Science.gov

Sample records for induced extreme hull

  1. The interaction of extreme waves with hull elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil; Flay, Richard

    2010-05-01

    The problem of the impact of a rogue wave onto a deformable marine structure is formulated in a few publications (see, for example, a short review in http://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/4474). In this paper the results from numerical and experimental investigations of the effect of cavitation on the deformation of a hull element, loaded by a wall of water, generated by an extreme ocean surface wave are considered. The hull element is modelled as a circular metal plate with the edge of the plate rigidly clamped. The plate surface is much smaller than the surface of the wave front, so that at the initial moment of the interaction, the pressure is constant on the plate surface. At the next instant, because of the plate deformation, axisymmetric loading of the plate occurs. The influences of membrane forces and plastic deformations are ignored, and therefore, the equation of plate motion has the following classical form Eh3(wrrrr+2r -1wrrrr- r-2wrr+r-3wr) = - 121- ν2)[ρhwtt+ δ(r,t)(p+ ρ0a0wt)]. Here w is the plate displacement, subscripts t and rindicate derivatives with respect to time and the radial coordinate, PIC is the plate material density, his the plate thickness, Eis Young's modulus, PIC is Poisson's ratio and p is the pressure of the incident surface wave measured on the wall, PIC is the water density, PIC is the speed of sound in water, and PIC is the normal velocity of the plate. The term PIC takes into account the effect of the deformability of the plate. Obviously, the hull of a vessel is not rigid like a solid wall, but starts to deform and to move. This motion produces a reflected pressure wave, which travels from the hull into the water wave with a magnitude equal to PIC . The normal velocity is positive so the reflected pressure PIC is negative (tensile wave). If the fluid pressure drops below some critical value pk, the wet plate surface separates from the water, and cavitation may be generated. The function δ(r,t) takes into account

  2. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  3. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  4. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  5. Soybean hull induced production of carbohydrases and protease among Aspergillus and their effectiveness in soy flour carbohydrate and protein separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Loman, Abdullah Al; Coffman, Anthony M; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2017-03-15

    Soybean hull consists mainly of three major plant carbohydrates, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. It is inexpensive and a good potential substrate for carbohydrase production because it is capable of inducing a complete spectrum of activities to hydrolyze complex biomass. Aspergillus is known for carbohydrase production but no studies have evaluated and compared, among Aspergillus species and strains, the soybean hull induced production of various carbohydrases. In this study, A. aculeatus, A. cinnamomeus, A. foetidus, A. phoenicis and 11 A. niger strains were examined together with T. reesei Rut C30, another known carbohydrase producer. The carbohydrases evaluated included pectinase, polygalacturonase, xylanase, cellulase, α-galactosidase and sucrase. Growth morphology and pH profiles were also followed. Among Aspergillus strains, morphology was found to correlate with both carbohydrase production and pH decrease profile. Filamentous strains gave higher carbohydrase production while causing slower pH decrease. The enzyme broths produced were also tested for separation of soy flour carbohydrate and protein. Defatted soy flour contains about 53% protein and 32% carbohydrate. The enzymatic treatment can increase protein content and remove indigestible oligo-/poly-saccharides, and improve use of soy flour in feed and food. Protease production by different strains was therefore also compared for minimizing protein degradation. A. niger NRRL 322 and A. foetidus NRRL 341 were found to be the most potent strains that produced maximal carbohydrases and minimal protease under soybean hull induction.

  6. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

  7. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  8. Extreme sports: extreme physiology. Exercise-induced pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Ma, Joyce Lok Gee; Dutch, Martin John

    2013-08-01

    We report five patients who presented to an on-site medical team with concurrent haemoptysis and shortness of breath at a recent triathlon event. After initial management in the field, three of the five patients were transported to hospital via ambulance for further management, resulting in patients with haemoptysis and dyspnoea being 17 times more likely to require hospital transport. It is important to consider the differential diagnoses for this presentation, particularly exercise-induced pulmonary oedema.

