorphic breaks within this Andean section cannot be confirmed. Accordingly, models of Andean burial metamorphism linked to episodic tectonic cycles throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic appear unfounded.

  3. Effects of sand burial on biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence and extracellular polysaccharides of man-made cyanobacterial crusts under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, WeiBo; Yang, CuiYun; Tang, DongShan; Li, DunHai; Liu, YongDing; Hu, ChunXiang

    2007-08-01

    Soil cyanobacterial crusts occur throughout the world, especially in the semiarid and arid regions. It always encounters sand burial, which is an important feature of mobile sand dunes. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sand burial on biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence and extracellular polysaccharides of man-made cyanobacterial crusts in six periods of time (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 d after burying) and at five depths (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 cm). The results indicated that with the increase of the burial time and burial depth extracellular polysaccharides content and Fv/Fm decreased correspondingly and there were no significant differences between 20 and 30 burial days under different burial depths. The degradation of chlorophyll a content appeared only at 20 and 30 burial days and there was also no significant difference between them under different burial depths. It was also observed a simultaneous decrease of the values of the Fv/Fm and the content of extracellular polysaccharides happened in the crusted cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus Gom. It may suggest that there exists a relationship between extracellular polysaccharides and recovery of the activity of photosystem II (PS II) after rehydration.

  4. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  9. [Effects of sand burial on growth and physiological process of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings in Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia, North China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ha-Lin; Qu, Hao; Zhou, Rui-Lian; Wang, Jin; Li, Jin; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2013-12-01

    In 2010-2011, a sand burial experiment was conducted on the Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia to study the growth characteristics and physiological properties of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings under different depths of sand burial. The A. squarrosum seedlings had stronger tolerance against sand burial. The seedling growth could be severely inhibited when the burial depth exceeded seedling height, but some seedlings could still be survived when the burial depth exceeded 1.66 times of seedling height. When the burial depth did not exceed the seedling height, the seedling MDA content and membrane permeability had no significant change, but the lipid peroxidation was aggravated and the cell membrane was damaged with increasing burial depth. Under sand burial stress, the seedling SOD and POD activities and proline content increased significantly, while the seedling CAT activity and soluble sugar content deceased. Sand burial decreased the leaf photosynthetic area and damaged cell membrane, inducing the increase of seedling mortality and the inhibition of seedling growth. The increase of SOD and POD activities and proline content played a definite role in reducing the sand burial damage to A. squarrosum seedlings.

  10. Identification of leachate from livestock mortality burial using electrical resistivity and small-loop EM survey: case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sung-Ho; Cho, In-Ky; Choi, Kwang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Leachate from livestock mortality burial is harmful to the soil and groundwater environment and adequate assessment approaches are necessary to manage burial sites. Among the methods used to detect leachate, geophysical surveys, including electrical resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) techniques, are used in many engineering approaches to environmental problems, such as identifying contaminant plumes and evaluating hydrogeological conditions. Electrical resistivity, with a small-loop EM survey, was used in this study as a reconnaissance technique to identify the burial shape and distribution of leachate from livestock mortality burial in five small separate zones. We conducted a multi-frequency small-loop EM survey using lattice nets and acquired apparent conductivity values along several parallel and perpendicular lines over a burial site. We also compared geophysical results to the geochemical analysis of samples from both a leachate collection well and a downstream observation well within the study area. Depth slices of apparent conductivities at each frequency (obtained from the small-loop EM survey data) clearly identified the subsurface structure of the burial shape and the extent of leachate transport. Low-resistivity zones, identified from two-dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity imaging results, were matched to the five burial zones (within a depth of 5 m), as well as high electrical conductivity of the leachate obtained from leachate collection wells, and depth slices of the apparent conductivity distribution obtained from the small-loop EM survey. A three-dimensional (3D) inversion of resistivity data provided a detailed 3D structure of the overall burial site and leachate pathways. Moreover, these zones were widely spread over the burial site, indicating that leachate potentially extended through damaged regions of the composite liner to a depth of 10 m along the downstream groundwater flow. Both the small-loop EM method and the electrical

  11. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K.; Slate, J.L.; Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B.

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  12. The evaluation of Bedfordshire burial registration, 1538-1851.

    PubMed

    Razzell, Peter; Spence, Christine; Woollard, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This article is based mainly on a digital transcript of burials for 126 Bedfordshire parishes 1538-1851, and a county index of wills for the same period. The comparison of probate with burial register data indicated that there was little long-term change over time in burial under-registration, with between 21 and 27 per cent of will entries missing in the registers. There was also little variation between parishes of different population sizes, suggesting that burial under-registration was predominantly a random process linked to clerical negligence. A comparison of 1841 and 1851 census data, linked to the Bedfordshire burial database, revealed that missing burials amongst married couples was 29 per cent, similar to that found in the probate/burial register comparison in the 1840s. These findings on the adequacy of burial registers suggest that similar research on others counties will be necessary in order to establish reliable conclusions about England's population history.

  13. 77 FR 4676 - Parents Eligible for Burial

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... of veterans and eligible family members are met by providing burial and memorialization in VA... while in the active military, naval, or air service. 38 U.S.C. 2402(a)(1). Revision of 38 CFR 38.620 is... national cemetery unless they had attained eligibility through military service or marriage....

  14. The Deterministic Mine Burial Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-12

    Mobile Underwater Sand Dunes, Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory, Defense Science and Technology Organization, Melbourne, Victoria ...30 Years of Seafloor Research,” Sea Technology 45, 15-19, 2004. 19. P.J. Mulhearn, “Experiments on Mine Burial on Impact – Sydney Harbour ,” U.S

  15. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  16. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  17. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  18. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... burial. 38.620 Section 38.620 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.620 Persons eligible for burial. The following is a list of those individuals who are eligible for burial in a national cemetery:...

  19. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... burial. 38.620 Section 38.620 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.620 Persons eligible for burial. The following is a list of those individuals who are eligible for burial in a national cemetery:...

  20. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  1. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... burial. 38.620 Section 38.620 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.620 Persons eligible for burial. The following is a list of those individuals who are eligible for burial in a national cemetery:...

  2. Late Quaternary strata and carbon burial records in the Yellow River delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangming; Ye, Siyuan; Li, Guangxue; Ding, Xigui; Yuan, Hongming

    2015-06-01

    Sediment carbon sequestration plays an essential role in mitigating atmospheric CO2 increases and the subsequently global greenhouse effect. To clarify the late Quaternary strata and carbon burial records in Yellow River delta (YRD), detailed analysis of benthic foraminifera, total carbon (TC), organic carbon (Corg), sedimentary characteristics and moisture contents of sediments, was performed on core ZK3, 30.3 m in length and obtained from YRD in 2007. Eight depositional units (designated U1-U8 in ascending order) were identified. A comprehensive analysis method of historical geography and sedimentary geology was used to determine the precise depositional ages of the modern Yellow River delta (MYRD), from which pre-MYRD ages were deduced. The results indicates that the maximum burial rates of TC, inorganic carbon (IC) and Corg occurred in the delta front (U5), and the minimum in the shallow sea (U3). Remarkable high sedimentation rates in the MYRD are responsible for burial efficiency of carbon, with an average rate of Corg burial reaching 2087±251 g (m2 yr)-1, and that of IC reaching 13741±808 g (m2 yr)-1, which are much higher than those of other regions with high contents of Corg. Therefore, YRD has a significant burial efficiency for carbon sequestration.

  3. Mine Impact Burial Prediction Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-15

    Partington Point) between the Farallon Islands in the north and Morro Bay in the south (Figure 2). It contains one of the world’s most geologically...diverse and complex seafloors and continental margins. The MBNMS is located on a plate boundary, which separates the North American Plate from the...Pacific Plate , and is marked by the San Andreas fault system. This is an active tectonic region with common occurrences of earthquakes, submarine

  4. Nonlinearly induced radiation from an overdense plasma region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1983-09-01

    Consideration is given to a new mechanism for the nonlinear transparency of a bounded plasma. The expectation is that the incident electromagnetic wave will decay into quasistatic eigenmodes that can propagate around the overdense region. It is shown that most of the transformed energy can be reradiated in particular directions from the particular plasma surface regions where the plasma parameters have proper values. Attention is also given to the stationary state, which is established when the power of the induced radiation is equal to that of the incident.

  5. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-21

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities.

  6. Suspect burial excavation procedure: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair; Donnelly, Colm; Carver, Naomi; Murphy, Eileen; Murray, Emily; McCambridge, James

    2009-01-10

    Geographic location, time of reporting and need for rapid evaluation contributed to a lack of intelligence concerning a suspect burial site in scrub woodland (approximately 15 km from the last known location of a missing person) in Northern Ireland. Police received reports of a subsiding 'grave', which was evaluated positively using GPR and victim recovery dogs (VRD). After 24h work, archaeological excavation showed a vertical-sided, stepped excavation on undisturbed clay with no inhumation. Subsequent research showed the feature to be an engineering trial pit. The GPR response was a water table and rocks, VRD were possibly reacting to disturbed ground. The work serves as a demonstration of good archaeological practice in suspect burial excavation, following a lack of landscape evaluation and poor overall intelligence.

  7. Burial at Srebrenica: linking place and trauma.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan

    2003-02-01

    Five years after the massacre at Srebrenica in Bosnia-Herzegovina, survivors were faced with the decision: where did they want their loved ones buried? This report explores the reasons for their choice in qualitative interviews with 37 survivors of the massacre and 22 key informants performed over the summer 2000. Survivors wanted the loved ones buried at Potocari, a site just outside of Srebrenica, because it represented the site of ultimate horror, was connected to their sense of home, and underscored the various power relationships. The data points to the importance of place for health. Trauma, as it occurs in particular locations, breaks the sense of attachment to a particular place. Restoring the physical and social environment through burial and memorials mitigates the consequences of the trauma. The burial at Potocari provides a window into the mourning, politics, and recovery after mass violence.

  8. Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (Sumatra - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands Sumatra to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the West indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.

  9. Soil temperature calculation for burial site analysis.

    PubMed

    Prangnell, Jonathan; McGowan, Glenys

    2009-10-30

    The effect of air and water temperature upon the decomposition of human remains and upon biological activity has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been devoted to the temperature of the soil surrounding burials, despite its potential influence upon chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of human remains, drugs and toxins, as well as upon microbial and insect activity. A soil temperature calculation equation usually employed in civil engineering was used to calculate soil temperature at various depths in a cemetery located in Brisbane, Australia, in order to explain the extensive degradation of human remains and funerary objects observed at exhumation. The results showed that for the 160 years of the site's history, ground temperature at burial level had been sufficiently high for biological activity and chemical degradation reactions to continue right up until the time of exhumation. The equation used has potential in the analysis of both cemetery and clandestine burials, since it allows ground temperature to be calculated from ambient air temperature figures, for a variety of depths, soil types and vegetation conditions.

  10. Experimental sand burial affects seedling survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jiao; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Jiang, Deming; Musa, Ala; Wu, Dafu; Wang, Yongcui; Miao, Chunping

    2016-07-01

    As a native tree species, Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm) is widely distributed in the Horqin Sandy Land, China. However, seedlings of this species have to withstand various depths of sand burial after emergence because of increasing soil degradation, which is mainly caused by overgrazing, climate change, and wind erosion. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes in its survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation when seedlings were buried at different burial depths: unburied controls and seedlings buried vertically up to 33, 67, 100, or 133 % of their initial mean seedling height. The results showed that partial sand burial treatments (i.e., less than 67 % burial) did not reduce seedling survivorship, which still reached 100 %. However, seedling mortality increased when sand burial was equal to or greater than 100 %. In comparison with the control treatment, seedling height and stem diameter increased at least by 6 and 14 % with partial burial, respectively. In the meantime, seedling taproot length, total biomass, and relative mass growth rates were at least enhanced by 10, 15.6, and 27.6 %, respectively, with the partial sand burial treatment. Furthermore, sand burial decreased total leaf area and changed biomass allocation in seedlings, partitioning more biomass to aboveground organs (e.g., leaves) and less to belowground parts (roots). Complete sand burial after seedling emergence inhibited its re-emergence and growth, even leading to death. Our findings indicated that seedlings of sandy elm showed some resistance to partial sand burial and were adapted to sandy environments from an evolutionary perspective. The negative effect of excessive sand burial after seedling emergence might help in understanding failures in recruitments of sparse elm in the study region.

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-08-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-09-12

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the118-F-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron and K. A. Anselm

    2008-02-21

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities.

  14. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  15. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  16. Jurassic Haynesville limestones of east Texas: burial diagenesis and more burial diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Progressive loss of primary porosity due to a continuum of pressure solution and associated burial cementation dominated Haynesville porosity evolution. Porosity loss, however, was punctuated at depth by major grain dissolution and microporosity development in oolitic grainstones. Absence of freshwater precompaction cements allowed incipient burial diagenesis to affect the entire Haynesville sequence. Micritic facies experienced extensive stylolitization and associated cementation, losing their effective porosities relatively early in their burial history. Oolitic grainstones also initially lost porosity due to pervasive suturing of ooids and concomitant interparticle cementation, a relationship confirmed by cathodoluminescence and cement geochemistry. Yet they retained sufficient primary porosity to later reservoir bitumen. Subsequent to bitumen emplacement, however, ooids underwent extensive burial dissolution which created uniform micromoldic porosity, now the dominant pore type in these gas reservoirs. Dissolution postdated most pressure solution fabrics in these grainstones; adjacent micritic facies were unaffected by this dissolution. Cathodoluminescence and vertical porosity profiles demonstrate that reduction of some reservoir quality in these oolitic grainstones resulted from renewed pressure solution and cementation, controlled largely by grainstone thickness and proximity to micritic facies.

  17. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  18. 38 CFR 3.1712 - Effect of forfeiture on payment of burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... payment of burial benefits. 3.1712 Section 3.1712 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Other § 3.1712 Effect of forfeiture on payment of burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. (a) Forfeiture for fraud. VA will pay burial benefits,...

  19. 38 CFR 3.1710 - Escheat (payment of burial benefits to an estate with no heirs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... burial benefits to an estate with no heirs). 3.1710 Section 3.1710 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Other § 3.1710 Escheat (payment of burial benefits to an estate with no heirs). VA will not pay burial benefits if...

  20. 38 CFR 3.1701 - Deceased veterans for whom VA may provide burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... whom VA may provide burial benefits. 3.1701 Section 3.1701 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1701 Deceased veterans for whom VA may provide burial benefits. For purposes of providing burial benefits under subpart...

  1. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Paul M.; Yoon, Heayoung P.; Gaury, Benoit; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells is most consistent with a charged surface, and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials. PMID:27881882

  2. Relative Burial Depths of Nakhlites: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Koizumi, E.; Makishima, J.; McKay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Nakhlites are augite-rich cumulate rocks with variable amounts of olivine and groundmass plus minor Fe, Ti oxides [e.g., 1]. Our previous studies revealed that nakhlites showed correlated petrography and mineralogy that could be explained by different locations (burial depths) in a common cooling cumulate pile [e.g., 2]. We so far analyzed six of the seven currently known nakhlites, Nakhla (Nak), Governador Valadares (GV), Lafayette (Laf), NWA817, Y000593 (Y) and MIL03346 (MIL) [e.g., 2,3] and calculated cooling rates of four nakhlites (Nak, GV, Laf, and NWA817) by using chemical zoning of olivine [e.g., 4]. In this abstract, we complete our examination of petrographic and mineralogical variation of all currently known nakhlites by adding petrology and mineralogy of NWA998. We also report results of cooling calculations for Y, MIL and NWA998. Then, we update our model of the nakhlite igneous body in terms of relative burial depth of each sample.

  3. Organic carbon burial in fjords: Terrestrial versus marine inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Fjords have been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial and may play an important role in regulating climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. Understanding sediment processes and sources of sedimentary OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords. In this study, we use Fiordland, New Zealand, as a case study and present data on surface sediments, sediment down-cores and terrestrial end-members to examine dynamics of sediments and the sources of OC in fjord sediments. Sediment cores showed evidence of multiple particle sources, frequent bioturbation and mass-wasting events. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols and fatty acids) allowed for separation of marine, soil and vascular plant OC in surface sediments. The relationship between mass accumulation rate (MAR) and OC contents in fjord surface sediments suggested that mineral dilution is important in controlling OC content on a global scale, but is less important for specific regions (e.g., New Zealand). The inconsistency of OC budgets calculated by using MAR weighted %OC and OC accumulation rates (AR; 6 vs 21-31 Tg OC yr-1) suggested that sediment flux in fjords was likely underestimated. By using end-member models, we propose that 55% to 62% of total OC buried in fjords is terrestrially derived, and accounts for 17 ± 12% of the OCterr buried in all marine sediments. The strong correlation between MAR and OC AR indicated that OC flux will likely decrease in fjords in the future with global warming due to decrease in sediment flux caused by glacier denudation.

  4. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jake J.; Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Pennino, Michael J.; Arango, Clay P.; Balz, David A.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Fritz, Ken M.; Hill, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention. PMID:26186731

  5. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jake J; Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Mayer, Paul M; Kaushal, Sujay S; Pennino, Michael J; Arango, Clay P; Balz, David A; Elonen, Colleen M; Fritz, Ken M; Hill, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  6. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  7. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  8. Development of regional liquefaction-induced deformation hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosinski, A.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Wu, J.; Seed, R.B.; Real, C.R.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes part of a project to assess the feasibility of producing regional (1:24,000-scale) liquefaction hazard maps that are based-on potential liquefaction-induced deformation. The study area is the central Santa Clara Valley, at the south end of San Francisco Bay in Central California. The information collected and used includes: a) detailed Quaternary geological mapping, b) over 650 geotechnical borings, c) probabilistic earthquake shaking information, and d) ground-water levels. Predictions of strain can be made using either empirical formulations or numerical simulations. In this project lateral spread displacements are estimated and new empirical relations to estimate future volumetric and shear strain are used. Geotechnical boring data to are used to: (a) develop isopach maps showing the thickness of sediment thatis likely to liquefy and deform under earthquake shaking; and (b) assess the variability in engineering properties within and between geologic map units. Preliminary results reveal that late Holocene deposits are likely to experience the greatest liquefaction-induced strains, while Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits are likely to experience significantly less horizontal and vertical strain in future earthquakes. Development of maps based on these analyses is feasible.

  9. Nationwide Surveillance for Pathogenic Microorganisms in Groundwater near Carcass Burials Constructed in South Korea in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Ha Kyung; Han, Sang Ha; Park, Su-Jung; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Ahn, Tae Seok; Lee, Joong-Bok; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Jang, Kyung Lib; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Paik, Soon Young

    2013-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza occurred in South Korea during 2010. In response to the culling of many animals to attenuate the spread of disease, South Korea used mass burial sites to dispose of the large number of carcasses; consequently, concerns about groundwater contamination by leachate from these burial sites are increasing. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, and its cleanliness is directly related to public health. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of groundwater around the burial sites (total of 600 sites). A total of 1,200 groundwater samples were collected though the country, and microbial analysis was conducted during two time periods: during the spring (n = 600; April to June 2012) and after rainfall (n = 600; August to October, 2012; fall). Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were detected in 173 (14.4%) and 85 (7.1%) of the 1,200 samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. each were detected only once (0.083%). Clostridium perfringens was detected from 7 groundwater samples (0.583%), and E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. With respect to norovirus, only the GII type was detected from six groundwater samples (0.5%), and enterovirus was detected in 15 groundwater samples (1.25%). The frequency of E. coli that we detected was lower than that found in previous studies conducted in South Korea, but we detected higher frequency of fecal coliform than that observed in a previous report. The contamination frequencies of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were very low, but C. perfringens, which could be an indicator of fecal pollution, was detected in seven regions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate a low possibility of contamination from burial sites. However, consistent monitoring is required to prevent microbial contamination of groundwater near the burial sites. PMID:24351737

  10. Nationwide surveillance for pathogenic microorganisms in groundwater near carcass burials constructed in South Korea in 2010.

    PubMed

    Joung, Ha Kyung; Han, Sang Ha; Park, Su-Jung; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Ahn, Tae Seok; Lee, Joong-Bok; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Jang, Kyung Lib; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Paik, Soon Young

    2013-12-12

    Widespread outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza occurred in South Korea during 2010. In response to the culling of many animals to attenuate the spread of disease, South Korea used mass burial sites to dispose of the large number of carcasses; consequently, concerns about groundwater contamination by leachate from these burial sites are increasing. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, and its cleanliness is directly related to public health. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of groundwater around the burial sites (total of 600 sites). A total of 1,200 groundwater samples were collected though the country, and microbial analysis was conducted during two time periods: during the spring (n = 600; April to June 2012) and after rainfall (n = 600; August to October, 2012; fall). Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were detected in 173 (14.4%) and 85 (7.1%) of the 1,200 samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. each were detected only once (0.083%). Clostridium perfringens was detected from 7 groundwater samples (0.583%), and E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. With respect to norovirus, only the GII type was detected from six groundwater samples (0.5%), and enterovirus was detected in 15 groundwater samples (1.25%). The frequency of E. coli that we detected was lower than that found in previous studies conducted in South Korea, but we detected higher frequency of fecal coliform than that observed in a previous report. The contamination frequencies of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were very low, but C. perfringens, which could be an indicator of fecal pollution, was detected in seven regions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate a low possibility of contamination from burial sites. However, consistent monitoring is required to prevent microbial contamination of groundwater near the burial sites.

  11. Holocene age of the Yuha burial: Direct radiocarbon determinations by accelerator mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, Thomas W.; Jull, A.J.T.; Zabel, T.H.; Donahue, D.J.; Duhamel, R.C.; Brendel, K.; Haynes, C.V.; Bischoff, J.L.; Payen, L.A.; Taylor, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The view that human populations may not have arrived in the Western Hemisphere before about 12,000 radiocarbon yr BP1,2 has been challenged by claims of much greater antiquity for a small number of archaeological sites and human skeleton samples. One such site is the Homo sapiens sapiens cairn burial excavated in 1971 from the Yuha desert, Imperial County, California3-5. Radiocarbon analysis of caliche coating one of the bones of the skeleton yielded a radiocarbon age of 21,500??1,000 yr BP4, while radiocarbon and uranium series analyses of caliche coating a cairn boulder yielded ages of 22,125??400 and 19,000??3,000 yr BP, respectively5. The late Pleistocene age assignment to the Yuha burial has been challenged by comparing the cultural context of the burial with other cairn burials in the same region6, on the basis of the site's geomorphological context and from radiocarbon analyses of soil caliches. 7,8 In rebuttal, arguments in defence of the original age assignment have been presented9,10 as well as an amino acid racemization analysis on the Yuha skeleton indicating an age of 23,600??2,600 yr BP11. The tandem accelerator mass spectrometer at the University of Arizona has now been used to measure the ratio of 14C/13C in several organic and inorganic fractions of post-cranial bone from the Yuha H. sapiens sapiens skeleton. Isotope ratios from six chemical fractions all yielded radiocarbon ages for the skeleton of less than 4,000 yr BP. These results indicate that the Yuha skeleton is of Holocene age, in agreement with the cultural context of the burial, and in disagreement with the previously assigned Pleistocene age of 19,000-23,000 yr. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Hypercapnia increases core temperature cooling rate during snow burial.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Colin K; Radwin, Martin I; Scholand, Mary Beth; Harmston, Chris H; Muetterties, Mark C; Bywater, Tim J

    2004-04-01

    Previous retrospective studies report a core body temperature cooling rate of 3 degrees C/h during avalanche burial. Hypercapnia occurs during avalanche burial secondary to rebreathing expired air, and the effect of hypercapnia on hypothermia during avalanche burial is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the core temperature cooling rate during snow burial under normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. We measured rectal core body temperature (T(re)) in 12 subjects buried in compacted snow dressed in a lightweight clothing insulation system during two different study burials. In one burial, subjects breathed with a device (AvaLung 2, Black Diamond Equipment) that resulted in hypercapnia over 30-60 min. In a control burial, subjects were buried under identical conditions with a modified breathing device that maintained normocapnia. Mean snow temperature was -2.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. Burial time was 49 +/- 14 min in the hypercapnic study and 60 min in the normocapnic study (P = 0.02). Rate of decrease in T(re) was greater with hypercapnia (1.2 degrees C/h by multiple regression analysis, 95% confidence limits of 1.1-1.3 degrees C/h) than with normocapnia (0.7 degrees C/h, 95% confidence limit of 0.6-0.8 degrees C/h). In the hypercapnic study, the fraction of inspired carbon dioxide increased from 1.4 +/- 1.0 to 7.0 +/- 1.4%, minute ventilation increased from 15 +/- 7 to 40 +/- 12 l/min, and oxygen saturation decreased from 97 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 6% (P < 0.01). During the normocapnic study, these parameters remained unchanged. In this study, T(re) cooling rate during snow burial was less than previously reported and was increased by hypercapnia. This may have important implications for prehospital treatment of avalanche burial victims.

  13. A preliminary regional assessment of earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility for Vrancea Seismic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, Mihai; Balteanu, Dan; Ionescu, Constantin; Havenith, Hans; Radulian, Mircea; van Westen, Cees; Damen, Michiel; Jurchescu, Marta

    2015-04-01

    ) with head scarps near mountain tops and close to faults is similar to the one of large mass movements for which a seismic origin is proved (such as in the Tien Shan, Pamir, Longmenshan, etc.). Thus, correlations between landslide occurrence and combined seismotectonic and climatic factors are needed to support a regional multi-hazard risk assessment. The purpose of this paper is to harmonize for the first time at a regional scale the landslide predisposing factors and seismotectonic triggers and to present a first qualitative insight into the earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility for the Vrancea Seismic Region in terms of a GIS-based analysis of Newmark displacement (ND). In this way, it aims at better defining spatial and temporal distribution patterns of earthquake-triggered landslides. Arias Intensity calculation involved in the assessment considers both regional seismic hazard aspects and singular earthquake scenarios (adjusted by topography amplification factors). The known distribution of landslides mapped through digital stereographic interpretation of high-resolution aerial photos is compared with digital active fault maps and the computed ND maps to statistically outline the seismotectonic influence on slope stability in the study area. The importance of this approach resides in two main outputs. The fist one, of a fundamental nature, by providing the first regional insight into the seismic landslides triggering framework, is allowing us to understand if deep-focus earthquakes may trigger massive slope failures in an area with a relatively smooth relief (compared to the high mountain regions in Central Asia, the Himalayas), considering possible geologic and topographic site effects. The second one, more applied, will allow a better accelerometer instrumentation and monitoring of slopes and also will provide a first correlation of different levels of seismic shaking with precipitation recurrences, an important relationship within a multi-hazard risk

  14. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as

  15. The effect of the burial environment on adipocere formation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Dent, Boyd B

    2005-11-10

    Adipocere is a decomposition product comprising predominantly of saturated fatty acids which results from the hydrolysis and hydrogenation of neutral fats in the body. Adipocere formation may occur in various decomposition environments but is chiefly dependent on the surrounding conditions. In a soil burial environment these conditions may include such factors as soil pH, temperature, moisture and the oxygen content within the grave site. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of these particular burial factors on the rate and extent of adipocere formation. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in an attempt to form adipocere from pig adipose tissue in model burial environments. Infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to determine the lipid profile and fatty acid composition of the adipocere product which formed in the burial environments. The results suggest that adipocere can form under a variety of burial conditions. Several burial factors were identified as enhancing adipocere formation whilst others clearly inhibited its formation. This study acts as a preliminary investigation into the effect of the burial environment on the resultant preservation of decomposing tissue via adipocere formation.

  16. Evaluation method of leachate leaking from carcass burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.; Han, J.

    2012-12-01

    More than 150,000 cattle carcasses and 3,140,000 pig carcasses were buried all over the nation in Korea because of 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Various disposal Techniques such as incineration, composting, rendering, and burial have been developed and applied to effectively dispose an animal carcass. Since a large number of carcasses should be disposed for a short-term period to prevent the spread of FMD virus, most of the carcasses were disposed by mass burial technique. However, a long-term management and monitoring of leachate discharges are required because mass burial can cause soil and groundwater contamination. In this study, we used key parameters related to major components of leachate such as NH4-N, NO3-N, Cl-, E.coli and electrical conductivity as potential leachate contamination indicator to determine leachate leakage from the site. We monitored 300 monitoring wells in both burial site and the monitoring well 5m away from burial sites to identify leachate leaking from burial site. Average concentration of NH3-N in 300 monitoring wells, both burial site and the well 5m away from burial sites, were 2,593 mg/L and 733 mg/L, respectively. 24% out of 300 monitoring wells showed higher than 10 mg/L NH4-N, 100 mg/L Cl- and than 800 μS/cm electrical conductivity. From this study, we set up 4 steps guidelines to evaluate leachate leakage like; step 1 : High potential step of leachate leakage, step 2 : Middle potential step of leachate leakage, step 3 : Low potential step of leachate leakage, step 4 : No leachate leakage. On the basis of this result, we moved 34 leachate leaking burial sites to other places safely and it is necessary to monitor continuously the monitoring wells for environmental protection and human health.

  17. Burial and thermal history of the central Appalachian basin, based on three 2-D models of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Three regional-scale, cross sectional (2-D) burial and thermal history models are presented for the central Appalachian basin based on the detailed geologic cross sections of Ryder and others (2004), Crangle and others (2005), and Ryder, R.T., written communication. The models integrate the available thermal and geologic information to constrain the burial, uplift, and erosion history of the region. The models are restricted to the relatively undeformed part of the basin and extend from the Rome trough in West Virginia and Pennsylvania northwestward to the Findlay arch in Ohio. This study expands the scope of previous work by Rowan and others (2004) which presented a preliminary burial/thermal history model for a cross section (E-E') through West Virginia and Ohio. In the current study, the burial/thermal history model for E-E' is revised, and integrated with results of two additional cross sectional models (D-D' and C-C'). The burial/thermal history models provide calculated thermal maturity (Ro%) values for the entire stratigraphic sequence, including hydrocarbon source rocks, along each of the three cross sections. In contrast, the Ro and conodont CAI data available in the literature are sparse and limited to specific stratigraphic intervals. The burial/thermal history models also provide the regional temperature and pressure framework that is needed to model hydrocarbon migration.

  18. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  19. Effects of sand burial on dew deposition on moss soil crust in a revegetated area of the Tennger Desert, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Rong-liang; Li, Xin-rong; Liu, Li-chao; Pan, Yan-xia; Gao, Yan-hong; Wei, Yong-ping

    2014-11-01

    Sand burial and dew deposition are two fundamental phenomena profoundly influencing biological soil crusts in desert areas. However, little information is available regarding the effects of sand burial on dew deposition on biological soil crusts in desert ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sand burial at depths of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mm on dew formation and evaporation of three dominant moss crusts in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert (Northern China) in 2010. The results revealed that sand burial significantly decreased the amount of dew deposited on the three moss crust types by acting as a semi-insulator retarding the dew formation and evaporation rates. The changes in surface temperature cannot fully explain the variations of the formation and evaporation rates of dew by moss crusts buried by sand. The extension of dew retention time was reflected by the higher dew ratios (the ratio of dew amount at a certain time to the maximum value in a daily course) in the daytime, and may to some extent have acted as compensatory mechanisms that diminished the negative effects of the reduction of dew amount induced by sand burial of moss crusts. The resistances to reduction of dewfall caused by sand burial among the three moss crusts were also compared and it was found that Bryum argenteum crust showed the highest tolerance, followed by crusts dominated by Didymodon vinealis and Syntrichia caninervis. This sequence corresponds well with the successional order of the three moss crusts in the revegetated area, thereby suggesting that resistance to reduction of dewfall may act as one mechanism by which sand burial drives the succession of moss crusts in desert ecosystems. This side effect of dew reduction induced by sand burial on biological soil crusts should be considered in future ecosystem construction and management of desert area.

  20. 38 CFR 3.1709 - Transportation expenses for burial in a national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for burial in a national cemetery. 3.1709 Section 3.1709 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. § 3.1709 Transportation expenses for burial in a national cemetery. (a) General. VA...

  1. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  2. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  3. 38 CFR Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. - Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial of a veteran whose...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed. (a)...

  4. 38 CFR 3.1600 - Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of burial... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1600 Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans. For the purpose of payment of burial expenses the term veteran includes a person who died during a...

  5. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority for burial of... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If..., and there is burial allowance entitlement which is not based on § 3.1600(b)(3), the amount...

  6. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority for burial of... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If..., and there is burial allowance entitlement which is not based on § 3.1600(b)(3), the amount...

  7. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority for burial of... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If..., and there is burial allowance entitlement which is not based on § 3.1600(b)(3), the amount...

  8. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  9. 38 CFR 3.1600 - Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of burial... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1600 Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans. For the purpose of payment of burial expenses the term veteran includes a person who died during a...

  10. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  11. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  12. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  13. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  14. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority for burial of... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If..., and there is burial allowance entitlement which is not based on § 3.1600(b)(3), the amount...

  15. 38 CFR - § 3.1705 Burial allowance based on non-service-connected death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false § 3.1705 Burial... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. § 3.1705 Burial allowance based on non-service-connected death. (a) General rule. VA will pay...

  16. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  17. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  18. 38 CFR 3.1702 - Persons who may receive burial benefits; priority of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... burial benefits; priority of payments. 3.1702 Section 3.1702 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1702 Persons who may receive burial benefits; priority of payments. (a) Automatic payments to eligible surviving spouse. On...

  19. 38 CFR 3.1600 - Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of burial... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1600 Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans. For the purpose of payment of burial expenses the term veteran includes a person who died during a...

  20. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  1. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  2. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  3. 38 CFR 3.1706 - Burial allowance for a veteran who died while hospitalized by VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial allowance for a... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. § 3.1706 Burial allowance for a veteran who died while hospitalized by VA. Pt. 3, Subpt. B,...

  4. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority for burial of... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If..., and there is burial allowance entitlement which is not based on § 3.1600(b)(3), the amount...

  5. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  6. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20.325... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  7. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  8. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  9. The effect of the method of burial on adipocere formation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Dent, Boyd B

    2005-11-10

    A controlled laboratory experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of the method of burial (i.e. the presence of coffin and clothing) on the formation of adipocere. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effect of physical conditions on the formation of adipocere present in a controlled burial environment. The study utilises infrared spectroscopy to provide a preliminary lipid profile of the remains following a 12 month decomposition period. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was employed as a technique for determining the salts of fatty acids present in adipocere. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as the confirmatory test for the identification and determination of the chemical composition of adipocere which formed in the controlled burial environments. The results suggest that coffins will retard the rate at which adipocere forms but that clothing enhances its formation. The results concur with previous observations on adipocere formation in burial environments.

  10. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the next of kin in records contained in the National Cemetery Administration Burial Operations Support..., if a person who is not listed as the next of kin provides evidence that he or she privately...

  11. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    PubMed

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  12. SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. Deep-burial microporosity in upper Jurassic Haynesville oolitic grainstones, East Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravis, Jeffrey J.

    1989-07-01

    Secondary micromoldic porosity generated during deep-burial diagenesis occurs pervasively in Upper Jurassic Haynesville oolitic grainstones in East Texas and constitutes the major pore type in these gas reservoirs. Petrographic and geochemical relationships establish that development of this microporosity postdates emplacement of bitumen and most pressure solution fabrics in the reservoir grainstones. Microporosity development is strictly controlled by depositional texture and is restricted to either active shoal complex grainstones or thicker grainstones shed downramp by storm processes. Haynesville diagenetic and porosity relationships are consistent along the entire length of the east flank of the East Texas Basin, a distance greater than 100 km; identical relationships have also been observed along the west flank of this basin. Haynesville micromoldic porosity development is confined principally to ooids but also occurs in normally "stable" calcitic skeletal grains like oysters. Resultant micropores are a few microns across or less; complete dissolution of ooids to form oomoldic macroporosity is not observed in Haynesville limestones. Nearly all primary porosity in the Haynesville is now occluded by carbonate cement. Confirmation of a late, deep-burial origin for Haynesville secondary microporosity is based on physical relationships observed in numerous cores, regional petrography and geochemical data. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that Haynesville sediments were never locally or regionally exposed to freshwater but have undergone progressive burial diagenesis punctuated by a major late dissolution event which created the microporosity. Key observations which support Haynesville deep-burial microporosity development include: (1) petrographic relationships which demonstrate microporosity developed after emplacement of bitumen; (2) lack of subaerial exposure features in core, both atop shoal complexes and at the contact between the Haynesville and

  14. [Ideas and projects for Napoleonic Naples burial reform].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to describe the attempts made by Napoleonic administrators in Naples to reforming the urban burials system, paying attention, firstly, on medical theories at the basis of the new cemetery projects, secondarily on people involved in the reform, especially technicians. The article deals also with the origins of the European need for burial reform in 18th century and its following establishment by the Napoleonic laws, through an hard compromise between traditional practices and hygienic principles.

  15. The Yukon Flats Cretaceous(?)-Tertiary Extensional Basin, East-Central Alaska: Burial and Thermal History Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional burial and thermal history modeling of the Yukon Flats basin, east-central Alaska, was conducted as part of an assessment of the region's undiscovered oil and gas resources. No deep exploratory wells have been drilled in the Yukon Flats region, and the subsurface geology of the basin is inferred from seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic surveys, and studies of shallow core holes in the basin and outcrops in the surrounding region. A thick sequence of Upper Cretaceous(?) and Cenozoic nonmarine sedimentary rocks is believed to fill the basin; coal and organic-rich mudstone and shale within this sequence represent potential hydrocarbon source rocks. The burial and thermal history models presented here represent the sole source of information on the thermal maturity of these potential source rocks at depth. We present four alternative burial history scenarios for a hypothetical well through the deepest portion of Yukon Flats basin. They differ from each other in the thicknesses of Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata, the timing of initial basin subsidence, and the timing of inferred unconformities. The burial modeling results suggest a present-day depth to the oil window of approximately 6,000 feet.

  16. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records.

  17. Sediment organic carbon burial in agriculturally eutrophic impoundments over the last century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downing, J.A.; Cole, J.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Prairie, Y.T.; Laube, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated organic carbon (OC) burial over the past century in 40 impoundments in one of the most intensively agricultural regions of the world. The volume of sediment deposited per unit time varied as a function of lake and watershed size, but smaller impoundments had greater deposition and accumulation rates per unit area. Annual water storage losses varied from 0.1-20% and were negatively correlated with impoundment size. Estimated sediment OC content was greatest in lakes with low ratios of watershed to impoundment area. Sediment OC burial rates were higher than those assumed for fertile impoundments by previous studies and were much higher than those measured in natural lakes. OC burial ranged from a high of 17,000 g C m-2 a-1 to a low of 148 g C m-2 a-1 and was significantly greater in small impoundments than large ones. The OC buried in these lakes originates in both autochthonous and allochthonous production. These analyses suggest that OC sequestration in moderate to large impoundments may be double the rate assumed in previous analyses. Extrapolation suggests that they may bury 4 times as much carbon (C) as the world's oceans. The world's farm ponds alone may bury more OC than the oceans and 33% as much as the world's rivers deliver to the sea. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Hydrology of the Melton Valley radioactive-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, D.A.; Bradley, M.W.