  9. Methylphenidate-induced orofacial and extremity dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Balázs, Judit; Besnyo, Márta; Gádoros, Júlia

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we report the case of a 6(1/2)-year-old male patient diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who developed orofacial and extremity dyskinesias immediately after methylphenidate treatment. The episode lasted 5 hours, peaking in intensity 2 hours after the medication was administered before gradually subsiding. Five hours after the methylphenidate was administered, the child became extremely irritated and aggressive, which lasted approximately 2 hours. The patient's general intelligence (IQ) was measured to be below the normal range. The potential relationship between methylphenidate intake and the development of dyskinesia calls into question different mechanisms involving drug-receptor interaction or individual drug sensitivity related to a lower IQ. Our case report has practical implications for physicians by raising their awareness of dyskinesia as a potential side effect of methylphenidate treatment.

  10. Hydrodynamic Hull Damping (Phase 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Administration Mr. Alexander Malakhoff Mr. Thomas W. Allen Director, Structural Integrity Engineering Officer (N7) Subgroup ( SEA 55Y) MR" Sealift Command...1990 SSC-352 Marine Structural Steel Toughness Data Bank by J. G. Kaufman and M. Prager 1990 SSC-353 Analysis of Wave Characteristics in Extreme Seas by...SHIP STRUCTURE COMMITTEE is constituted to prosecute a research program to Improve the hull structures of ships and other marine structures by an

  11. Hypothyroid-induced acute compartment syndrome in all extremities

    PubMed Central

    Musielak, Matthew C.; Chae, Jung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an uncommon complication of uncontrolled hypothyroidism. If unrecognized, this can lead to ischemia, necrosis and potential limb loss. A 49-year-old female presented with the sudden onset of bilateral lower and upper extremity swelling and pain. The lower extremity anterior compartments were painful and tense. The extensor surface of the upper extremities exhibited swelling and pain. Motor function was intact, however, limited due to pain. Bilateral lower extremity fasciotomies were performed. Postoperative Day 1, upper extremity motor function decreased significantly and paresthesias occurred. She therefore underwent bilateral forearm fasciotomies. The pathogenesis of hypothyroidism-induced compartment syndrome is unclear. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-induced fibroblast activation results in increased glycosaminoglycan deposition. The primary glycosaminoglycan in hypothyroid myxedematous changes is hyaluronic acid, which binds water causing edema. This increases vascular permeability, extravasation of proteins and impaired lymphatic drainage. These contribute to increased intra-compartmental pressure and subsequent ACS. PMID:28003319

  12. Oryza sativa (Rice) Hull Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sang Keun; Sung, Jeehye; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Yoonsook

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results: We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. The release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rice hull extract attenuated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Conclusion: This suggests that rice hull extract decreases the production of inflammatory mediators by downregulating ERK and JNK and the NF-κB signal pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. SUMMARY Rice hull extract inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.Rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively.Rice hull extract exerted anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.Rice hull extract may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Abbreviations used: COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, IκB: inhibitory kappa B, IL-1β: interleukin-1β, iNOS: inducible NO synthase, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB, NO: nitric oxide, PGE2: prostaglandin

  13. A comparative study on hulled adlay and unhulled adlay through evaluation of their LPS-induced anti-inflammatory effects, and isolation of pure compounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Goeun; Han, Ah-Reum; Lee, Joo Hee; Park, Ji-Youn; Kang, Unwoo; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Yeong Shik; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-03-01

    Coicis semen (=the hulled seed of Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen (Rom.Caill.) Stapf; Gramineae), commonly known as adlay and Job's tears, is widely used in traditional medicine and as a nutritious food. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the AcOEt fraction of unhulled adlays, using measurement of nitric oxide (NO) production on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, led to the isolation and identification of two new stereoisomers, (+)-(7'S,8'R,7″S,8″R)-guaiacylglycerol β-O-4'-dihydrodisinapyl ether (1) and (+)-(7'S,8'R,7″R,8″R)-guaiacylglycerol β-O-4'-dihydrodisinapyl ether (2), together with six known compounds, 3-8. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited inhibitory activities on LPS-induced NO production with IC50 values of 1.4 and 3.7 μM, respectively, and suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Simple high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) was used to compare the AcOEt fraction of unhulled adlays responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 cells and the inactive AcOEt fraction of hulled adlays.

  14. Gasohol from almond hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Golden By-Products Inc. has awarded a contract to Bechtel Inc. to study the feasibility of converting almond hulls from California's Central Valley into two million gal/yr of alcohol for use in gasohol.

  15. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  16. Extreme thermal noxious stimuli induce pain responses in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Colasanti, Marco; Raffaeli, William; Balciunas, Darius; Giordano, Antonio; Bellipanni, Gianfranco

    2014-03-01

    Exposing tissues to extreme high or low temperature leads to burns. Burned animals sustain several types of damage, from the disruption of the tissue to degeneration of axons projecting through muscle and skin. Such damage causes pain due to both inflammation and axonal degeneration (neuropathic-like pain). Thus, the approach to cure and alleviate the symptoms of burns must be twofold: rebuilding the tissue that has been destroyed and alleviating the pain derived from the burns. While tissue regeneration techniques have been developed, less is known on the treatment of the induced pain. Thus, appropriate animal models are necessary for the development of the best treatment for pain induced in burned tissues. We have developed a methodology in the zebrafish aimed to produce a new animal model for the study of pain induced by burns. Here, we show that two events linked to the onset of burn-induced inflammation and neuropathic-like pain in mammals, degeneration of axons innervating the affected tissues and over-expression of specific genes in sensory tissues, are conserved from zebrafish to mammals.

  17. HULL Users’ Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    conditions and puts the results on logical unit 4. Unit 4 is either a physical tape or a permanent file disk device which will store the data for running HULL...pericdi- cally every 60 central processor minutes to protect against unscheduled machine failures. Thus, unit 4 and unit 9 store a continuous record of...number of time steps from initial conditions DIMEN (2), 3 number of spatial dimensions DT Real time step (seconds) energy last check, current ELC Real

  18. Spatiotemporal Chaos Induces Extreme Events in an Extended Microcavity Laser.

    PubMed

    Selmi, F; Coulibaly, S; Loghmari, Z; Sagnes, I; Beaudoin, G; Clerc, M G; Barbay, S

    2016-01-08

    Extreme events such as rogue waves in optics and fluids are often associated with the merging dynamics of coherent structures. We present experimental and numerical results on the physics of extreme event appearance in a spatially extended semiconductor microcavity laser with an intracavity saturable absorber. This system can display deterministic irregular dynamics only, thanks to spatial coupling through diffraction of light. We have identified parameter regions where extreme events are encountered and established the origin of this dynamics in the emergence of deterministic spatiotemporal chaos, through the correspondence between the proportion of extreme events and the dimension of the strange attractor.

  19. Mechanism of shallow disrupted slide induced by extreme rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igwe, O.; Fukuoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    On July 16, 2010, extreme rainfall attacked western Japan and it caused very intense rainfall in Shobara city, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan. This rainfall induced hundreds of shallow disrupted slides and many of those became debris flows. One of this debris flows attacked a house standing in front of the exit of a channel, and claimed a resident’s life. Western Japan had repeatedly similar disasters in the past. Last event took place from July 19 to 26, 2009, when western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes. Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. One of the unusual feature of both disaster was that landslides are distributed in very narrow area. In the 2010 Shobara city disaster, all of the landslides were distributed in 5 km x 3 km, and in the 2009 Hofu city disaster, most devastated zone of landslides were 10 km x 5 km. Rain radars of Meteorological Agency of Government of Japan detected the intense rainfall, however, the spatial resolution is usually larger than 5 km and the disaster area is too small to predict landslides nor issue warning. Furthermore, it was found that the growth rate of baby clouds was very quick. The geology of both areas are rhyolite (Shobara) and granite (Hofu), so the areal assessment of landslide hazard should be prepared before those intense rainfall will come. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called “masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except

  20. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.755 Hulls. For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing...