    1988-12-31

    Burial grounds 4, 5, and 6 were used sequentially from 1951 to the present for the disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste by burial in shallow trenches and auger holes. Abundant rainfall, a generally thin unsaturated zone, geologic media of inherently low permeability, and the operational practices employed have contributed to partial saturation of the buried waste, leaching of radionuclides, and transport of dissolved matter from the burial areas. Two primary methods of transport from these sites are by dissolution in circulating ground water, and the overflow of fluids in trenches and subsequent flow across land surface. The waste-disposal areas are underlain by the Conasauga Group (Cambrian age), a complex sequence of mudstone, siltstone, and limestone interbeds grading from one lithotype to the other, both laterally and vertically. Compressional forces that caused regional thrust faulting also caused much internal deformation of the beds. Folds, bedding-plane faults, and joints are widespread. Small solution openings have developed in some areas where the structurally-related openings have provided ingress to ground water.

  19. Multiple Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes and excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Prave, A. R.; Condon, D. J.; Lepland, A.; Fallick, A. E.; Romashkin, A. E.; Medvedev, P. V.; Rychanchik, D. V.

    2015-08-01

    Organic-rich rocks (averaging 2-5% total organic carbon) and positive carbonate-carbon isotope excursions (δ13C > + 5 ‰ and locally much higher, i.e. the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event) are hallmark features of Palaeoproterozoic successions and are assumed to archive a global event of unique environmental conditions following the c. 2.3 Ga Great Oxidation Event. Here we combine new and published geochronology that shows that the main Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes (CBEs) preserved in Russia, Gabon and Australia were temporally discrete depositional events between c. 2.10 and 1.85 Ga. In northwest Russia we can also show that timing of the termination of the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event may have differed by up to 50 Ma between localities, and that Ni mineralisation occurred at c. 1920 Ma. Further, CBEs have traits in common with Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs); both are exceptionally organic-rich relative to encasing strata, associated with contemporaneous igneous activity and marked by organic carbon isotope profiles that exhibit a stepped decrease followed by a stabilisation period and recovery. Although CBE strata are thicker and of greater duration than OAEs (100 s of metres versus metres, ∼106 years versus ∼105 years), their shared characteristics hint at a commonality of cause(s) and feedbacks. This suggests that CBEs represent processes that can be either basin-specific or global in nature and a combination of circumstances that are not unique to the Palaeoproterozoic. Our findings urge circumspection and re-consideration of models that assume CBEs are a Deep Time singularity.

  20. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  1. Sediment accretion and organic carbon burial relative to sea-level rise and storm events in two mangrove forests in Everglades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine how sediment accretion and organic carbon (OC) burial rates in mangrove forests respond to climate change. Specifically, will the accretion rates keep pace with sea-level rise, and what is the source and fate of OC in the system? Mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were determined via 210Pb dating (i.e. 100 year time scale) on sediment cores collected from two mangrove forest sites within Everglades National Park, Florida (USA). Enhanced mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were found in an upper layer that corresponded to a well-documented storm surge deposit. Accretion rates were 5.9 and 6.5 mm yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to overall rates of 2.5 and 3.6 mm yr−1. These rates were found to be matching or exceeding average sea-level rise reported for Key West, Florida. Organic carbon burial rates were 260 and 393 g m−2 yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to 151 and 168 g m−2 yr−1 overall burial rates. The overall rates are similar to global estimates for OC burial in marine wetlands. With tropical storms being a frequent occurrence in this region the resulting storm surge deposits are an important mechanism for maintaining both overall accretion and OC burial rates. Enhanced OC burial rates within the storm deposit could be due to an increase in productivity created from higher concentrations of phosphorus within storm-delivered sediments and/or from the deposition of allochthonous OC. Climate change-amplified storms and sea-level rise could damage mangrove forests, exposing previously buried OC to oxidation and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the processes described here provide a mechanism whereby oxidation of OC would be limited and the overall OC reservoir maintained within the mangrove forest sediments.

  2. Scour and Burial of Submerged Mines in Wave Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, K. A.; Foster, D. L.; Traykovski, P.; Smith, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Resolving the hydrodynamics and sediment response leading to the scour and burial of three-dimensional submarine objects remains an area of interest for engineers, oceanographers, and military personnel. Improving methods for detection of buried and submerged mines is of great importance due to the limitations of the present detection methods. A computational fluid dynamics model, FLOW-3D is used for the three-dimensional simulation of flow around individual cylindrical mines. FLOW-3D is a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic finite difference model that closes the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations with a k-ɛ closure scheme. In this presentation, numerical simulations are performed for a single storm event observed during the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) Mine Burial Experiment in 2003. Significant wave heights of 3 m with peak periods of 4-8 s resulted in significant amounts of mine scour and burial during the event. The model is forced with 4 different conditions representing the free stream flow prior to, during, and following the storm event. In each case, simulations are performed for two grain sizes with bottom boundary conditions specified with 1) a fixed flat bed with no initial mine burial or scour and 2) the observed bed profile. Patterns of scour and deposition are inferred from calculations of the bed shear velocity and Rouse parameter, respectively. Model results are compared with two-axis sonar images obtained during the MVCO Mine Burial Experiment. Consistent with the observations, model simulations indicate mine scour initiates at the ends of the mine. Model simulations also show that subsequent mine burial and scour is highly sensitive to the initial assumption of the bed profile. These results may allow us to improve our understanding and predictive capability for mine burial and scour.

  3. Hydrological Alterations Due to Climate-Induced Regional Vegetation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. B.; Vivoni, E. R.; Springer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    An extended, severe drought in the southwestern U.S. from 2000 to 2003 was accompanied by increased temperatures and bark beetle infestations, inducing the large-scale mortality of woody overstory (Pinus edulis). The consequential redistribution of water, radiation, and nutrient availability modified the ecosystem phenology, species composition, and forced the ecosystem to transition into a new state. We hypothesize that the hydrological processes in the ecosystem were also altered due to the mortality. Thus, our objective is to investigate changes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum at the watershed scale. The Rio Ojo Caliente Basin is a subbasin of the Upper Rio Grande, located mostly in New Mexico, and is approximately 1,000 km2. Examining a remotely-sensed vegetation index (1-km AVHRR NDVI from 1990 to 2006), there is an increasing trend in the NDVI from 1989 to 1999 (pre-mortality period), a decreasing trend from 2000 to 2003 (mortality period), and a dramatic increasing trend from 2004 to 2006 (post-mortality period) in which the NDVI rebounds to nearly pre-mortality magnitudes. This pattern exists across varying spatial scales (plot to watershed to region) and signifies a profound alteration in the ecosystem, for while the vegetation composition was altered to a great degree, the system rapidly returned to a homeostatic state balancing resource supply and use during the post-mortality period. To investigate hydrological changes due to the mortality, we employ a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model, tRIBS (TIN-based Real-Time Integrated Basin Simulator) for the Rio Ojo Caliente Basin. STATSGO 1-km soils data, 10-meter National Elevation Dataset DEMs, Carson National Forest vegetation species data, and MM5-downscaled NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-I meteorologic data are used as model inputs. A combination of MODIS and AVHRR remote-sensing data, values from the literature, and field data from a long-term, pi {n}on-juniper (PJ) observation site in Los

  4. Silica burial enhanced by iron limitation in oceanic upwelling margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichevin, L. E.; Ganeshram, R. S.; Geibert, W.; Thunell, R.; Hinton, R.

    2014-07-01

    In large swaths of the ocean, primary production by diatoms may be limited by the availability of silica, which in turn limits the biological uptake of carbon dioxide. The burial of biogenic silica in the form of opal is the main sink of marine silicon. Opal burial occurs in equal parts in iron-limited open-ocean provinces and upwelling margins, especially the eastern Pacific upwelling zone. However, it is unclear why opal burial is so efficient in this margin. Here we measure fluxes of biogenic material, concentrations of diatom-bound iron and silicon isotope ratios using sediment traps and a sediment core from the Gulf of California upwelling margin. In the sediment trap material, we find that periods of intense upwelling are associated with transient iron limitation that results in a high export of silica relative to organic carbon. A similar correlation between enhanced silica burial and iron limitation is evident in the sediment core, which spans the past 26,000 years. A global compilation also indicates that hotspots of silicon burial in the ocean are all characterized by high silica to organic carbon export ratios, a diagnostic trait for diatoms growing under iron stress. We therefore propose that prevailing conditions of silica limitation in the ocean are largely caused by iron deficiency imposing an indirect constraint on oceanic carbon uptake.

  5. Hydraulic roughness of earth covers at a cold-desert waste burial site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, B.F.; Bent, G.C.; Hart, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    A kinematic wave model of overland flow was used to calculate hydraulic roughness coefficients for earth covers and native hillslope surfaces at a waste burial site. Manning's n roughness coefficients were greater on earth cover plots planted to crested wheatgrass (n = 0.076) than on those planted to streambank wheatgrass (n = 0.030). Mound and intermound microtopography strongly influenced overland flow geometry on the bare native hillslope plots resulting in low apparent roughness values (n = 0.013). Time-related changes in hydraulic roughness appeared to be caused by development of a rain-induced crust on exposed soil surfaces that reduced infiltration and increased plot smoothness. -from Authors

  6. Region-specific diet-induced and leptin-induced cellular leptin resistance includes the ventral tegmental area in rats.

    PubMed

    Matheny, M; Shapiro, A; Tümer, N; Scarpace, P J

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) results in region-specific cellular leptin resistance in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus in one strain of mice and in several medial basal hypothalamic regions in another. We hypothesized that the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is also likely susceptible to diet-induced and leptin-induced leptin resistance in parallel to that in hypothalamic areas. We examined two forms of leptin resistance in F344xBN rats, that induced by 6-months of high fat (HF) feeding and that induced by 15-months of central leptin overexpression by use of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV)-mediated gene delivery of rat leptin. Cellular leptin resistance was assessed by leptin-stimulated phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in medial basal hypothalamic areas and the VTA. The regional pattern and degree of leptin resistance with HF was distinctly different than that with leptin overexpression. Chronic HF feeding induced a cellular leptin resistance that was identified in the ARC and VTA, but absent in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). In contrast, chronic central leptin overexpression induced cellular leptin resistance in all areas examined. The identification of leptin resistance in the VTA, in addition to the leptin resistance in the hypothalamus, provides one potential mechanism, underlying the increased susceptibility of leptin resistant rats to HF-induced obesity.

  7. Inventory and burial fluxes of Black Carbon in the Swedish continental shelf sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-García, L.; Cato, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2009-04-01

    employed for the calculations of the BC inventory and, in turn, the burial flux. BC ranged 0.6 - 17.7 mg/gdw (mean 2.4±2.2 mg/gdw), representing 2 - 47% of TOC (mean 5±4%). The southern regions presenting the highest populations, most important industrial activity and traffic density, registered richer content of BC (2.9±2.4 mg/gdw). In contrast, sediments from Northern Baltic Sea, with less anthropogenic activity and influence of continental Europe, showed lower concentration of BC (1.3±0.4 mg/gdw). The spatial distribution of the carbonaceous compound was statistically correlated with certain molecular combustion markers such as PAHs, which displayed highly significant correlation with BC (rs= 0.54, p

  8. Sulfate Burial Constraints on the Phanerozoic Sulfur Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2012-07-01

    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  9. Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E; Fischer, Woodward W

    2012-07-20

    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  10. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  11. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  12. Alternatives to the burial of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material, - Direct Burial, - Treatment (Processing) {yields} Burial, - Treatment {yields} Unconditional Release, - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry, - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. (author)

  13. The growth responses of coastal dune species are determined by nutrient limitation and sand burial.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew; Pammenter, Norman; Ripley, Brad

    2008-05-01

    Past work suggests that burial and low nutrient availability limit the growth and zonal distribution of coastal dune plants. Given the importance of these two factors, there is a surprising lack of field investigations of the interactions between burial and nutrient availability. This study aims to address this issue by measuring the growth responses of four coastal dune plant species to these two factors and their interaction. Species that naturally experience either high or low rates of burial were selected and a factorial burial by nutrient addition experiment was conducted. Growth characteristics were measured in order to determine which characteristics allow a species to respond to burial. Species that naturally experience high rates of burial (Arctotheca populifolia and Scaevola plumieri) displayed increased growth when buried, and this response was nutrient-limited. Stable-dune species had either small (Myrica cordifolia, N-fixer) or negligible responses to burial (Metalasia muricata), and were not nutrient-limited. This interspecific difference in response to burial and/or fertiliser is consistent with the idea that burial maintains the observed zonation of species on coastal dunes. Species that are unable to respond to burial are prevented from occupying the mobile dunes. Species able to cope with high rates of burial had high nitrogen-use efficiencies and low dry mass costs of production, explaining their ability to respond to burial under nutrient limitation. The interaction between burial and nutrient limitation is understudied but vital to understanding the zonation of coastal dune plant species.

  14. Genome-wide identification of hypoxia-induced enhancer regions

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jessica L.; Randel, Melissa A.; Johnson, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a genome-wide method for de novo identification of enhancer regions. This approach enables massively parallel empirical investigation of DNA sequences that mediate transcriptional activation and provides a platform for discovery of regulatory modules capable of driving context-specific gene expression. The method links fragmented genomic DNA to the transcription of randomer molecule identifiers and measures the functional enhancer activity of the library by massively parallel sequencing. We transfected a Drosophila melanogaster library into S2 cells in normoxia and hypoxia, and assayed 4,599,881 genomic DNA fragments in parallel. The locations of the enhancer regions strongly correlate with genes up-regulated after hypoxia and previously described enhancers. Novel enhancer regions were identified and integrated with RNAseq data and transcription factor motifs to describe the hypoxic response on a genome-wide basis as a complex regulatory network involving multiple stress-response pathways. This work provides a novel method for high-throughput assay of enhancer activity and the genome-scale identification of 31 hypoxia-activated enhancers in Drosophila. PMID:26713262

  15. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    SciTech Connect

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  16. Venipuncture Induced Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Presenting as Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pramod; Mittal, Manoj; Nair, Anugrah; Sultana, Waqia

    2016-01-01

    Venipuncture is one of the most commonly done medical procedures. We report a unique case of a 23-year-old young male who presented with features suggestive of inflammatory arthritis. The symptoms, which initially started on the right side, also involved the other side after a few weeks. Although the patient's symptoms and signs were simulating inflammatory arthritis, he had atypical features like poor response to anti-inflammatory medicines and normal laboratory parameters. His musculoskeletal ultrasonography was also not suggestive of arthritis. His history was reviewed and on direct questioning he revealed a history of venipuncture for blood sample withdrawal, done from right antecubital region for routine health check on the day prior to the onset of symptoms. Complex regional pain syndrome was suspected and triple-phase radioisotope bone scan was done which was highly suggestive of this diagnosis. The patient was managed with multidimensional approach and responded very well to the treatment. Complex regional pain syndrome is usually not thought of in the initial differential diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis. In this report we highlight the need to elicit the often overlooked history of trivial trauma like venipuncture, especially in atypical cases of arthritis. Also the role of newer diagnostic modalities in such cases is emphasized. PMID:27891152

  17. Imaging of cocaine-induced global and regional myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Wang, G.J.; Weber, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Severe and often fatal cardiac complications have been reported in cocaine users with narrowed coronary arteries caused by atherosclerosis as well as in young adults with normal coronaries. The authors have found that in normal dogs cocaine induces severe temporary hypoperfusion of the left ventricle as indicated by a significantly lower 201Tl concentration compared to the baseline state. The most significant decrease in uptake occurred 5 min after injection and was more pronounced in the septal and apical segments. Following intravenous administration of cocaine, instead of gradual disappearance of 201Tl from the left ventricle, there was continuous increase in 201Tl concentration in the left ventricle. These imaging experiments indicate that the deleterious effects of cocaine on the heart are probably due to spasm of the coronaries and decreased myocardial perfusion. Since spasm of the large subpericardial vessels does not seem to explain the magnitude of the increased coronary resistance and decreased coronary flow after cocaine as described in the literature, it is suggested that microvascular spasm of smaller vessels plays a major role in the temporary decrease in perfusion. The data may also suggest that severe temporary myocardial ischemia is probably the initiating factor for the cardiac complications induced by cocaine.

  18. Oxygen-isotope evidence for upward, cross-formational porewater flow in a sedimentary basin near maximum burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Baker, Julian C.

    1992-07-01

    Authigenic ankerite in the gas-bearing mid-Permian Aldebaran Sandstone (Denison Trough, Queensland, Australia) has an anomalously light oxygen-isotopic composition ( δ 18O SMOW range: +7.6 to +14.4‰ ) and exhibits a trend of 18O-enrichment from the base to the top of the unit. Textural relationships, together with burial and thermal modelling, indicate that this carbonate precipitated at temperatures of about 100 to 140°C, when the sequence approached maximum burial during the Late Triassic. This implies that ankerite precipitated from porewater very depleted in 18O with respect to marine water ( δ 18O SMOW = -9 to -5‰ ). The formation of this deep, relatively high-temperature ankerite is difficult to reconcile with downward percolation of meteoric water at that time since the basin was then undergoing its first burial/compactional cycle. We interpret the ankerite to have precipitated from porewater expelled upward from the earliest Permian Reids Dome beds. This thick unit, consisting mainly of high-latitude continental sandstones, mudrocks and coals, was initially saturated with very 18O-depleted meteoric water ( δ 18O SMOW ≈ -17‰ ) partly derived from melted snow and ice, and is likely to have undergone overpressuring during rapid burial (at rates up to 1 km/Ma). Tectonically induced expulsion of "connate meteoric" porewater out of the Reids Dome beds took place as the sequence approached maximum burial prior to Late Triassic basin uplift. This water was flushed upward through the overlying units, retaining a (modified) meteoric isotopic signature, which was recorded by the precipitating ankerite. Computer modelling of heat transport, isotopic mass balance and water mixing quantitatively shows that this interpretation is viable, lending support to the suggested mechanism of upward, cross-formational porewater flow deep in a sedimentary basin.

  19. Emplacement, rapid burial, and exhumation of 90-Ma plutons in southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Himmelberg, G.R.; Haeussler, P.J.; Brew, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    In southeastern Alaska, granodiorite-tonalite plutons of the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt intruded the Jurassic-Cretaceous Gravina belt along the eastern side of the Alexander terrane around 90 Ma. These plutons postdate some deformation related to a major contractional event between the previously amalgamated Wrangellia and Alexander terranes and the previously accreted terranes of the North American margin. We studied the aureole mineral assemblages of these plutons near Petersburg, Alaska, determined pressure and temperature of equilibration, and examined structures that developed within and adjacent to these plutons. Parallelism of magmatic and submagmatic fabrics with fabrics in the country rock indicates synchroneity of pluton emplacement with regional deformation and suggests that magma transport to higher crustal levels was assisted by regional deformation. Replacement of andalusite by kyanite or sillimanite indicates crustal thickening soon after pluton emplacement. Regional structural analysis indicates the crustal thickening was accomplished by thrust burial. Thermobarometric analyses indicate the aureoles reached near-peak temperatures of 525 to 635 ??C at pressures of 570 to 630 MPa. Consideration of the rate of thermal decay of the aureoles suggests that burial was rapid and occurred at rates around 5 to 8 mm/year. Structural observations indicate there was contractional deformation before, during, and after emplacement of the 90-Ma plutons. Initial exhumation of the Admiralty-Revillagedo belt in the Petersburg area may have occurred along a thrust west of the pluton belt within the Gravina belt. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  20. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Adam J; Anderson, N John; Prairie, Yves T; Engstrom, Daniel R; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-11-26

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years--20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios.

  1. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Adam J.; Anderson, N. John; Prairie, Yves T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years—20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios. PMID:26607672

  2. Regional fat changes induced by localized muscle endurance resistance training.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Campos-Jara, Christian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Alvarez-Lepín, Cristian; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a localized muscle endurance resistance training program on total body and regional tissue composition. Seven men and 4 women (aged 23 ± 1 years) were trained with their nondominant leg during 12 weeks, 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 1 set of 960-1,200 repetitions (leg press exercise), at 10-30% 1 repetition maximum. Before and after training, body mass, bone mass, bone mineral density (BMD), lean mass, fat mass, and fat percentage were determined by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry. Energy intakes were registered using a food recall questionnaire. At the whole-body level, body mass, bone mass, BMD, lean mass, or body fat percentage were not significantly changed. However, body fat mass significantly decreased by 5.1% (preexercise: 13.5 ± 6.3 kg; postexercise: 12.8 ± 5.4 kg, p < 0.05). No significant changes in bone mass, lean mass, fat mass, or fat percentage were observed in both the control and trained leg. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in fat mass was observed in the upper extremities and trunk (10.2 and 6.9%, respectively, p < 0.05). The reduction of fat mass in the upper extremities and trunk was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the fat mass change observed in the trained leg but not in the control leg. No significant changes were observed in energy intake pre- and postexercise intervention (2,646 ± 444 kcal·d-1 and 2,677 ± 617 kcal·d-1, respectively). In conclusion, the training program was effective in reducing fat mass, but this reduction was not achieved in the trained body segment. The present results expand the limited knowledge available about the plastic heterogeneity of regional body tissues when a localized resistance training program is applied.

  3. The effects of burial on drug detection in skeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Watterson, James H

    2010-07-01

    Skeletal tissues have recently been investigated for use in post-mortem toxicology. Variables affecting drug concentration in these tissues, however, are still poorly characterized. In this work, the relative effects of burial on the response of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays were examined. Rats were acutely exposed to ketamine or diazepam, euthanized and buried outdoors. After one month, the remains were exhumed and skeletal tissue drug levels were compared those of non-buried rats. A climate-controlled burial was also undertaken using defleshed bones to approximate an extended decomposition. Long bones (femora, tibiae) were isolated and separated into tissue type (diaphyseal bone, epiphyseal bone, and marrow), and according to treatment (i.e. buried or non-buried). Following methanolic extraction (bone) or simple homogenization (marrow), samples were analyzed with ELISA. Samples were then pooled according to treatment, extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and confirmed with GC-MS. Under the conditions examined, the effects of burial appear to be drug and tissue dependent. Ketamine-exposed tissues demonstrated the greatest differences, especially in bone marrow. In diazepam-exposed tissues, burial did not seem to greatly affect drug response and some gave greater assay response compared to the non-buried set. Overall, the data suggest that fresh tissue samples may not be representative of decomposed samples in terms of skeletal tissue drug levels.

  4. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1... materials which are readily de-com-pos-a-ble in the marine environment may be disposed of under the...

  5. Burial preservation of trace fossils as indicator of storm deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A.J.

    1986-05-01

    Positive semirelief epichnia (ridgelike trace fossils on the top surface of a bed) commonly represent burrow structures, perhaps originally supported by a mucoidal matrix, that have been infilled by sediment. The preservation of these structures, in addition to other trace fossils on a bed superface, suggests an instantaneous burial event and a minimum of concomitant erosion. This supposition can be verified by an absence of paucity of biogenic sedimentary structures accompanied by certain physical sedimentary structures (laminated shell hashes, graded bedding, fissile shales) in strata directly overlying bioturbated surfaces. The main process involved in this burial preservation (the rapid burial of biogenic sedimentary structures with minimum erosion) are probably storm-generated in most instances. Sediments would be deposited primarily in the suspension mode, and mean storm wave base would be slightly above the sediment-water interface. This burial preservation model is most applicable to relatively small stratigraphic intervals (several centimeters or decimeters) representing deposition on an open-marine shelf. Positive semirelief epichnia, interpreted as burrow system infilling, from the Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician) of Ohio and Indiana are used to illustrate these concepts.

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  7. Effect of Burial Depth on Seismic Signals. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    from a buried explosion receives positive or negative reinforcement from the free- surface reflection. The more refined calculations, which include...wave is relatively delayed in time, so that transitions between positive and negative reinforcement occur at shallower depths of burial. A surface

  8. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  9. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Kosten, Sarian; Sobek, Sebastian; Jaqueline Cardoso, Simone; Figueiredo-Barros, Marcos Paulo; Henrique Duque Estrada, Carlos; Roland, Fábio

    2016-06-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e., the ratio between buried and deposited OC) in reservoirs are limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large subtropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9-17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a spatially resolved mean OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first assessment of OCBE with such a high spatial resolution in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  10. The effect of lake browning and respiration mode on the burial and fate of carbon and mercury in the sediment of two boreal lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidorova, Anastasija; Bravo, Andrea G.; Riise, Gunnhild; Bouchet, Sylvain; Björn, Erik; Sobek, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In many northern temperate regions, the water color of lakes has increased over the past decades ("lake browning"), probably caused by an increased export of dissolved organic matter from soils. We investigated if the increase in water color in two lakes in Norway has resulted in increased burial of organic carbon (OC) and mercury (Hg) in the sediments and if the Hg was prone to methylation. Lake Solbergvann experienced a threefold water color increase, and OC burial increased approximately twofold concomitant to the water color increase. This lake had prolonged periods of anoxic bottom water, and anoxic OC mineralization rates were only about half of the oxic OC mineralization rates (7.7 and 17.5 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively), contributing to an efficient OC burial. In Lake Elvåga, where water color increase was only approximately twofold and bottom water was oxygenated, no recent increase in OC burial could be observed. Hg burial increased strongly in both lakes (threefold and 1.6-fold in Lake Solbergvann and Lake Elvåga, respectively), again concomitant to the recent water color increase. The proportion of methylated Hg (MeHg) in surficial sediment was 1 order of magnitude higher in Lake Elvåga (up to 6% MeHg) than in Lake Solbergvann (0.2-0.6% MeHg), probably related to the different oxygenation regimes. We conclude that lake browning can result in increased OC and Hg burial in lake sediments, but the extent of browning and the dominating mode of sediment respiration (aerobic or anaerobic) strongly affect burial and fate of OC and Hg in sediments.

  11. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  12. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  13. 77 FR 35755 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0003.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Burial... burial benefits, including transportation for deceased veterans. VA will use the information collected...

  14. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... information needed to determine a deceased veteran's eligibility for burial benefits. DATES: Written comments... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Burial Benefits...

  15. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  16. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  17. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  18. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  19. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  20. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  1. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  2. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  3. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  4. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National... MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.15 Persons eligible for burial... retired member will not be eligible for burial. (c) Any former member of the Armed Forces separated...

  5. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  6. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  7. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  8. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  9. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  10. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National... MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.15 Persons eligible for burial... retired member will not be eligible for burial. (c) Any former member of the Armed Forces separated...

  11. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons eligible for burial in Arlington... eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery. (a) Any active duty member of the Armed Forces (except... future date, the retired member will not be eligible for burial. (c) Any former member of the...

  12. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  13. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  14. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  15. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  16. 77 FR 35114 - Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Planning, VA Form 40-10007. OMB Control Number: 2900--New. Type of..., service members, and their eligible family members with planning for burial in a VA national...

  17. 76 FR 31683 - Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Eligibility... to determine their eligibility for burial in a National Cemetery prior to the actual time of...

  18. Evaluation of the ORNL area for future waste burial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenick, T.F.; Byerly, D.W.; Gonzales, S.

    1983-10-01

    Additional waste-burial facilities will be needed at ORNL within this decade. In order to find environmentally acceptable sites, the ORNL area must be systematically evaluated. This document represents the first step in that selection process. Geologic and hydrologic data from the literature and minor field investigations are used to identify more favorable sites for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. Also underway at this time is a companion study to locate a Central Waste Storage Area which could be used in the future to accommodate wastes generated by the X-10, Y-12, and K-25 facilities. From the several watershed options available, the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin is selected as the most promising hydrologic regime. This area contains all past and present waste-disposal facilities and is thus already well monitored. The seven bedrock units within the ORNL area are evaluated as potential burial media. Shales of the Conasauga Group, which are currently used for waste burial in the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin, and the Knox Group are considered the leading candidates. Although the residuum derived from and overlying the Knox dolomite has many favorable characteristics and may be regarded as having a high potential for burial of low-level wastes, at the present it is unproven. Therefore, the Conasauga shales are considered a preferable option for SWSA 7 within the ORNL area. Since the Conasauga interval is currently used for waste burial, it is better understood. One tract in Melton Valley that is underlain by Conasauga shales is nominated for detailed site-characterization studies, and several other tracts are recommended for future exploratory drilling. Exploration is also suggested for a tract in the upper Whiteoak Creek basin where Knox residuum is the shallow subsurface material.

  19. Terrestrial sedimentation and the carbon cycle: coupling weathering and erosion to carbon burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between the carbon cycle and sedimentary processes on land. Available data suggest that sedimentation on land can bury vast quantities of organic carbon, roughly 1015 g C yr-1. To evaluate the relative roles of various classes of processes in the burial of carbon on land, terrestrial sedimentation was modeled as a series of 864 scenarios. Each scenario represents a unique choice of intensities for seven classes of processes and two different global wetland distributions. Comparison was made with presumed preagricultural conditions. The classes of processes were divided into two major component parts: clastic sedimentation of soil-derived carbon and organic sedimentation of autochthonous carbon. For clastic sedimentation, masses of sediment were considered for burial as reservoir sediment, lake sediment, and combined colluvium, alluvium, and aeolian deposits. When the ensemble of models is examined, the human-induced burial of 0.6-1.5.1015 g yr-1 of carbon on land is entirely plausible. This sink reaches its maximum strength between 30 ?? and 50??N. Paddy lands stand out as a type of land use that warrants future study, but the many faces of rice agriculture limit generalization. In an extreme scenario, paddy lands alone could be made to bury about 1.1015 g C yr-1. Arguing that terrestrial sedimentation processes could be much of the sink for the so called 'missing carbon' is reasonable. Such a hypothesis, however, requires major redesign of how the carbon cycle is modeled. Unlike ecosystem processes that are amenable to satellite monitoring and parallel modeling, many aspects of terrestrial sedimentation are hidden from space.

  20. Deep Ocean Cable Burial Concept Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    One of the most common means of propelling underwater craft, thrusters, includes open and shrouded propellers and jet pumps . Propeller theory is well ...Scott, P. ’’Way-Out Machines Lay New High-Traffic Cable,’’ Popular Science, Jan 1974. 70. Sheeh\\:, (;. T. " Submersible Dredge Pump - An Answer for...Burying cables in the seafloor effectively removes them from the primary hazard, bottom fishing, as well as current-induced motions and anchor drag

  1. Apotropaic practices and the undead: a biogeochemical assessment of deviant burials in post-medieval poland.

    PubMed

    Gregoricka, Lesley A; Betsinger, Tracy K; Scott, Amy B; Polcyn, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Apotropaic observances-traditional practices intended to prevent evil-were not uncommon in post-medieval Poland, and included specific treatment of the dead for those considered at risk for becoming vampires. Excavations at the Drawsko 1 cemetery (17th-18th c. AD) have revealed multiple examples (n = 6) of such deviant burials amidst hundreds of normative interments. While historic records describe the many potential reasons why some were more susceptible to vampirism than others, no study has attempted to discern differences in social identity between individuals within standard and deviant burials using biogeochemical analyses of human skeletal remains. The hypothesis that the individuals selected for apotropaic burial rites were non-local immigrants whose geographic origins differed from the local community was tested using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from archaeological dental enamel. 87Sr/86Sr ratios ( = 0.7112±0.0006, 1σ) from the permanent molars of 60 individuals reflect a predominantly local population, with all individuals interred as potential vampires exhibiting local strontium isotope ratios. These data indicate that those targeted for apotropaic practices were not migrants to the region, but instead, represented local individuals whose social identity or manner of death marked them with suspicion in some other way. Cholera epidemics that swept across much of Eastern Europe during the 17th century may provide one alternate explanation as to the reason behind these apotropaic mortuary customs, as the first person to die from an infectious disease outbreak was presumed more likely to return from the dead as a vampire.

  2. Evolution of stocks and massifs from burial of salt sheets, continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Salt structures in a 4000-km{sup 2} region of the continental slope, the northeast Green Canyon area, include stocks, massifs, remnant structures, and an allochthonous sheet. Salt-withdrawal basins include typical semicircular basins and an extensive linear trough that is largely salt-free. Counterregional growth faults truncate the landward margin of salt sheets that extend 30-50 km to the Sigsbee Escarpment. The withdrawal basins, stocks, and massifs occur within a large graben between an east-northeast-trending landward zone of shelf-margin growth faults and a parallel trend of counterregional growth faults located 48-64 km basinward. The graben formed by extension and subsidence as burial of the updip portion of a thick salt sheet produced massifs and stocks by downbuilding. Differential loading segmented the updip margin of the salt sheet into stocks and massifs separated by salt-withdrawal basins. Initially, low-relief structures evolved by trap-door growth as half-graben basins buried the salt sheet. Remnant-salt structures and a turtle-structure anticline overlay a salt-weld disconformity in sediments formerly separated by a salt sheet. Age of sediments below the weld is inferred to be be late Miocene to early Pliocene (4.6-5.3 Ma); age of sediments above the weld is late Pliocene (2.8-3.5 Ma). The missing interval of time (1-2.5 Ma) is the duration between emplacement of the salt sheet and burial of the sheet. Sheet extrusion began in the late Miocene to early Pliocene, and sheet burial began in the late Pliocene in the area of the submarine trough to early Pleistocene in the area of the massifs.

  3. Design and evaluation of a bioreactor with application to forensic burial environments.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Melissa A; Weisensee, Katherine E; Mikhailova, Elena A; Harman, Melinda K

    2015-12-01

    Existing forensic taphonomic methods lack specificity in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in the period following active decomposition. New methods, such as the use of citrate concentration in bone, are currently being considered; however, determining the applicability of these methods in differing environmental contexts is challenging. This research aims to design a forensic bioreactor that can account for environmental factors known to impact decomposition, specifically temperature, moisture, physical damage from animals, burial depth, soil pH, and organic matter content. These forensically relevant environmental variables were characterized in a soil science context. The resulting metrics were soil temperature regime, soil moisture regime, slope, texture, soil horizon, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and organic matter content. Bioreactor chambers were constructed using sterilized thin-walled polystyrene boxes housed in calibrated temperature units. Gravesoil was represented using mineral soil (Ultisols), and organic soil proxy for Histosols, horticulture mix. Gravesoil depth was determined using mineral soil horizons A and Bt2 to simulate surface scatter and shallow grave burial respectively. A total of fourteen different environmental conditions were created and controlled successfully over a 90-day experiment. These results demonstrate successful implementation and control of forensic bioreactor simulating precise environments in a single research location, rather than site-specific testing occurring in different geographic regions. Bone sections were grossly assessed for weathering characteristics, which revealed notable differences related to exposure to different temperature regimes and soil types. Over the short 90-day duration of this experiment, changes in weathering characteristics were more evident across the different temperature regimes rather than the soil types. Using this methodology, bioreactor systems can be created to replicate many

  4. Apotropaic Practices and the Undead: A Biogeochemical Assessment of Deviant Burials in Post-Medieval Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gregoricka, Lesley A.; Betsinger, Tracy K.; Scott, Amy B.; Polcyn, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Apotropaic observances-traditional practices intended to prevent evil-were not uncommon in post-medieval Poland, and included specific treatment of the dead for those considered at risk for becoming vampires. Excavations at the Drawsko 1 cemetery (17th–18th c. AD) have revealed multiple examples (n = 6) of such deviant burials amidst hundreds of normative interments. While historic records describe the many potential reasons why some were more susceptible to vampirism than others, no study has attempted to discern differences in social identity between individuals within standard and deviant burials using biogeochemical analyses of human skeletal remains. The hypothesis that the individuals selected for apotropaic burial rites were non-local immigrants whose geographic origins differed from the local community was tested using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from archaeological dental enamel. 87Sr/86Sr ratios ( = 0.7112±0.0006, 1σ) from the permanent molars of 60 individuals reflect a predominantly local population, with all individuals interred as potential vampires exhibiting local strontium isotope ratios. These data indicate that those targeted for apotropaic practices were not migrants to the region, but instead, represented local individuals whose social identity or manner of death marked them with suspicion in some other way. Cholera epidemics that swept across much of Eastern Europe during the 17th century may provide one alternate explanation as to the reason behind these apotropaic mortuary customs, as the first person to die from an infectious disease outbreak was presumed more likely to return from the dead as a vampire. PMID:25427197

  5. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  6. Burial history of Lockport formation (Middle Silurian), New York, in light of studies of Ellenburger group (Lower Ordovician), west Texas-southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.I.; Ergin, M.; Friedman, G.M.

    1986-05-01

    For studies of burial depth of the Lockport Formation (Middle Silurian) of the Appalachian basin, the authors used as a control data from petrographic, stable isotope, and two-phase fluid-inclusion analyses of carbonate rocks cored from 5000 to 23,000 ft (1.5 to 7 km) burial depth of the Ellenburger Group, west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The coarse to very coarse crystalline nature of the host-rock dolomite, the vug-filling and fracture-filling saddle dolomite containing relatively light oxygen isotope compositions ranging from -6 to -12 per thousand (PDB), and the high mean homogenization temperatures for saddle dolomite formation from 100/sup 0/ to 260/sup 0/C, all suggest diagenetic changes occurred under deep burial conditions. Using Ellenburger carbonates as a control for burial depth diagenesis studies of saddle dolomite of the surface-exposed Lockport Formation, New York, other literature, and the regional conodont color alteration index (CAI) of 2-3, a former burial depth for the Lockport Formation strata of up to 5 km is indicated, much greater than the present estimation of less than 2 km of paleogeographic reconstruction. This depth was confirmed by delta/sup 18/O values ranging from -9 to -11 per thousand, and two-phase fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures ranging from 110/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C with an average of 150/sup 0/C.

  7. Soil burial contribution to deep soil organic carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaopricha, N. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Previous reviews of deep soil C have focused on root inputs and the vertical transport of particulate and dissolved organic matter through mixing, gravity, and preferential flowpaths as the main modes of delivery of C to the deep subsoil. Depositional processes have received considerable attention in the context of long-range soil erosion and sedimentation on land, but the role of soil burial in the sequestration of C photosynthesized in situ at depositional sites has been largely absent from discussions of deep soil organic C (SOC) dynamics. Burial can disconnect a soil from atmospheric conditions and slow or inhibit microbial decomposition. Buried soil horizons, which are former surface soils that have been buried through various depositional processes, can store more SOC than would exist at such depths from in situ root inputs and leaching from upper horizons. Here, we discuss factors contributing to SOC storage in soils below 1 m with a focus on soil burial. We review the contributions of geomorphic and anthropogenic depositional processes to deep SOC storage and describe how environmental conditions or state factors during and since burial influence SOC persistence in buried soils. We draw from examples in the paleosol and geomorphology literature to identify the effects of soil burial by volcanic, aeolian, alluvial, colluvial, glacial, and anthropogenic processes on soil C storage. Buried soils have been traditionally studied for information about past environments and can also serve as useful case studies for understanding both the sensitivity of landscape processes to future environmental change and the mechanisms contributing to soil organic matter stabilization. Soil burial can store SOC at any depth. Here, we focus particularly on buried soil horizons at ≥ 1 m depth to highlight how much SOC exists at depths below those typically considered in SOC inventories, studies of soil organic matter dynamics, and most biogeochemical models. Understanding the

  8. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of stream burial and its effect on habitat connectivity across headwater stream communities of the Potomac River Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzell, R.; Guinn, S. M.; Elmore, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The process of directing streams into culverts, pipes, or concrete-lined ditches during urbanization, known as stream burial, alters the primary physical, chemical, and biological processes of streams. Knowledge of the cumulative impacts of reduced structure and ecological function within buried stream networks is crucial for informing management of stream ecosystems, in light of continued growth in urban areas, and the uncertain response of freshwater ecosystems to the stresses of global climate change. To address this need, we utilized recently improved stream maps for the Potomac River Basin (PRB) to describe the extent and severity of stream burial across the basin. Observations of stream burial made from high resolution aerial photographs (>1% of total basin area) and a decision tree using spatial statistics from impervious cover data were used to predict stream burial at 4 time-steps (1975, 1990, 2001, 2006). Of the roughly 95,500 kilometers (km) of stream in the PRB, approximately 4551 km (4.76%) were buried by urban development as of 2001. Analysis of county-level burial trends shows differential patterns in the timing and rates of headwater stream burial, which may be due to local development policies, topographical constraints, and/or time since development. Consistently higher rates of stream burial were observed for small streams, decreasing with stream order. Headwater streams (1st-2nd order) are disproportionately affected, with burial rates continuing to increase over time in relation to larger stream orders. Beyond simple habitat loss, headwater burial decreases connectivity among headwater populations and habitats, with potential to affect a wide range of important ecological processes. To quantify changes to regional headwater connectivity we applied a connectivity model based on electrical circuit theory. Circuit-theoretical models function by treating the landscape as a resistance surface, representing hypothesized relationships between

  10. Direct burial and vault emplacement data quality comparison at Dotson Ranch, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Aderhold, K.; Anderson, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Parker, T.; Miller, P. E.; Slad, G. W.; Reusch, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare the data quality of two emplacement methods for portable broadband seismic stations, traditional vault and direct burial, using power spectral density analysis to examine temporal trends in noise, the ratio of signal-to-noise for local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, coherence of both noise and earthquake signal recordings as well as overall data return. Sensor emplacement in the past has been overwhelmingly dominated by traditional vaults requiring more materials, manpower and time. A new technique of directly burying sensors drastically reduces the expense, personnel and time required to install a seismic station. Comparisons between the data quality of vault and direct buried sensors are needed to show that the time and money saved in emplacement does not downgrade the quality of the data collected. Two identical shallow vaults were installed adjacent to two identical direct burial sites at Dotson Ranch in San Antonio, New Mexico, in a deliberately-chosen noisy, wet and generally inhospitable location. These four sites each used a Guralp 3T sensor retrofitted with a waterproof lid and connector. Eight months of data recorded during 2012 from these four sensors are compared in order to determine if the emplacement method has a profound and systematic effect on data quality using several different metrics that mimic the actual use of seismic data in research. A posthole installation with a Nanometrics Trillium 120PH sensor was also installed at the site for a portion of the study and six months of data are included in the analysis. Overall the variability in data quality metrics used in this study is comparable between sites with differing emplacement method as it is between sites with the same emplacement method. Noise in the vaults is higher in amplitude during the transition from spring to summer as compared to the direct burials and is especially evident on the horizontal components at long periods between 20-170 seconds. Diurnal changes in

  11. Two contemporaneous mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia

    PubMed Central

    Tackney, Justin C.; Potter, Ben A.; Raff, Jennifer; Powers, Michael; Watkins, W. Scott; Warner, Derek; Reuther, Joshua D.; Irish, Joel D.; O’Rourke, Dennis H.

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene residential sites with multiple contemporaneous human burials are extremely rare in the Americas. We report mitochondrial genomic variation in the first multiple mitochondrial genomes from a single prehistoric population: two infant burials (USR1 and USR2) from a common interment at the Upward Sun River Site in central Alaska dating to ∼11,500 cal B.P. Using a targeted capture method and next-generation sequencing, we determined that the USR1 infant possessed variants that define mitochondrial lineage C1b, whereas the USR2 genome falls at the root of lineage B2, allowing us to refine younger coalescence age estimates for these two clades. C1b and B2 are rare to absent in modern populations of northern North America. Documentation of these lineages at this location in the Late Pleistocene provides evidence for the extent of mitochondrial diversity in early Beringian populations, which supports the expectations of the Beringian Standstill Model. PMID:26504230

  12. Preliminary report on a glass burial experiment in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Zhu, B.F.; Robinson, R.S.; Wicks, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a two-year burial experiment in granite are discussed. Three compositions of simulated alkali borosilicate waste glasses were placed in boreholes approximately 350 meters deep. The glass sample configurations include mini-cans (stainless steel rings into which glass has been cast) and pineapple slices (thin sections from cylindrical blocks). Assemblies of these glass samples were prepared by stacking them together with granite, compacted bentonite and metal rings to provide several types of interfaces that are expected to occur in the repository. The assemblies were maintained at either ambient mine temperature (8 to 10/sup 0/C) or 90/sup 0/C. The glasses were analyzed before burial and after one month storage at 90/sup 0/C. The most extensive surface degradation occurred on the glasses interfaced with bentonite. In general, very little attack was observed on glass surfaces in contact with the other materials. The limited field and laboratory data are compared.

  13. 38 CFR 3.1707 - Plot or interment allowances for burial in a State veterans cemetery or other cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... allowances for burial in a State veterans cemetery or other cemetery. 3.1707 Section 3.1707 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. § 3.1707 Plot or interment allowances for burial in a State...

  14. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  15. Low-Level Burial Grounds Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage and/or disposal at the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  16. Clay Mineralogy and Organic Carbon Burial in Proterozoic Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, N. J.; Johnston, D. T.; Mushegian, A.; Rothman, D. H.; Knoll, A. H.

    2008-12-01

    Pedogenic, or soil-derived, clay minerals have long been implicated in the efficiency of organic matter (OM) burial and coincident accumulation of atmospheric oxygen. As diagenesis and metamorphism obscure pedogenic clays in many Precambrian rocks, clay mineralogy and its role in OM burial through much of geologic time remains incompletely understood. In this study we analyzed the mineralogy and total organic carbon (TOC) of a number of organic rich shales deposited in Late Archean to Early Cambrian sedimentary basins. Across all samples, diagenetic transformation of pre-existing smectite minerals has led to the predominance of glauconite and the diagenetic 1M and 1Md illite polytypes, which, collectively, can be thought of as "proto-smectite". The correlations between TOC and illite crystallinity suggest that OM burial and preservation in the Proterozoic proceeded by the physical aggregation of OM and pedogenic clays upon deposition. This association, in turn, led to the interference of OM with the illitization process, resulting in the ubiquitous relationship between high surface area (or, finely crystalline) material and high TOC. This interpretation is consistent with suggestions that the preservation of OM after burial proceeds by physical exclusion, with mineral surfaces effectively isolating OM from enzymatic breakdown. Together, it appears that the deposition of pedogenic clays has remained broadly constant over Proterozoic time and into the Early Cambrian, which is incompatible with the hypothesis that late Neoproterozoic oxygenation was influenced by increases in pedogenic clay production. As no clear temporal relationship exists between clays and OM, Precambrian oxygenation was likely controlled by other mechanisms.

  17. Scour and Burial Mechanics of Objects in the Nearshore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    equilibrium bottom profiles in response to seasonal changes in wave climate and accretion /erosion waves spawned by fluxes of sediment into the littoral...waves cause erosion of the bar-berm portion of the profile, exposing mines close to shore, and accretion of the shorerise profile, causing burial of... North Quincy Street Arlington VA 22217-5000 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ONR 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

  18. Investigation of a Medieval Pilgrim Burial Excavated from the Leprosarium of St Mary Magdalen Winchester, UK

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Katie; Filipek-Ogden, Kori; Montgomery, Janet; Cameron, Jamie; O’Connell, Tamsin; Evans, Jane; Marter, Phil; Taylor, G. Michael

    2017-01-01

    We have examined the remains of a Pilgrim burial from St Mary Magdalen, Winchester. The individual was a young adult male, aged around 18–25 years at the time of death. Radiocarbon dating showed the remains dated to the late 11th–early 12th centuries, a time when pilgrimages were at their height in Europe. Several lines of evidence in connection with the burial suggested this was an individual of some means and prestige. Although buried within the leprosarium cemetery, the skeleton showed only minimal skeletal evidence for leprosy, which was confined to the bones of the feet and legs. Nonetheless, molecular testing of several skeletal elements, including uninvolved bones all showed robust evidence of DNA from Mycobacterium leprae, consistent with the lepromatous or multibacillary form of the disease. We infer that in life, this individual almost certainly suffered with multiple soft tissue lesions. Genotyping of the M.leprae strain showed this belonged to the 2F lineage, today associated with cases from South-Central and Western Asia. During osteological examination it was noted that the cranium and facial features displayed atypical morphology for northern European populations. Subsequently, geochemical isotopic analyses carried out on tooth enamel indicated that this individual was indeed not local to the Winchester region, although it was not possible to be more specific about their geographic origin. PMID:28125649

  19. Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

  20. Habitat requirements and burrowing depths of rodents in relation to shallow waste burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gano, K.A.; States, J.B.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature and summarize information on factors affecting habitat selection and maximum recorded burrowing depths for representative small mammals that we consider most likely to inhibit waste burial sites in arid and semi-arid regions of the West. The information is intended for waste management designers who need to know what to expect from small mammals that may be present at a particular site. Waste repositories oculd be designed to exclude the deep burrowing rodents of a region by creating an unattractive habitat over the waste. Summaries are given for habitat requirements of each group along with generalized modifications that could be employed to deter habitation. Representatives from the major groups considered to be deep burrowers are discussed. Further, detailed information about a particular species can be obtained from the references cited.

  1. Late burial diagenesis of Niagaran (Middle Silurian) pinnacle reefs in Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cercone, K.R.; Lohmann, K.C. )

    1987-02-01

    Core samples from Middle Silurian pinnacle reefs in northern Michigan exhibit a regionally consistent assemblage of late diagenetic phases including geopetal diagenetic sediment, disseminated pyrite, pyrobitumen, rhombic dolomite cement, and equant calcite spar. High (> 80{degree}C) fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and inclusions of Silurian-sourced oil in these diagenetic phases indicate that they formed between the Mississippian and Jurassic, when pinnacle reefs resided in the deep subsurface. Fluid inclusion salinities and stable carbon/oxygen isotopic ratios suggest that late diagenetic carbonates did not precipitate from connate fluids but from basinal brines that were conducted to pinnacle reefs by two regional carbonate aquifers. These data confirm that late burial diagenesis can affect carbonate rocks residing in high-salinity, low-permeability fluid environments. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Undulation frequency affects burial performance in living and model flatfishes.

    PubMed

    McKee, Amberle; MacDonald, Ian; Farina, Stacy C; Summers, Adam P

    2016-04-01

    Flatfishes bury themselves under a thin layer of sand to hide from predators or to ambush prey. We investigated the role of undulation frequency of the body in burial in five species of flatfishes (Isopsetta isolepis, Lepidopsetta bilineata, Hippoglossoides elassodon, Parophrys vetulus, and Psettichthys melanostictus). High-speed videos show that undulations begin cranially and pass caudally while burying, as in forward swimming in many other fishes. The flatfishes also flick the posterior edge of their dorsal and anal fins during burial, which may increase the total surface area covered by substrate. We built a simple physical model - a flexible, oval silicone plate with a motorized, variable-speed actuator - to isolate the effect of undulation frequency on burial. In both the model and actuated dead flatfish, increased undulation frequency resulted in an increase in the area of sand coverage. Complete coverage required an undulation frequency of no more than 10Hz for our models, and that was also sufficient for live flatfishes. The model shows that undulation is sufficient to bury the animal, but live flatfishes showed a superior ability to bury, which we attribute to the action of the median fins.

  3. Organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winogradow, A.; Pempkowiak, J.

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate the important role of the marine environment in the circulation of CO2. This is due to the occurrence of the so called "biological pump" mechanism. A special role in this process is played by the shelf seas. The paper presents estimates of organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments. Quantification of the burial rate required the determination of organic carbon accumulation rate to the Baltic sediments and the carbon return flux from sediments to the water column. Results of both sediment and mass accumulation rates as well as profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used. Sediment accumulation rates were based on 210Pb method validated by 137Cs measurements and ranged from 66 g m-2 yr-1 to 744 g m-2 yr-1 as regards mass accumulation rates and from 0.07 cm yr-1 to 0.25 cm yr-1 as regards linear accumulation rates. Carbon deposition to the Baltic sediments amounts to 1.955 ± 0.585 Tg m-2 yr-1, while 0.759 ± 0.020 g m-2 yr-1 of carbon returns from sediments to the water column. Thus the organic carbon burial rate in the Baltic Sea sediments is equal to 1.197 ± 0.584 Tg C m-2 yr-1.

  4. Plant Sensitivity to Burial and Coastal Foredune Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, E. B.; Moore, L. J.; deVries, E.; Jass, T. L.; Duran Vinent, O.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal dunes arise from a feedback between plant growth and aeolian sediment transport. Dune plants are uniquely adapted to the harsh coastal environment, and are able to tolerate high temperature, drought, salt spray, and burial by sand. Accurate modeling of coastal dunes relies on understanding how coastal plants respond to these stresses, and how the dune building feedback is modified as a result. We use two years of data from an experimental planting on Hog Island, VA, USA to parameterize a logistic growth model that explicitly includes the effects of plant burial on three species of common dune plants on the US East Coast: Spartina patens, Ammophila breviligulata, and Uniola paniculata. We couple this new plant growth model to the Coastal Dune Model of Durán and Moore (2013). Using this enhanced model we explore the consequences of plant sensitivity to burial on coastal dune growth. These results will add to the growing literature on coupled vegetation and sand transport models, specifically the modeling of coastal dunes.

  5. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically responsive awns.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to environmental changes in humidity. The seeds of Erodium and Pelargonium have hygroscopically responsive awns that play a critical role in their self-burial into soil. The awn, coiled in a dry state, uncoils to stretch linearly under highly humid condition because of a tilted arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in one of the layers of the awn's bilayered structure. By measuring the mechanical characteristics of the awns of Pelargonium carnosum, we find that the extensional force of the awn can be aptly modeled by the theory of elasticity for a coiled spring. We further show that although the resistance to the seed-head penetrating relatively coarse soils without spinning is large enough to block the digging seed, the rotation of the seed greatly reduces the soil's resistance down to a level the awn can easily overcome. Our mechanical analysis reveals that the self-burial of the seed is a sophisticated outcome of the helically coiled configuration of the awn.

  6. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  7. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically active awns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to humidity change of the surroundings. The seeds of Pelargonium species have hygroscopically active awns that play a critical role in the dispersal from the parent plant and burial in soil. While the awn uncoils to a linear shape in a highly humid condition, it recoils to a helical shape when dry. The rotation is driven by the structure of the cell walls that are comprised of cellulose microfibers aligned in a tilted helix. During uncoiling of the awn, the revolving tail generates thrust to burrow into soil, so that the seed is self-buried. We present the direct observation of the self-burial of the seed with the thrust into a soft substrate being measured at the same time. The elastica theory allows us to rationalize this botanical digging mechanics using the structural deformations of the hygroexpansive tissues. This work was supported by the Sogang University Research Grant of 2013 (201310009.01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  8. Evidence of elevated pressure and temperature during burial of the Salem Limestone in south-central Indiana, USA, and its implications for surprisingly deep burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambers, Clifford P.

    2001-09-01

    A minor, normal fault related to compaction of the grainstone shoal facies of the Salem Limestone in south-central Indiana provides an unusual opportunity to test the pressure and temperature of both faulting and associated stylolitization. Syn-deformational sphalerite occurs in voids along the fault where it intersects an organic-rich shale parting in the sand flat facies overlying the grainstone. The sphalerite contains fluid inclusions that can be used for microthermobaric measurements. Most fluid inclusions in the sphalerite are demonstrably cogenetic with the host sphalerite and of the two-phase aqueous type common in Indiana, although many contain petroleum and others contain gas. Crushing tests in kerosene indicate that the aqueous inclusions contain dissolved methane in varying amounts as high as 1000 ppm. Microthermometry shows that late sphalerite growth, late fault movement, and late stylolitization all occurred as conditions approached 108°C and 292 bars. This pressure is in accord with a normal, basinal, geothermal gradient of 32.5°C/km that would produce the observed temperature under hydrostatic conditions at a burial depth of 2.7 km using an average fluid density of 1.1 g/cm 3. These results serve as a reminder that fluid inclusions in diagenetic minerals hold important temperature and pressure information regarding burial diagenesis of Paleozoic rocks across the North American midcontinent. Detailed study of dissolved gases in fluids trapped in disseminated sphalerite that is common across the midcontinent could help resolve the enigma of sedimentary rocks with high thermal maturity exposed at the surface across the region.

  9. Dynamics of Sandwaves under Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and RIVET I and Mine Burial Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    the mine burial project has been documented in previous annual reports. Preparation of new side-looking multibeam bedform imaging sonars and mine...Instrumentation for Plume, Sediment and Bed Dynamics in Energetic Coastal Environments: A Multibeam Sidescan Sonar and Portable Turbulance Profiler”) is a...support of optical measurements of particle dynamics (Environmental Optics ), and integrating the pcADPs on Geyer’s MAST (Physical Oceanography). The

  10. A 37,000-year environmental magnetic record of aeolian dust deposition from Burial Lake, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, J. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Finkenbinder, M. S.; Abbott, M. B.; Xuan, C.; St-Onge, G.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental magnetism and radiocarbon dating of Burial Lake sediments constrain the timing and magnitude of regional aeolian deposition for the Noatak region of western Arctic Alaska for the last ∼37,000 years. Burial Lake (68.43°N, 159.17°W, 21.5 m water depth) is optimally located to monitor regional dust deposition because it is perched above local drainage and isolated from glacial processes. Cores collected in the summer of 2010 were studied through the application of magnetizations and progressive alternating field (AF) demagnetization of u-channel samples, with additional data provided by computed tomography (CT) derived density, hysteresis measurements, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition experiments, organic carbon content, biogenic silica, physical grain size, radiocarbon dating of wood, seeds, and plant macrofossils, point source magnetic susceptibility, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). With similar magnetic properties to regional Alaskan loess deposits, low coercivity, highly magnetic material deposited during the late-Pleistocene contrasts with a high coercivity, weakly magnetic component found throughout the record, consistent with locally-derived detritus. The relative proportion of low coercivity to high coercivity magnetic material, defined by the S-Ratios, is used to reconstruct the regional input of dust to the basin over time. A four-fold decrease in the low coercivity component through the deglacial transition is interpreted to reflect diminished dust input to the region. Comparisons with potential sources of dust show that the timing of deposition in Burial Lake is largely consistent with general aridity, lack of vegetative cover, and increased windiness, rather than glacial advances or retreats. The influence from subaerial exposure of continental shelves cannot be ruled out as a significant far-field source of dust to interior Alaska during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but is unlikely to have been the sole source, or to

  11. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Marnie L

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world's coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse) and prolonged (press) burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings) and vegetative (sprigs) propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press), with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants.

  12. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world’s coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse) and prolonged (press) burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings) and vegetative (sprigs) propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press), with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants. PMID:27526020

  13. Evidence of regional subsidence and associated interior wetland loss induced by hydrocarbon production, Gulf Coast region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Bernier, J.C.; Barras, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of remote images, elevation surveys, stratigraphic cross-sections, and hydrocarbon production data demonstrates that extensive areas of wetland loss in the northern Gulf Coast region of the United States were associated with large-volume fluid production from mature petroleum fields. Interior wetland losses at many sites in coastal Louisiana and Texas are attributed largely to accelerated land subsidence and fault reactivation induced by decreased reservoir pressures as a result of rapid or prolonged extraction of gas, oil, and associated brines. Evidence that moderately-deep hydrocarbon production has induced land-surface subsidence and reactivated faults that intersect the surface include: (1) close temporal and spatial correlation of fluid production with surficial changes including rapid subsidence of wetland sediments near producing fields, (2) measurable offsets of shallow strata across the zones of wetland loss, (3) large reductions in subsurface pressures where subsidence rates are high, (4) coincidence of orientation and direction of displacement between surface fault traces and faults that bound the reservoirs, and (5) accelerated subsidence rates near producing fields compared to subsidence rates in surrounding areas or compared to geological rates of subsidence. Based on historical trends, subsidence rates in the Gulf Coast region near producing fields most likely will decrease in the future because most petroleum fields are nearly depleted. Alternatively, continued extraction of conventional energy resources as well as potential production of alternative energy resources (geopressured-geothermal fluids) in the Gulf Coast region could increase subsidence and land losses and also contribute to inundation of areas of higher elevation. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  14. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  15. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed.

  16. N-Terminal region is responsible for chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder IL-8.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Osamu; Wada, Shinpei; Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Sakai, Takamitsu; Takano, Tomokazu

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to locate the functional region responsible for the chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder interleukin 8 (IL-8), which lacks the glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif essential for the induction of neutrophil migration by mammalian IL-8. Using a human cell line, we produced a secretory recombinant protein of flounder IL-8, and analyzed its chemotaxis-inducing activity on leukocytes collected from the flounder kidney. The recombinant IL-8 induced significant migration in neutrophils, which were morphologically and functionally characterized. Using the Edman degradation method, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of rIL-8 was identified as VSLRSLGV. To examine the significance of the N-terminal region for the bioactivity of flounder IL-8, we prepared several recombinant proteins that containing mutations at the N-terminus. Modification of three residues (residues 9-11: serine-leucine-histidine) corresponding in position to the ELR motif in mammalian IL-8 did not reduce its chemotaxis-inducing activity. However, deletion of the first six or more residues significantly reduced its chemotaxis-inducing activity. We propose that residue 6 (leucine) at the N-terminus is important for the chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder IL-8.

  17. Regional atmospheric cooling and wetting effect of permafrost thaw-induced boreal forest loss.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Manuel; Wischnewski, Karoline; Kljun, Natascha; Chasmer, Laura E; Quinton, William L; Detto, Matteo; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    In the sporadic permafrost zone of North America, thaw-induced boreal forest loss is leading to permafrost-free wetland expansion. These land cover changes alter landscape-scale surface properties with potentially large, however, still unknown impacts on regional climates. In this study, we combine nested eddy covariance flux tower measurements with satellite remote sensing to characterize the impacts of boreal forest loss on albedo, eco-physiological and aerodynamic surface properties, and turbulent energy fluxes of a lowland boreal forest region in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Planetary boundary layer modelling is used to estimate the potential forest loss impact on regional air temperature and atmospheric moisture. We show that thaw-induced conversion of forests to wetlands increases albedo: and bulk surface conductance for water vapour and decreases aerodynamic surface temperature. At the same time, heat transfer efficiency is reduced. These shifts in land surface properties increase latent at the expense of sensible heat fluxes, thus, drastically reducing Bowen ratios. Due to the lower albedo of forests and their masking effect of highly reflective snow, available energy is lower in wetlands, especially in late winter. Modelling results demonstrate that a conversion of a present-day boreal forest-wetland to a hypothetical homogeneous wetland landscape could induce a near-surface cooling effect on regional air temperatures of up to 3-4 °C in late winter and 1-2 °C in summer. An atmospheric wetting effect in summer is indicated by a maximum increase in water vapour mixing ratios of 2 mmol mol(-1) . At the same time, maximum boundary layer heights are reduced by about a third of the original height. In fall, simulated air temperature and atmospheric moisture between the two scenarios do not differ. Therefore, permafrost thaw-induced boreal forest loss may modify regional precipitation patterns and slow down regional warming trends.

  18. Experimental assessment of critical anthropogenic sediment burial in eelgrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Munkes, Britta; Schubert, Philipp R; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2015-11-15

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world's most important and productive coastal habitats, are threatened by a range of anthropogenic actions. Burial of seagrass plants due to coastal activities is one important anthropogenic pressure leading to the decline of local populations. In our study, we assessed the response of eelgrass Zostera marina to sediment burial from physiological, morphological, and population parameters. In a full factorial field experiment, burial level (5-20cm) and burial duration (4-16weeks) were manipulated. Negative effects were visible even at the lowest burial level (5cm) and shortest duration (4weeks), with increasing effects over time and burial level. Buried seagrasses showed higher shoot mortality, delayed growth and flowering and lower carbohydrate storage. The observed effects will likely have an impact on next year's survival of buried plants. Our results have implications for the management of this important coastal plant.

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-01-21

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris.

  20. Sediment burial stimulates the growth and propagule production of Spartina alterniflora Loisel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zifa; An, Shuqing; Zhao, Congjiao; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Changfang; Zhi, Yingbiao; Li, Hongli

    2008-03-01

    Spartina alterniflora Loisel., an extensively invasive species on the Chinese coast, is a focus of increasing management concern due to its high expansion rate in estuaries and tidal zone, and the significant damage it causes to native ecosystems. In order to understand the processes and mechanisms of invasion of S. alterniflora in China, the impact of three sediment types (sand, sand-loam mixture and loam) and five buried patterns (unburied, 50% burial of initial plant height, 75% burial of initial plant height, complete burial and repeated burial) on the growth of seedlings or ramets was investigated. Results showed that each of the three factors (sediment types, burial pattern and plant materials) and interactions between/among them, significantly affected height and clonal growth, and biomass accumulation and allocation. Plant height, total biomass and number of new vegetative propagules significantly increased with progressive burial treatments. However, the complete burial treatment resulted in the death of all plant materials, and the maximum values of three parameters were found in the 50% burial or repeated burial treatments. Plant responses were determined by the instantaneous thickness of sediment of each time burial rather than by the total quantity of repeated burial. The growth of S. alterniflora was not shown to be dependent on specific types of sediment in sedimentation environment. In contrast to the unburied control, the proportion of primary tillers produced directly from initial individuals and the ratio between the aboveground and belowground biomass were greater under burial treatments. Seedlings produced more new vegetative propagules than vegetative offspring in all experimental treatments, and the former were apt to produce ramets from rhizomes rather than primary tillers. It is concluded that under various sedimentation environments, the clonal spread efficiency of seedlings was higher than that of vegetative offspring, and there is a

  1. Precipitation data for burial grounds 5 and 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1976-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a hydrogeologic investigation, precipitation data were collected at two stations, one each in Burial Grounds 5 and 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. Daily, monthly, and annual values are reported herein for the period from January 1976 through December 1980. During this period, annual values ranged from about 25 percent above to about 25 percent below the calculated mean of 51.96 inches at Burial Ground 5 and 49.60 inches at Burial Ground 6. (USGS)

  2. Burial history influence on the generation of some Italian oils

    SciTech Connect

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Many Italian oils were sourced by Triassic source rock; evidence of this exists in the Po Plain. In the Adriatic Sea, and offshore southern Sicily. Bulk and geochemical characteristics of these oils are quite dissimilar: heavy oils as well as gasolines were discovered. Such differences are partly attributable to the organic matter type and to environmental conditions, but the role of the source rock's burial histories is fundamental in determining oil characteristics. The different burial histories in these two areas definitely account for these differences. In the Po Plain, the Raethian Argilliti di Riva di Solto Formation, source rock of condensates of the Malossa area, started to generate very early as a consequence of the noticeable Rhaetian-Liassic subsidence. The generation of oil continued for a long geological time, but probably hydrocarbons were lost for the lack of traps. Only condensates, generated by the further Pliocene-Quaternary burial, were accumulated in the Neogene traps. In the western part of the Po Plain, Gaggiano and Villafortuna oils (34 and 40{degree} API), sourced by the Ladinian Meride Formation, were generated only during the sizeable Neogene-Quaternary subsidence. The high heating rate in this case probably enhanced expulsion efficiency, allowing secondary migration toward shallower depths and, consequently, preventing hydrocarbons from secondary cracking. Offshore in southern Sicily (Gela field), the recent subsidence (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is responsible for Triassic source rock maturation. In this case the shallower depth reached by the source rock and, consequently, the lower temperatures at which maturity occurred are partly responsible for the generation of heavy oils, even if other factors such as early expulsion due to tectonics and organic matter type probably play a more important role.

  3. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  4. Relationship between plant traits and resistance to burial by marly sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burylo, M.; Rey, F.; Dutoit, T.

    2009-04-01

    In marly lands of the French Southern Alps, harsh soil erosion results in sediment movements during intensive rainfall events. Plants can be submitted to sediment burial in their early stages of development and their protective function may be reduced. In a context of land restoration, it is important to know species resistance to environmental disturbances and to be able to predict it, in particular from plant traits (height, biomass, sugar and starch accumulation). However, few studies about woody species tolerance to burial by sediment have been carried out. Seedlings of five woody species were buried in marly sediment at three different depths in pot experiment during eight weeks: no burial (control), partial burial (50% stem height) and complete burial (100% stem height). Height through time, biomass and survival rates were measured to assess species resistance to burial. Results show that among the five species, only one (Acer campestre) survived complete burial. All plants survived partial burial, but there were significant differences in height and biomass between buried plants and control, and significant differences between species responses. Three different responses to disturbance were identified: negative (Hippophae rhamnoides, Ononis fruticosa), neutral (Robinia pseudo acacia, Pinus nigra) and positive (Acer campestre). Results finally suggest that species resistance to burial by marly sediment is related to sugar accumulation in plant stems.

  5. Preliminary soilwater conductivity analysis to date clandestine burials of homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Cassella, John P; Jervis, John R

    2010-05-20

    This study reports on a new geoscientific method to estimate the post-burial interval (PBI) and potential post-mortem interval (PMI) date of homicide victims in clandestine graves by measuring decomposition fluid conductivities. Establishing PBI/PMI dates may be critical for forensic investigators to establish time-lines to link or indeed rule out suspects to a crime. Regular in situ soilwater analysis from a simulated clandestine grave (which contained a domestic buried pig carcass) in a semi-rural environment had significantly elevated conductivity measurements when compared to background values. A temporal rapid increase of the conductivity of burial fluids was observed until one-year post-burial, after this values slowly increased until two years (end of the current study period). Conversion of x-axis from post-burial days to 'accumulated degree days' (ADDs) corrected for both local temperature variations and associated depth of burial and resulted in an improved fit for multiple linear regression analyses. ADD correction also allowed comparison with a previous conductivity grave study on a different site with a different soil type and environment; this showed comparable results with a similar trend observed. A separate simulated discovered burial had a conductivity estimated PBI date that showed 12% error from its actual burial date. Research is also applicable in examining illegal animal burials; time of burial and waste deposition. Further research is required to extend the monitoring period, to use human cadavers and to repeat this with other soil types and depositional environments.

  6. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  7. Identification of metallic objects with various sizes and burial depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet; Kaplan, Gülay; Deniz, Sencer M.; Bahadırlar, Yıldırım; İçoğlu, Oğuz

    2009-05-01

    In this study, identification of the different metallic objects with various burial depths was considered. Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) were used to obtain metallic content and dielectric characteristic of the buried objects. Discriminative features were determined and calculated for data set. Six features were selected for metal detector and one for Ground Penetrating Radar. Twenty classification algorithms were examined to obtain the best classification method, for this data set. A Meta learner algorithm completed the classification process with 100% performance.

  8. Progressive chemical modification of clastic sediments with burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, C. D.

    1987-03-01

    The porosity of clastic sediments at deposition varies very approximately between about 45% (sands) and 85% (muds). With burial, consolidation takes place as pore water is progressively eliminated. It would be misleading, however, to attribute alterations in sediment bulk properties to physical processes alone. Very significant mineralogical changes occur and these start soon after burial, especially in mudrocks. Striking heterogeneities such as thin, laterally continuous cemented horizons or discrete concretions are commonly introduced. These shallow burial processes are predominently the result of microbial activity. Thermodynamically unstable mixtures of organic matter and various oxidants [dissolved oxygen, sulphate, nitrate, particulate Fe(III) and Mn(IV)] provide both substrate and energy source for a variety of different microbial ecosystems. Mineralogical consequences include both leaching and the precipitation of carbonate, sulphide, phosphate and silica cements. The type and extent of mineral modification depends strongly on depositional environment variables such as rate of sedimentation and water composition. At greater depths, large scale modification of detrital clay minerals (particularly the smectite-I/S-illite transformation) takes place. Recent work of various kinds, however, has demonstrated that these changes may not be solid state transformations: clay mineral dissolution, transport and precipitation occur much more widely than was formerly supposed. In sandstones, authigenic precipitation of clay minerals from pore solution is much more obviouis. Systematic patterns of precipitation, alteration and replacement have been documented in many sedimentary basins. Porosity and permeability are reduced by cementation and, sometimes, enhanced by mineral dissolution. Whereas the general nature of these chemical reactions is fairly well understood, it is not yet possible to predict with certainty the scale or distribution of mineralogical consequences

  9. Reservoir quality in relation to facies, burial history, and oil migration: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.K. )

    1993-02-01

    The diagenetic make-up and, in consequence, the ultimate reservoir quality of a sand body depends on depositional facies, as well as on burial history, diagenetic fluid chemistry and timing of oil migration. A regional subsurface study in the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela along a northwest-southeast transect in the Urdaneta, Lagunillas and Barua-Motatan fields reveal that depositional facies of the reservoir sandstones range from mainly fluvial (Urdaneta) to deltaic-coastal marine in Lagunillas, and typically sublittoral in the Barua-Motatan area. Factors such as granulometry, development of early pore-lining chlorite (in marginal marine facies), infiltrated grain-coating clays (fluvial B-6 sands), and proximity of reservoirs to the post-Eocene unconformity, have preserved, enhanced or otherwise influenced reservoir quality. Data on authigenic mineralogy, vitrinite reflectance and burial history indicate a progressively greater subsidence from northwest to southeast. As a result, diagenetic grade is immature in Urdaneta where porosity/permeability values are the highest. In contrast, the Barua-Motatan field in the southeast is typified by a higher grade of diagenesis, varied authigenic mineralogy, and severe deterioration of reservoir quality. Similarly, degree of compaction progressively increases from northwest to southeast. Timing of oil migration have parallelly contributed to systematic regional variation in reservoir quality. An early migration in Urdaneta has been favorable to preservation of original porosity. In contrast, late migration during Upper Miocene, in the Barua-Motatan field, indirectly permitted abundant silicification and consequent destruction of virtually all primary porosity. Thus both pre- and post-depositional parameters are important constraints which should be considered while evaluating quality of siliciclastic reservoirs.

  10. Nuclear-Spin-Induced Circular Dichroism in the Infrared Region for Liquids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Yao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Zhen-lin; Liu, Fan-chen; Chen, Dong-ming

    2015-06-22

    Recently, the nuclear-spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) and circular dichroism (NSCD) for liquids were discovered and extensively studied and developed. However, so far, nuclear-spin-induced magnetic circular dichroism in the IR region (IR-NSCD) has not been explored, even though all polyatomic molecules exhibit extensive IR spectra. Herein, IR-NSCD is proposed and discussed theoretically. The results indicate that in favorable conditions the IR-NSCD angle may be much larger than the NSOR angle in the UV/Vis region due to a vibrational resonance effect and can be measurable by using the NSOR experiment scheme. IR-NSCD can automatically combine and give NMR spectra and IRCD spectra of the nuclear spin prepolarized samples in liquids, which, in principle, could be developed to become a unique, novel analytical tool.

  11. Atmospheric wave-induced instability in the nighttime E-region.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, T.; Moorcroft, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the perturbed continuity equation when the perturbations are the result of an internal atmospheric gravity wave in the E region. The transient response of the ionization is interpreted as the gradient instability and the values of the vertical and horizontal wave numbers that will induce it are plotted for various heights. Only in the presence of westward directed electric fields, which are believed to occur only at night, will the gravity waves induce the gradient instability. Approximate analytic expressions are obtained for the permitted wave numbers as well as for the instability growth times. In the course of this analysis it is shown that in the D region all irregularities, even those that are field-aligned, will tend to move with the ion velocity.