  1. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  2. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  3. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  4. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  5. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  6. Theoretical study of hull-rotor aerodynamic interference on semibuoyant vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, S. B.; Smith, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods are developed to predict the pressure distribution and overall loads on the hulls of airships which have close coupled, relatively large and/or high disk loading propulsors for attitude control, station keeping, and partial support of total weight as well as provision of thrust in cruise. The methods comprise a surface-singularity, potential-flow model for the hull and lifting surfaces (such as tails) and a rotor model which calculates the velocity induced by the rotor and its wake at points adjacent to the wake. Use of these two models provides an inviscid pressure distribution on the hull with rotor interference. A boundary layer separation prediction method is used to locate separation on the hull, and a wake pressure is imposed on the separated region for purposes of calculating hull loads. Results of calculations are shown to illustrate various cases of rotor-hull interference and comparisons with small scale data are made to evaluate the method.

  7. HullBUG Technology Development for Underwater Hull Cleaning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-14

    grooming tools were subsequently built for the FIT test tank trolley assembly as well as for the prototype HullBUG system. Additionally several...4 3.1 Grooming Tool Development...4 3.1.1 Grooming Tool Iterations

  8. A hydraulic absorber for wideband vibration reduction in ship hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, W.J.; Lee, Y.J. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    A vibration reduction of ship hulls by an active absorber system is proposed. In the scheme, a tuned mass is moved according to the hull vibration as measured by a multi-mode sensing system in order to generate a suitable active force for vibration reduction of hull girder. In order to supply the large amount of required power, a hydraulic servo system is implemented. Then the dynamic characteristic of the hydraulic system is considered for system design. Based on stochastic theory and optimal theory, the control law of the system is derived in order to approach the optimal level of vibration reduction. A 10-t absorber is applied to a 87,000-t oil tanker to demonstrate the feasibility of this scheme. The results show that the multi-peak values of resonance are suppressed in frequency response. Moreover, the vibration excited by propeller and engine is reduced to an extremely efficient level by this scheme.

  9. A convex hull inclusion test.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T; Cowles, J

    1987-02-01

    A new characterization of the interior of the convex hull of a finite point set is given. An inclusion test based on this characterization is, on average, almost linear in the number of points times the dimensionality.

  10. Vessel Noise Promotes Hull Fouling.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jenni A; Wilkens, Serena; McDonald, Justin I; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Fouling of submerged vessel hulls due to the rapid settlement of algae and invertebrates is a longstanding and costly problem. It is widely thought that the presence of extensive vacant surfaces on vessel hulls is responsible for the rapid attachment and growth of biofouling. We investigated whether noise from vessels in port could also be involved in promoting the settlement and growth of common biofouling organisms on vessel hulls. Three important biofouling species exhibited significantly faster development and settlement and better survival when exposed to vessel noise compared with control species. The extent of these responses appeared to vary in relation to the intensity of the vessel noise and may help to explain differences in biofouling observed on vessel hulls.

  11. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Tilborg, J. van; Belkacem, A.; Ueda, K.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2010-12-31

    Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC=CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +}+CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52{+-}15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8

  12. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, Artem; Herrwerth, O.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Lezius, M.; Kling, Matthias; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Belkacem, Ali; Ueda, K.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, Claus-Dieter; Moshammer, Robbert; Ullrich, Joachim

    2011-06-17

    Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC = CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +} + CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52 {+-} 15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8 < KER < 8 eV, providing clear evidence for the existence of a fast, nonradiative decay channel.