  12. Identifying induced seismicity in active tectonic regions: A case study of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, F.; Göbel, T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the connection between petroleum-industry activities, and seismic event occurrences is essential to monitor, quantify, and mitigate seismic risk. While many studies identified anthropogenically-induced seismicity in intraplate regions where background seismicity rates are generally low, little is known about how to distinguish naturally occurring from induced seismicity in active tectonic regions. Further, it is not clear how different oil and gas operational parameters impact the frequency and magnitude of the induced seismic events. Here, we examine variations in frequency-size and spatial distributions of seismicity within the Southern Joaquin basin, an area of both active petroleum production and active fault systems. We analyze a newly available, high-quality, relocated earthquake catalog (Hauksson et al. 2012). This catalog includes many seismic events with magnitudes up to M = 4.5 within the study area. We start by analyzing the overall quality and consistence of the seismic catalog, focusing on temporal variations in seismicity rates and catalog completeness which could indicate variations in network sensitivity. This catalog provides relatively homogeneous earthquake recordings after 1981, enabling us to compare seismicity rates before and after the beginning of more pervasive petroleum-industry activities, for example, hydraulic-fracturing and waste-water disposals. We conduct a limited study of waste-water disposal wells to establish a correlation between seismicity statistics (i.e. rate changes, fractal dimension, b-value) within specific regions and anthropogenic influences. We then perform a regional study, to investigate spatial variations in seismicity statistics which are then correlated to oil field locations and well densities. In order to distinguish, predominantly natural seismicity from induced seismicity, we perform a spatial mapping of b-values and fractal dimensions of earthquake hypocenters. Seismic events in the proximity to

  13. The burial of organic carbon over the last 10 kyr by the Waipaoa River, New Zealand sedimentary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, N. E.; Childress, L. B.; Fournillier, K. M.; Leithold, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs), most of which are located along active margins, play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. SMRs drain only ~20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems in which riverine organic carbon (OC) is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, SMR-dominated shelves are highly effective in the burial and preservation of OC. This is the result of the rapid, episodic delivery of OC derived from terrestrial vegetation, aged soil organic matter, and sedimentary rock OC. Most of our understanding concerning the carbon cycling dynamics of SMR systems is derived from modern, heavily anthropogenically impacted environments however. The nature and fluxes of OC prior to land use change is poorly documented. Erosion and depositional patterns associated with SMRs are affected by several large-scale forcing mechanisms, primarily climate and tectonics. To investigate the effect of natural and anthropogenic forcing on the geochemical record of a SMR we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River is a system of interest due to its large current sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Continental shelf cores collected offshore of the Waipaoa by the MATACORE group aboard the R/V Marion Dufresne extend to 10 kyr BP, and records climatic transitions with tectonic overprints in the region. The OC burial flux ranged from ~15-20 kg C m-2 kyr-1 at the location of one shelf core (MD 3007) approximately 3.5-10 kyr before present. This corresponds to a period of relatively rapid shoreline progradation. OC accumulation decreased to ~4-6 kg C m-2 kyr-1 after 3.5 kyr BP. Anthropogenic deforestation has caused OC burial fluxes to rebound to beyond the 3.5-10 kyr levels. Organic geochemical proxies, including δ13C, δ15N, and lignin phenols, indicate a depositional site that is dominated by riverine input. The proxies do not correlate

  14. A clandestine burial in Costa Rica: prospection and excavation.

    PubMed

    Congram, Derek R

    2008-07-01

    This case report describes the search for a clandestine grave in Costa Rica for which the police sought the assistance of an archaeologist. An anonymous informant suggested that the victim had been kidnapped and murdered, placed in a shallow grave in the woods, then covered with lime and cement. A search of the area to detect conventional signs of burial (e.g., slumping, different plant growth) resulted in excavation of unrelated features of past disturbance. Different aspects of the grave including the deposition of cement powder over the body prevented its initial discovery. Improvisation of conventional archaeological excavation methods and use of police familiar with archaeological excavation resulted in the location of the grave and exhumation of the victim without loss of important contextual evidence that supported testimony on the cause of death. The taphonomic effects of high-lying ground water and lime in the tropical burial environment are briefly discussed. Recommendations such as the construction of a temporary sump to lower the ground water level in the grave during excavation are made to assist in similar investigations in the future.

  15. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial.

  16. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians.

  17. Equation for compaction of paleosols due to burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Nathan D.; Retallack, Gregory J.

    2001-03-01

    Existing empirically derived compaction curves for marine sediments fail to estimate the compaction of paleosols, flood-plain sediments, and peats as indicated by deformation of clastic dikes, dinosaur footprints, and sandstone paleochannels. Yet compaction estimates are vital to reconstructing paleoclimate and geochemical profiles of paleosols, to modeling sediment accumulation rates of nonmarine rocks, and to tectonic flexural modeling of molasse facies. This paper presents a compaction equation and physically derived constants that make geologically realistic estimates of compaction of paleosols and other nonmarine sediments. A protocol for the application of the equation is suggested that would allow the following equation to solve for burial compaction (C as a fraction of original thickness) given depth of burial (D in km) as: C = -Si/[(F0/ eDk) - 1]. This equation can be applied to nonmarine sedimentary rocks or paleosols given appropriate empirical data on the physical constants in the equation, such as initial solidity (Si), initial porosity (F0), and the corresponding curve-fitting constant (k). Data on physical constants useful for this equation are compiled here for a range of paleosol and nonmarine sediment types.

  18. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  19. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  20. Fluid-induced Crystallization of Majoritic Garnet During Deep Continental Subduction (Western Gneiss Region, Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambelluri, M.; Pettke, T.; van Roermund, H. L.

    2008-12-01

    In ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks, garnet containing pyroxene exsolutions derives from breakdown of majorite crystallized at depths > 200 km. Presence of microdiamonds in some of these rocks [1], including those of the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway [2], may suggest a fluid-bearing environment for the genesis of majorite. The WGR UHP gneisses host garnet peridotite and websterite recording uplift from extraordinary depths prior to uptake in a subducting slab [2]. These ultramafic rocks (islands of Otrøy and Bardane) derive from depleted Archean transition-zone mantle (350 km depth) upwelled and accreted to a cratonic lithosphere (M2 stage). Evidence for this are decimetric garnets (grt) preserved in Otrøy, hosting up to 20 volume% orthopyroxene (opx) and clinopyroxene (cpx) exsolved from precursor majoritic garnet (M1 stage). The pyroxene lamellae (20-30 ¥ìm thick, hundreds of ¥ìm long) [3] were exsolved under high-T, as shown by the garnet/cpx REE distribution [4]. This Archean-mid Proterozoic record is overprinted by the 425- 390 Ma Scandian continental subduction (M3 stage), forming new grt + cpx + opx + phlogopite (phl) + spinel (sp) that contain diamond-bearing micro-inclusions witnessing deep COH subduction fluids [2]. Here we document formation of new majoritic garnet in the M3 assemblage and in veins at Bardane [5]. Textural characteristics, together with the LREE and LILE enrichments of the M3 minerals, indicate that the new majorite is linked to infiltration of subduction fluids during renewed burial towards sub-lithospheric depths. It represents the deepest occurrence of fluid-related microstructures in mantle rocks. The new majoritic garnet crystallized at grain boundaries and in micro-veins at 7 Gpa and 900-1000 °C. It hosts thin pyroxene needles (5 mm thick, 100 mm long) exsolved under comparatively low-T, as indicated by the garnet/cpx REE distribution. The trace element signature of the majorite-bearing subduction assemblage is LREE

  1. Regional alterations of type I collagen in rat tibia induced by skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiiba, Masashi; Arnaud, Sara B.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Kitamura, Eiji; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal unloading induces loss of mineral density in weight-bearing bones that leads to inferior bone mechanical strength. This appears to be caused by a failure of bone formation; however, its mechanisms still are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize collagen, the predominant matrix protein in bone, in various regions of tibia of rats that were subjected to skeletal unloading by 4 weeks tail suspension. Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 months old) were divided into tail suspension and ambulatory controls (eight rats each). After the tail suspension, tibias from each animal were collected and divided into five regions and collagen was analyzed. The collagen cross-linking and the extent of lysine (Lys) hydroxylation in unloaded bones were significantly altered in proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, and, in particular, proximal metaphysis but not in distal regions. The pool of immature/nonmineralized collagen measured by its extractability with a chaotropic solvent was significantly increased in proximal metaphysis. These results suggest that skeletal unloading induced an accumulation of post-translationally altered nonmineralized collagen and that these changes are bone region specific. These alterations might be caused by impaired osteoblastic function/differentiation resulting in a mineralization defect.

  2. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  3. Wake-induced unsteady stagnation-region heat-transfer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magari, P. J.; Lagraff, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of wake-induced unsteady heat transfer in the stagnation region of a cylinder are presented. A quasi-steady representation of the stator/rotor interaction in a gas turbine using two stationary cylinders in crossflow is created. Time-averaged and time-resolved heat-transfer results are obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers at two Mach numbers: one incompressible and one transonic. The augmentation of the heat transfer in the stagnation region due to wake unsteadiness is documented by comparison with isolated cylinder tests. The time-averaged heat-transfer rate at the stagnation line, expressed in terms of the Frossling number, is found to reach a maximum independent of the Reynolds number. The power spectra and cross correlation of the heat-transfer signals in the stagnation region reveal the importance of large vortical structures shed from the upstream wake generator.

  4. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  5. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  6. Neutron Diffraction of Aqueous Tetramethylammonium Chloride (TMA) Solutions and TMA Intercalated Swelling Clays Under Burial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R.; Howard, C. A.; Greenwell, C.; Youngs, T.; Soper, A. K.; Skipper, N. T.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for the improvement and optimisation of clay swelling inhibitors for the enhancement of oil and gas exploration. The hydration region of both ions and the possibility of ion pairing in 1 molar aqueous solution of clay swelling inhibitor, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl), in D2O, under elevated hydrostatic-pressures and temperatures has been determined with unprecedented detail using a combination of neutron diffraction and small-angle scattering in conjunction with hydrogen/deuterium isotopic labeling. The O-H correlation function (H-bonds) for the water in the 1.0M solution is measured and compared with that for pure D2O. Also investigated is the effect of burial conditions on the d-spacing of TMA-intercalated vermiculite. Contrary to expectations, no aggregation of TMA ions due to hydrophobic interactions is observed, nor are any ionic pairs of TMA+ and Cl- at these burial conditions. The data revealed a more ordered water-water structure with the addition of TMACl from bulk D2O. There is no change in the hydration structure measured at the applied elevated conditions. This is in remarkable contrast to pure water at the same conditions which is well known to be compressible. The dry d-spacing of the TMA-exchanged Eucatex vermiculite is measured at 13.66 Å which increases to 14.03 Å with the addition of D2O. Beyond this, there is no change in d-spacing with increasing pressure and temperature indicating the strength of the TMA ions binding to the clay interlayers and therefore its performance as a clay-swelling inhibitor.

  7. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists and little research has addressed the extent to whi...

  8. Messrs. Dinkins, Rangel, and Savage in Colloquy on the African Burial Ground: A Companion Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Expands the symbolic resources of the African Burial Ground through a dialogical reading of an essay in the same issue of this journal which offers a rhetorical examination of the controversy surrounding the African Burial Ground. Argues that, post-critique, controversies may be recuperated to recover an expanded sense of coalitional engagement,…

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  10. 77 FR 326 - Agency Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes): Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes): Activity....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes, VA Form 21-2008....

  11. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity... information technology. Title: Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes, VA Form 21-2008....

  12. Effects of urban stream burial on organic matter dynamics and reach scale nitrate retention - final

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3 −) by eliminating primar...

  13. Effects of Urban Stream Burial on Organic Matter Dynamics and Reach Scale Nitrate Retention

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3-) by eliminating primar...

  14. 32 CFR 553.17 - Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.17 Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery. (a) A father, mother, brother, sister, and in-law is not...) Dependents are not eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery unless the Service-connected...

  15. 32 CFR 553.17 - Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.17 Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery. (a) A father, mother, brother, sister, and in-law is not...) Dependents are not eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery unless the Service-connected...

  16. 32 CFR 553.17 - Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.17 Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery. (a) A father, mother, brother, sister, and in-law is not eligible... for burial in Arlington National Cemetery unless the Service-connected family member has been or...

  17. 32 CFR 553.17 - Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.17 Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery. (a) A father, mother, brother, sister, and in-law is not eligible... for burial in Arlington National Cemetery unless the Service-connected family member has been or...

  18. The Influence of Organic Material and Temperature on the Burial Tolerance of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Considerations for the Management of Marine Aggregate Dredging

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Richard S.; Black, Kenny D.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale and Experimental Approach Aggregate dredging is a growing source of anthropogenic disturbance in coastal UK waters and has the potential to impact marine systems through the smothering of benthic fauna with organically loaded screening discards. This study investigates the tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis to such episodic smothering events using a multi-factorial design, including organic matter concentration, temperature, sediment fraction size and duration of burial as important predictor variables. Results and Discussion Mussel mortality was significantly higher in organically loaded burials when compared to control sediments after just 2 days. Particularly, M. edulis specimens under burial in fine sediment with high (1%) concentrations of organic matter experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (p<0.01) than those under coarse control aggregates. Additionally, mussels exposed to the summer maximum temperature treatment (20°C) exhibited significantly increased mortality (p<0.01) compared to those in the ambient treatment group (15°C). Total Oxygen Uptake rates of experimental aggregates were greatest (112.7 mmol m-2 day-1) with 1% organic loadings in coarse sediment at 20°C. Elevated oxygen flux rates in porous coarse sediments are likely to be a function of increased vertical migration of anaerobically liberated sulphides to the sediment-water interface. However, survival of M. edulis under bacterial mats of Beggiatoa spp. indicates the species’ resilience to sulphides and so we propose that the presence of reactive organic matter within the burial medium may facilitate bacterial growth and increase mortality through pathogenic infection. This may be exacerbated under the stable interstitial conditions in fine sediment and increased bacterial metabolism under high temperatures. Furthermore, increased temperature may impose metabolic demands upon the mussel that cannot be met during burial-induced anaerobiosis. Summary Lack of

  19. Distribution of maximum burial temperatures across northern Appalachian Basin and implications for Carboniferous sedimentation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    Clay-mineral diagenesis and apatite fission-track age data indicate that the maximum burial temperatures to which the Middle Devonian Tioga metabentonite was exposed rise abruptly from low values in western New York State to higher values in the east. The highest temperatures, which approach 175/sup 0/C, were reached just west of Syracuse. Neither the pattern nor the magnitude of burial temperatures can be explained solely by burial of the metabentonite beneath Upper Devonian sediments. Although spatial variations in the geothermal gradient could have produced the observed pattern of burial temperatures, it is more likely that Carboniferous sediments, no longer preserved in the area, were responsible for the indicated burial. The inferred presence of thick Carboniferous sequences in western New York State suggests that the Allegheny orogeny had a stronger influence on sedimentation in the northern Appalachian Basin than has been previously recognized. 25 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  1. Burial patterns during times of armed conflict in Cyprus in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Mikellide, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The island of Cyprus experienced two periods of intercommunal conflict during which c. 2000 individuals went missing. The Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus began a program of exhumations in 2005, through which more than 185 burial sites pertaining to the two periods of conflict have been identified and excavated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to present a classification of the main types of clandestine burial and (ii) to test the hypothesis that the nature of conflict influences the mode of interment. Burials can be divided into "public burials" and "concealed burials," based on the possible motives of those involved in the interment and then subdivided into smaller categories based on similarities in archeological context. A comparison of results from the two periods of conflict reveals that there are statistical differences (p < 0.005), which indicate that the mode of interment may reflect the nature, character, and atmosphere of conflict.

  2. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    PubMed

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  3. Biosecurity procedures for the environmental management of carcasses burial sites in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon-Ha; Pramanik, Sudipta

    2016-12-01

    Avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease are two main contagious pathogenic viral disease which are responsible for the massive burials of livestock in Korea since burial is the primary measure to control these outbreaks. Biosecurity is a set of preventive measures designed to prevent the risk of spreading of these infectious diseases. The main objective of this paper is to discuss about the requirements of biosecurity and develop protocol outlines for environmental management of burial sites in Korea. Current practice prescribes to minimize the potential for on-farm pollution and the spread of the infectious diseases. Specific biosecurity procedures such as proper assessment of leachate quality, safe handling and disposal of leachate, adequate leachate pollution monitoring, necessary seasonal management of burial site, and appropriate sterilization process must be carried out to prevent the indirect transmission of pathogens from the burial sites. Policy makers should acquire robust knowledge of biosecurity for establishing more effective future legislation for carcasses disposal in Korea.

  4. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3...

  5. Constraining multi-stage exposure-burial scenarios for boulders preserved beneath cold-based glacial ice in Thule, northwest Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-04-01

    Boulders and landscapes preserved beneath cold-based, non-erosive glacial ice violate assumptions associated with simple cosmogenic exposure dating. In such a setting, simple single isotope exposure ages over-estimate the latest period of surface exposure; hence, alternate approaches are required to constrain the multi-stage exposure/burial histories of such samples. Here, we report 28 paired analyses of 10Be and 26Al in boulder samples from Thule, northwest Greenland. We use numerical models of exposure and burial as well as Monte Carlo simulations to constrain glacial chronology and infer process in this Arctic region dominated by cold-based ice. We investigate three specific cases that can arise with paired nuclide data: (1) exposure ages that are coeval with deglaciation and 26Al/10Be ratios consistent with constant exposure; (2) exposure ages that pre-date deglaciation and 26Al/10Be ratios consistent with burial following initial exposure; and (3) exposure ages that pre-date deglaciation and 26Al/10Be ratios consistent with constant exposure. Most glacially-transported boulders in Thule have complex histories; some were exposed for tens of thousands of years and buried for at least hundreds of thousands of years, while others underwent only limited burial. These boulders were probably recycled through different generations of till over multiple glacial/interglacial cycles, likely experiencing partial or complete shielding during interglacial periods due to rotation or shallow burial by sediments. Our work demonstrates that the landscape in Thule, like many high-latitude landscapes, was shaped over long time durations and multiple glacial and interglacial periods throughout the Quaternary.

  6. Investigation and simulation on fate and transport of leachate from a livestock mortality burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.-W.; Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Leachate released from livestock mortality burial during decomposition of carcasses can be a threat to groundwater quality. Monitoring study of groundwater quality in the vicinity of livestock burial reported that a caution is needed to prevent contamination of both groundwater and soil, especially in case of mortality burial (Glanville, 2000; Ritter and Chirnside, 1995). The average concentration of ammonium-N and chloride is reported to be 12,600 mg/l and 2,600 mg/l respectively, which is 2-4 times higher than leachate from earthen manure storages and landfills (Pratt, 2009). To assess the potential threat of burial leachate to groundwater quality, simulation of leachate transport is performed based on a hydrogeologic model of an actual mortality burial site. At the burial site of this study located at a hill slope, two mortality pits have been constructed along the slope to bury swine during the outbreak of nationwide foot and mouth disease(FMD) in 2011. Though the pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage is still in concern. Electrical resistivity survey has been performed several times at the burial site and abnormal resistivity zones have been detected which are supposed as leachate leakage from the burial. Subsurface model including unsaturated zone is built since the leakage is supposed to occur mainly in lateral of the burial pits which is in unsaturated zone. When examining leachate transport, main focus is given to a nitrogenous compound and colloidal character of FMD virus. Nitrifying of denitrifying characters of nitrogenous compound and transport of colloidal particles are affected mainly by soil water content in unsaturated zone. Thus, the fate and transport of burial leachate affected by seasonal variation in recharge pattern is investigated.

  7. [Influence factors of deposition induced by melt water erosion in Naqu region, China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-yuan; Cai, Qiang-guo; Li, Zhao-xia; Sun, Li-ying

    2015-02-01

    Melt water erosion is one of the important soil erosion forms caused by the melt water from glacier and snow in high altitude cold areas of China. This paper investigated the influencing factors of deposition caused by melt water erosion in Naqu region. Alluvial fan ratio was presented as an index to characterize the degree of the deposition induced by melt water erosion. Minimum polygon was determined based on spatial overlay technology of Geographic Information System (GIS). The regression equation between the deposition index and the influencing factors was established through the stepwise regression analysis based on minimum polygon. Key influencing factors were identified according to the stepwise regression equation. The results showed that large amounts of alluvial fan were observed in Naqu region; extensive alluvial fans were centered at gentle slope areas in the central part of Naqu region with great spatial differences; alluvial fans were mainly distributed at valley exits, most of which were at large scale with vast differences in area and thickness. Wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), K value of soil erodibility, annual temperature range and the steep slope area ratio were identified as the key influencing factors on the deposition induced by melt water erosion in the studied area. Index of deposition was positively correlated with the wind speed and NDVI, and showed negative relationships with the K value of soil erodibility, the annual temperature range and steep slope area ratio.

  8. Evaluation of region selective bilirubin-induced brain damage as a basis for a pharmacological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dal Ben, Matteo; Bottin, Cristina; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Tiribelli, Claudio; Gazzin, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The neurologic manifestations of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit high variations in the severity and appearance of motor, auditory and cognitive symptoms, which is suggestive of a still unexplained selective topography of bilirubin-induced damage. By applying the organotypic brain culture (OBC: preserving in vitro the cellular complexity, connection and architecture of the in vivo brain) technique to study hyperbilirubinemia, we mapped the regional target of bilirubin-induced damage, demonstrated a multifactorial toxic action of bilirubin, and used this information to evaluate the efficacy of drugs applicable to newborns to protect the brain. OBCs from 8-day-old rat pups showed a 2–13 fold higher sensitivity to bilirubin damage than 2-day-old preparations. The hippocampus, inferior colliculus and cerebral cortex were the only brain regions affected, presenting a mixed inflammatory-oxidative mechanism. Glutamate excitotoxicity was appreciable in only the hippocampus and inferior colliculus. Single drug treatment (indomethacin, curcumin, MgCl2) significantly improved cell viability in all regions, while the combined (cocktail) administration of the three drugs almost completely prevented damage in the most affected area (hippocampus). Our data may supports an innovative (complementary to phototherapy) approach for directly protecting the newborn brain from bilirubin neurotoxicity. PMID:28102362

  9. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective.

  10. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-15

    The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material; - Direct Burial; - Treatment (Processing); - Burial; - Treatment; - Unconditional Release; - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry; - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. This paper examines the options of controlled recycle of material within the nuclear industry and cites several successful examples. Controlled recycling of LLRW materials within the nuclear industry has been demonstrated to be practical and economical. The reuse of materials within the nuclear industry properly addressed stakeholder concerns for material being used for what they believe to be improper purposes. There are a number of environmental benefits including: - Preservation of resources; - Energy Conservation (in cases where less energy is required to recycle/reuse as compared to mainstream new fuel storages. - Preservation of burial space at disposal sites. In many cases recycling is cost beneficial as compared to other options to disposition the LLRW. In some cases burial costs are comparatively higher. To further the advancement of controlled recycle countries must continue to embrace the concept and create large enough feedstocks of like type material to achieve economies of scale. Additionally, a mechanism to uniformly track material to show where material has been moved and ultimately dispositioned would also contribute to enhancing the endorsement of controlled recycling. There is a large amount of LLRW material that could potentially be recycled. To date, 100 mines, 90 commercial power reactors, over 250 research reactors and a number of fuel cycle facilities, have been retired from operation. Some of these

  11. Burial metamorphism in rocks of the Western Andes of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offler, R.; Aguirre, L.; Levi, B.; Child, S.

    1980-01-01

    An unconformity bound, episodic pattern of burial metamorphism is preserved in marine and terrestrial volcanic and sedimentary rocks which were deposited in the West Peruvian Trough during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. A particular metamorphic facies series is developed in each of the stratigraphic-structural units bounded by unconformities. In each unit, grade increases with stratigraphic depth and covers part or all of the range from zeolite to greenschist facies. At every unconformity a mineralogic break occurs where higher grade assemblages on top of the unconformity plane overlie lower grade assemblages. The presence of wairakite and the development of a wide range of metamorphic facies in thin sequences suggest high geothermal gradients, possibly related to generation of magma at depth.

  12. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, L.J.; Toste, A.P.; Thomas, C.W.; Rickard, W.H.; Nielson, H.L.; Campbell, R.M.; McShane, M.C.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Robertson, D.E.

    1991-02-01

    During the past several years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted research at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This work has identified the spectrum of radionuclides present in the waste trenches, determined the processes that were occurring relative to degradation of radioactive material within the burial trenches, determined the chemical and physical characteristics of the trench leachates and the chemical forms of the leached radionuclides, determined the mobility of these radionuclides, investigated the subsurface and surface transport processes, determined the biological uptake by the native vegetation, developed strategies for environmental monitoring, and investigated other factors that influence the long-term fate of the radionuclide inventory at the disposal site. This report is a final summary of the research conducted by PNL and presents the results and discussions relative to the above investigative areas. 45 refs., 31 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Organomineral nanocomposite carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, S. C.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) enrichment in sediments deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) is commonly attributed to elevated productivity and marine anoxia. We find that OC enrichment in the late Cenomanian aged OAE2 at Demerara Rise was controlled by co-occurrence of anoxic bottom-water, sufficient productivity to saturate available mineral surfaces and variable deposition of high surface area detrital smectite clay. Redox indicators show consistently oxygen-depleted conditions, while a strong correlation between OC concentration and sediment mineral surface area (R2=0.92) occurs across a range of TOC values from 9-33%. X-ray diffraction data indicates intercalation of OC in smectite interlayers while electron, synchrotron infrared and X-ray microscopy show an intimate association between clay minerals and OC, consistent with preservation of OC as organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates rather than discrete, μm-scale pelagic detritus. Since the consistent ratio between TOC and mineral surface area suggests that excess OC relative to surface area is lost, we propose that it is the varying supply of smectite that best explains variable organic enrichment against a backdrop of continuous anoxia, which is conducive to generally high TOC during OAE2 at Demerara Rise. Smectitic clays are unique in their ability to form stable organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates that preserve organic matter, and are common weathering products of continental volcanic deposits. An increased flux of smectite coinciding with high carbon burial is consistent with evidence for widespread volcanism during OAE2, so that organomineral carbon burial may represent a potential feedback to volcanic degassing of CO2.

  14. Organomineral nanocomposite carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, S. C.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Organic carbon (OC) enrichment in sediments deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) is commonly attributed to elevated productivity and marine anoxia. We find that OC enrichment in the late Cenomanian aged OAE 2 at the Demerara Rise was controlled by the co-occurrence of anoxic bottom water, sufficient productivity to saturate available mineral surfaces, and variable deposition of high surface area detrital smectite clay. Redox indicators show consistently oxygen-depleted conditions, while a strong correlation between OC concentration and sediment mineral surface area (R2 = 0.92) occurs across a range of total organic carbon (TOC) values from 9 to 33%. X-ray diffraction data indicate the intercalation of OC in smectite interlayers, while electron, synchrotron infrared and X-ray microscopy show an intimate association between clay minerals and OC, consistent with preservation of OC as organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates rather than discrete, μm-scale pelagic detritus. Since the consistent ratio between TOC and mineral surface area suggests that excess OC relative to surface area is lost, we propose that it is the varying supply of smectite that best explains variable organic enrichment against a backdrop of continuous anoxia, which is conducive to generally high TOC during OAE 2 at the Demerara Rise. Smectitic clays are unique in their ability to form stable organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates that preserve organic matter, and are common weathering products of continental volcanic deposits. An increased flux of smectite coinciding with high carbon burial is consistent with evidence for widespread volcanism during OAE 2, so that organomineral carbon burial may represent a potential feedback to volcanic degassing of CO2.

  15. CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    SWAN, R.J.; LAKES, M.E.

    2007-08-06

    The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations.

  16. 31 CFR 560.542 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 560.542 Section 560.542 Money and Finance... Policy § 560.542 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  17. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  18. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  19. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  20. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  1. 25 CFR 20.210 - Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance... SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.210 Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child..., the Bureau nor a tribe may change eligibility criteria or levels of payment for Burial...

  2. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  3. 75 FR 67454 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished... (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for... provide a monetary allowance for the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for use in a...

  4. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  5. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  6. 78 FR 76712 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished... (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for... may provide a monetary allowance for the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for use in...

  7. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  8. 75 FR 1454 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished... (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for... provide a monetary allowance for the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for use in a...

  9. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities.'' DATES: Please submit comments by October...

  10. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste... Commission (NRC or the Commission) issued Draft NUREG-1307, Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities,'' in the...

  11. Water-level data for wells in Burial Ground 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1975-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., solid waste materials contaminated by low levels of radioactivity are disposed of in shallow trench burial areas termed ' burial grounds'. Data pertaining to wells in Burial Ground 6 are presented for the period 1975 to 1979. Included are an inventory of wells, measurements of water levels, well hydrographs, and a map showing the location of the wells. (USGS)

  12. Protective role of Cynodon dactylon in ameliorating the aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Kumari, Balasubramanian Rathina; Nandhini, Devarajulu Nisha

    2011-12-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) is a creeping grass used as a traditional ayurvedic medicine in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECD) could potentially prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl(3) at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg/day i.p. for 4 weeks. Experimental rats were given C. dactylon extract in two different doses of 300 mg and 750 mg/keg/day orally 1 h prior to the AlCl(3) administration for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments, antioxidant status and activities of ATPases in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain were measured. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, GPx, GST, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with AECD at a dose of 750 mg/kg b.w increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase) and also decreased the level of LPO significantly, when compared with aluminium-induced rats. The results of this study indicated that AECD has potential to protect the various brain regions from aluminium-induced neurotoxicity.

  13. Optical wall dynamics induced by coexistence of monostable and bistable spatial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odent, V.; Louvergneaux, E.; Clerc, M. G.; Andrade-Silva, I.

    2016-11-01

    When nonequilibrium extended homogeneous systems exhibit multistability, it leads to the presence of domain walls between the existing equilibria. Depending on the stability of the steady states, the dynamics differs. Here, we consider the interface dynamics in the case of a spatially inhomogeneous system, namely, an optical system where the control parameter is spatially Gaussian. Then interfaces connect the monostable and the bistable nonuniform states that are associated with two distinct spatial regions. The coexistence of these two regions of different stability induces relaxation dynamics and the propagation of a wall with a time-dependent speed. We emphasize analytically these two dynamical behaviors using a generic bistable model. Experimentally, an inhomogeneous Gaussian light beam traveling through either a dye-doped liquid crystal cell or a Kerr cavity depicts these behaviors, in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  14. Exploring contraceptive knowledge and use among women experiencing induced abortion in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Biney, Adriana A E

    2011-03-01

    Using a qualitative research methodology, twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with women with induced abortion experiences at Korle Bu and Tema Hospitals in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Results suggest that these women tended not to have knowledge of contraceptive methods prior to the abortion, while others were informed but failed to use for a variety of reasons ranging from rumours of side effects to personal negative experiences with modem contraceptive methods. A few women also stated contraceptive failure as a reason for their unintended pregnancies that were later aborted. Peer and reproductive health education must be reinforced in communities in the Greater Accra Region to curb adolescents engaging in early sex and should challenge the existing rumours associated with contraception in Ghana. In addition, family planning services in terms of appropriate methods with no side effects must be made available to women in the reproductive ages.

  15. Optical wall dynamics induced by coexistence of monostable and bistable spatial regions.

    PubMed

    Odent, V; Louvergneaux, E; Clerc, M G; Andrade-Silva, I

    2016-11-01

    When nonequilibrium extended homogeneous systems exhibit multistability, it leads to the presence of domain walls between the existing equilibria. Depending on the stability of the steady states, the dynamics differs. Here, we consider the interface dynamics in the case of a spatially inhomogeneous system, namely, an optical system where the control parameter is spatially Gaussian. Then interfaces connect the monostable and the bistable nonuniform states that are associated with two distinct spatial regions. The coexistence of these two regions of different stability induces relaxation dynamics and the propagation of a wall with a time-dependent speed. We emphasize analytically these two dynamical behaviors using a generic bistable model. Experimentally, an inhomogeneous Gaussian light beam traveling through either a dye-doped liquid crystal cell or a Kerr cavity depicts these behaviors, in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  16. IODP Expedition 354: A Bengal fan record of Himalayan erosion, weathering and organic carbon burial during the Neogene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, C.; Spiess, V.; Klaus, A.; Galy, A.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    The development of the Himalayan orogen induced a major change in continental distribution, topography and climate that impacted the global biogeochemical cycles. The development of the highest mountain range coupled to the intense monsoonal precipitation regime generated an intense erosional flux that enhanced both organic carbon burial and silicate weathering. The largest part of the sediment flux was exported to the Bengal Fan, accumulating a long-term archive of this erosion. These sediments record the nature of eroded formations in the Himalaya and allow the documentation of weathering as well as organic carbon fluxes. In February-March 2015, IODP Expedition 354 drilled an E-W transect in the middle fan at 8°N to investigate interactions between the growth of the Himalaya, the development of the Indian monsoon, and processes affecting the carbon cycle. This expedition obtained a comprehensive record of turbiditic deposition since the Late Oligocene. Shipboard results reveal that the chemical and mineralogical compositions of turbiditic sediments cored across the transect are relatively stable throughout the Neogene. They reveal a weak regime of chemical weathering with no significant variation through time. This differs from the distal fan record (Leg 116) where from ~7 to 1 Ma, weathered and smectite rich sediments dominated. This difference implies that the distal fan record is not related to a direct evolution of the erosion regime but rather is controlled by a change in sediment transport within the fan. Shipboard estimates of organic carbon loading and behavior resemble observations made in the modern Ganga-Brahmaputra river sediments, suggesting efficient terrestrial organic carbon burial in the Bengal Fan [1]. Preliminary observations support the idea that Himalayan erosion has consumed atmospheric CO2 through the burial of organic carbon, more than by silicate weathering. [1] http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06273

  17. Sodium tungstate induced neurological alterations in rat brain regions and their response to antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Sherry; Pant, Satish C; Kushwaha, Pramod; Bhargava, Rakesh; Flora, Swaran J S

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten, recognized recently as an environmental contaminant, is being used in arms and ammunitions as substitute to depleted uranium. We studied the effects of sodium tungstate on oxidative stress, few selected neurological variables like acetylcholinesterase, biogenic amines in rat brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) and their prevention following co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), naringenin and quercetin. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100 ppm in drinking water) and orally co-supplemented with different antioxidants (0.30 mM) for three months. Sodium tungstate significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, dopamine, nor-epinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels while it increased monoamine oxidase activity in different brain regions. Tungstate exposure produced a significant increase in biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress while, neurological alterations were more pronounced in the cerebral cortex compared to other regions. Co-administration of NAC and flavonoids with sodium tungstate significantly restored glutathione, prevented changes in the brain biogenic amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TBARS levels in the different brain regions. The protection was more prominent in the animals co-administered with NAC. We can thus conclude that sodium tungstate induced brain oxidative stress and the alterations in some neurological variables can effectively be reduced by co-supplementation of NAC.

  18. Cretaceous–Cenozoic burial and exhumation history of the Chukchi shelf, offshore Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, William H.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) and vitrinite reflectance data from five exploration wells and three seafloor cores illuminate the thermal history of the underexplored United States Chukchi shelf. On the northeastern shelf, Triassic strata in the Chevron 1 Diamond well record apatite annealing followed by cooling, possibly during the Triassic to Middle Jurassic, which is a thermal history likely related to Canada Basin rifting. Jurassic strata exhumed in the hanging wall of the frontal Herald Arch thrust fault record a history of probable Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous structural burial in the Chukotka fold and thrust belt, followed by rapid exhumation to near-surface temperatures at 104 ± 30 Ma. This history of contractional tectonism is in good agreement with inherited fission track ages in low-thermal-maturity, Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata in the Chukchi foreland, providing complementary evidence for the timing of exhumation and suggesting a source-to-sink relationship. In the central Chukchi foreland, inverse modeling of reset AFT samples from the Shell 1 Klondike and Shell 1 Crackerjack wells reveals several tens of degrees of cooling from maximum paleo-temperatures, with maximum heating permissible at any time from about 100 to 50 Ma, and cooling persisting to as recent as 30 Ma. Similar histories are compatible with partially reset AFT samples from other Chukchi wells (Shell 1 Popcorn, Shell 1 Burger, and Chevron 1 Diamond) and are probable in light of regional geologic evidence. Given geologic context provided by regional seismic reflection data, we interpret these inverse models to reveal a Late Cretaceous episode of cyclical burial and erosion across the central Chukchi shelf, possibly partially overprinted by Cenozoic cooling related to decreasing surface temperatures. Regionally, we interpret this kinematic history to be reflective of moderate, transpressional deformation of the Chukchi shelf during the final phases of contractional tectonism in the

  19. Geology and hydrology of radioactive solid-waste burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaSala, Albert Mario; Doty, Gene C.

    1976-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of radioactive solid waste burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation were investigated, using existing data, by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the waste management plan of the Richland Operations Office of the Energy Research and Development Administration. The purpose of the investigation was to assist the operations office in characterizing the burial sites as to present environmental safety and as to their suitability for long-term storage (several thousand to tens of thousands of years) of radioactive sol id wastes. The burial ground sites fall into two classifications: (1) those on the low stream terraces adjacent to the Columbia River, mainly in the 100 Areas and 300 Area, and (2) those lying on the high terraces south of Gable Mountain in the 200 Areas. Evaluation of the suitability of the burial grounds for long-term storage was made almost entirely on hydrologic, geologic, and topographic criteria. Of greatest concern was the possibility that radionuclides might be leached from the buried wastes by infiltrating water and carried downward to the water table. The climate is semi-arid and the average annual precipitation is 6.4 inches at the Hanford Meteorological Station. However, the precipitation is seasonally distributed with about 50 percent occurring during the months of November, December, January, and February when evapotranspiration is negligible and conditions for infiltration are most favorable. None of the burial grounds are instrumented with monitoring devices that could be used to determine if radionuclides derived from them are reaching the water table. Burial grounds on the low stream terraces are mainly underlain by permeable materials and the water table lies at relatively shallow depths. Radionuclides conceivably could be leached from these burial grounds by percolating soil water, and radionuclides might reach the Columbia River in a relatively short time. These sites could also be inundated by erosion

  20. Intraspecific variation of a desert shrub species in phenotypic plasticity in response to sand burial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J; Dong, Ming; Anten, Niels P R

    2013-09-01

    Shoot elongation is one of the main plastic responses of plants to burial, a ubiquitous stress factor in dry ecosystems. Yet, intraspecific variation in this response to burial and the extent to which this variation is functionally coordinated with variation in other trait responses are largely unknown. We subjected seedlings of the shrub Caragana intermedia from 18 maternal parents (i.e. different half-sib families) to repeated partial burial to investigate how burial affects shoot growth, stem mechanical traits and associated plasticity. Burial increased both stem elongation and diameter growth of plants, but decreased biomass production. Half-sib families had different rates of shoot elongation, and differed in their response to burial with respect to biomechanical stem properties. Across half-sib families, the magnitude of these responses in mechanical traits was positively correlated with the magnitude of the stem elongation response. These results indicate that plasticity in different stem traits in response to sand burial and intraspecific variation therein are functionally coordinated with respect to mechanical stability. The results emphasize the importance of considering functionally coordinated traits when analyzing phenotypic plasticity in plants.

  1. Burial depth and stolon internode length independently affect survival of small clonal fragments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Qian; Li, Hong-Li; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Lei, Guang-Chun; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance can fragment plant clones into different sizes and unstabilize soils to different degrees, so that clonal fragments of different sizes can be buried in soils at different depths. As a short-term storage organ, solon internode may help fragmented clones of stoloniferous plants to withstand deeper burial in soils. We address (1) whether burial in soils decreases survival and growth of small clonal fragments, and (2) whether increasing internode length increases survival and growth of small fragments under burial. We conducted an experiment with the stoloniferous, invasive herb Alternanthera philoxeroides, in which single-node fragments with stolon internode of 0, 2, 4 and 8 cm were buried in soils at 0, 2, 4 and 8 cm depth, respectively. Increasing burial depth significantly reduced survival of the A. philoxeroides plants and increased root to shoot ratio and total stolon length, but did not change growth measures. Increasing internode length significantly increased survival and growth measures, but there was no interaction effect with burial depth on any traits measured. These results indicate that reserves stored in stolon internodes can contribute to the fitness of the A. philoxeroides plants subject to disturbance. Although burial reduced the regeneration capacity of the A. philoxeroides plants, the species may maintain the fitness by changing biomass allocation and stolon length once it survived the burial. Such responses may play an important role for A. philoxeroides in establishment and invasiveness in frequently disturbed habitats.