  13. Mechanism of sand slide - cold lahar induced by extreme rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Masumi; Dok, Atitkagna

    2014-05-01

    Along with the increasing frequencies of extreme rainfall events in almost every where on the earth, shallow slide - debris flow, i.e. cold lahars running long distance often occurs and claims downslope residents lives. In the midnight of 15 October 2013, Typhoon Wilpha attacked the Izu-Oshima, a active volcanic Island and the extreme rainfall of more than 800 mm / 24 hours was recorded. This downpour of more than 80 mm/hr lasted 4 hours at its peak and caused a number of cold lahars. The initial stage of those lahars was shallow slides of surface black volcanic ash deposits, containing mostly fine sands. The thickness was only 50 cm - 1 m. In the reconnaissance investigation, author found that the sliding surface was the boundary of two separate volcanic ash layers between the black and yellow colored and apparently showing contrast of permeability and hardness. Permeability contrast may have contributed to generation of excess pore pressure on the border and trigger the slide. Then, the unconsolidated, unpacked mass was easily fluidized and transformed into mud flows, that which volcanologists call cold lahars. Seismometers installed for monitoring the active volcano's activities, succeeded to detect many tremors events. Many are spikes but 5 larger and longer events were extracted. They lasted 2 -3 minutes and if we assume that this tremors reflects the runout movement, then we can calculate the mean velocity of the lahars. Estimated velocity was 45 - 60 km/h, which is much higher than the average speed 30 - 40 km/h of debris flows observed in Japan. Flume tests of volcanic ash flows by the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute showed the wet volcanic ash can run at higher speed than other materials. The two tremor records were compare d with the local residents witnessed and confirmed by newspaper reported that the reach of the lahar was observed at the exact time when tremor ends. We took the black volcanic ash and conducted ring shear tests to

  14. Strength Tests on Hulls and Floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaes, K

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with strength tests on hulls and floats intended in part for the collection of construction data for the design of these components and in part for the stress analysis of the finished hulls and floats.

  15. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  16. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  17. Designing seaplane hulls and floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit,

    1926-01-01

    Experimental data, such as the results of tank tests of models, render it possible to predict, at least in principle, as to how a hull or float of a given shape will comport itself. We will see further along, however, how uncertain these methods are and how they leave room for empiricism, which will reign for a long time yet in seaplane research bureaus.

  18. Identification of compounds in adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) seed hull extracts that inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Din-Wen; Chung, Cheng-Pei; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Yun-Lian; Chiang, Wenchang

    2009-11-25

    We investigated the effects of adlay seed hull (AH) extracts on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophages. An AH ethanol extract (AHE) was partitioned into ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water fractions. Silica gel chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction yielded 15 subfractions: AHE-Ea-A to AHE-Ea-O. Subfractions AHE-Ea-J, AHE-Ea-K, and AHE-Ea-M had anti-inflammatory activities, as they counteracted the increased cellular production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 induced by lipopolysaccharide by down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Eriodictyol (1), the ceramide (2S,3S,4R)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytetracosanoyl-amino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol (2), and p-coumaric acid (3) were found in the subfractions, and the first two compounds appeared to be primarily responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. This is the first time that eriodictyol (1) and this ceramide (2) have been found in AH, and the anti-inflammatory properties of the AHE-Ea fraction can be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of these two compounds.

  19. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 36 months... predominate means to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 60 months (5...

  20. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OCMI evaluate your vessel for a credit hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 36 months... predominant means to examine the underwater hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60...

  1. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 36 months... predominate means to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 60 months (5...

  2. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OCMI evaluate your vessel for a credit hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 36 months... predominant means to examine the underwater hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60...

  3. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OCMI evaluate your vessel for a credit hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 36 months... predominant means to examine the underwater hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60...

  4. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hull exam. The third party examiner must sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b... exclusively use divers to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 36 months... predominate means to examine the hull plating, you will receive a credit hull exam of up to 60 months (5...

  5. Hull Form Design and Optimization Tool Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Combatants • Unconventional Surface Combatants • Twin - Screw , Open-Stern, UNREP and Auxiliary • Single- Screw , Closed-Stern, UNREP and Auxiliary • Single...Waterplane Area Twin Hull TriSWACH – Trimaran Small Waterplane Area Center Hull UI – User Interface UNREP – Underway Replenishment Naval Surface...resistance prediction tool for SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) ships. An example of a SWATH ship is shown in Figure 11. The input files

  6. 59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN FRONT OF FAMILY HOME IN DAWSON. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1939. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  7. [Molecular-cellular and hormonal mechanisms of induced brain tolerance of extreme factors].

    PubMed

    Samoĭlov, M O; Rybnikova, E A

    2012-01-01

    This review includes results of own studies and literature data on the topical problem of neurobiology and medicine: discovery of the mechanisms of increased brain resistance to extreme exposures. The emphasis is made on the molecular-cellular and hormonal mechanisms of hypoxic preconditioning-induced brain tolerance to injurious hypoxia, psychoemotional and traumatic stress. A role of basic hormonal and intracellular cascade pro-adaptive processes mediating the neuroprotective action of hypoxic preconditioning is reviewed. A dynamics of the mechanisms of development of induced susceptible brain areas (hippocampus, neocortex) tolerance which includes phases of induction, transformation and expression, is presented. New data on preconditioning-induced cross-tolerance providing increased brain resistance not only to hypoxia but also to other stresses are reported. For the first time neuroprotective effects of hypoxic postconditioning are described.

  8. John Hull and the Money Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  9. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields induce spermatogenic germ cell apoptosis: possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Kon; Park, Sungman; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2014-01-01

    The energy generated by an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is too weak to directly induce genotoxicity. However, it is reported that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) is related to DNA strand breakage and apoptosis. The testes that conduct spermatogenesis through a dynamic cellular process involving meiosis and mitosis seem vulnerable to external stress such as heat, MF exposure, and chemical or physical agents. Nevertheless the results regarding adverse effects of ELF-EMF on human or animal reproductive functions are inconclusive. According to the guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP; 2010) for limiting exposure to time-varying MF (1 Hz to 100 kHz), overall conclusion of epidemiologic studies has not consistently shown an association between human adverse reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to low frequency fields. In animal studies there is no compelling evidence of causal relationship between prenatal development and ELF-MF exposure. However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF.

  10. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Kon; Park, Sungman; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2014-01-01

    The energy generated by an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is too weak to directly induce genotoxicity. However, it is reported that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) is related to DNA strand breakage and apoptosis. The testes that conduct spermatogenesis through a dynamic cellular process involving meiosis and mitosis seem vulnerable to external stress such as heat, MF exposure, and chemical or physical agents. Nevertheless the results regarding adverse effects of ELF-EMF on human or animal reproductive functions are inconclusive. According to the guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP; 2010) for limiting exposure to time-varying MF (1 Hz to 100 kHz), overall conclusion of epidemiologic studies has not consistently shown an association between human adverse reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to low frequency fields. In animal studies there is no compelling evidence of causal relationship between prenatal development and ELF-MF exposure. However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF. PMID:25025060

  11. Evaluation of corn fiber, cottonseed hulls, oat hulls and soybean hulls as roughage sources for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hsu, J T; Faulkner, D B; Garleb, K A; Barclay, R A; Fahey, G C; Berger, L L

    1987-07-01

    An in situ trial (randomized complete block design) using cows, and a site and extent of digestion trial (Latin square design) using sheep were conducted to study the potential of corn fiber (CF), cottonseed hulls (CSH), oat hulls (OH) and soybean hulls (SH) as roughage sources for ruminants. Two feedlot trials with steers and one with lambs (completely randomized design with factorial arrangements of treatments) were conducted to study the potential of CF and SH as energy supplements relative to corn. In situ rate of ruminal dry matter (DM) disappearance (3 to 36 h) and extent of DM disappearance (36 h) indicated that CF and SH were more fermentable in the rumen compared with OH or CSH, with SH being the most fermentable. Total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were above 70% for sheep fed CF and SH diets, and were 50% or less for sheep fed OH and CSH diets. A ranking of by-products in terms of nutritive value followed the trend: CF greater than SH greater than OH greater than CSH. Lamb feedlot trial data showed that CF was of similar nutritive value to corn and of higher nutritive value than SH at the 50% level of supplementation. Corn-fed lambs responded better than CF- or SH-fed lambs at the 70% level of supplementation. Data from steer feedlot trials showed that CF was of similar quality to corn and of higher quality than SH. Dramatic differences exist in by-product feed utilization by ruminants. All by-products tested appeared to have some usefulness as dietary components.