  2. Ab initio protein folding simulations using atomic burials as informational intermediates between sequence and structure.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Marx Gomes; Ferreira, Diogo César; de Oliveira, Leandro Cristante; Onuchic, José N; de Araújo, Antônio F Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The three-dimensional structure of proteins is determined by their linear amino acid sequences but decipherment of the underlying protein folding code has remained elusive. Recent studies have suggested that burials, as expressed by atomic distances to the molecular center, are sufficiently informative for structural determination while potentially obtainable from sequences. Here we provide direct evidence for this distinctive role of burials in the folding code, demonstrating that burial propensities estimated from local sequence can indeed be used to fold globular proteins in ab initio simulations. We have used a statistical scheme based on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to classify all heavy atoms of a protein into a small number of burial atomic types depending on sequence context. Molecular dynamics simulations were then performed with a potential that forces all atoms of each type towards their predicted burial level, while simple geometric constraints were imposed on covalent structure and hydrogen bond formation. The correct folded conformation was obtained and distinguished in simulations that started from extended chains for a selection of structures comprising all three folding classes and high burial prediction quality. These results demonstrate that atomic burials can act as informational intermediates between sequence and structure, providing a new conceptual framework for improving structural prediction and understanding the fundamentals of protein folding.

  3. Regional Estimates of Drought-Induced Tree Canopy Loss across Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwantes, A.; Swenson, J. J.; González-Roglich, M.; Johnson, D. M.; Domec, J. C.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    The severe drought of 2011 killed millions of trees across the state of Texas. Drought-induced tree-mortality can have significant impacts to carbon cycling, regional biophysics, and community composition. We quantified canopy cover loss across the state using remotely sensed imagery from before and after the drought at multiple scales. First, we classified ~200 orthophotos (1-m spatial resolution) from the National Agriculture Imagery Program, using a supervised maximum likelihood classification. Area of canopy cover loss in these classifications was highly correlated (R2 = 0.8) with ground estimates of canopy cover loss, measured in 74 plots across 15 different sites in Texas. These 1-m orthophoto classifications were then used to calibrate and validate coarser scale (30-m) Landsat imagery to create wall-to-wall tree canopy cover loss maps across the state of Texas. We quantified percent dead and live canopy within each pixel of Landsat to create continuous maps of dead and live tree cover, using two approaches: (1) a zero-inflated beta distribution model and (2) a random forest algorithm. Widespread canopy loss occurred across all the major natural systems of Texas, with the Edwards Plateau region most affected. In this region, on average, 10% of the forested area was lost due to the 2011 drought. We also identified climatic thresholds that controlled the spatial distribution of tree canopy loss across the state. However, surprisingly, there were many local hot spots of canopy loss, suggesting that not only climatic factors could explain the spatial patterns of canopy loss, but rather other factors related to soil, landscape, management, and stand density also likely played a role. As increases in extreme droughts are predicted to occur with climate change, it will become important to define methods that can detect associated drought-induced tree mortality across large regions. These maps could then be used (1) to quantify impacts to carbon cycling and regional

  4. Study of cataclastic deformation in compressive tectonic regime of a sandstone from south central Pyrenees, Spain: Timing of deformation bands occurrence during burial history and comparison with geomechanical models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Romain; Robion, Philippe; David, Christian; Souloumiac, Pauline; Saillet, Elodie

    2016-04-01

    In high porosity sandstone lithologies, deformation bands (DBs) are characterized by changes in micro-structural characteristics inducing a localized change in the petrophysical properties of the rock. These DBs, which are generally planar structures from millimeters to few centimeters thick, can be used at the field scale to decipher extensional or compactional tectonic regime. However, numerous parameters in addition to the tectonic regime may affect development of DBs, and particularly the evolution of porosity during burial history. The aim of this work is to understand the relationship between the DBs occurrence in tectonic shortening regime and the timing of grain cementation that occurs during burial for an analogue to siliciclastic reservoir. For that purpose, we have focused our analysis on the Aren syn-tectonic sandstone maastrichtian formation localized on the front of the Boixols thrust, on the southern side of the San Corneli anticline, in the south central Pyrenees (Spain). The outcrops are localized in the Tremp-Graus basin, all along a 30 km East-West trend where 10 different sites, in which deformation bands are observable, have been investigated and sampled. The structural geometry of the basin is constrained with 3 serial N-S oriented cross sections showing an increase of the shortening from West to East. Our field work strategy was to, 1) measure the orientation of the DBs in each site, 2) take cores both within the DBs and the host rock to conduct systematic thin section investigations and 3) take oriented cores in order to study the magnetic fabric giving information on the internal deformation linked to a set of deformation band and regional N-S shortening. Field data show a minimum of two sets of DBs on each site with variation of orientations and densities. These DBs are perpendicular to the strata which prove their early occurrence, recording the initial stages of local deformation and evolution of the Boixols fold and thrust. At the

  5. Hypoxia-induced vasodilation and effects of regional phentolamine in awake patients with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Moradkhan, Raman; Spitnale, Brett; McQuillan, Patrick; Hogeman, Cynthia; Gray, Kristen S; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2010-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity, endothelial dysfunction, and premature cardiovascular disease. To determine whether hypoxia is associated with impaired skeletal muscle vasodilation, we compared femoral artery blood flow (ultrasound) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (peroneal microneurography) during exposure to acute systemic hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen 0.1) in awake patients with OSA (n=10) and controls (n=8). To assess the role of elevated sympathetic nerve activity, in a separate group of patients with OSA (n=10) and controls (n=10) we measured brachial artery blood flow during hypoxia before and after regional alpha-adrenergic block with phentolamine. Despite elevated sympathetic activity, in OSA the vascular responses to hypoxia in the leg did not differ significantly from those in controls [P=not significant (NS)]. Following regional phentolamine, in both groups the hypoxia-induced increase in brachial blood flow was markedly enhanced (OSA pre vs. post, 84+/-13 vs. 201+/-34 ml/min, P<0.002; controls pre vs. post 62+/-8 vs. 140+/-26 ml/min, P<0.01). At end hypoxia after phentolamine, the increase of brachial blood flow above baseline was similar (OSA vs. controls +61+/-16 vs. +48+/-6%; P=NS). We conclude that despite high sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone and prominent sympathetic responses to acute hypoxia, hypoxia-induced limb vasodilation is preserved in OSA.

  6. Dynamical coupled-channels model for neutrino-induced meson productions in resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S. X.; Kamano, H.; Sato, T.

    2015-10-01

    A dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model for neutrino-nucleon reactions in the resonance region is developed. Starting from the DCC model that we have previously developed through an analysis of π N ,γ N →π N ,η N ,K Λ ,K Σ reaction data for W ≤2.1 GeV , we extend the model of the vector current to Q2≤3.0 (GeV /c )2 by analyzing electron-induced reaction data for both proton and neutron targets. We derive axial-current matrix elements that are related to the π N interactions of the DCC model through the partially conserved axial current (PCAC) relation. Consequently, the interference pattern between resonant and nonresonant amplitudes is uniquely determined. We calculate cross sections for neutrino-induced meson productions, and compare them with available data. Our result for the single-pion production reasonably agrees with the data. We also make a comparison with the double-pion production data. Our model is the first DCC model that can give the double-pion production cross sections in the resonance region. We also make comparison of our result with other existing models to reveal an importance of testing the models in the light of PCAC and electron reaction data. The DCC model developed here will be a useful input for constructing a neutrino-nucleus reaction model and a neutrino event generator for analyses of neutrino experiments.

  7. Rainfall Induced Natural Disaster in Central America, a challenge for Regional Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estuardo Guinea Barrientos, Héctor; Swain, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. According to the records of the EM-DAT international database, 248 out of 486 disasters registered in Central America were disasters triggered by rainfall invents, in countries like Belize and Honduras, rainfall-induced natural disasters, mainly floods and landslides, account for more than 90% of the total number of casualties as well as the economic damage of all the disasters. Due to the natural conditions of the Central American Isthmus, precipitation events often struck more than one country at the time, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region causing more than 18,000 casualties. In this context, the Central America countries have been working on joint programs and policies aiming transboundary cooperation and management of natural disasters, a clear example of this effort is CEPREDENAC which is the intergovernmental body with the mandate of promoting activities, projects and programs towards reduction of the risks to disasters in order to avoid loss of life and economic assets in the Central America, however, transnational management face several challenges that fall mostly in the political, economical and technical areas. In this paper we described and analyzed the rainfall induced natural disasters, their impacts and the inherent management challenges in the Central American context. Key words: Central America, Natural Disasters, Risk Management, International Cooperation

  8. Tgf-beta induced Erk phosphorylation of smad linker region regulates smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Hough, Chris; Radu, Maria; Doré, Jules J E

    2012-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-β) family is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes such as apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation. TGF-β binding to a Serine/Threonine kinase receptor complex causes the recruitment and subsequent activation of transcription factors known as smad2 and smad3. These proteins subsequently translocate into the nucleus to negatively or positively regulate gene expression. In this study, we define a second signaling pathway leading to TGF-β receptor activation of Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (Erk) in a cell-type dependent manner. TGF-β induced Erk activation was found in phenotypically normal mesenchymal cells, but not normal epithelial cells. By activating phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), TGF-β stimulates p21-activated kinase2 (Pak2) to phosphorylate c-Raf, ultimately resulting in Erk activation. Activation of Erk was necessary for TGF-β induced fibroblast replication. In addition, Erk phosphorylated the linker region of nuclear localized smads, resulting in increased half-life of C-terminal phospho-smad 2 and 3 and increased duration of smad target gene transcription. Together, these data show that in mesenchymal cell types the TGF-β/PI3K/Pak2/Raf/MEK/Erk pathway regulates smad signaling, is critical for TGF-β-induced growth and is part of an integrated signaling web containing multiple interacting pathways rather than discrete smad/non-smad pathways.

  9. General description of the hydrology and burial trenches at the low-level radioactive waste burial facility near Barnwell, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Barnwell low-level radioactive solid waste burial site is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina, 5 miles west of the city of Barnwell. Approximately 1,050 feet of stratified gravel, sand, silt, clay, and limestone, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene, underlie the burial site. Ground water within the study area occurs under water table, semi-confined, and artesian conditions. Overland flow and most precipitation that recharges the ground-water system at the burial site is discharged to Marys Branch Creek. This creek originates as a spring about 3,000 feet south of the burial site and flows to the southwest into lower Three Runs. Lower Three Runs discharges into the Savannah River. Waste shipments to the site were reduced from 200,000 cubic feet per month for the period 1971 to 1979 to 100,000 cubic feet per month by October 1981. The wastes consist of both nonfuel cycle and nuclear fuel-cycle wastes. The standard trench dimensions at the burial site are 100 feet wide by 1,000 feet long and 22 feet deep. Trench bottoms are a minimum of 5 feet above the water table. Seven soil mapping units occur at the waste disposal facility. The three major soil types are all well drained and cover approximately 84 percent of the study area. (USGS)

  10. Forensic archaeoentomology--An insect fauna from a burial in York Minster.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Buckland, Paul C

    2012-09-10

    An insect fauna associated with the medieval burial of Archbishop Greenfield, interred in December 1315 in a lead coffin within a stone sarcophagus beneath the floor of York Minster, is examined and compared with the limited entomological data from other medieval burials. The implications of the archaeoentomological data are discussed. The fauna is dominated by the so-called coffin beetle Rhizophagus parallelocollis and the generalised staphylinid predator Quedius mesomelinus, together with a number of subterranean fungal feeders. The beetle assemblage is probably immediately post burial, and the lead coffin in the case of Greenfield had not been able to shield the body from decay.

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  12. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    SciTech Connect

    Dgepo, S.P.; Skalsky, A.S.; Bugai, D.A.; Marchuk, V.V.; Waters, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed.

  13. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  14. Climate change influence on organic carbon remobilization, transport and burial in mangrove forests of Everglades National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J.; Smith, T. J.; Sanders, C. J.

    2013-05-01

    Mangrove ecosystems store large quantities of organic carbon (OC), burying it in their soils at a greater rate than terrestrial forests, thus providing an important negative climate change feedback. However, mangrove ecosystem response to climate change-induced stressors will determine if mangrove ecosystems continue to be a sink for OC. The threats of rising sea level outpacing mangrove forest soil accretion and the increased wave energy associated with this rise are two potential climate change stressors that may alter the carbon balance in mangrove ecosystems. The threat from wave energy is amplified during storm events, which may become more intense and/or frequent with climate change. Climate change-amplified storms could increasingly damage mangrove forests along the coastline, remobilizing and exposing previously buried OC to oxidation, and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We investigate the fate of this remobilized OC by examining soil cores from two sites within Everglades National Park. Soil accretion rates and OC burial rates within a storm surge deposit are compared to long-term rates (i.e., last 100 years). The sites are 4 and 10 km inland from the coast and data show these mangrove soils are accreting at a rate sufficient to keep pace with the current rate of sea-level rise. The accretion rates range from 2.5 to 3.6 mm yr-1 and are much greater within the storm surge deposit, reaching as high as 6.5 mm yr-1. We also discovered enhanced rates of OC burial within this same storm surge deposit which are approximately 2-fold greater than the long-term rates. Our findings indicate that these enhanced accretion and OC burial rates are due to inland transport of marine carbonate material and OC remobilized from along the coast during the storm. Furthermore, we find OC burial rates within the storm deposit at the site 10 km inland are substantially greater than the site 4 km inland, while mass accumulation rates show the opposite trend

  15. Morphogenetic evolution of the Têt river valley (eastern Pyrenees) using 10Be/21Ne cosmogenic burial dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartégou, Amandine; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Calvet, Marc; Zimmermann, Laurent; Tibari, Bouchaïb; Hez, Gabriel; Gunnell, Yanni; Aumaitre, Georges; Keddadouche, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The rates and chronologies of valley incision are closely modulated by the tectonic uplift of active mountain ranges and were controlled by repeated climate changes during the Quaternary. The continental collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates induced a double vergence orogen, the Pyrenees, which has been considered as a mature mountain range in spite of significant seismicity (e.g. Chevrot et al., 2011) and evidence of neotectonics (e.g. Goula et al., 1999). Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that the range may have never reached a steady state (Ford et al., in press). One option for resolving this controversy is to quantify the incision rates since the Miocene by reconstructing the vertical movement of geometric markers such as fluvial terraces. However, the few available ages from the Pyrenean terrace systems do not exceed the middle Pleistocene. Thus, to enlarge the time span of this dataset, we studied alluvium-filled horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone karstic networks. Such landforms are used as substitutes of fluvial terraces because they represent former valley floors (e.g. Palmer, 2007; Audra et al., 2013). They record the transient position of former local base levels during the process of valley deepening. The Têt river valley (southern Pyrenees) was studied near the Villefranche-de-Conflent limestone gorge where 8 cave levels have been recognized over a vertical height of 600 meters. Given that 26Al/10Be cosmogenic burial dating in this setting was limited to the last ~5 Ma (Calvet et al., 2015), here we used the cosmogenic 10Be/21Ne method in order to restore a more complete chronology of valley incision (e.g. Balco & Shuster, 2009; McPhilipps et al., 2016). Burial age results for alluvial deposits from 12 caves document incision rates since the Langhian (~14 Ma). Preliminary results indicate a history of valley deepening in successive stages. The data show a regular incision rate of 70-80 mm/a from the Langhian to the Messinian

  16. Proteomic profiling of proteins associated with methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in different regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Huijun; Qiu, Pingming; Luo, Hong

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that methamphetamine (MA) can cause obvious damage to the brain, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, proteomic methods of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry analysis were used to identify global protein profiles associated with MA-induced neurotoxicity. For the first time, 30 protein spots have been found differentially expressed in different regions of rat brain, including 14 in striatum, 12 in hippocampus and 4 in frontal cortex. The proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry were Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, alpha synuclein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N, stathmin 1, calcineurin B, cystatin B, subunit of mitochondrial H-ATP synthase, ATP synthase D chain, mitochondrial, NADH dehydrogenase(ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8, glia maturation factor, beta, Ash-m, neurocalcin delta, myotrophin, profiling IIa, D-dopachrome tautomerase, and brain lipid binding protein. The known functions of these proteins were related to the pathogenesis of MA-induced neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress, degeneration/apoptosis, mitochontrial/energy metabolism and others. Of these proteins, alpha-synuclein was up-regulated, and ATP synthase D chain, mitochondrial was down-regulated in all brain regions. Two proteins, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase, subunit of mitochondrial H-ATPsynthase were down-regulated and Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8 were up-regulated simultaneously in striatum and hippocaltum. The expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH 1) increased both in striatum and frontal cortex. The parallel expression patterns of these proteins suggest that the pathogenesis of MA neurotoxicity in different brain regions may share some same pathways.

  17. Upwelling and downwelling induced by mesoscale circulation in the DeSoto Canyon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Chassignet, E.; Morey, S. L.; Dukhovskoy, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean dynamics are complex over irregular topography areas, and the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, specifically the DeSoto Canyon region, is a challenge for modelers and oceanographers. Vertical movement of waters, especially upwelling, is observed to take place over the canyon's head and along the coast; however, it is not well understood. We focus on upwelling/downwelling processes induced by the Loop Current and its associated eddy field using multi-decadal Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model simulations. The Loop Current, part of the Gulf Stream, can develop northward into the Gulf through the Yucatan Channel and exit through the Florida Straits. It can reach the continental slope of the study domain and directly depress the isopycnals. Cyclonic eddies in front of the Loop Current also induce upwelling underneath. On the other hand, the Loop Current sometimes impinges on the West Florida Shelf and generates a high pressure disturbance, which travels northward along the shelf into the study region. Consequently, large-scale downwelling occurs across the continental slopes. Our analysis of sea surface height shows that the Loop Current pressure disturbance tends to propagate along the shallow isobaths of 100 to 300 m in the topographic wave direction from south of the West Florida Shelf to the Mississippi Delta. In addition, after shedding a large anticyclonic eddy, the Loop Current retracts southward and can touch the southeastern corner of the West Florida Shelf. This can result in a higher pressure disturbance, and therefore stronger large-scale downwelling in the DeSoto Canyon region.

  18. Molecular genetic analysis of 400-year-old human remains found in two Yakut burial sites.

    PubMed

    Ricaut, François-Xavier; Kolodesnikov, Sergei; Keyser-Tracqui, Christine; Alekseev, Anatoly Nikoyevich; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    The excavation of five frozen graves at the Sytygane Syhe and Istekh-Myrane burial sites (dated at 400 years old) in central Yakutia revealed five human skeletons belonging to the Yakut population. To investigate the origin and evolution of the Yakut population as well as the kinship system between individuals buried in these two sites, DNA was extracted from bone samples and analyzed by autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and by sequencing hypervariable region I (HV1) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. The results showed a diversity of sepulchral organizations linked probably to the social or genetic background of the subjects. Comparison of STR profiles, mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplogroups with data from Eurasian populations indicated affinities with Asian populations and suggested a relative specificity and continuity of part of the Yakut mitochondrial gene pool during the last five centuries. Moreover, our results did not support a Central Asian (with the exception of maternal lineage of West Eurasian origin) or Siberian origin of the maternal lineages of these ancient Yakut subjects, implying an ethnogenesis of the Yakut population probably more complex than previously proposed.

  19. Did greater burial depth increase the seed size of domesticated legumes?

    PubMed

    Kluyver, Thomas A; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-10-01

    The independent domestication of crop plants in several regions of the world formed the basis of human civilizations, and attracts considerable interest from archaeologists and biologists. Selection under cultivation led to a suite of domestication traits which distinguish crops from their wild progenitors, including larger seeds in most seed crops. This selection may be classified as 'conscious' or 'unconscious' selection according to whether humans were aware of the changes that they were driving. The hypothesis that human cultivation buried seeds deeper than natural dispersal, exerting unconscious selection favouring larger seeds with greater reserves, was tested. Using a comparative approach, accessions of eight grain legumes, originating from independent domestication centres across several continents, were sampled. Seeds were planted at different depths in a controlled environment, and seedling emergence scored for 5 weeks after sowing. Domestication in all species was associated with increased seed mass. In three species, greater mass was not correlated with increased ability to emerge from depth. In five species, emergence depth did correlate with mass, suggesting that selection during domestication may have acted on emergence depth. However, domestication only had a significant effect in two of these species (lentil and mung bean), and the increase in depth was no more than predicted by a cube-root allometric relationship with seed mass. The results do not support the hypothesis that burial under cultivation was a general selection mechanism for increased seed mass during the domestication of grain legumes, but it may have acted in particular species or regions.

  20. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    PubMed

    di Lernia, Savino; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Gallinaro, Marina; Alhaique, Francesca; Balasse, Marie; Cavorsi, Lucia; Fullagar, Paul D; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Monaco, Andrea; Perego, Alessandro; Zerboni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC). This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O) analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  1. Large difference in carbon emission – burial balances between boreal and arctic lakes

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, E. J.; Klaminder, J.; Bastviken, D.; Olid, C.; Hansson, S. V.; Karlsson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle by burying C in sediments and emitting CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. The strengths and control of these fundamentally different pathways are therefore of interest when assessing the continental C balance and its response to environmental change. In this study, based on new high-resolution estimates in combination with literature data, we show that annual emission:burial ratios are generally ten times higher in boreal compared to subarctic – arctic lakes. These results suggest major differences in lake C cycling between biomes, as lakes in warmer boreal regions emit more and store relatively less C than lakes in colder arctic regions. Such effects are of major importance for understanding climatic feedbacks on the continental C sink – source function at high latitudes. If predictions of global warming and northward expansion of the boreal biome are correct, it is likely that increasing C emissions from high latitude lakes will partly counteract the presumed increasing terrestrial C sink capacity at high latitudes. PMID:26370519

  2. Large difference in carbon emission – burial balances between boreal and arctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Lundin, E J; Klaminder, J; Bastviken, D; Olid, C; Hansson, S V; Karlsson, J

    2015-09-15

    Lakes play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle by burying C in sediments and emitting CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. The strengths and control of these fundamentally different pathways are therefore of interest when assessing the continental C balance and its response to environmental change. In this study, based on new high-resolution estimates in combination with literature data, we show that annual emission:burial ratios are generally ten times higher in boreal compared to subarctic - arctic lakes. These results suggest major differences in lake C cycling between biomes, as lakes in warmer boreal regions emit more and store relatively less C than lakes in colder arctic regions. Such effects are of major importance for understanding climatic feedbacks on the continental C sink - source function at high latitudes. If predictions of global warming and northward expansion of the boreal biome are correct, it is likely that increasing C emissions from high latitude lakes will partly counteract the presumed increasing terrestrial C sink capacity at high latitudes.

  3. Heavy ion induced damage to plasmid DNA: plateau region vs. spread out Bragg-peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H. M.; van Goethem, M. J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Brandenburg, S.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlathölter, T.

    2011-08-01

    We have investigated the damage of synthetic plasmid pBR322 DNA in dilute aqueous solutions induced by fast carbon ions. The relative contribution of indirect damage and direct damage to the DNA itself is expected to vary with linear energy transfer along the ion track, with the direct damage contribution increasing towards the Bragg peak. Therefore, 12C ions at the spread-out Bragg peak (dose averaged LET∞ = 189 ± 15 keV/ μm) and in the plateau region of the Bragg curve (LET = 40 keV/ μm) were employed and the radical scavenger concentration in the plasmid solution was varied to quantify the indirect effect. In order to minimize the influence of 12C break-up fragments, a relatively low initial energy of 90 MeV/nucleon was employed for the carbon ions. DNA damage has been quantified by subsequent electrophoresis on agarose gels. We find that strand breaks due to both indirect and direct effects are systematically higher in the plateau region as compared to the Bragg peak region with the difference being smallest at high scavenging capacities. In view of the fact that the relative biological effectiveness for many biological endpoints is maximum at the Bragg peak our findings imply that DNA damage at the Bragg peak is qualitatively most severe.

  4. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  5. Testing Melt Induced Weakening of Lithosphere Modeling Rift Induced Delamination Proposed for the Dynamics of Rwenzori Mountains Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, Herbert; Schmeling, Harro

    2010-05-01

    Rift induced delamination (RID) has been proposed as a geodynamic process explaining the extreme elevation of the Rwenzori Mountains. The special situation of two approaching rift tips with a finite offset for RID is given by the southward propagating Albert Rift and northward spreading Edward Rift encirceling almost completely the old metamorphic horst. If upwelling asthenosphere below the rifts, surrounding the stiff lithosphere, has sufficiently reduced the viscosity and strength especially in the lower crust, the delamination of cold and dense mantle lithosphere root may be triggered. This unloading induces uplift of the less dense crustal block along steep inclining faults. Seismological observations, particularly seismicity distribution, low velocity layers seen in receiver functions as well as in tomography and the location of an anomalously deep earthquake cluster strengthen RID hypothesis. Verification of RID is done by a thermo-mechanical model. Physics comprises two dimensional viscous flow approximated by Finite Difference Method in an Eulerian formulation. The equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy are solved for a multi component and two phase system. Temperature, pressure and stress dependent rheology, based on laboratory data of appropriate samples are assumed for upper and lower crust and mantle. Studies on parameter variations of the initial temperature perturbation reveal a restricted range for functioning RID models. The coincidence with the settings of the Rwenzori situation establishes the RID concept furthermore. Successful numerical models applied a strong initial temperature anomaly within the lithosphere, driving the process. To replace this ad hoc starting condition, we test a melt induced weakening process. Additional heating (supplied by a plume branch, seen in tomography) generates incipient melts in the upper asthenosphere. This partial melt percolates and accumulates, forming regions with high melt fractions. Above a

  6. Changes in magnetic remanence during simulated deep sedimentary burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham J.; Jackson, Mike

    1993-05-01

    Macroscopic hydrostatic compaction of granular rocks causes grain-scale differential stresses as the externally applied load is transmitted through grain contacts. We have compacted rock analogues containing calcite and one of two types of magnetite, bonded with Portland cement. The first type of magnetite is chemically precipitated to give grain sizes in the range 20 nm to 2 μm; these particles were stress-free before compaction. The second type of magnetite was crushed and sieved to a mean grain size of 40 μm; these particles began the experiments in a pre-stressed state. Compaction under confining pressures up to 220 MPa (equivalent to sedimentary compaction at up to 8 km depth) produced strong irreversible changes in the coercivity (and to some extent in other hysteresis parameters) of the samples with initially stress-free magnetite. In contrast, the pre-stressed magnetite exhibited only minimal changes. Composite isothermal remanent magnetisations with orthogonal components in the coercivity ranges 0-30 mT and 30-600 mT were applied prior to compaction. For both sets of samples, the low coercivity component was preferentially progressively demagnetised with increasing compaction stress. This was most efficient for the initially stress-free magnetite. The high coercivity component showed weaker decreases and some spurious increases but there was essentially no change for the samples with pre-stressed magnetite. The changes in magnetic properties of the chemically precipitated magnetite are attributed to the development of dislocation-related impediments to domain wall translation. In contrast, the defect density of the pre-stressed magnetite was acquired under higher differential stresses when it was initially crushed and this was unmodified by the lower experimental stresses. These results may be relevant to the changes expected during rapid sedimentary burial in the absence of pore fluids at low geothermal gradients. One might predict that sedimentary

  7. Miscellaneous information regarding operation and inventory of 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a compilation of inventories and radiation surveys taken for the 618-11 Burial Ground at Hanford. This report deals with waste management activities at the facility during the early to mid-1960s.

  8. Books, Baths, and Burials: Notes on Certain Nineteenth Century Adoptive Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Early legislation relating to street lighting, baths and washhouses, burial of the dead, public libraries and public improvements in England and Wales, reflected Parliament's suspicion of local democracy and distrust of local authorities. (9 references) (Author)

  9. The Dispersion and Burial of Well-Mixed Gravels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last two decades, results from numerous tracing experiments have shed light on grain kinematics in gravel-bed channels, including the distance of grain displacement and the depth of vertical mixing. However, most of these studies report results for relatively short temporal and spatial scales, when the behavior of tagged gravels may not reflect the overall streambed dynamics. The purpose of this talk is to highlight the grain kinematics of well-mixed gravels. Field observations come from a tracing experiment operated for nearly 20 years in Carnation Creek, which is located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. The small gravel-bed river with pool-riffle-bar morphology and large woody debris experiences an average of 15 ± 5 floods per year, which facilitates frequent streambed activity and relatively high bed material transport rates typically under partial sediment transport conditions. The magnetically tagged gravels, which range in size from 16 to 180 mm, have been recovered more than 10 times over the study period. Evaluation of the spatial distribution of tagged gravels over time documents the complex evolution of streamwise dispersion. Once tracers are well mixed vertically, the displacement of mobile gravels is only partly influenced by the tracer starting position in the bed morphology and its depth of burial before a given flooding period.

  10. Deep burial dolomitization driven by plate collision: Evidence from strontium-isotopes of Jurassic Arab IV dolomites from offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Vahrenkamp, V.C.; Taylor, S.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The use of strontium-isotope ratios of dolomites to constrain timing and mechanism of diagenesis has been investigated on Jurassic Arab IV dolomites from offshore Qatar. Reservoir quality is determined by two types of dolomites, which were differentiated geochemically (cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusions, and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes): (1) stratigraphically concordant sucrosic dolomites with high porosity formed during early near-surface diagenesis (Jurassic) and (2) stratigraphically discordant cylindrical bodies of massive, porosity-destroying dolomites formed late during deep burial diagenesis (Eocene-Pliocene). Detailed Sr-isotope analysis of dolomites from the Arab IV confirms an Early Jurassic age of the sucrosic, high porosity dolomites ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}SR = 0.70707 for NBS 987 = 0.71024) with magnesium and strontium being derived from Jurassic seawater. Late Tertiary compressional orogeny of the Zagros belt to the north is proposed to have caused large-scale squeezing of fluids from the pore system of sedimentary rocks. A regional deep fluid flow system developed dissolving infra-Cambrian evaporites upflow and causing large-scale deep burial dolomitization downflow.

  11. Improving burial practices and cemetery management during an Ebola virus disease epidemic - Sierra Leone, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Carrie F; Kidd, Sarah; Sillah, Ansumana R M; Davis, Edward; Mermin, Jonathan; Kilmarx, Peter H

    2015-01-16

    As of January 3, 2015, Ebola virus disease (Ebola) has killed more than 2,500 persons in Sierra Leone since the epidemic began there in May 2014. Ebola virus is transmitted principally by direct physical contact with an infected person or their body fluids during the later stages of illness or after death. Contact with the bodies and fluids of persons who have died of Ebola is especially common in West Africa, where family and community members often touch and wash the body of the deceased in preparation for funerals. These cultural practices have been a route of Ebola transmission. In September 2014, CDC, in collaboration with the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MOH), assessed burial practices, cemetery management, and adherence to practices recommended to reduce the risk for Ebola virus transmission. The assessment was conducted by directly observing burials and cemetery operations in three high-incidence districts. In addition, a community assessment was conducted to assess the acceptability to the population of safe, nontraditional burial practices and cemetery management intended to reduce the risk for Ebola virus transmission. This report summarizes the results of these assessments, which found that 1) there were not enough burial teams to manage the number of reported deaths, 2) Ebola surveillance, swab collection, and burial team responses to a dead body alert were not coordinated, 3) systematic procedures for testing and reporting of Ebola laboratory results for dead bodies were lacking, 4) cemetery space and management were inadequate, and 5) safe burial practices, as initially implemented, were not well accepted by communities. These findings were used to inform the development of a national standard operating procedure (SOP) for safe, dignified medical burials, released on October 1. A second, national-level, assessment was conducted during October 10-15 to assess burial team practices and training and resource needs for SOP

  12. 3D GPR Modeling and Imaging of Burials: Mueschke Historic Cemetery, Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Aziz, A.; Stewart, R.; Green, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    3D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys consisting of 6 grids were conducted from October 2013 until April 2014 to delineate burials at the historic Mueschke Cemetery in Houston, Texas. The surveys were primarily to assist historians and archeologists from the Mueschke Cemetery Association and Lone Star College in locating some 13 postulated unmarked burials. Antenna with three frequencies were used: 100 MHz, 250 MHz and 1000 MHz. Most surveys were conducted with the 250 MHz Sensors and Software NOGGIN System which has a maximum penetration of about 3 m. Three methods were used to estimate the soil velocity for time-to-depth conversion: Common mid-point (CMP) surveys, time-to-known depth matching, and hyperbola fitting. All three methods gave an average velocity of 0.06 m/ns in the upper 2 m of the soil. The time-to-known depth method was accomplished by digging a trench (1.5 m deep by 1.5 m wide by 3 m long) about 10 m from the cemetery entrance using a back-hoe. Rebar was hammered horizontally into the trench wall at 0.25 m increments from depths of 1.5 m to 0.25 m. The excavation also allowed us to observe soil strata which transitions from loam, to silty clay to mostly clay with increasing depth. We used finite-difference, time-domain computer modeling to synthesize the response of two types of burials: vaulted or concrete enclosed (post-1940) and non-vaulted or casket only (pre-1940). Modeling results indicate that vaulted burials have a flattened apex signature while non-vaulted burials have signatures that are more hyperbolic. The data were processed using gain, dewow, background removal, filtering, and migration. Survey data over known burials show distinct diffractions and a rectangular shape-correspondent to the computer modeling results. Burials before 1940 have weaker diffractions which complicates their detection. Tree roots, clay patches, and rocks can also present anomalies that must be carefully investigated. Nonetheless, several strong burial

  13. HAARP-based Investigations of Lightning-induced Nonlinearities within the D-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is well-documented that energetic lightning can produce fantastical events with the lower ionosphere. Although the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter is not as powerful as lightning, it can be used to investigate the nonlinear interactions that occur within the lower ionosphere, many of which also occur during lightning-induced ionospheric events. This paper presents the best experimental results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the HAARP observatory between 2007 and 2014, including ELF/VLF wave generation experiments, wave-wave mixing experiments, and cross-modulation experiments. We emphasize the physical processes important for lightning-ionosphere interactions that can be directly investigated using HAARP.

  14. DRD2 promoter region variation predicts antipsychotic-induced weight gain in first episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lencz, Todd; Robinson, Delbert G; Napolitano, Barbara; Sevy, Serge; Kane, John M; Goldman, David; Malhotra, Anil K

    2010-09-01

    Many antipsychotic medications carry a substantial liability for weight gain, and one mechanism common to all antipsychotics is binding to the dopamine D2 receptor. We therefore examined the relationship between -141C Ins/Del (rs1799732), a functional promoter region polymorphism in DRD2, and antipsychotic-induced weight gain in 58 first episode schizophrenia patients enrolled in a randomized trial of risperidone versus olanzapine. Carriers of the deletion allele (n=29) were compared with Ins/Ins homozygotes (noncarriers, n=29) in a mixed model encompassing 10 weight measurements over 16 weeks. Deletion allele carriers showed significantly more weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment regardless of assigned medication. Although deletion carriers were prescribed higher doses of olanzapine (but not risperidone), dose did not seem to account for the genotype effects on weight gain. Given earlier evidence that deletion carriers show reduced symptom response to medication, additional study of appropriate treatment options for these patients seems warranted.

  15. Freezing and hypokinesia of gait induced by stimulation of the subthalamic region.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Giorgio; Lopiano, Leonardo; Zibetti, Maurizio; Cinquepalmi, Annina; Fronda, Chiara; Bergamasco, Bruno; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2007-07-15

    We report a case of a Parkinson's disease patient treated by bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, who developed freezing and hypokinesia of gait induced by stimulation through a left-side misplaced electrode which was more antero-medial than the planned trajectory. Subsequently, correct repositioning of the left electrode afforded complete relief of gait disturbances. Freezing and hypokinesia of gait may be side effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic region due to current spreading antero-medially to the subthalamic nucleus. These side effects are not subject to habituation and restrict any increase in stimulation parameters. We hypothesize that pallidal projections to the pedunculopontine nucleus could be responsible for these gait disturbances in our patient.

  16. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring for Leachate Distribution at Two Foot-and-Mouth- Disease (FMD) Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.; Leem, K.; Ko, K.

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide the basic information on leachate distribution with time changes through the electrical resistivity monitoring for a certain period of time in the Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) burial facilities which is needed to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build an effective plan for stabilization of the burial site. In this study, dipole-dipoles surveys were carried out around two FMD burial sites in Iceon-si, Gyeonggi-do. The FMD burial facility installed at Daewall-myeon is consists of one block but, at Yul-myeon, it is divided into 2 blocks named A and B blocks. Dipole-Dipole surveys with 8 lines at Yul-myeon and 3 lines at Daewall-myeon were carried out. The observed leachate distribution along survey lines was not clearly evident as time passes at Daewall-myeon site, but, at Yul-myeon site, the leachate distribution around the survey lines showed a decrease of resistivity around the burial facility. At and around A and B blocks of Yul-myeon site, interpretations of the survey data show low resistivity zones below 10 Ωm from a depth 3 m to 10 m and such low resistivity zones of the A block are thicker than the B block by about 5~10 m. From the geochemical data and resistivity survey at two FMD burial sites, it is inferred that the groundwater within a 50-meter radius around burial facilities of the Yul-myeon site are contaminated by leachate. The general resistivity distribution around the burial site is seemed affected by the leachate with high electrical conductivity. The detail distribution patterns can be explained by local distributions of soil and weathered rocks and associated leachate flow. This subject is supported by Brain Korea 21 and Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The GAIA Project (173-092-009)'.

  17. Veterans Affairs: Data Needed to Help Improve Decisions Concerning Veterans’ Access to Burial Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    within 75 miles of (1) a veterans cemetery that only offers burial options for cremated remains, or (2) a state veterans cemetery with residency...for cremated remains) to extend the service lives of cemeteries that already provide a burial option for first interments. • Rural Initiative...for the first interment of either casketed or cremated remains. NCA defines a closed cemetery as a cemetery where no gravesites are available for

  18. 133. ARAII SL1 burial ground. Shows gravel path from ARAII ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. ARA-II SL-1 burial ground. Shows gravel path from ARA-II compound to the burial ground, detail of security fence and entry gate, and sign "Danger radiation hazard." F. C. Torkelson Company 842-area-101-1. Date: October 1961. Ineel index code no. 059-0101-00-851-150723. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Burial tolerances of reef-building Sabellariid worms from the east coast of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, N. J. B.; Irlandi, E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Sabellariid worms, such as Phragmatopoma lapidosa, are sessile suspension feeders that attach to exposed hard bottom and serve as foundation species for worm reefs which are complex, multifaceted habitats. While worm reefs are adapted to dynamic sedimentary environments, burial of these habitats by beach nourishment projects is a concern. This study determined duration and depth of burial that can be tolerated by P. lapidosa without death. Worm rock samples were buried in sand at 1-10 cm (1-cm intervals), and at 15, 25 and 40 cm for the duration of 72, 144, and 216 h and then surveyed for initial mortality after burial and one week after removal of sediment (latent effects). Initial mortality was similar across all burial depths for the 72-h duration with values ranging from 8.3% (±0.8 SE) for 1 cm to 24.0% (±8.0 SE) for 10 cm of sediment. As burial duration increased to 144 h, mortality generally increased as burial depth increased with an average mortality for 2 cm of sediment of 23.5% (±5.3 SE) increasing to 96.0% (±14.3 SE) with 40 cm of sediment. The mean percent mortality for burial samples in the 216 h treatment varied from a low of 71.2% (±3.3 SE) for 1 cm depth to a high of 100% (±0 SE) for 10, 15, 25, and 40 cm depths. Mortality for most treatments also increased over time after removal of sediment indicating latent effects of burial stress.

  20. Improvement of pacing induced regional myocardial ischemia by Solcoseryl in conscious dogs with coronary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Sasayama, S; Takahashi, M; Osakada, G; Kawai, C

    1984-02-01

    The effects of Solcoseryl on regional myocardial function were studied in 5 conscious dogs with partial coronary constriction, in which temporary ischemia was induced by rapid cardiac pacing. During the coronary artery constriction, the percent shortening of the ischemic segment decreased by 9%. When the heart rate was increased by pacing, the percent shortening of the ischemic segments was further reduced by 57%. On cessation of cardiac pacing, the early potentiation of dP/dt and of control segment shortening became evident and was followed by exponential decay in the subsequent several beats. In the ischemic segment, the percent shortening was significantly improved in the first post-pacing beat but was more severely depressed at five seconds. Thirty minutes after administration of Solcoseryl, the cardiac pacing was repeated in the same manner but the pacing-induced hypokinesia of the ischemic segment were less marked, the percent shortening being at an average of 9.1% during control pacing and 12.7% during the second pacing after Solcoseryl (p less than 0.05). Postpacing deterioration of the ischemic segment shortening was also significantly improved from 9.8 to 11.8% at 5 seconds (p less than 0.05). These findings indicate that Solcoseryl exerts protective effects on the ischemic myocardium by promoting a rapid recovery from ischemia, probably due to the improvement of oxygen utility through activated cellular respiration.

  1. New insights into the burial history of organic carbon on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald E.

    2004-08-01

    The isotope record of organic matter and calcium carbonate is often used to infer the burial history of organic carbon through time. As organic carbon burial is widely held to control long-term oxygen production, the isotope record also relates to the production rates of oxygen on Earth. Current interpretations of the record suggest a long-term consistency in the proportion of total carbon buried as organic carbon (f ratio), with some important periods of much higher burial proportions. The isotope record is analyzed here with a new carbon isotope mass balance model, which considers submarine hydrothermal weathering of ocean crust as a significant removal pathway of inorganic carbon. With this model the f ratio is considerably reduced if isotopically depleted inorganic carbon is precipitated during hydrothermal weathering and if hydrothermal weathering dominates inorganic carbon removal from the surface environment. In contrast to previous calculations, our analysis of the carbon isotope record shows that organic carbon burial in the Archean accounted for only between 0% and 10% of the total carbon burial. These low burial proportions would have contributed to a slow accumulation of atmospheric oxygen in the Archean.

  2. Hydrology of the Melton Valley radioactive-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Bradley, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    Burial grounds 4, 5, and 6 of the Melton Valley Radioactive-waste Burial Grounds, Oak Ridge, TN, were used sequentially from 1951 to the present for the disposal of solid, low level radioactive waste by burial in shallow trenches and auger holes. Abundant rainfall, a generally thin unsaturated zone, geologic media of inherently low permeability, and the operational practices employed have contributed to partial saturation of the buried waste, leaching of radionuclides, and transport of dissolved matter from the burial areas. Two primary methods of movement of wastes from these sites are transport in groundwater, and the overflow of fluid in trenches and subsequent flow across land surface. Whiteoak Creek and its tributaries receive all overland flow from trench spillage, surface runoff from each site, and discharge of groundwater from the regolith of each site. Potentiometric data, locally, indicate that this drainage system also receives groundwater discharges from the bedrock of burial ground 5. By projection of the bedrock flow patterns characteristic of this site to other areas of Melton Valley, it is inferred that discharges from the bedrock underlying burial grounds 4 and 6 also is to the Whiteoak Creek drainage system. The differences in potentiometric heads and a comparatively thin saturated zone in bedrock do not favor the development of deep flow through bedrock from one river system to another. (USGS)

  3. Earthquake swarms reveal submarine magma unrest induced by distant mega-earthquakes: Andaman Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about earthquake-triggered magma intrusions or eruptions of submarine volcanoes. The analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence performed in this study offers a tool to address such enigmatic and inaccessible processes. In the past ten years, the Andaman Sea region repeatedly became a site of shallow earthquake swarms that followed distant mega-earthquakes by days to weeks. The MW 9.1 December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake was followed by two earthquake swarms about 600 km northward in the Andaman Sea region, delayed by 30 and 35 days, respectively. Earthquakes of one of these seismic episodes, the extensive January 2005 earthquake swarm, migrated laterally at a rate of about 0.25 km per hour during the swarm evolution. The strong Indian Ocean MW 8.6 and 8.2 April 11, 2012 earthquake doublet west of Northern Sumatra was followed by an earthquake swarm approximately 800 km northward in the Andaman Sea region, delayed by 13 days. All the three swarms that followed the 2004 and 2012 mega-earthquakes occurred beneath distinct seamounts and seafloor ridges. Based on the observations of migration of earthquakes during the swarm and swarm occurrence beneath distinct highs at the seafloor, we conclude that these earthquake swarms probably resulted as a consequence of magma unrest induced by static and/or dynamic stress changes following the distant mega-earthquakes. Repeated occurrence of such a phenomenon suggests that the arc magma reservoirs beneath the Andaman Sea have recently reached some form of criticality and are vulnerable to even small stress changes. The Andaman seafloor could thus become a site of submarine volcanic eruptions in near future and deserves close attention of Earth scientists.

  4. Resistance exercise induces region-specific adaptations in anterior pituitary gland structure and function in rats.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Flanagan, Shawn D; Volek, Jeff S; Nindl, Bradley C; Vingren, Jakob L; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Looney, David P; Maresh, Carl M; Hymer, Wesley C

    2013-12-01

    The anterior pituitary gland (AP) increases growth hormone (GH) secretion in response to resistance exercise (RE), but the nature of AP adaptations to RE is unknown. To that end, we examined the effects of RE on regional AP somatotroph GH release, structure, and relative quantity. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: 1) no training or acute exercise (NT-NEX); 2) no training with acute exercise (NT-EX); 3) resistance training without acute exercise (RT-NEX); 4) resistance training with acute exercise (RT-EX). RE incorporated 10, 1 m-weighted ladder climbs at an 85° angle. RT groups trained 3 days/wk for 7 wk, progressively. After death, trunk blood was collected, and each AP was divided into quadrants (ventral-dorsal and left-right). We measured: 1) trunk plasma GH; 2) somatotroph GH release; 3) somatotroph size; 4) somatotroph secretory content; and 5) percent of AP cells identified as somatotrophs. Trunk GH differed by group (NT-NEX, 8.9 ± 2.4 μg/l; RT-NEX, 9.2 ± 3.5 μg/l; NT-EX, 15.6 ± 3.4 μg/l; RT-EX, 23.4 ± 4.6 μg/l). RT-EX demonstrated greater somatotroph GH release than all other groups, predominantly in ventral regions (P < 0.05-0.10). Ventral somatotrophs were larger in NT-EX and RT-NEX compared with RT-EX (P < 0.05-0.10). RT-NEX exhibited significantly greater secretory granule content than all other groups but in the ventral-right region only (P < 0.05-0.10). Our findings indicate reproducible patterns of spatially distinct, functionally different somatotroph subpopulations in the rat pituitary gland. RE training appears to induce dynamic adaptations in somatotroph structure and function.

  5. Radio Induced Fluorescence (RIF) Imaging Of E-region Quasi-periodic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    The horizontal structure of sporadic-E layers has been imaged using artificial airglow excited by high power radio waves. In January 1998, the HF facility at Arecibo, Puerto Rico beamed a 80 MW signal upward at 3.175 MHz. The beam reflected in the E- region near 120 km altitude to excite green-line emissions at 557.7 nm. Ground based images showed quasi-periodic structures with periods near 2 and 10 km. These struc- tures been interpreted as being produced by Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities in the neutral atmosphere. The excitation of radio induced fluorescence (RIF) emissions has been studied with both one-dimensional and two-dimensional computer simulations of the conversion of electromagnetic waves into electron plasma waves. The steep gradients on the bottomside of the E-layer provide conditions for efficient mode conversion. The re- sulting Langmuir waves accelerate electrons to energies between 2 and 10 eV. These suprathermal electrons collide with oxygen atoms to produce green-line emissions. The optical glow only occurs in the parts of the E-region where the plamsa is dense enough to reflect the 3.175 MHz radio waves. Results of the E-layer observations using the RIF technique have shown horizontal stuctures that are most likely produced by the K-H instability. A numerical model has been generated to demonstrate the effects of neutral wind shears on the E-region structures. The model includes the effects of both speed-shear and turning shear dy- namics. The results of the numerical model are used to suggest future research using high-power radio wave to study the ion dynamics of the lower thermosphere.

  6. Dexamethasone induces apoptosis in the developing rat amygdala in an age, region, and sex specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Damian G.; Carbone, David L.; Hiroi, Ryoko; Chong, David L.; Handa, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) in early development can lead to long-term changes in brain function and behavior although little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. Perinatal exposure to GCs alters adult anxiety and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of either late gestational or neonatal exposure to the GC receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX), on apoptosis within the amygdala, a region critical for emotional regulation. DEX was administered to timed-pregnant rat dams from gestational day 18 until parturition, or postnatal day 4-6. Offspring were sacrificed the day following the last DEX treatment and tissue was processed for immunohistochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3, a marker for apoptotic cells. Prenatal DEX treatment significantly increased the number of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells in the amygdala of both sexes, largely due to increases within the medial and basomedial sub-regions. Postnatal DEX treatment also increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity within the amygdala, although effects reached significance only in the central nucleus of females. Overall, DEX induction of cleaved caspase-3 in the amygdala was greater following prenatal compared to postnatal treatment, yet in both instances elevations in cleaved caspase-3 correlated with an increase in pro-apoptotic Bax mRNA expression. Dual-label immunohistochemistry of cleaved caspase-3 and the neuronal marker NeuN confirmed that virtually all cleaved caspase-3 positive cells in the amygdala were neurons and a subset of these cells (primarily following postnatal treatment) expressed a GABAergic calcium binding protein phenotype (calbindin or calretinin). Together these results indicate that early developmental GC exposure induces neuronal apoptosis within the amygdala in an age, sex, and region dependent manner. PMID:22008524

  7. Regional susceptibility to stress-induced intestinal injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Novosad, Veronica L; Richards, Jennifer L; Phillips, Neil A; King, Michelle A; Clanton, Thomas L

    2013-09-15

    Injury to the intestinal mucosa is a life-threatening problem in a variety of clinical disorders, including hemorrhagic shock, trauma, burn, pancreatitis, and heat stroke. The susceptibility to injury of different regions of intestine in these disorders is not well understood. We compared histological injury across the small intestine in two in vivo mouse models of injury, hemorrhagic shock (30% loss of blood volume) and heat stroke (peak core temperature 42.4°C). In both injury models, areas near the duodenum showed significantly greater mucosal injury and reductions in villus height. To determine if these effects were dependent on circulating factors, experiments were performed on isolated intestinal segments to test for permeability to 4-kDa FITC-dextran. The segments were exposed to hyperthermia (42°C for 90 min), moderate simulated ischemia (Po2 ∼30 Torr, Pco2 ∼60 Torr, pH 7.1), severe ischemia (Po2 ∼20 Torr, Pco2 ∼80 Torr, pH 6.9), or severe hypoxia (Po2 ∼0 Torr, Pco2 ∼35 Torr) for 90 min, and each group was compared with sham controls. All treatments resulted in marked elevations in permeability within segments near the duodenum. In severe hypoxia or hyperthermia, permeability was also moderately elevated in the jejunum and ileum; in moderate or severe ischemia, permeability was unaffected in these regions. The results demonstrate increased susceptibility of proximal regions of the small intestine to acute stress-induced damage, irrespective of circulating factors. The predominant injury in the duodenum may impact the pattern of acute inflammatory responses arising from breach of the intestinal barrier, and such knowledge may be useful for designing therapeutic strategies.

  8. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Harmon R.S.Broach J.T.Holloway, Jr. J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  9. Burial diagenesis and reservoir development in North Haynesville (Smackover) Field, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ahr, W.M.; Hull, H.B.

    1983-09-01

    Smackover carbonates were deposited on a regional ramp which was locally affected by salt-generated paleotopography and basement structures. The paleobathymetry at North Haynesville field was a salt-generated high on which oolite grainstones accumulated. These shoals consisted of tide-dominated sand waves that were flanked by algal-rich grainstones and packstones which, in turn, were surrounded by open marine, peloidal wackestones. The sand shoals were lithified primarily in the marine phreatic environment, but as they had accumulated significant depositional relief, they became exposed during minor regressions. Consequently, the shoals were affected by early meteoric phreatic diagenesis. Blocky calcite cements and inversion of metastable allochems marked this diagenetic episode. Subsequent burial diagenetic history can be charted from early to late by the sequential appearance (in order) of the following characteristics: microstylolites, dolomitization, macrostylolites, poikilotopic calcite cements, baroque dolomite cements, and late leaching. Whole-rock trace element analyses indicate that magnesium, iron, and manganese correlate strongly with dolomitized horizons; strontium correlates with algal-encrusted grains; and aluminum correlates with tight, argillaceous micrites. The North Haynesville reservoir is both selective and nonselective for certain depositional microfacies. Selection is for those sand shoals that had the highest primary porosity and permeability and that were affected by dissolution enhancement in the subsurface. However, the same late dissolution processes affected both micrite and allochems in the nonfacies-selective sectors of the reservoir.

  10. Nonlinear geochemical dynamics and petrography: Burial dolomitization (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, E.

    2010-12-01

    Many geochemical self-patterned structures exist in nature [1]: pisolitic, liesegang, orbicular, and agate bandings [2]; igneous and metamorphic bandings [3]; displacive dolomitic and serpentine “zebra” veins [4]; sets of stylolites [5]; oscillatory zoning in single crystals [6]. Large-scale examples: weathering profiles [7], banded iron formations [8], burial dolomitization [9], karst sinkholes [7]; etc. All involve disequilibrium and feedback, the two necessary conditions for self-patterning, but each case is unique. A good model should incorporate force(s), feedbacks, reactions, and boundary and initial conditions that are likely to apply to the genesis of the phenomenon under study. Problems: to confuse mass balances for local mineral reactions; whether the mineral pattern is made at a moving reaction front (as in agates [2]) or throughout the system at once (as in stylolitization [5] and zebra veins [4]). Self-consistent scaling of variables and linear instability analysis may tell us for what ranges of dynamic parameter values the system oscillates. A model may seem to work well - yet this does not prove that the initial choices of forcing, feedback and reactions were correct. Model predictions should be tested against petrographic and field evidence not used in constructing the model in the first place [2]. Recent models of dolomitization [10] and weathering are inconsistent with field and petrographic evidence. (P. K. Weyl, the first geochemical modeler: “We are not interested in what [a rock] is now but in how it became that way … Instead of looking at a rock and asking for an explanation of its past …”, J. Geophys. Res. 1959, p. 2001). A new dynamic model of dolomitization [9] correctly predicts a multitude of petrographic and other properties of burial dolostones. According to the model, the self-accelerating dolomite-for-calcite replacement forces a seamless rheological transition from replacive to displacive dolomite growth which predicts

  11. Induced precipitation recycling (IPR) strategy to increase forest growth and regional rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, K. M.; Ellison, D.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes a project designed to capitalize on observed natural interactions between forest cover and the hydrologic cycle in order to increase available water supplies in arid regions, and to purify degraded water resources. An approach is presented to transition observed precipitation recycling effects into practical applications. Higher regional precipitation can be induced by promoting favorable conditions through afforestation and the irrigation of afforested land (IPR). Waste-water streams processed by the forest can increase local precipitation through the by-product evapotranspiration (ET). The proposed project illustrates how increased runoff from induced precipitation can help mitigate chronic regional water shortages in Southern California, using available degraded water resources. Each day, several hundred million gallons of treated sewage and excess storm water from the Los Angeles basin are channeled to the ocean for disposal. A portion of this can irrigate afforested land, initiating the IPR process. The afforested site likewise produces additional beneficial ecosystem services including nutrient management (of the sewage stream), carbon sequestration (from new growth), cooling of urban 'heat islands', and flood control. Research will explore interactions between ET plumes and local geography to aid the selection of afforestation sites and ensure increased precipitation over land, supporting the regional water supply. The IPR project is designed to manage risk and complexity through phased implementation. While no unproven technologies are used, there are uncertainties in applying theories from scientific research. During the 'pilot phase', initial afforestation site(s) will support research to examine the interactions of irrigated forest cover and IPR. As a proof of concept, this will develop the analytical basis for large-scale expansion. Once the theoretical foundation has been established, the project can expand to more irrigated

  12. Burial, Uplift and Exhumation History of the Atlantic Margin of NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; Cobbold, Peter R.; Chiossi, Dario; Lilletveit, Ragnhild

    2010-05-01

    We have undertaken a regional study of landscape development and thermo-tectonic evo-lution of NE Brazil. Our results reveal a long history of post-Devonian burial and exhuma-tion across NE Brazil. Uplift movements just prior to and during Early Cretaceous rifting led to further regional denudation, to filling of rift basins and finally to formation of the Atlantic margin. The rifted margin was buried by a km-thick post-rift section, but exhumation began in the Late Cretaceous as a result of plate-scale forces. The Cretaceous cover probably extended over much of NE Brazil where it is still preserved over extensive areas. The Late Cretaceous exhumation event was followed by events in the Paleogene and Neogene. The results of these events of uplift and exhumation are two regional peneplains that form steps in the landscape. The plateaux in the interior highlands are defined by the Higher Surface at c. 1 km above sea level. This surface formed by fluvial erosion after the Late Cretaceous event - and most likely after the Paleogene event - and thus formed as a Paleogene pene-plain near sea level. This surface was reburied prior to the Neogene event, in the interior by continental deposits and along the Atlantic margin by marine and coastal deposits. Neo-gene uplift led to reexposure of the Palaeogene peneplain and to formation of the Lower Surface by incision along rivers below the uplifted Higher Surface that characterise the pre-sent landscape. Our results show that the elevated landscapes along the Brazilian margin formed during the Neogene, c. 100 Myr after break-up. Studies in West Greenland have demonstrated that similar landscapes formed during the late Neogene, c. 50 Myr after break-up. Many passive continental margins around the world are characterised by such elevated plateaus and it thus seems possible, even likely, that they may also post-date rifting and continental separation by many Myr.

  13. Coccolith Carbonate Burial in the Open Ocean: Neogene Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderiks, J.

    2003-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, gold-brown algae, are prominent primary producers in the World's oceans. They produce calcite scales (coccoliths) that surround their cell, which represents a potential short-term CO2 source to the environment. The burial of coccoliths into marine sediments acts as a long-term sink of carbon. In fact, sedimentary carbonates are the largest reservoir of carbon on Earth, and hence play a vital role in the global carbon cycle. The contribution by coccolithophorids to this long-term sink can be expressed by accumulation rates of fine fraction carbonate. In more detail, absolute abundances of coccoliths combined with species-specific carbonate weights can resolve which taxa are most effective contributors to deep-sea carbonate. Surprisingly little has been done to link biogenic calcium carbonate budgets in the geological past to the general evolutionary patterns of calcifying plankton. Coccolithophorids have evolved relatively rapidly since their first appearance in the Mesozoic. Their evolutionary patterns are characterized by several periods of increasing species diversity and subsequent decline, as well as changes in their coccolith size and morphology. An overall decrease in the coccolith sizes is recorded during the Neogene, with the disappearance of large coccoliths (>10 micron) since the Middle Miocene. Because larger coccoliths are generally more resistant to dissolution, this observation cannot be due to (selective) carbonate dissolution. Hence, it implies significant variability in the amount of coccolith carbonate effectively buried through time, and potentially drastic changes in coccolithophorid productivity in the open ocean, with consequences for the short-term effects of biocalcification. This study focuses on Neogene proportions and accumulation rates of coccolith carbonate in selected well-preserved DSDP and ODP Sites from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, at a 1-2 M.y. resolution. Ultimately, the aim is to understand the

  14. Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Vincent, K.R.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 0-8 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Identification, Geochemical Characterisation and Significance of Bitumen among the Grave Goods of the 7th Century Mound 1 Ship-Burial at Sutton Hoo (Suffolk, UK)

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Stephen A.; Hacke, Marei; Parnell, John

    2016-01-01

    The 7th century ship-burial at Sutton Hoo is famous for the spectacular treasure discovered when it was first excavated in 1939. The finds include gold and garnet jewellery, silverware, coins and ceremonial armour of broad geographical provenance which make a vital contribution to understanding the political landscape of early medieval Northern Europe. Fragments of black organic material found scattered within the burial were originally identified as ‘Stockholm Tar’ and linked to waterproofing and maintenance of the ship. Here we present new scientific analyses undertaken to re-evaluate the nature and origin of these materials, leading to the identification of a previously unrecognised prestige material among the treasure: bitumen from the Middle East. Whether the bitumen was gifted as diplomatic gesture or acquired through trading links, its presence in the burial attests to the far-reaching network within which the elite of the region operated at this time. If the bitumen was worked into objects, either alone or in composite with other materials, then their significance within the burial would certainly have been strongly linked to their form or purpose. But the novelty of the material itself may have added to the exotic appeal. Archaeological finds of bitumen from this and earlier periods in Britain are extremely rare, despite the abundance of natural sources of bitumen within Great Britain. This find provides the first material evidence indicating that the extensively exploited Middle Eastern bitumen sources were traded northward beyond the Mediterranean to reach northern Europe and the British Isles. PMID:27906999

  16. Regional Stress-Induced Ischemia in Non-fibrotic Hypertrophied Myocardium in Young HCM Patients.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, Robert; Fernlund, Eva; Aletras, Anthony H; Engblom, Henrik; Heiberg, Einar; Liuba, Petru; Arheden, Håkan; Carlsson, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between hypertrophy, perfusion abnormalities and fibrosis is unknown in young patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Since mounting evidence suggests causal relationship between myocardial ischemia and major adverse cardiac events, we sought to investigate whether (1) regional myocardial perfusion is decreased in young HCM patients and in individuals at risk of HCM, and (2) hypoperfused areas are larger than areas with fibrosis. HCM patients (n = 12), HCM-risk subjects (n = 15) and controls (n = 9) were imaged on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Myocardial hypertrophy was assessed on cine images. Perfusion images were acquired during adenosine hyperemia and at rest. Maximum upslope ratios of perfusion (stress/rest) were used for semiquantitative analysis. Fibrosis was assessed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Results are presented as median and range. Perfusion in HCM-risk subjects and in non-hypertrophied segments in HCM patients showed no difference compared to controls (P = ns). Hypertrophic segments in HCM patients without LGE showed decreased perfusion compared to segments without hypertrophy [1.5 (1.1-2.3) vs. 2.0 (1.8-2.6), P < 0.001], and hypertrophic segments with LGE showed even lower perfusion using a segmental analysis [0.9 (0.6-1.8), P < 0.05]. The extent of hypoperfused myocardium in HCM patients during adenosine exceeded the extent of fibrosis on LGE [20 (0-48) vs. 4 (0-7) % slice area, P < 0.05] and hypoperfused areas at rest (P < 0.001). Regional perfusion is decreased in hypertrophied compared to non-hypertrophied myocardium and is lowest in fibrotic myocardium in young HCM patients but does not discriminate HCM-risk subjects from controls. The stress-induced hypoperfused regions exceed regions with LGE, indicating that hypoperfusion precedes fibrosis and may be a more sensitive marker of diseased myocardium in HCM.

  17. Destruction of the germinal disc region of an immature preovulatory chicken follicle induces atresia and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yao, H H; Volentine, K K; Bahr, J M

    1998-09-01

    The germinal disc region (GDR), which contains the germinal disc and overlying granulosa cells, is essential for completion of maturation of the preovulatory chicken follicle. The current study was conducted to test the hypothesis that destruction of the GDR (GDRX) of an immature preovulatory chicken follicle blocks ovulation, induces apoptosis, and causes atresia. The GDR of immature preovulatory follicles (F2) were destroyed by freezing with dry ice (3 mm in diameter) 48-50 h before ovulation. As a control for the effect of freezing, a nonGDR portion (a portion of the follicular wall opposite to the GDR relative to the follicular stalk) of other F2 follicles were destroyed (nonGDRX). Treatment of F2 follicles by GDRX caused atresia and blocked ovulation of all treated follicles (6 of 6), whereas none of the nonGDRX follicles (0 of 5) underwent atresia. Treatment of follicles by GDRX induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation (laddering) in theca and granulosa layers obtained from the frozen area and in the theca layer obtained from the follicular wall distal to the frozen area. In contrast, apoptosis was only present in theca and granulosa layers in the frozen area of the nonGDRX follicle. Furthermore, the in situ DNA end-labeling technique demonstrated that in the GDRX follicle 24 h after treatment, cells in the theca interna, endothelial cells in blood vessels of the theca externa, and a few granulosa cells underwent apoptosis. These results indicate that destruction of the GDR of an immature preovulatory follicle causes atresia and apoptosis and blocks ovulation. These novel findings suggest that the GDR maintains development of the chicken preovulatory follicle by producing one or more survival factors. Without the GDR, chicken follicles cannot develop further and they eventually die.

  18. Regulatory regions that control expression of two chloramphenicol-inducible cat genes cloned in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Duvall, E J; Williams, D M; Mongkolsuk, S; Lovett, P S

    1984-06-01

    Plasmid pPL603 is a promoter cloning vector for Bacillus subtilis and consists of a 1.1-kilobase fragment of Bacillus pumilus DNA inserted between the EcoRI and BamHI sites of pUB110. The gene cat-86, specifying chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, is located on the 1.1-kilobase cloned DNA. When pPL603 is present in B. subtilis, cat-86 is unexpressed during vegetative growth but expressed during sporulation. The regulation of cat-86 in pPL603 is due to sequences within two restriction fragments, designated P1 and R1, that precede the main coding portion of the gene. The P1 fragment promotes transcription of cat-86 only during sporulation, whereas the adjacent R1 fragment lacks promoter function but contains sequences essential to chloramphenicol inducibility. A second B. pumilus gene, cat-66, was cloned in B. subtilis and is expressed throughout the vegetative growth and sporulation cycle. The cat-66 coding region is preceded by two adjacent restriction fragments designated as P2 and R2. P1 and P2 are identical in size and share 95% conservation of base sequence. R1 and R2 are also identical in size and share 91% conservation of base sequence. Fragment substitution experiments demonstrate that R2 can functionally replace R1. The substitution of P2 for P1 promotes cat-86 expression throughout vegetative growth and sporulation. Analysis of a derivative of pPL603 in which P2 has replaced P1 demonstrates that P2 promotes transcription of cat-86 during vegetative growth and that P2 contains the start site for transcription of cat-86. Thus, P1 and P2 differ strikingly in vegetative promoter function, yet they differ by single-base substitutions at only 11 positions of 203.

  19. The effect of burial depth on removal of seeds of Phytolacca americana.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.: Damschen, Ellen, I.

    2007-04-01

    Abstract - Although burial is known to have important effects on seed predation in a variety of habitats, the role of burial depth in affecting the removal of seeds in early successional systems is poorly known. Phytolacca American (pokeweed) is a model species to examine the role of burial depth in affecting seed removal because it is common in early-successional habitats, studies suggest that seed removal is indicative of seed predation, and seed predation is related to the recruitment of mature plants. To determine how burial depth affects P. americana seed removal, 20 seeds of P. americana were buried at depths of 0, 1, or 3 cm in early-successional habitats at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina for over 6 weeks. The frequency with which seeds were encountered (as measured by the removal of at least one seed) and the proportion of seeds removed was significantly greater when seeds were on the soil surface (0 cm depth) compared to seeds that were buried 1 cm or 3 cm; there was no difference in encounter or removal between seeds at 1 cm or 3 cm. Our findings suggest that burial may have important consequences for P. americana population dynamics, because seed survival depends upon whether or not the seed is buried, and relatively shallow burial can yield large increases in seed survival. Because seed limitation is known to be an important determinant of plant community composition in early successional systems, our work suggests that burial may play an unappreciated role in the dynamics of these communities by reducing predator-mediated seed limitation.

  20. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide. [Polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents.

  1. Deep-burial diagenesis in carbonates. Final report, January 16, 1984-March 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.M.

    1985-03-01

    The objectives were to gain an understanding of what makes or breaks porosity in carbonate rocks as a result of deep-burial, to develop criteria for deep-burial diagenesis in carbonate rocks, and to apply these criteria for interpretation of carbonate rocks now at shallow depth. Compaction tests reveal that ooid samples show substantial reductions of bulk-volume and porosity when squeezed at temperatures and pressures comparable to overburden of 3.5 to 6.5 km. Particle breakage and deformed particle contacts developed that are comparable to those reported from oolites from the rock record. Reproducibility of pressure solution by compaction supports the conclusion that initial pore-volume reduction through mechanical grain adjustments and ultimate pressure solution are major processes in the diagenetic evolution of limestone. In the deep Analdarko Basin of Oklahoma and Texas, the Hunton Group carbonate rocks of Upper Ordovician to Lower Devonian show that dolostones alone provide porosity. Studies reveal that corrected measurement of bulk densities yield improved estimates of true porosity and water saturation. The mechanism of burial dolomitization was suggested to be the underlying marine Sylvan Shale which provided necessary Mg+2 and Fe+2 during smectite-to-illite transition. Also detailed studies of core samples and thin sections from the Lower Ordovician Ellenberger carbonate rocks in the Permian Basin demonstrated that carbonate rocks below 10,000 ft are exclusively dolostone showing some evidence of deep-burial dolomitization. Lower Ordovician carbonate strata in undeformed belts of the northern Appalachian Basin yield depth of burial and paleotemperature data implying a former depth of burial which has not been usually inferred for this area. Fluid-inclusion suggests burial depth of several kilometers. 41 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Ethanol-induced alterations of c-Fos immunoreactivity in specific limbic brain regions following ethanol discrimination training.

    PubMed

    Besheer, Joyce; Schroeder, Jason P; Stevenson, Rebekah A; Hodge, Clyde W

    2008-09-26

    The discriminative stimulus properties of ethanol are functionally regulated by ionotropic GABA(A) and NMDA receptors in specific limbic brain regions including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus, as determined by microinjection studies. The purpose of the present work was to further investigate potential neural substrates of ethanol's discriminative stimulus effects by examining if ethanol discrimination learning produces changes in brain regional response to ethanol. To accomplish this goal, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the effects of ethanol (2 g/kg) on c-Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). Comparisons in ethanol-induced Fos-IR were made between a group of rats that was trained to discriminate the stimulus properties of ethanol (2 g/kg, IG) from water (IG) and a drug/behavior-matched control group that did not receive differential reinforcement for lever selection, which precluded acquisition of discriminative stimulus control by ethanol. In some brain regions discrimination training had no effect on ethanol-induced Fos-IR changes (caudate putamen, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and CA1 region of the hippocampus). In contrast, discrimination training altered the pattern of ethanol-induced Fos-IR in the nucleus accumbens (core), medial septum, and the hippocampus (dentate and CA3). These results indicate that having behavior under the stimulus control of ethanol can change ethanol-induced Fos-IR in some brain regions. This suggests that learning about the subjective properties of ethanol produces adaptive changes in how the brain responds to acute ethanol exposure.

  3. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  4. Hydroclimate feedback induced by aerosols over the Asian monsoon regions - the elevated-heat-pump hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, W.; Kim, M.; Kim, K.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we present results of a numerical study using the NASA finite-volume GCM to elucidate a plausible mechanism for aerosol impact on the Asian summer monsoon involving interaction with physical processes over the Tibetan Plateau. During the pre-monsoon season of March-April, dusts from the deserts of western China, Afghanistan/Pakistan, and the Middle East are transported into and stacked up against the northern and southern slopes of the Tibetan Plateau. The absorption of solar radiation by dust heats up the elevated surface air over the slopes. On the southern slopes, the atmospheric heating is reinforced by black carbon from local emission. The heated air rises via dry convection, creating a positive temperature anomaly in the mid-to-upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau relative to the region to the south. The warm air in turn heat the land surface through turbulent heat flux. In May through early June in a manner akin to an "elevated heat pump", the rising hot air forced by the increasing heating in the upper troposphere and elevated land mass, draws in warm and moist air over the Indian subcontinent, initiating deep convection over the southern edge of the Plateau, and setting the stage for the onset of the South Asia summer monsoon. Our results suggest that increased dust loading coupled with black carbon emission from local sources in northern India during late spring may lead to an advance of the rainy periods and subsequently an intensification of the Indian summer monsoon. The enhanced rainfall over India is associated with the development of an aerosol-induced large-scale sea level pressure anomaly pattern, which causes the East Asia (Mei-yu) rain belt to shift northwestward, suppressing rainfall over East Asia and the adjacent oceanic regions.

  5. Testing a mechanical model of fracture formation by compaction-related burial in Gale crater, Mars: Implications for the origin of Aeolis Mons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Jessica; Grotzinger, John P.

    2016-10-01

    Gale crater's 5-km-high central mound, Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp), has two leading hypotheses for its formation: buildup of windblown sediments, and exhumation of deeply buried strata. The deep burial hypothesis implies deformation by gravitational body forces and we evaluate that idea here. Ubiquitous fracture-related features have been regionally mapped from orbit and observed by the Curiosity rover in sedimentary strata including the Murray formation (dominantly mudstone) and the unconformably overlying Stimson formation (sandstone). Large fractures which exhibit complex banding structures with distinct chemical trends (e.g. halos) are primarily found in the Stimson fm, but do extend into the Murray fm in one location. Smaller, sulfate-filled fractures are most prevalent in the Murray but are also associated with haloed fractures in the Stimson. We test a compaction-related burial origin for these features based on a mechanical model for mode I fracture formation in order to constrain the regional stress history. According to the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, extension fracturing requires that the minimum principal stress (σ3) exceed the elastic tensile strength in the plane perpendicular to the opening. Given that tectonic driving processes are inoperative within Gale, non-tectonic mechanisms including overburden (maximum compressive stress; σ1 = ρgD) and pore fluid pressure (pf α D) must account for this tensile stress. Significant compaction as a result of increased depth of burial is required for pf to exceed σ3 and cause fracturing. When applied to Gale, we find that the estimated horizontal stress (σ3), as influenced by crater geometry, requires a substantial burial depth to produce sufficient pf to cause hydrofracture. Rheology contrasts likely caused fractures to develop and propagate more easily in the Stimson sandstone, which can support a smaller σ3, than in the Murray mudstone. In these permeable rocks, the sudden local decrease of pf at

  6. Metamorphic gradients in burial metamorphosed vesicular lavas: Comparison of basalt and spilite in Cretaceous basic flows from central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Beatriz; Aguirre, Luis; Nyström, Jan Olov

    1982-08-01

    Partial spilitization of a 9 km thick pile of flood basalts with highly vesicular flow tops gave rise to patterns of secondary mineralogy at different scales: (a) a local pattern of mineralogical variation from the almost unaltered bottom towards the altered top of each flow, and (b) an overall pattern, comparing flow tops throughout the pile, with changes in mineralogical composition within a sequence of metamorphic zones and facies. The local patterns mimic the trend of the overall pattern, but are of opposite direction and telescoped. Thus, a gradual ordering and Andepletion of the secondary “albite” and increases in the Fe*/Al ratio of epidote and pumpellyite upwards within individual flows are comparable in range to corresponding overall changes downwards throughout several kilometres. The mineralogical changes within the flows diminish in range towards the more altered deeper part of the pile. The local and overall patterns cannot be interpreted in terms of grade. They represent trends from metastable towards stable equilibrium, this latter only approached in the flow tops of the lower part of the pile. The patterns of secondary mineralogy were formed by an interplay of metamorphic gradients at different scales at any given time, and as burial proceeded. The overall pattern was caused by depth-controlled gradients: increasing P fluid, temperature and temperature-induced increase of reaction rates, and decreasing fO2 (downwards in the pile). The local patterns resulted from permeability-controlled gradients: increasing reaction rates, fO2 and contrast in chemical activity between different domains, and decreasing P fluid (upwards in each flow). The mineralogical observations reported in this paper fall into line if the overall temperature-induced increase of reaction rates and the local permeability-controlled rate factors played the leading role during burial metamorphism of the pile.

  7. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Zoë L.; Hendrick, Vicki J.; Burrows, Michael T.; Wilson, Ben; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are discussed. PMID:26982582

  8. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Zoë L; Hendrick, Vicki J; Burrows, Michael T; Wilson, Ben; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are discussed.

  9. The C-terminal region of alpha-crystallin: involvement in protection against heat-induced denaturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Horwitz, J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the alpha-crystallins can protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. To determine the possible involvement of the C-terminal region in this activity, the alpha-crystallins were subjected to limited tryptic digestion, and the amount of cleavage from the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the alpha-A and alpha-B crystallin chains was assessed using antisera specific for these regions. Limited tryptic digestion resulted in cleavage only from the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin. This trypsin-treated alpha-A crystallin preparation showed a decreased ability to protect proteins from heat-induced aggregation using an in vitro assay. Together, these results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is important for its ability to protect against heat-induced aggregation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that post-translational changes that are known to occur at the C-terminal region may have significant effects on the ability of alpha-A crystallin to protect against protein denaturation in vivo.

  10. HF wave propagation and induced ionospheric turbulence in the magnetic equatorial region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, B.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2016-03-01

    The propagation and excitation of artificial ionospheric turbulence in the magnetic equatorial region by high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves injected into the overhead ionospheric layer is examined. EM waves with ordinary (O) mode polarization reach the critical layer only if their incidence angle is within the Spitze cone. Near the critical layer the wave electric field is linearly polarized and directed parallel to the magnetic field lines. For large enough amplitudes, the O mode becomes unstable to the four-wave oscillating two-stream instability and the three-wave parametric decay instability driving large-amplitude Langmuir and ion acoustic waves. The interaction between the induced Langmuir turbulence and electrons located within the 50-100 km wide transmitter heating cone at an altitude of 230 km can potentially accelerate the electrons along the magnetic field to several tens to a few hundreds of eV, far beyond the thresholds for optical emissions and ionization of the neutral gas. It could furthermore result in generation of shear Alfvén waves such as those recently observed in laboratory experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles Large Plasma Device.