  12. Exploring the temporally resolved electron density evolution in extreme ultra-violet induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

    2014-07-01

    We measured the electron density in an extreme ultra-violet (EUV) induced plasma. This is achieved in a low-pressure argon plasma by using a method called microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. The measured electron density just after the EUV pulse is 2.6 × 1016 m-3. This is in good agreement with a theoretical prediction from photo-ionization, which yields a density of 4.5 × 1016 m-3. After the EUV pulse the density slightly increases due to electron impact ionization. The plasma (i.e. electron density) decays in tens of microseconds.

  13. Estimation of the impact of climate change-induced extreme precipitation events on floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavčová, Kamila; Lapin, Milan; Valent, Peter; Szolgay, Ján; Kohnová, Silvia; Rončák, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In order to estimate possible changes in the flood regime in the mountainous regions of Slovakia, a simple physically-based concept for climate change-induced changes in extreme 5-day precipitation totals is proposed in the paper. It utilizes regionally downscaled scenarios of the long-term monthly means of the air temperature, specific air humidity and precipitation projected for Central Slovakia by two regional (RCM) and two global circulation models (GCM). A simplified physically-based model for the calculation of short-term precipitation totals over the course of changing air temperatures, which is used to drive a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, was proposed. In the paper a case study of this approach in the upper Hron river basin in Central Slovakia is presented. From the 1981-2010 period, 20 events of the basin's most extreme average of 5-day precipitation totals were selected. Only events with continual precipitation during 5 days were considered. These 5-day precipitation totals were modified according to the RCM and GCM-based scenarios for the future time horizons of 2025, 2050 and 2075. For modelling runoff under changed 5-day precipitation totals, a conceptual rainfall-runoff model developed at the Slovak University of Technology was used. Changes in extreme mean daily discharges due to climate change were compared with the original flood events and discussed.

  14. Mask-induced best-focus shifts in deep ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Evanschitzky, Peter; Neumann, Jens Timo; Gräupner, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The mask plays a significant role as an active optical element in lithography, for both deep ultraviolet (DUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Mask-induced and feature-dependent shifts of the best-focus position and other aberration-like effects were reported both for DUV immersion and for EUV lithography. We employ rigorous computation of light diffraction from lithographic masks in combination with aerial image simulation to study the root causes of these effects and their dependencies from mask and optical system parameters. Special emphasis is put on the comparison of transmission masks for DUV lithography and reflective masks for EUV lithography, respectively. Several strategies to compensate the mask-induced phase effects are discussed.

  15. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  16. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  17. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  18. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  19. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  20. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to...

  1. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

  2. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards...

  3. Extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-induced plasma relevance to neutral gas environment simulation in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Yokota, Kumiko; Ohira, Junki; Watanabe, Daiki; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    The reaction mechanism of atomic oxygen (AO) in low Earth orbit (LEO) with spacecraft materials has been studied by ground-based experiments using laser-detonation hyperthermal beam source, which enables to accelerate the electrically neutral AO up to 8 km/s. However, the beam conditions in the laser-detonation sources could not fully duplicate the AO environment in space. The difference in beam condition including side products leads to the different material responses. The light emission from the laser-induced oxygen plasma may affect the erosion of ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive materials. However, the light emission could also be used as a diagnostic tool to understand the molecular processes in plasma. In this presentation, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from the laser-induced plasma during AO test was evaluated by the flat field EUV spectrometer. Many emission lines between 25-40 nm originated from OII and OIII were observed from the laser-induced oxygen plasma. This result suggested multiple-charged O ions are generated in the laser-induced plasma. Promotion of oxygen dissociation effect by adding Ar in the target gas was explained by the energy transfer processes from Ar to O2 in the plasma. From the viewpoint of reducing the side products in the AO exposure tests, a method to reduce the EUV emission will also be investigated. These results could be used for establishing more accurate ground-based natural gas simulations on the space environmental effect of materials.