  11. Specification of Region-Specific Neurons Including Forebrain Glutamatergic Neurons from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Taylor, Kristen; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Zheng; Park, Jung Woo; Zhan, Shuning; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Lichtler, Alexander; Liu, Hui-Xia; Chen, Fang-Ping; Yue, Lixia; Li, Xue-Jun; Xu, Ren-He

    2010-01-01

    Background Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) into functional, region-specific neural cells is a key step to realizing their therapeutic promise to treat various neural disorders, which awaits detailed elucidation. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed neural differentiation from various hiPSC lines generated by others and ourselves. Although heterogeneity in efficiency of neuroepithelial (NE) cell differentiation was observed among different hiPSC lines, the NE differentiation process resembles that from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) in morphology, timing, transcriptional profile, and requirement for FGF signaling. NE cells differentiated from hiPSC, like those from hESC, can also form rostral phenotypes by default, and form the midbrain or spinal progenitors upon caudalization by morphogens. The rostrocaudal neural progenitors can further mature to develop forebrain glutamatergic projection neurons, midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and spinal motor neurons, respectively. Typical ion channels and action potentials were recorded in the hiPSC-derived neurons. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that hiPSC, regardless of how they were derived, can differentiate into a spectrum of rostrocaudal neurons with functionality, which supports the considerable value of hiPSC for study and treatment of patient-specific neural disorders. PMID:20686615

  12. DRD2 Promoter Region Variation Predicts Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain in First Episode Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lencz, Todd; Robinson, Delbert G.; Napolitano, Barbara; Sevy, Serge; Kane, John M.; Goldman, David; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Many antipsychotic medications carry a substantial liability for weight gain, and one mechanism common to all antipsychotics is binding to the dopamine D2 receptor. We therefore examined the relationship between −141C Ins/Del (rs1799732), a functional promoter region polymorphism in DRD2, and antipsychotic-induced weight gain in 58 first episode schizophrenia patients enrolled in a randomized trial of risperidone (RIS) vs. olanzapine (OLZ). Carriers of the deletion allele (n=29) were compared to Ins/Ins homozygotes (non-carriers, n=29) in a mixed model encompassing 10 weight measurements over 16 weeks. Deletion allele carriers demonstrated significantly more weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment regardless of assigned medication. While deletion carriers were prescribed higher doses of OLZ (but not RIS), dose did not appear to account for the genotype effects on weight gain. Given previous evidence that deletion carriers demonstrate reduced symptom response to medication, additional study of appropriate treatment options for these patients appears warranted. PMID:20664489

  13. Angiotensin II Induces Region-Specific Medial Disruption during Evolution of Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Rateri, Debra L.; Davis, Frank M.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A.; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; O’Connor, William N.; Charnigo, Richard; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes development of ascending aortic aneurysms (AAs), but progression of this pathology is undefined. We evaluated factors potentially involved in progression, and determined the temporal sequence of tissue changes during development of Ang II–induced ascending AAs. Ang II infusion into C57BL/6J mice promoted rapid expansion of the ascending aorta, with significant increases within 5 days, as determined by both in vivo ultrasonography and ex vivo sequential acquisition of tissues. Rates of expansion were not significantly different in LDL receptor–null mice fed a saturated fat-enriched diet, demonstrating a lack of effect of hypercholesterolemia. Augmenting systolic blood pressure with norepinephrine infusion had no significant effect on ascending aortic expansion. Pathological changes observed within 5 days of Ang II infusion included increased medial thickness and intramural hemorrhage characterized by erythrocyte extravasation in outer lamellar layers of the media. Intramedial hemorrhage was not observed after prolonged Ang II infusion, although partial medial disruption was present. Elastin fragmentation and transmural medial breaks of the ascending aorta were observed with continued Ang II infusion, which were restricted to anterior aspects. CD45+ cells accumulated in adventitia but were minimal in media. Similar pathology was observed in tissues obtained from patients with ascending AAs. In conclusion, Ang II promotes ascending AAs through region-specific changes that are independent of hypercholesterolemia or systolic blood pressure. PMID:25038458

  14. Control of facies, burial history, and oil migration on diagenesis and reservoir quality: Maracaribo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.K.; Di Croce, J.; Isea, A.; Gonzalez, C. )

    1990-05-01

    This regional study of the Eocene Misoa Formation is the first attempt to decipher the role of depositional facies, burial history, and timing of oil migration on diagenetic make-up and reservoir quality in the Maracaibo basin. Subsurface data including cores from 11 wells along a northwest-southeast transect in the Urdaneta, Lagunillas, and Barua-Motatan fields reveal that the depositional facies of the three sandstones range from mainly fluvial (Urdaneta) to deltaic-coastal marine in Lagunillas, and typically sublittoral in the Barua-Motatan area. Both authigenic mineralogy and vitrinite reflectance data suggest progressively greater subsidence from the northwest to southeast. Thus, diagenetic grade is immature on the northwest in Urdaneta and mature to supermature in Barua-Moutan where greater mineralogical diversity and porosity/permeability reduction were noted. Similarly, compaction effects are minimum in Urdaneta, and maximum in Barua-Motatan where porosity is highly reduced, and is totally secondary in nature. Other factors, such as grain size, presence of early pore-lining chlorite (in marine facies), infiltrated grain-coating clays (in fluvial facies), and proximity of reservoirs to the post-Eocene unconformity surface also helped preserve or enhance porosity. Timing of oil migration also contributed to variable regional distribution of porosity and permeability. An early migration in the Urdaneta area helped retain much of the original porosity. In contrast, relatively late migration during upper Miocene, especially in the Barua-Motatan area on the southeast, permitted unimpeded silicification and pressure solution, and consequent destruction of all primary porosity.

  15. Inside the “African Cattle Complex”: Animal Burials in the Holocene Central Sahara

    PubMed Central

    di Lernia, Savino; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Gallinaro, Marina; Alhaique, Francesca; Balasse, Marie; Cavorsi, Lucia; Fullagar, Paul D.; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Monaco, Andrea; Perego, Alessandro; Zerboni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as ‘walking larder’. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080–5120 BP or 5200–3800 BC). This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O) analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara. PMID:23437260

  16. Study of Organic Matter in Soils of the Amazon Region Employing Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Mounier, Stéphane; Montes, Célia Regina; Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    In the face of climate change and increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, the global carbon cycle, soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, and the role of different world biomes as potential sources and sinks of carbon are receiving increasing attention. Carbon quantification is an important environmental indicator, but the structure of organic matter is also important because is related to carbon stability. The synthesis of soil organic matter (SOM), as presented in soils of forest vegetation, can be originated from condensation polymeric polyphenols and quinones that are responsible for controlling the main physical-chemical properties of soils. These systems are present in humic substances, representing the major fluorophore of SOM[1-3]. Abiotic factors, such as soil texture, use and occupation of soil, can influence on the process of SOM formation, molecular structure and in its humification index[4]. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) have become a promising technique for assessing humification index of SOM (HLIFS). In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the humification index of the SOM in the region of Barcelos (Amazon) employing LIFS. The study area was the region of Barcelos, close the river Demeni. The whose vegetation distribution in this area, is two biomes the Dense Ombrophylous Forest (DPQD) and Campinarana (DPQT), with areas of edaphic contacts between these two phytophysiognomies, which ranged from Open field (FDE) to closed Depression (DPQ). Preliminary results showed that the area closed Depression (DPQ) there was a continuous gradient of humification with increasing soil depth. A similar behavior was verified for area Forest (DPQD), where the highest values of HLIFS were obtained between the four points analyzed, indicating the magnitude of the molecular recalcitrance this organic matter in this area. The results obtained for area Campinarana (DPQT) and Open field (FDE) showed an opposite behavior. These points there

  17. Measurement of Helium-3/Helium-4 Ratios in Soil Gas at the 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C.

    2001-10-31

    Seventy soil gas-sampling points were installed around the perimeter of the 618-11 Burial Ground, approximately 400 feet downgradient of well 699-13-3A, and in four transects downgradient of the burial ground to a maximum distance of 3,100 feet. Soil gas samples were collected and analyzed for helium-3/helium-4 ratios from these 70 points. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios determined from the soil gas sampling points showed significant enrichments, relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations. The highest concentrations were located along the northern perimeter of the burial ground. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) ranged from 1.0 to 62 around the burial ground. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from the 4 transect downgradient of the burial ground ranged from 0.988 to 1.68. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from around the burial ground suggest there is a vadose zone source of tritium along the north side of the burial ground. This vadose zone source is likely the source of tritium in the groundwater. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios also suggest the groundwater plume is traveling east-northeast from the burial ground and the highest groundwater tritium value may be to the north of well 699-13-3A. Finally, there appears to be no immediately upgradient sources of tritium impacting the burial ground since all the upgradient helium-3/helium-4 ratios are approximately 1.0.

  18. Awn length variation and its effect on dispersal unit burial of Trachypogon spicatus (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erica E; Baruch, Zdravko

    2014-03-01

    Trachypogon spicatus, formerly known as Trachypogon plumosus, is a dominant grass in some savannas of Northern South America. Its dispersal unit, like many other species of the Andropogoneae tribe, bears a hygroscopic awn which facilitates its establishment in favorable microsites. Some authors have previously proposed that there is a positive correlation between awn length and dispersal unit burial, and that this relationship increases the probability of seed survival in the event of a fire, since soil acts as insulator. In this study we experimentally tested this relationship for T. spicatus. A total of 192 diaspores were placed in randomized blocks, in aluminum trays filled with soil under greenhouse conditions. Diaspores were sprayed with water daily for a month to guarantee awn movement; on the last day of the experiment, they were sprayed with red aerosol paint to determine burial depth. The effects of awn length, presence of caryopses, and presence of a pivot for the passive segment of the awn on diaspore burial were evaluated. Germination viability was tested using a tetrazolium salt test for 35 caryopses. No significant differences in diaspore burial were observed between diaspores with and without caryopses (F(2,126) = 0.034, p=0.853). A positive correlation between awn length and diaspore burial was observed only if the passive awn lacked a pivot (r(66)=0.394, p<0.05). Diaspores whose awns had a pivot point achieved significantly deeper burial distances than their counterparts (F(2,126)=7.063, p=0.005). Viability test found that 0% of caryopses tested were able to germinate; this is possibly due to the time difference between sampling and testing. We considered the presence or absence of caryopsis as an important factor, since previous studies have not yet considered it and the high production of sterile diaspores in grasses. These results suggest that the physical mechanism behind T. spicatus diaspore burial is awn torque. This would explain why our

  19. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Sarah S; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I

    2015-06-25

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (≈30 s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and 'slip' were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ≈4× more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance.

  20. An examination of possible mass burials in Pensacola, Florida's historic St. Michael's Cemetery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg Marshall, Nicole Marie

    St. Michael's Cemetery is the oldest extant cemetery in Pensacola, Florida. St. Michael's Cemetery is also one of the two oldest cemeteries in Florida (the other being located in St. Augustine). Since 2000, the University of West Florida (UWF) has been engaged in ongoing research at the cemetery. Historical records indicate that a significant unmarked burial population may be present within the cemetery. In 2007 and 2008, a systematic Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey identified 3,915 sub-surface anomalies that may represent unmarked burials. Some of these anomalies are significantly larger than would be expected for single interments and potentially represent mass burials from colonial and post-colonial period epidemic events. To test this hypothesis, excavations were conducted at three of the five large anomalies during 2009, 2010, and 2011. The goals of these investigations were to determine whether the sub-surface anomalies represent mass interments and to determine the chronology and ethnicity of any individual burials encountered using grave attributes and associated artifacts. While none of the anomalies excavated were mass graves, several individual unmarked burials were exposed and documented. This thesis summarizes the methods, results, and conclusions of the research conducted in St. Michael's Cemetery while contextualizing them within previous research.

  1. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah S.; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-07-01

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (≈ 30 s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and ‘slip’ were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ≈ 4× more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance.

  2. The heptide repeat 2 and upstream region of TGEV induces potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against group I coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huiling; Wu, Nannan; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Tianhou

    2012-10-01

    The coronavirus heptide repeat (HR) region in the spike protein induces neutralizing antibodies that block the postfusion core formation and inhibit virus entry into target cells. The HR2 regions for coronaviruses of the same serogroup share high homology. We found that polyclonal antibodies derived from transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus HR2 and upstream region were cross-reactive with the S proteins of the same serogroup in western blotting. The polyclonal antibodies also potently cross-neutralized viruses from the same serogroup. This study provides new insight for designing vaccine and therapeutic reagents against coronavirus infections.

  3. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Bromine and Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R; Dietrich, F; Bauer, R; Kelley, K; Mustafa, M

    2004-07-23

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of bromine and krypton (34 {le} Z {le} 37, 40 {le} N {le} 47).

  4. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Samarium, Europium, and Gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Kelley, K; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of samarium, europium and gadolinium (62 {le} Z {le} 64, 82 {le} N {le} 96).

  5. a Study of Proton Induced Nuclear Fragmentation in the Threshold Region: 1 TO 20 GEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, Thomas Craig

    This thesis contains the details of the experimental set-up and final results of BNL E-778. The experimental objective was to study proton induced nuclear fragmentation using an internal gas jet target facility that was specifically designed for this experiment and installed in the AGS main ring. The fragment telescopes were designed to measure a broad range of fragment charge (2 to 14) and kinetic energy (5 to 100 MeV). Using a mixed gas target (1% or 3% Xe with H(,2)), normalized fragment production cross sections were obtained by separately measuring p-p elastic production from the H(,2) component. Fragment production cross sections are observed to rise dramatically ((TURN) x 10) for incident proton energies between 1 and 10 GeV, while above 10 GeV, fragment production appears to be independent of the incident proton energy. The measured differential cross sections (above 10 GeV) are found to agree (within 20%) with the differential cross sections measured during a previous internal target experiment (E-591) conducted at FNAL, where the lowest available proton energies were 50 GeV. The measured fragment kinetic energy spectra (above 10 GeV) are fit with a functional form motivated by the observation that fragment production in an excited nuclear system is consistent with a critical phenomenon (a liquid -gas phase transition). The failure of this functional form at the lowest available incident energies (below 10 GeV) is interpreted as the observation of an additional fragment production mechanism. Recent theoretical and experimental evidence for an asymmetric fission process (binary decay), is used to modify the original functional form for the two-component spectra. It is concluded that, in the threshold region, two fragment production mechanisms are observed. Although insufficient information is available to uniquely separate the two components, certain features of the asymmetric fission mechanism are identified. The observed p-nucleus systematics are also

  6. Global pulses of organic carbon burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima

    PubMed Central

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The burial of organic carbon in marine sediments removes carbon dioxide from the ocean–atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic carbon in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic carbon in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this global carbon cycle sink. PMID:26923945

  7. Modern deposition rates and patterns of organic carbon burial in Fiordland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Michael T.; Allison, Mead A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Cui, Xingqian; Savage, Candida; Schüller, Susanne E.; Smith, Richard W.; Vetter, Lael

    2016-11-01

    Fjords are disproportionately important for global organic carbon (OC) burial relative to their spatial extent and may be important in sequestering atmospheric CO2, providing a negative climate feedback. Within fjords, multiple locally variable delivery mechanisms control mineral sediment deposition, which in turn modulates OC burial. Sediment and OC sources in Fiordland, New Zealand, include terrigenous input at fjord heads, sediment reworking over fjord-mouth sills, and landslide events from steep fjord walls. Box cores were analyzed for sedimentary texture, sediment accumulation rate, and OC content to evaluate the relative importance of each delivery mechanism. Sediment accumulation was up to 3.4 mm/yr in proximal and distal fjord areas, with lower rates in medial reaches. X-radiograph and 210Pb stratigraphy indicate mass wasting and surface-sediment bioturbation throughout the fjords. Sediment accumulation rates are inversely correlated with %OC. Spatial heterogeneity in sediment depositional processes and rates is important when evaluating OC burial within fjords.

  8. Different element ratios of red cosmetics excavated from ancient burials of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Minami, T; Yamada, G; Tohno, Y; Tohno, S; Ikeda, Y; Tashiro, T; Kohno, Y; Kawakami, K

    1997-07-01

    Marker elements of red cosmetics, collected from ancient burials of Matsuyama, Tokushima and Nara Japan, were determined by emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). The mass ratios of Hg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were different between samples. Element levels were compared with reference to relative amounts of sulfur. Of the possible contaminants from the bone and sand of burials, the relative amounts of Hg and Fe to S were most commonly available to evaluate the difference between the cosmetics. The cosmetics were divided into four groups; type I (high Hg with less Fe), type II (both moderate Hg and Fe), type III (moderate Hg with high Fe) and type IV (less Hg with high Fe). The main constituents of cosmetics are mercury sulfide (cinnabar) or ferric oxide mixed with trace metals. Zinc contents differ between the Fe and Hg amounts for the three areas. Cosmetic compositions varied with each burial site, suggesting that they were derived from different mines of ancient Japan.

  9. Social workers' final act of service: respectful burial arrangements for indigent, unclaimed, and unidentified people.

    PubMed

    Castex, Graciela M

    2007-10-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field burial, sometimes in coffins stacked eight deep, with no respectful ceremony of interment. This article provides an overview of societal responses to the need for a final disposition of all people; discusses demographic and social trends that, if realized, may result in a significant increase in indigent burials; and provides information on social work interventions and the identification of resources available for a respectful and dignified final disposition for a client.

  10. Electrical resistivity survey to search for a recent clandestine burial of a homicide victim, UK.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R

    2010-10-10

    This case report details an electrical resistivity survey to assist the search for a suspected 1-year-old clandestine burial of a murder victim in North Wales in the UK. Conventional search techniques (victim recovery dogs and probing) proved unsuccessful, and with a significant survey area and a high clay content soil precluding GPR as a geophysical search method, a resistivity survey was instead trialled. Ten resistivity grids were collected and site detrended with user-specified, contoured anomalies being generated. The resulting anomalies were compared to anomalies derived from similar-aged, simulated clandestine burial surveys. Seven anomalies with comparative sizes and amplitudes (±3Ω) of the simulated burials were identified within the search area and prioritised for further investigation. The shallowly buried victim was subsequently recovered outside the survey area.

  11. Potential application of Raman spectroscopy for determining burial duration of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2011-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to study trends in chemical composition of bones in a burial environment. A turkey bone was sectioned and buried for short intervals between 12 and 62 days. Buried sections were analyzed using Raman microspectroscopy with 785 nm excitation. The results indicate that chemical changes in bone due to soil bacteria are time-dependent. Spectroscopic trends within buried bone segments were correlated to burial duration. A preliminary model was constructed using peak integration of Raman bands. Data collected within buried bone segments fit very well in this model. The model constructed is sensitive to changes in bone composition in a scale of days. This study illustrates the great potential of Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for estimating the burial duration of bone for forensic purposes.

  12. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  13. Field survey of the shallow land low-level radioactive waste burial site near Beatty, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, H.L.; Wogman, N.A.; Kirby, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine radioactivity levels in surface soil at the site as part of an effort to confirm the boundaries of existing waste burial trenches, locate any additional radioactive wastes beyond the established burial area, characterize the distribution of radionuclides around the waste burial site, and determine whether movement of radioactivity from unearthed waste drums had occurred. Cesium-137, /sup 60/Co, and some other radionuclides were measured around the perimeter fence and in the area where waste drums were excavated along the northern fence. The data are compared with information generated by subsurface pulsed radar techniques. In addition, the in-situ counting measurements were compared with analyses of soil samples taken below ground surface at each counting location.

  14. 3-nitropropionic acid-induced mitochondrial permeability transition: comparative study of mitochondria from different tissues and brain regions.

    PubMed

    Mirandola, Sandra R; Melo, Daniela R; Saito, Angela; Castilho, Roger F

    2010-02-15

    The adult rat striatum is particularly vulnerable to systemic administration of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), which is known to induce degeneration of the caudate-putamen, as occurs in Huntington's disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the susceptibility of isolated mitochondria from different rat brain regions (striatum, cortex, and cerebellum) as well as from the liver, kidney, and heart to mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) induced by 3NP and Ca(2+). In the presence of micromolar Ca(2+) concentrations, 3NP induces MPT in a dose-dependent manner, as estimated by mitochondrial swelling and a decrease in the transmembrane electrical potential. A 3NP concentration capable of promoting a 10% inhibition of ADP-stimulated, succinate-supported respiration was sufficient to stimulate Ca(2+)-induced MPT. Brain and heart mitochondria were generally more sensitive to 3NP and Ca(2+)-induced MPT than mitochondria from liver and kidney. In addition, a partial inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by 3NP resulted in more pronounced MPT in striatal mitochondria than in cortical or cerebellar organelles. A similar inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase activity was observed in rat tissue homogenates obtained from various brain regions as well as from liver, kidney, and heart 24 hr after a single i.p. 3NP dose. Mitochondria isolated from forebrains of 3NP-treated rats were also more susceptible to Ca(2+)-induced MPT than those of control rats. We propose that the increased susceptibility of the striatum to 3NP-induced neurodegeneration may be partially explained by its susceptibility to MPT, together with the greater vulnerability of this brain region to glutamate receptor-mediated Ca(2+) influx.

  15. Brain regions influenced by the lateral parabrachial nucleus in angiotensin II-induced water intake.

    PubMed

    Davern, P J; McKinley, M J

    2013-11-12

    This study examined which brain regions are influenced by an inhibitory lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) mechanism that affects water intake. Controls and rats with bilateral LPBN lesions were administered angiotensin II (AngII) (0.5mg/kg subcutaneous - SC), drinking responses measured, and brains processed for Fos-immunohistochemistry. A separate group of LPBN-lesioned and non-lesioned animals were denied water for 90 min prior to perfusion to remove any confounding factor of water intake. LPBN-lesioned rats drank a cumulative volume of 9 mL compared with <4 mL by controls (p<0.01). Compared with sham-lesioned animals, Fos expression was attenuated in overdrinking LPBN-lesioned rats in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) (p<0.001), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala (p<0.01). In LPBN-lesioned rats that did not drink, greater numbers of activated neurons were detected in the PVN (p<0.001), SON (p<0.01), MnPO, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema (p<0.05) in response to SC AngII, compared with non-lesioned rats. These data suggest that the direct effects of LPBN lesions caused an increase in AngII-induced water intake and in rats that did not drink an increase in Fos expression, while indirect secondary effects of LPBN lesions caused a reduction in Fos expression possibly related to excessive ingestion of water. An inhibitory mechanism, likely related to arterial baroreceptor stimulation, relayed by neurons located in the LPBN influences the responses of the MnPO, PVN and SON to increases in peripheral AngII.

  16. Prolactin induces regional vasoconstriction through the beta2-adrenergic and nitric oxide mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Claudio; Grossini, Elena; Mary, David A S G; Uberti, Francesca; Ghigo, Ezio; Ribichini, Flavio; Surico, Nicola; Vacca, Giovanni

    2007-08-01

    Prolactin has been associated with many effects and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, although little is known about its vascular effects. The present study was designed to determine the primary effect of prolactin on regional vascular beds and the mechanisms involved. In 37 anesthetized pigs, the infusion of 0.17 mug/kg min of prolactin at constant heart rate and arterial pressure decreased coronary, mesenteric, renal, and iliac blood flow. This response was graded in further five pigs by increasing the infused dose of the hormone between 0.017 and 1 mug/kg min. In 22 of the 37 pigs, blockade of cholinergic receptors (five pigs) and of alpha-adrenoceptors (five pigs) did not affect the prolactin-induced vascular response, which was abolished by blockade of beta(2)-adrenoceptors (five pigs) and by blockade of vascular nitric oxide (NO) synthase (seven pigs). In 15 of the 37 pigs the increases in measured blood flows caused by iv infusion of isoproterenol (five pigs) and by intraarterial administration of acetylcholine (five pigs) and of sodium nitroprusside (five pigs) were significantly reduced by infusion of prolactin. Moreover, the treatment of porcine aortic endothelial cells by prolactin caused a reduction of NO production and of the phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p38, which was prevented by the concomitant treatment by the beta(2)-adrenergic agonist albuterol. The present study showed that iv infusion of prolactin primarily caused coronary, mesenteric, renal, and iliac vasoconstriction. These effects were brought about by the inhibition of a vasodilatory beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated effect related to the NO intracellular pathway.

  17. Environmental mutagens induced transversions but not transitions in regulatory region of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Michael A; Huang, Sarah X L; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Ahsan, Habibul; Davidson, Mercy M; Hei, Tom K

    2009-01-01

    One of the long-term objectives of the research in our laboratory was to determine whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations were generated in cell lines exposed to a variety of known mutagens. Many of these mutagens are known to increase oxidative stress in the cell, and one potential outcome of this would be an increased incidence of point mutations in mtDNA. Recently, there has been some controversy regarding the validity of point mutations in the regulatory region of mtDNA as a predictive or causative marker for carcinogenesis. Studies were undertaken to assess whether nuclear mutagens such as arsenic (As), asbestos, and ultraviolet (UV) and gamma-radiation, induced both heteroplasmic and homoplasmic point mutations in mtDNA. A direct sequencing approach was used to reduce the occurrence of experimental errors and cross-checked all base changes with databases of known polymorphisms. Our results showed that, while base changes did occur, there was no marked difference between the number of changes in treated and untreated cells. Furthermore, in human lymphocyte samples from subjects exposed to As, most of these base changes were previously reported. Interestingly, there was an increase in the number of transversions (purine ( pyrimidine) in smokers from a human population study, but as with the findings in cell culture samples, there was no difference in the total number of base changes. Data suggest that only a change in the number of rare transversions would be indicative of an increase in point mutations in mtDNA after exposure to mutagens.

  18. Seismically induced pressure transients at geothermal reservoirs in the eastern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woith, Heiko; Wang, Rongjiang; Caka, Deniz; Irmak, T. Serkan; Tunc, Berna; Luehr, Birger-G.; Baris, Serif

    2014-05-01

    The potential role of fluids in processes related to the triggering of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions is frequently emphasized. Here, we focus on the response of hydrogeological systems to earthquakes, specifically on seismically induced pore-pressure variations in geothermal areas located in the eastern Marmara region. At a 500 m deep artesian geothermal well the pressure is continuously being monitored at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. A seismometer is co-located close to the well-head and the data are recorded by the same digitizer. Hydro-seismograms were recorded in relation to local and distant earthquakes. The ML=5.2 Manyas earthquake which occurred on 20 October 2006 at a distance of 77 km led to a dynamic response of the pore pressure of the order of 4 mbar triggered upon the arrival of the S-wave. Four days later, the ML=5.2 Gemlik earthquake at a distance of 20 km led to a dynamic pore pressure response of the order of 15 mbar triggered upon the arrival of the P-wave. In both cases the peak amplitude of the ground velocity was about 2 mm/s. Weak oscillations of the pore pressure were observed during the passage of surface waves generated by remote earthquakes at distances of up to 9,000 km. Additionally to the dynamic response, a small persistent pressure increase of 1 and 2 mbar had been recorded after both local earthquakes. According to preliminary results, the observed pressure increase is opposite to the static pressure decrease predicted by Okada's model. At the present stage we conclude that the response of the Armutlu geothermal system to earthquakes is likely caused by a dynamic interaction of passing seismic waves (P-, S-, and surface waves) with the fluid reservoir in case a threshold of the ground shaking is exceeded.

  19. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone at the burial site for low-level radioactive waste near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste has been buried in trenches at a site near Beatty, Nevada, since 1962. In 1976, as part of a national program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the geohydrology of the waste burial site to provide a basis for estimating the potential for radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste burial trenches. Data collected include meteorological information for calibration of a long-term water budget analysis, soil moisture profiles, soil water potentials, and hydraulic properties of representative unsaturated sediment samples to a depth of about 10 m. The waste burial facility is in the northern Amargosa Desert about 170 km northwest of Las Vegas, NV. The region is arid; mean annual precipitation at Lathrop Wells, 30 km south of the site, is only 7.4 cm. The mean daily maximum temperature at Lathrop Wells in July, the hottest month, is 37 C. The site is underlain by poorly stratified deposits of gravelly or silty sand and sandy gravel, and thick beds of clayey sediments. The total thickness of valley fill deposits beneath the site is about 175 m; the unsaturated zone is about 85 m thick. Volumetric soil moisture to depths of 4 m ranges from 4% to 10%, but commonly is in the range from 6% to 8%. Soil water potential, measured to depths of 3 to 10 m, ranged from -10 to -70 bars. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity computed from laboratory analyses of representative samples ranges from 10 to the -13th power to 10 to the -4th power cm/day. Evaporation studies over a 2-yr period were used to calibrate a numerical procedure for analyzing long-term precipitation data and estimating annual water budgets during the 15-yr period 1962-76. This analysis (1) demonstrated that a potential exists for deep percolation (> 2 m), despite high annual evaporation demands, and (2) provided predictions of the time of yr and the antecedent conditions which enhance the probability of deep percolation. Soil moisture profiles obtained

  20. Natural and induced endoreic hydrological conditions in the Alta Murgia karstic region (Apulia, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, F.; Fidelibus, M. D.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    A study aimed at understanding the hydrological processes in karst areas related to the presence of natural and artificial endoreic basins and their modification due to land use change, as well as the influence of above factors on the infiltration rate has been carried out in the Alta Murgia region (Apulia, Southern Italy). The region is a Cretaceous limestone plateau of the Apulian platform, characterized by a mature karstic landscape: due to its elevation, climatic conditions and lithology, the plateau constitutes the main recharge area of the Murgia aquifer. The typical karst topography is essentially related to the subterranean drainage (sinkholes, caves, conduit): surface and subsurface karst geomorphology is strictly interrelated with hydrology. The morphological features of the karstic plateau are defined by the high density of surface karstic forms (mainly dolines), the presence of exposed karst and karren fields, as well as by the extensive outcrop of fractured rocks. Karst surface shows, on the bottom of the morpho-structural depressions called "lame", natural distribution of modest deposits of "terra rossa" and regolith. The "lame" work as streams during and after intense rainfall events, often outlining a primordial ephemeral hydrographical network, frequently convergent towards dolines, poljes or endoreic basins. Alta Murgia shows many natural endoreic basin conditions in a quite flat morphology. In this environment, when intense rainfall events cover large areas and rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of soils and/or sinkholes, significant runoff amounts are produced and stored in the basins causing floods. Most of the natural endoreic basins are small and independent: while the majority of them continue functioning as endoreic even in presence of extreme events of high return time, others (quasi-endoreic), under the same circumstances can start contributing to other basins, due to exceeding their water storage capability. This way

  1. New Hydroxyproline Radiocarbon Dates from Sungir, Russia, Confirm Early Mid Upper Palaeolithic Burials in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials [1], [2], [3]. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site [4]. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated ‘Red Lady of Paviland’ human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia. PMID:24416120

  2. The upper paleolithic burial area at Predmostí: ritual and taphonomy.

    PubMed

    A Svoboda, Jirí

    2008-01-01

    Paleoanthropological materials from Predmostí, recovered by J. Wankel in 1884, K.J. Maska in 1894, M. Kríz in 1895, and K. Absolon in 1928 (and probably 1930), represent one of the largest collections of early modern human remains. Unfortunately, most of these fossils were destroyed in 1945. The aim of this paper is to create a list of finds in accordance with the discovery dates, to place them into the spatial and chronological context of the site, and to compare them with the evidence from recent excavation in 2006. Two competing hypotheses are raised in the literature suggesting that the Predmostí individuals represent either a contemporary burial as a consequence of one catastrophic event, or a gradual accumulation of human bodies at one place. Whereas the first hypothesis is supported by the demographic structure of the buried group, including adults and children, the second interpretation is based on stratigraphic and taphonomic analysis of the burial area itself. Using the original documentation of Maska and other early researchers, and my own experience from recent excavation in the remaining part of the site, I attempt to reconstruct the plan of the site, with a focus on spatial distribution of the human fossils, especially in the main burial area. I suggest that the burial place was not the settlement center, but rather a peripheral and task-specific area. The determining factor for location of the burial area was likely the remarkable Skalka rock, a cliff that rose directly above the site. A long-term tendency to place the dead "below the rock" may have given rise to the accumulation of human remains at a single place, with a scatter of dispersed fragments in the vicinity. At this location, the human bodies were partly protected by soil coverage, limestone debris, and mammoth scapulae, but were also affected by postdepositional processes such as redeposition of sediments, predator activities, and later human activities, including the burial of

  3. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  4. Germination and emergence of annual species and burial depth: Implications for restoration ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limón, Ángeles; Peco, Begoña

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high content of viable seeds, topsoil is usually spread on ground left bare during railway and motorway construction to facilitate the regeneration of vegetation cover. However, during handling of the topsoil, seeds are often buried deeply and they cannot germinate or the seedlings cannot emerge from depth. This study experimentally explores the predictive value of seed mass for seed germination, mortality and seedling emergence at different burial depths for 13 common annual species in semiarid Mediterranean environments. We separate the effect of burial depth on germination and emergence by means of two experiments. In the germination experiment, five replicates of 20 seeds for each species were buried at depths ranging from 0 to 4 cm under greenhouse conditions. Germinated and empty or rotten seeds were counted after 8 weeks. In the emergence experiment, five replicates of four newly-germinated seeds per species were buried at the same depths under controlled conditions and emergence was recorded after 3 weeks. The effect of burial depth on percentage of germination and seedling emergence was dependent on seed size. Although all species showed a decrease in germination with burial depth, this decrease was greater for small-than large-seeded species. Percentage of emergence was positively related to seed mass but negatively related to burial depth. Seed mortality was higher for small-than large-seeded species, but there was no general effect of burial depth on this variable. Thus, the current practice of spreading 30 cm deep layers of topsoil in post-construction restoration projects is unadvisable. In this restoration scenario, thinner layers of topsoil should be used to achieve the maximum potential of the topsoil for germination and seedling establishment.

  5. NMR-based metabolomics reveals brain region-specific metabolic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Lin, Qiuting; Wang, Dan; Xu, Pengtao; Zhao, Liangcai; Hu, Wenyi; Bai, Guanghui; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cognitive dysfunction, but its potential metabolic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the metabolite profiling in eight different brain regions of the normal rats and the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats accompanied by cognitive dysfunction using a (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach. A mixed linear model analysis was performed to assess the effects of DM, brain region and their interaction on metabolic changes. We found that different brain regions in rats displayed significant metabolic differences. In addition, the hippocampus was more susceptible to DM compared with other brain regions in rats. More interestingly, significant interaction effects of DM and brain region were observed on alanine, creatine/creatine-phosphate, lactate, succinate, aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glycine, choline, N-acetylaspartate, myo-inositol and taurine. Based on metabolic pathway analysis, we speculate that cognitive dysfunction in the STZ-induced diabetic rats may be associated with brain region-specific metabolic alterations involving energy metabolism, neurotransmitters, membrane metabolism and osmoregulation.

  6. Tilting, burial, and uplift of the Guadalupe Igneous Complex, Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Paterson, Scott R.

    1993-01-01

    It is often incorrectly assumed that plutons have a relatively uneventful structural history after emplacement. The 151 Ma Guadalupe Igneous Complex (GIC) in the Foothills Terrane, California, was involved in three post-emplacement events: (1) ∼30° of southwestside-up tilting during ductile regional faulting and contraction, (2) burial of the pluton from ∼4 to 12 km during crustal thickening of the wall rocks, and (3) uplift with only minor tilting in the Late Cretaceous. Tilting of the pluton is indicated by (1) southwest to northeast gradational changes from layered gabbros and diorites to granites and granophyres; (2) northeastward dips of layering in gabbro, internal contacts, and bedding of overlying coeval(?) volcanic rocks; (3) northeastward decrease in wall-rock metamorphic grade; and (4) paleomagnetic data from 14 localities across the pluton. We argue that tilting occurred between 146-135 Ma during southwest-northeast-directed regional contraction. This contraction is indicated by widespread folds and cleavages and by reverse motion on the Bear Mountains fault zone (BMFZ), a large northeast-dipping shear zone that bounds the GIC on its southwest side. Burial of the GIC, which overlapped in time but outlasted tilting, is suggested by (1) post-emplacement contractional faulting, folding, and cleavage development; (2) analyses of strains associated with widespread cleavage that indicate vertical thickening of ∼100% and (3) microstructural and mineral assemblage data that indicate shallow emplacement of the GIC, in contrast to mineral assemblage and limited geobarometric data from adjacent 120-110 Ma plutons that indicate moderate emplacement levels. Late Cretaceous uplift is indicated by 95-75 Ma sedimentary rocks that unconformably overlie the 120-110 Ma plutons.This geologic history is interesting for several reasons. First, although the GIC participated in extensive post-emplacement deformation, it lacks internal structural evidence of these events

  7. Radiation-Induced Reductions in Regional Lung Perfusion: 0.1-12 Year Data From a Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Junan; Ma Jinli; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Folz, Rodney J.; Evans, Elizabeth S.; Jaszczak, Ronald J.; Clough, Robert; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the time and regional dependence of radiation therapy (RT)-induced reductions in regional lung perfusion 0.1-12 years post-RT, as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) lung perfusion. Materials/Methods: Between 1991 and 2005, 123 evaluable patients receiving RT for tumors in/around the thorax underwent SPECT lung perfusion scans before and serially post-RT (0.1-12 years). Registration of pre- and post-RT SPECT images with the treatment planning computed tomography, and hence the three-dimensional RT dose distribution, allowed changes in regional SPECT-defined perfusion to be related to regional RT dose. Post-RT follow-up scans were evaluated at multiple time points to determine the time course of RT-induced regional perfusion changes. Population dose response curves (DRC) for all patients at different time points, different regions, and subvolumes (e.g., whole lungs, cranial/caudal, ipsilateral/contralateral) were generated by combining data from multiple patients at similar follow-up times. Each DRC was fit to a linear model, and differences statistically analyzed. Results: In the overall groups, dose-dependent reductions in perfusion were seen at each time post-RT. The slope of the DRC increased over time up to 18 months post-RT, and plateaued thereafter. Regional differences in DRCs were only observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, and appeared due to tumor-associated changes in regional perfusion. Conclusions: Thoracic RT causes dose-dependent reductions in regional lung perfusion that progress up to {approx}18 months post-RT and persists thereafter. Tumor shrinkage appears to confound the observed dose-response relations. There appears to be similar dose response for healthy parts of the lungs at different locations.

  8. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Borehole Sampling at 118-B-1 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    W. S. Thompson

    2007-04-02

    The Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) Field Remediation Project has removed all of the disposed materials and contaminated soil from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground with the exception of tritium-contaminated soil that is believed to extend from the bottom of the present excavation to groundwater and is believed to contribute to tritium contamination observed at down-gradient monitoring Well 199-B8-6. This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis for characterization of the vertical distribution of tritium contamination in the vadose zone soil below the 118-B-1 Burial Ground remedial action excavation.

  9. Tillage energy savings from zone burial of shredded and whole cotton stalks

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.; Chesson, J.; Thacker, G.; Penner, V.

    1996-04-01

    Two prototypes of a stalk burial implement were tested for energy requirements at the University of California, Shafter Research Station. Both versions of the implement are designed to bury the cotton stalks in a concentrated Zone and reform the bed in the same location. To plow under shredded stalks, both versions of the implement required less energy than a conventional tillage systems typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Both stalk burial implements were also used to plow under whole cotton stalks. This offers additional energy savings by eliminating the stalk shredding operation.

  10. The Sulfur Isotope Composition of the Pyrite Burial Flux in the Modern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchyn, A. V.; Antler, G.; Byrne, D. J.; Sun, X.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction followed by sulfide mineral burial, typically as pyrite, represents the largest removal pathway for sulfur from the exogenic sulfur reservoir. During microbial sulfate reduction, sulfur isotopes are partitioned such that the lighter 32S isotope is preferentially reduced; the magnitude of this partitioning has a large range (0 to 72‰), and therefore the average sulfur isotope composition of the global pyrite burial flux remains enigmatic. Recent work has mapped the global spatial distribution of microbial sulfate reduction rates in the modern ocean, which allows conclusions to be drawn concerning the conditions and controls on where sulfate respiration occurs (Bowles et al., 2014). The local rate of sulfate reduction in a particular sediment column can be calculated by the change in sulfate concentrations in pore fluids below the surface, which yields the net flux of sulfate into marine sediments. A flux of sulfate into the sediment is assumed to be due to diffusion along a concentration gradient set up by the consumption of sulfate at depth. We have calculated the deep-sea rates of microbial sulfate reduction using over 700 drilling sites and arrive at a similar estimate of the global modern rate of sulfate respiration. Rates of sulfate reduction are not, however, the same as the rates of pyrite burial, which is likely limited to the uppermost sediments where reactive iron may be available, or in the most nearshore environments where the terrestrial supply of iron is high and rates of sulfate reduction are orders of magnitude higher than those in the deep-sea. Sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction is a function of several environmental factors, including the rate of sulfate reduction. We use a new compilation of the link between sulfate reduction rate and sulfur isotope fractionation with a model of pyrite burial in a range of modern marine sediments to derive an estimate of the global pyrite burial flux and

  11. Geohydrology of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground, 200-West Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, B.N.

    1990-05-01

    Construction a disposal facility for solid, mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State (Figure 1) is planned. A site-specific performance assessment for each new disposal facility to ensure that wastes will be isolated from the environment is required. To demonstrate the adequacy of the facility for isolating the wastes, computer codes are used to simulate the physical processes that could cause the waste to migrate to underground water supplies or to the land's surface. The purpose of this report is provide a compilation and interpretation of geologic and hydrologic data available use in the performance assessment modeling. A variety of data are needed to model flow and transport from a solid-waste burial trench. These data include soil water content, soil moisture potential, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and phase mineralogy of the soils and sediments within the vadose zone. The hydrologic data that are critical for quantifying the water storage and transport properties for unsaturated soils require a characterization of the heterogeneities of various soil layers and the moisture characteristic curves for these layers. Hydraulic properties and mineralogic data for the saturated sediments are also important for modelling the flow and transport of wastes in the unconfined aquifer. This report begins with a discussion of the procedures and methods used to gather data both in the field and in the laboratory. This is followed by a summary of the geology, including the stratigraphic framework, lithofacies, and mineralogic/geochemical characteristics of the suprabasalt sediments. The hydrology of the region of the site is discussed next. In this discussion, the characteristics of the uppermost aquifer(s), unsaturated zone, and the various hydrogeologic units are presented. 54 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. The presence of nuclear families in prehistoric collective burials revisited: the bronze age burial of Montanissell Cave (Spain) in the light of aDNA.

    PubMed

    Simón, Marc; Jordana, Xavier; Armentano, Nuria; Santos, Cristina; Díaz, Nancy; Solórzano, Eduvigis; López, Joan B; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2011-11-01

    Ancient populations have commonly been thought to have lived in small groups where extreme endogamy was the norm. To contribute to this debate, a genetic analysis has been carried out on a collective burial with eight primary inhumations from Montanissell Cave in the Catalan pre-Pyrenees. Radiocarbon dating clearly placed the burial in the Bronze Age, around 3200 BP. The composition of the group-two adults (one male, one female), one young woman, and five children from both sexes-seemed to represent the structure of a typical nuclear family. The genetic evidence proves this assumption to be wrong. In fact, at least five out of the eight mitochondrial haplotypes were different, denying the possibility of a common maternal ancestor for all of them. Nevertheless, 50% of the inhumations shared haplogroup J, so the possibility of a maternal relationship cannot be ruled out. Actually, combining different analyses performed using ancient and living populations, the probability of having four related J individuals in Montanissell Cave would range from 0.9884 to 0.9999. Owing to the particularities of this singular collective burial (small number of bodies placed altogether in a hidden cave, the evidence of non-simultaneous interments, close dating and unusual grave goods), we suggest that it might represent a small group with a patrilocal mating system.

  13. Ameliorative effects of Bacopa monniera on lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Basuri, Charan Kumar; Robinson Taylor, Kendra S; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Rajanna, Sharada; Rajanna, Bettaiya

    2014-07-01

    Bacopa monniera is a rejuvenating herb for brain cells enhancing learning and cognitive ability. In the present investigation, the ameliorative effects of Bacopa monniera were examined against lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain. Male rats were divided into five groups: control (1000 ppm sodium acetate) and exposed (1000 ppm lead acetate) for 4 weeks; DMSA (Meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid)-treated (90 mg/kg body weight/day); Bacopa monniera-treated (BM) (10 mg/kg body weight/day) and a combination of BM + DMSA for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After treatment, the whole brain was isolated by sacrificing rats and four regions were separated namely cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex and brain stem. Results indicated a significant (p < 0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP) and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) in association with tissue metal content in all the four regions of brain for exposed group compared with their respective controls. However, the lead-induced ROS, LPP, TPCC and tissue metal content were lowered on treatment with Bacopa monniera, almost reaching the control group values in all the above brain regions compared to DMSA and a combination therapy. Results suggest that Bacopa monniera can mitigate the lead induced-oxidative stress tissue specifically by pharmacologic interventions which encompass both chelation as well as antioxidant functions.

  14. Differential changes in Neuregulin-1 signaling in major brain regions in a lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation mouse model

    PubMed Central

    YANG, ZHAI; JIANG, QIONG; CHEN, SHUANG-XI; HU, CHENG-LIANG; SHEN, HUI-FAN; HUANG, PEI-ZHI; XU, JUN-PING; MEI, JIN-PING; ZHANG, BEN-PING; ZHAO, WEI-JIANG

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) is involved in multiple biological processes in the nervous system. The present study investigated changes in Nrg1 signaling in the major brain regions of mice subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal injection of LPS, mouse brain tissues, including tissues from the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus, were collected. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of Nrg1 and its receptors, Neu and ErbB4, at the mRNA level. Western blotting was performed to determine the levels of these proteins and the protein levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk)1/2 and Akt1. Immunohistochemical staining was utilized to detect the levels of pNeu and pErbB4 in these regions. LPS successfully induced sites of neuroinflammation in these regions, in which changes in Nrg1, Neu and ErbB4 at the mRNA and protein levels were identified compared with controls. LPS induced a reduction in pNeu and pErbB4 in the striatum and hypothalamus, although marginally increased pErbB4 levels were found in the hippocampus. LPS increased the overall phosphorylation of Src but this effect was reduced in the hypothalamus. Moreover, increased phosphorylation of Akt1 was found in the striatum and hippocampus. These data suggest diverse roles for Nrg1 signaling in these regions during the process of neuroinflammation. PMID:27220549

  15. High ambient temperature increases 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy")-induced Fos expression in a region-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, G A; Hunt, G E; Cornish, J L; McGregor, I S

    2007-03-16

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a popular drug that is often taken under hot conditions at dance clubs. High ambient temperature increases MDMA-induced hyperthermia and recent studies suggest that high temperatures may also enhance the rewarding and prosocial effects of MDMA in rats. The present study investigated whether ambient temperature influences MDMA-induced expression of Fos, a marker of neural activation. Male Wistar rats received either MDMA (10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline, and were placed in test chambers for 2 h at either 19 or 30 degrees C. MDMA caused significant hyperthermia at 30 degrees C and a modest hypothermia at 19 degrees C. The 30 degrees C ambient temperature had little effect on Fos expression in vehicle-treated rats. However MDMA-induced Fos expression was augmented in 15 of 30 brain regions at the high temperature. These regions included (1) sites associated with thermoregulation such as the median preoptic nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and raphe pallidus, (2) the supraoptic nucleus, a region important for osmoregulation and a key mediator of oxytocin and vasopressin release, (3) the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala, important in the regulation of social and emotional behaviors, and (4) the shell of the nucleus accumbens and (anterior) ventral tegmental area, regions associated with the reinforcing effects of MDMA. MDMA-induced Fos expression was unaffected by ambient temperature at many other sites, and was diminished at high temperature at one site (the islands of Calleja), suggesting that the effect of temperature on MDMA-induced Fos expression was not a general pharmacokinetic effect. Overall, these results indicate that high temperatures accentuate key neural effects of MDMA and this may help explain the widespread use of the drug under hot conditions at dance parties as well as the more hazardous nature of MDMA taken under such conditions.

  16. Cenozoic burial and exhumation history of the Kangerlussuaq area, East Greenland, revealed by new apatite fission-track data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Nielsen, Troels F.

    2010-05-01

    The Kangerlussuaq area in East Greenland (c. 68°N) has witnessed a complex geological development during the Cenozoic. The Skaergaard intrusion and the up to 5 km thick flood basalts formed during a short period around 55 Ma, and subsequently numerous intrusive bodies were emplaced, primarily during the Eocene. Relatively little is known about the geological history over the last 35 Myr, other than that an outlier of Middle Miocene lavas is located in the area at an elevation of c. 2.7 km. At the present-day, the area is deeply eroded and magmatic bodies that were emplaced deeply in the crust, are now exposed at the surface, but at the same time, the area has a significant elevation and even hosts the highest peak in Greenland, Gunbjørn Fjeld, 3.7 km above sea level. To unravel the history of burial and exhumation in the Kangerlussuaq area, new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data has been acquired for 75 rock samples. Preliminary results show that the area has been subject to several phases of cooling since burial under the Palaeogene flood basalts. Phases of regional cooling along the coast that occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition and in the late Neogene are interpreted to be due to uplift and exhumation. Cooling events of local extent that occurred in the Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene are interpreted to be related to both exhumation and to circulating hot fluids. Results from samples along vertical transects reveal details of the protracted exhumation history, and that the present topography was formed during the late Neogene.

  17. 1,3-dinitrobenzene induces age- and region-specific oxidation to mitochondria-related proteins in brain.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Laura L; Landis, Rory W; Remmer, Henriette; Bergin, Ingrid L; Philbert, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Regions of the brain with high energy requirements are especially sensitive to perturbations in mitochondrial function. Hence, neurotoxicant exposures that target mitochondria in regions of high energy demand have the potential to accelerate mitochondrial damage inherently occurring during the aging process. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (DNB) is a model neurotoxicant that selectively targets mitochondria in brainstem nuclei innervated by the eighth cranial nerve. This study investigates the role of age in the regional susceptibility of brain mitochondria-related proteins (MRPs) to oxidation following exposure to DNB. Male F344 rats (1 month old [young], 3 months old [adult], 18 months old [aged]) were exposed to 10 mg/kg DNB prior to mitochondrial isolation and histopathology experiments. Using a high-throughput proteomic approach, 3 important region- and age-related increases in DNB-induced MRP oxidation were determined: (1) brainstem mitochondria are ×3 more sensitive to DNB-induced oxidation than cortical mitochondria; (2) oxidation of brainstem MRPs is significantly higher than in cortical counterparts; and (3) MRPs from the brainstems of older rats are significantly more oxidized than those from young or adult rats. Furthermore, lower levels of DNB cause signs of intoxication (ataxia, chromodacryorrhea) and vacuolation of the susceptible neuropil in aged animals, while neither is observed in DNB-exposed young rats. Additionally, methemoglobin levels increase significantly in DNB-exposed adult and aged animals, but not young DNB-exposed animals. This suggests that oxidation of key MRPs observed in brainstem of aged animals is necessary for DNB-induced signs of intoxication and lesion formation. These results provide compelling evidence that environmental chemicals such as DNB may aid in the acceleration of injury to specific brain regions by inducing oxidation of sensitive mitochondrial proteins.

  18. 31 CFR 560.542 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 560.542 Section 560.542 Money and Finance... Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.542 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation..., cremation, or interment, as well as of coffins or other receptacles containing such human remains, from...

  19. 31 CFR 560.542 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 560.542 Section 560.542 Money and Finance... Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.542 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation..., cremation, or interment, as well as of coffins or other receptacles containing such human remains, from...

  20. 25 CFR 20.210 - Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.210 Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial... provided by law, the Bureau nor a tribe may change eligibility criteria or levels of payment for...

  1. Effects of fragment traits, burial orientation and nutrient supply on survival and growth in Populus deltoides × P. simonii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Su, Zhi-Qin; Xu, Lie; Shi, Xue-Ping; Du, Ke-Bing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Yong-Jian

    2016-02-15

    Clonal propagations of shoot or root fragments play pivotal roles in adaptation of clonal trees to environmental heterogeneity, i.e. soil nutrient heterogeneity and burials after disturbance. However, little is known about whether burial orientation and nutrient supply can alter the effects of fragment traits in Populus. Shoot and root fragments of Populus deltoides × P. simonii were subjected to burials in two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm), two fragment lengths (5 and 15 cm) and three burial orientations (horizontal, upward and downward). For the shoot fragments, survival and growth were significantly higher in the larger pieces (either in length or diameter) and the horizontal/upward burial position. On the contrary, the effect of burial position was reversed for the root fragments. Shoot/root fragments of 15 cm in length in horizontal burial position were then subjected to two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm) and four types of nutrient supplies (without nutrient, low frequency, high frequency and patchy). Growth of shoot fragments of 2.0 cm in diameter significantly increased in high frequency and patchy nutrient supplies than that of without nutrient treatment. These results suggest that burial orientation and nutrient supply could be employed in clonal propagations of cuttings, afforestation or regeneration in Populus.

  2. 25 CFR 20.210 - Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.210 Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial... provided by law, the Bureau nor a tribe may change eligibility criteria or levels of payment for...

  3. 25 CFR 20.210 - Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.210 Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial... provided by law, the Bureau nor a tribe may change eligibility criteria or levels of payment for...

  4. 25 CFR 20.210 - Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.210 Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial... provided by law, the Bureau nor a tribe may change eligibility criteria or levels of payment for...

  5. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to...

  6. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization causes stream degradation in various ways, but perhaps the most extreme example is the burial of streams in underground storm drains to facilitate above ground development or to promote the rapid conveyance of stormwater. Stream burial is extensive in urban basins (...

  7. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H; Schepmoes, Athena A; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Weitz, Karl K; Petritis, Brianne O; Monroe, Matthew E; Camp, David G; Wood, Stephen A; Melega, William P; Bigelow, Diana J; Smith, Desmond J; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-β pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of

  8. Burial, remineralization and utilization of organic matter at the seafloor under a strong western boundary current. Annual progress report, 1 May 1993--30 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, R.A.

    1993-12-30

    The overall objectives of this project are to quantify the rates of organic carbon export from the southern mid-Atlantic Bight and to quantify the rates at which carbon is exchanged between the inorganic and organic pools within the bottom sediments. The strategy for achieving these goals is to quantify the rates of benthic exchange and burial of bioactive elements including oxidants (such as oxygen, nitrate, sulfate), micronutrient, and carbon system parameters on the continental shelf, slope and rise regions within and adjacent to the south portion of the mid-Atlantic Bight. This information, in conjunction with burial rates provided by others in this program, will be used to determine the locations and rates of export and oxidative loss of organic matter from the shelf. During this past funding period, three expeditions were completed to the study region, successfully conducting 6 in situ benthic flux chamber experiments. The results provide an initial assessment of the magnitude and location of organic matter export from the southern Middle Atlantic Bight shelf and of the importance of this region as a supplier of organic carbon to the North Atlantic Ocean Basin.

  9. Angiotensin II Induces a Region-Specific Hyperplasia of the Ascending Aorta Through Regulation of Inhibitor of Differentiation 3

    PubMed Central

    Owens, A. Phillip; Subramanian, Venkateswaran; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Guo, Zhenheng; McNamara, Coleen A.; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Angiotensin II (AngII) has diverse effects on smooth muscle cells. The diversity of effects may relate to the regional location of this cell type. Objective The aim of this study was to define whether AngII exerted divergent effects on smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the aorta and determine the role of blood pressure and specific oxidant mechanisms. Methods and Results AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min) infusion for 28 days into mice increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and promoted medial expansion of equivalent magnitude throughout the entire aorta. Both effects were ablated by AT1a receptor deficiency. Similar increases in blood pressure by administration of norepinephrine promoted no changes in aortic medial thickness. Increased medial thickness was due to SMC expansion attributable to hypertrophy in most aortic regions, with the exception of hyperplasia of the ascending aorta. Deficiency of the p47phox component of NADPH oxidase ablated AngII-induced medial expansion in all aortic regions. Analysis of mRNA and protein throughout the aorta revealed a much higher abundance of the inhibitor of differentiation 3 (Id3) in the ascending aorta compared to all other regions. A functional role was demonstrated by Id3 deficiency inhibiting AngII-induced SMC hyperplasia of the ascending aorta. Conclusions In conclusion, AngII promotes both aortic medial hypertrophy and hyperplasia in a region-specific manner via an oxidant mechanism. The ascending aortic hyperplasia is dependent on Id3. PMID:20019328

  10. Impacts of burial by sediment on decomposition and heavy metal concentrations of Suaeda salsa in intertidal zone of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhigao; Mou, Xiaojie; Zhang, Dangyu; Sun, Wanlong; Hu, Xingyun; Tian, Liping

    2017-03-15

    Three one-off burial treatments were designed in intertidal zone of the Yellow River estuary to determine the effects of sediment burial on decomposition and heavy metal levels of Suaeda salsa. Sediment burial showed significant effect on decomposition rate of S. salsa. With increasing burial depth, Cu, Zn, Cd and Co levels generally increased, while Cr and Mn levels decreased. Except for Zn, Mn, Cd and Co, stocks of Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni and V in S. salsa among burials were greatly different. The S. salsa in three burials was particular efficient in binding V and Co and releasing Pb, Zn and Cd, and, with increasing burial depth, stocks of Cr, Cu, Ni and Mn shifted from accumulation to release. In future, the eco-toxic risk of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Cd exposure might be serious as the strong burial episodes occurred in S. salsa marsh.

  11. Spatial Structure of Large-Scale Plasma Density Perturbations HF-Induced in the Ionospheric F 2 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. L.; Komrakov, G. P.; Glukhov, Ya. V.; Andreeva, E. S.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Kurbatov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the experimental results obtained by studying the large-scale structure of the HF-disturbed ionospheric region. The experiments were performed using the SURA heating facility. The disturbed ionospheric region was sounded by signals radiated by GPS navigation satellite beacons as well as by signals of low-orbit satellites (radio tomography). The results of the experiments show that large-scale plasma density perturbations induced at altitudes higher than the F2 layer maximum can contribute significantly to the measured variations of the total electron density and can, with a certain arrangement of the reception points, be measured by the GPS sounding method.

  12. Vortices induced in a stagnation region by wakes - Their incipient formation and effects on heat transfer from cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagib, H. M.; Hodson, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    Horseshoe-like vortices, induced by wakes in the stagnation region of bluff bodies, are proposed as an efficient mechanism for augmentation of convective heat transfer. The vortex 'flow module' induced by single or multiple wakes, which had not been observed previously, was first documented and the resulting flow field was studied using various visualization techniques and hot-wire anemometry. In an attempt to understand the driving force behind this flow module, the conditions at which incipient formation of the vortices occurs were investigated. Existence of such a threshold is essential and was hitherto an open question in analytical studies of stability of flow in stagnation region. Finally, effects of the flow module on heat transfer from a cylinder were measured.

  13. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone at the burial site for low-level radioactive waste near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste has been buried in trenches at a site near Beatty, Nev., since 1962. In 1976, as part of a national program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the geohydrology of the waste-burial site to provide a basis for estimating the potential for radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste-burial trenches. Data collected include meteorological information for calibration of a long-term water-budget analysis, soil-moisture profiles, soil-water potentials, and hydraulic properties of representative unsaturated sediment samples to a depth of about 10 meters (m). The waste-burial facility is in the northern Amargosa Desert about 170 kilometers (km) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevo The region is arid; mean annual precipitation at Lathrop Wells, 30 km south of the site, is only 7.4 centimeters (cm). The mean daily maximum temperature at Lathrop Wells in July, the hottest month, is 37 ?C. The site is underlain by poorly stratified deposits of gravelly or silty sand and sandy gravel, and thick beds of clayey sediments. The total thickness of valley-fill deposits beneath the site is about 175 m; the unsaturated zone is about 85 m thick. Volumetric soil moisture to depths of 4 m ranges from 4 to 10 percent but commonly is in the range of 6 to 8 percent. Soil-water potential, measured to depths of 3 to 10 m, ranged from -10 to -70 bars. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity computed from laboratory analyses of representative samples ranges from 10 -13 to 10 -14 centimeters per day (cm/d). Evaporation studies over a 2-year (yr) period were used to calibrate a numerical procedure for analyzing long-term precipitation data and estimating annual water budgets during the 15-yr period 1962-76. This analysis (1) demonstrated that a potential exists for deep percolation (greater than 2 m), despite high annual evaporation demands, and (2) provided predictions of the time of year and the antecedent conditions that enhance the probability

  14. Phanerozoic burial and exhumation history of southernmost Norway estimated from apatite fission-track analysis data and geological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Chalmers, James A.; Rasmussen, Erik S.

    2016-04-01

    We present new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data from 27 basement samples from Norway south of ~60°N. The data define three events of cooling and exhumation that overlap in time with events defined from AFTA in southern Sweden (Japsen et al. 2015). The samples cooled below palaeotemperatures of >100°C in a major episode of Triassic cooling as also reported by previous studies (Rohrman et al. 1995). Our study area is just south of the Hardangervidda where Cambrian sediments and Caledonian nappes are present. We thus infer that these palaeotemperatures reflect heating below a cover that accumulated during the Palaeozoic and Triassic. By Late Triassic, this cover had been removed from the Utsira High, off SW Norway, resulting in deep weathering of a granitic landscape (Fredin et al. 2014). Our samples were therefore at or close to the surface at this time. Palaeotemperatures reached ~80°C prior to a second phase of cooling and exhumation in the Jurassic, following a phase of Late Triassic - Jurassic burial. Upper Jurassic sandstones rest on basement near Bergen, NW of our study area (Fossen et al. 1997), and we infer that the Jurassic event led to complete removal of any remaining Phanerozoic cover in the region adjacent to the evolving rift system prior to Late Jurassic subsidence and burial. The data reveal a third phase of cooling in the early Miocene when samples that are now near sea level cooled below palaeotemperatures of ~60°C. For likely values of the palaeogeothermal gradient, such palaeotemperatures correspond to burial below rock columns that reach well above the present-day landscape where elevations rarely exceed 1 km above sea level. This implies that the present-day landscape was shaped by Neogene erosion. This is in agreement with the suggestion of Lidmar-Bergström et al. (2013) that the near-horizontal Palaeic surfaces of southern Norway are the result of Cenozoic erosion to sea level followed by uplift to their present elevations in a

  15. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery. (a) Any active duty member of the Armed Forces (except those members serving on active duty for training only). (b) Any retired member of the Armed Forces. A..., Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or a Reserve component who has served on active duty...

  16. Archaeological Investigations at Nonhabitation and Burial Sites, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    reported by Sprague (1971:3) the firm succeeded in relocating 1,380 burials. Speed was of the essence because the firm was paid on a piecework basis...nine soil samples for use in the pollen extraction process. At this point, a known quantity of exotic Eucalyptus pollen was added to enable us to

  17. 78 FR 40738 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site AGENCY... (CERCLA), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs... the EPA Hazardous Substance Superfund. Upon payment of this sum to EPA, the settling parties will...

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  19. 618-10 Burial Ground VPU Nonintrusive Characterization Process and Data Collection Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    S. Khabir

    2010-12-21

    This report presents the nonintrusive characterization measurement results for the 618-10 Burial Ground and provides a general assessment of the estimated dose, isotopic concentrations, and bounding transuranic radionuclide inventories for the 618-10 vertical pipe units and trenches, based on interpretation of data from a system of in situ radiological multi-detector probes.

  20. Social Workers' Final Act of Service: Respectful Burial Arrangements for Indigent, Unclaimed, and Unidentified People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castex, Graciela M.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field…

  1. Intertextual Evaluation, Conflicting Evaluative Criteria, and the Controversy over Native American Burial Remains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Emery M.

    1992-01-01

    The intertextual model of evaluation proposed by M. Riffaterre is explored and applied to two problems, the general problem of what to do when there are multiple but conflicting criteria for evaluating a policy, and the specific issues of disposition of native American burial remains. (SLD)

  2. A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan).

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa A; Stock, Jay T; Finney, Sarah; Heywood, James J N; Miracle, Preston T; Banning, Edward B

    2011-01-26

    New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000-11,600 cal BP) in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500-11,600 cal BP). These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic) cemetery of 'Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian.

  3. A Unique Human-Fox Burial from a Pre-Natufian Cemetery in the Levant (Jordan)

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa A.; Stock, Jay T.; Finney, Sarah; Heywood, James J. N.; Miracle, Preston T.; Banning, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000–11,600 cal BP) in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500–11,600 cal BP). These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic) cemetery of ‘Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian. PMID:21298094

  4. An integrative approach to mortuary analysis: social and symbolic dimensions of Chumash burial practices.

    PubMed

    Gamble, L H; Walker, P L; Russell, G S

    2001-04-01

    Although most archaeologists recognize that valuable information about the social lives of ancient people can be obtained through the study of burial practices, it is clear that the symbolic nature of burial rituals makes interpreting their social significance a hazardous enterprise. These analytical difficulties can be greatly reduced using a research strategy that draws upon the strengths of a broad range of conceptually and methodologically independent data sources. We illustrate this approach by using archaeological data from cemeteries at Malibu, California, to explore an issue over which researchers are sharply divided: when did the simple chiefdoms of the Chumash Indians first appear in the Santa Barbara Channel area? First we establish the social correlates of Chumash burial practices through the comparison of historic-period cemetery data, ethnohistoric records, and ethnographic accounts. The resulting understanding of mortuary symbolism is then used to generate hypotheses about the social significance of prehistoric-period Malibu burial patterns. Finally, bioarchaeological data on genetic relationships, health status, and activity are used to independently test artifact-based hypotheses about prehistoric Chumash social organization. Together, these independent data sources constitute strong evidence for the existence of a ranked society with a hereditary elite during the late Middle period in the Santa Barbara Channel area.

  5. 32 CFR 553.17 - Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for burial in Arlington National Cemetery unless the Service-connected family member has been or will... actually entered on active duty. (d) Nonservice-connected spouses who have been divorced from the service-connected members or who have remarried after the interment of the service-connected spouse and...

  6. Passive Neutron Non-Destructive Assay for Remediation of Radiological Waste at Hanford Burial Grounds- 13189

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.; Pitts, M.; Ludowise, J.D.; Valentinelli, P.; Grando, C.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford burial grounds contains a broad spectrum of low activity radioactive wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, and hazardous wastes including fission products, byproduct material (thorium and uranium), plutonium and laboratory chemicals. A passive neutron non-destructive assay technique has been developed for characterization of shielded concreted drums exhumed from the burial grounds. This method facilitates the separation of low activity radiological waste containers from TRU waste containers exhumed from the burial grounds. Two identical total neutron counting systems have been deployed, each consisting of He-3 detectors surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. The counts are processed through a statistical filter that removes outliers in order to suppress cosmic spallation events and electronic noise. Upon completion of processing, a 'GO / NO GO' signal is provided to the operator based on a threshold level equivalent to 0.5 grams of weapons grade plutonium in the container being evaluated. This approach allows instantaneous decisions to be made on how to proceed with the waste. The counting systems have been set up using initial on-site measurements (neutron emitting standards loaded into surrogate waste containers) combined with Monte Carlo modeling techniques. The benefit of this approach is to allow the systems to extend their measurement ranges, in terms of applicable matrix types and container sizes, with minimal interruption to the operations at the burial grounds. (authors)

  7. Potential water quality impacts originating from land burial of cattle carcasses.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qi; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L

    2013-07-01

    Among the conventional disposal methods for livestock mortalities, on-farm burial is a preferred method, but the potential water quality impacts of animal carcass burial are not well understood. Typically, on-farm burial pits are constructed without liners and any leachate produced may infiltrate into soil and groundwater. To date, no information is available on temporal trends for contaminants in leachate produced from livestock mortality pits. In our study, we examined the concentrations of conventional contaminants including electrical conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, TP, and solids, as well as veterinary antimicrobials and steroid hormones in leachate over a period of 20 months. Most of the contaminants were detected in leachate after 50 days of decomposition, reaching a peak concentration at approximately 200 days and declined to baseline levels by 400 days. The estrogen 17β-estradiol and a veterinary antimicrobial, monensin, were observed at maximum concentrations of 20,069 ng/L and 11,980 ng/L, respectively. Estimated mass loading of total steroid hormone and veterinary pharmaceuticals were determined to be 1.84 and 1.01 μg/kg of buried cattle carcass materials, respectively. These data indicate that leachate from carcass burial sites represents a potential source of nutrients, organics, and residues of biologically active micro-contaminants to soil and groundwater.

  8. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for Prevention and Management of Avalanche and Nonavalanche Snow Burial Accidents.

    PubMed

    Van Tilburg, Christopher; Grissom, Colin K; Zafren, Ken; McIntosh, Scott; Radwin, Martin I; Paal, Peter; Haegeli, Pascal; Smith, William Will R; Wheeler, Albert R; Weber, David; Tremper, Bruce; Brugger, Hermann

    2017-03-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians and avalanche professionals about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the prevention, rescue, and medical management of avalanche and nonavalanche snow burial victims. Recommendations are graded on the basis of quality of supporting evidence according to the classification scheme of the American College of Chest Physicians.

  9. 38 CFR 3.1704 - Burial allowance based on service-connected death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... service-connected death. 3.1704 Section 3.1704 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....1704 Burial allowance based on service-connected death. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. (a) General rule. VA will... of the veteran's death that the expenses incurred were less than that amount. Payment of the...

  10. WINTER FLOUNDER PSUEDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS HATCHING SUCCESS AS A FUNCTION OF BURIAL DEPTH IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown that viable hatch of winter flounder eggs is reduced when the eggs are buried by as little as one half of one egg diameter (approximately 0.5 mm of sediment). This sensitivity to burial has resulted in seasonal banning of dredging in several north...

  11. Climate change decouples oceanic primary and export productivity and organic carbon burial

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Cristina; Kucera, Michal; Mix, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding responses of oceanic primary productivity, carbon export, and burial to climate change is essential for model-based projection of biological feedbacks in a high-CO2 world. Here we compare estimates of productivity based on the composition of fossil diatom floras with organic carbon burial off Oregon in the Northeast Pacific across a large climatic transition at the last glacial termination. Although estimated primary productivity was highest during the Last Glacial Maximum, carbon burial was lowest, reflecting reduced preservation linked to low sedimentation rates. A diatom size index further points to a glacial decrease (and deglacial increase) in the fraction of fixed carbon that was exported, inferred to reflect expansion, and contraction, of subpolar ecosystems that today favor smaller plankton. Thus, in contrast to models that link remineralization of carbon to temperature, in the Northeast Pacific, we find dominant ecosystem and sea floor control such that intervals of warming climate had more efficient carbon export and higher carbon burial despite falling primary productivity. PMID:25453073

  12. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) emergence in relation to burial depth of brood logs.

    PubMed

    Haack, R A; Petrice, T R; Poland, T M

    2000-04-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest of pines, Pinus spp., that was first found in the United States in 1992. A federal quarantine currently regulates movement of pine Christmas trees and pine nursery stock from infested to uninfested counties. The current national Pine Shoot Beetle Compliance Management Program requires T. piniperda-infested brood material to be disposed of by burning, chipping, or burial. The burial option requires that the infested pine material be buried at a depth of at least 30 cm. We tested this requirement by burying logs with similar levels of infestation at 0, 15, 30, 45, 61 and 76 cm and then monitoring for T. piniperda emergence. Logs were buried at two times during larval development (early and late) and in two soil types (sandy loam and loam). Emergence patterns from the two soil types were similar. Overall, 1,747 T. piniperda adults were collected from the 24 exposed control logs, but only 34 adults from the 120 buried logs, including 24 adults from logs buried at 15 cm, eight adults from 30 cm, one adult from 45 cm, and one adult from 61 cm. In comparing mean emergence density from buried logs with that of exposed logs, 98.6% mortality occurred at 15 cm, 99.5% at 30 cm, and > 99.9% at > or = 45 cm. Mean date of T. piniperda emergence to the soil surface was affected by burial depth and burial date, but not soil type.

  13. Short-Term Sediment Burial Effects on the Seagrass Phyllospadix scouleri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    additive. Seasonal, age-related, or phenological differences may also dictate how resistant to burial a population might be. Future work should compare...growing season; add a field-based component; and design an experiment to account for genetic variation and local adaptation to sediment dynamics. 7 ERDC

  14. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  15. Palmer amaranth seed mortality in response to burial depth and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth infests millions of arable acres in the SE US. One proposed method of reducing population numbers is to bury surface seeds deeply, below their optimal emergence zone. The objective of this study was to determine how burial longevity and depth impact Palmer amaran...

  16. Climate change decouples oceanic primary and export productivity and organic carbon burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Cristina; Kucera, Michal; Mix, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding responses of oceanic primary productivity, carbon export, and burial to climate change is essential for model-based projection of biological feedbacks in a high-CO2 world. Here we compare estimates of productivity based on the composition of fossil diatom floras with organic carbon burial off Oregon in the Northeast Pacific across a large climatic transition at the last glacial termination. Although estimated primary productivity was highest during the Last Glacial Maximum, carbon burial was lowest, reflecting reduced preservation linked to low sedimentation rates. A diatom size index further points to a glacial decrease (and deglacial increase) in the fraction of fixed carbon that was exported, inferred to reflect expansion, and contraction, of subpolar ecosystems that today favor smaller plankton. Thus, in contrast to models that link remineralization of carbon to temperature, in the Northeast Pacific, we find dominant ecosystem and sea floor control such that intervals of warming climate had more efficient carbon export and higher carbon burial despite falling primary productivity.

  17. Climate change decouples oceanic primary and export productivity and organic carbon burial.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Cristina; Kucera, Michal; Mix, Alan C

    2015-01-13

    Understanding responses of oceanic primary productivity, carbon export, and burial to climate change is essential for model-based projection of biological feedbacks in a high-CO2 world. Here we compare estimates of productivity based on the composition of fossil diatom floras with organic carbon burial off Oregon in the Northeast Pacific across a large climatic transition at the last glacial termination. Although estimated primary productivity was highest during the Last Glacial Maximum, carbon burial was lowest, reflecting reduced preservation linked to low sedimentation rates. A diatom size index further points to a glacial decrease (and deglacial increase) in the fraction of fixed carbon that was exported, inferred to reflect expansion, and contraction, of subpolar ecosystems that today favor smaller plankton. Thus, in contrast to models that link remineralization of carbon to temperature, in the Northeast Pacific, we find dominant ecosystem and sea floor control such that intervals of warming climate had more efficient carbon export and higher carbon burial despite falling primary productivity.

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  19. Postnatal Age Influences Hypoglycemia-induced Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 Activation in the Brain Regions of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raghavendra; Sperr, Dustin; Ennis, Kathleen; Tran, Phu

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation plays a significant role in hypoglycemia-induced brain injury in adult rats. To determine the influence of postnatal age on PARP-1 activation, developing and adult male rats were subjected to acute hypoglycemia of equivalent severity and duration. The expression of PARP-1 and its downstream effectors, apoptosis inducing factor (Aifm1), caspase 3 (Casp3), NF-κB (Nfkb1) and bcl-2 (Bcl2), and cellular poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer expression was assessed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus at 0 h and 24 h post-hypoglycemia. Compared with the control group, PARP-1 expression increased in the cerebral cortex of adult rats 24 h post-hypoglycemia, but not at 0 h, and was accompanied by increased number of PAR-positive cells. The expression was not altered in other brain regions. Aifm1, Nfkb1, Casp3, and Bcl2 expression also increased in the cerebral cortex of adult rats 24 h post-hypoglycemia. Conversely, hypoglycemia did not alter PARP-1 expression and its downstream effectors in any brain region in developing rats. These data parallel the previously demonstrated pattern of hypoglycemia-induced brain injury and suggest that PARP-1 overactivation may determine age- and region-specific vulnerability during hypoglycemia. PMID:19687776

  20. The Differential DRP1 Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Regional Specific Astroglial Death Induced by Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ah-Reum; Hyun, Hye-Won; Min, Su-Ji; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    The response and susceptibility to astroglial degenerations are relevant to the distinctive properties of astrocytes in a hemodynamic-independent manner following status epilepticus (SE). Since impaired mitochondrial fission plays an important role in mitosis, apoptosis and programmed necrosis, we investigated whether the unique pattern of mitochondrial dynamics is involved in the characteristics of astroglial death induced by SE. In the present study, SE induced astroglial apoptosis in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, accompanied by decreased mitochondrial length. In contrast, clasmatodendritic (autophagic) astrocytes in the CA1 region showed mitochondrial elongation induced by SE. Mdivi-1 (an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission) effectively attenuated astroglial apoptosis, but WY14643 (an enhancer of mitochondrial fission) aggravated it. In addition, Mdivi-1 accelerated clasmatodendritic changes in astrocytes. These regional specific mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytes were closely correlated with dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1; a mitochondrial fission protein) phosphorylation, not optic atrophy 1 (OPA1; a mitochondrial fusion protein) expression. To the best of our knowledge, the present data demonstrate for the first time the novel role of DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission in astroglial loss. Thus, the present findings suggest that the differential astroglial mitochondrial dynamics may participate in the distinct characteristics of astroglial death induced by SE. PMID:27242436