  4. Improvements to the AFWL HULL Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Entered) ~n RPORTDOCUENTAION AGEREAD DESTRUCtIONS REOT OUMNATO PG BEFORE COMPLETDMG FrORN 1, REPOR7,-NU 1BER GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 . RECIPIENTS CA...ALOG NUMBER / N& 535F LLA~--O 6 4. TITLE d Su.btitle) 5. TYPE 9,F RMORT 6 PERIOD0 COVE.RED, I R1PROVEMENTS TO THlE AFWL HULL CODE 21 aAgust97o- 3 P rod 97...HYDROCODE ..................................... 10 3 IMPLEMENTATION OF FCT IN HULL .......................... 13 3.1 HULL PHASES

  5. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on NGF induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, In-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Noh, Ran; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2014-10-01

    Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) affect various cellular processes and systems, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolic pathways. The present study investigated ELF-MFs effect on nerve growth factor (NGF) induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells using proteomic applications to understand its role in the enhancement of neuronal differentiation. After 50 Hz, 1 mT ELF-MFs 5-day exposure on NGF induced PC12 cells, it was observed to increase neurite length as well as an increase in the number of neurite bearing cells. It was also discovered that there was a decrease in proliferation activity, which is associated with an increase in differentiated cells. Neuronal differentiation related mRNA levels and protein levels were increased in NGF induced PC12 cells. Compared with NGF induced group, ELF-MFs stimulated PC12 cells had different protein expression as measured with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels. Consequently six differentially expressed spots were detected between the 2-DE maps, which were identified by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF LC/MS/MS) as: peripherin, neurosecretory protein nerve growth factor inducible (VGF8a) precursor, dnaK-type molecular chaperone sp72-ps1 (HSP72-psI), low molecular weight (Mr) phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase isoenzyme AcP1 (LMW-PTP/ACP1), Tubulin alpha-1A (TUBA1A) chain, outcome predictor in acute leukemia 1 homolog (OPA1L). The identification of these proteins provides clues to the mechanism of ELF-MFs stimulation on NGF induced PC12 cells that occur during neuronal differentiation and may contribute to the development novel treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. CudaChain: an alternative algorithm for finding 2D convex hulls on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative GPU-accelerated convex hull algorithm and a novel S orting-based P reprocessing A pproach (SPA) for planar point sets. The proposed convex hull algorithm termed as CudaChain consists of two stages: (1) two rounds of preprocessing performed on the GPU and (2) the finalization of calculating the expected convex hull on the CPU. Those interior points locating inside a quadrilateral formed by four extreme points are first discarded, and then the remaining points are distributed into several (typically four) sub regions. For each subset of points, they are first sorted in parallel; then the second round of discarding is performed using SPA; and finally a simple chain is formed for the current remaining points. A simple polygon can be easily generated by directly connecting all the chains in sub regions. The expected convex hull of the input points can be finally obtained by calculating the convex hull of the simple polygon. The library Thrust is utilized to realize the parallel sorting, reduction, and partitioning for better efficiency and simplicity. Experimental results show that: (1) SPA can very effectively detect and discard the interior points; and (2) CudaChain achieves 5×-6× speedups over the famous Qhull implementation for 20M points.

  7. Inspecting the inside of underwater hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin

    2009-05-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of identifying the material within ship's underwater hull, sunken ships and other objects on the sea floor tests with the 14 MeV sealed tube neutron generator incorporated inside a small submarine submerged in the test basin filled with sea water have been performed. Results obtained for inspection of diesel fuel and explosive presence behind single and double hull constructions are presented.

  8. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy F.; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J.

    2013-11-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations).

  9. Cough induced stress fracture and arthropathy of the ribs at extreme altitude.

    PubMed

    Litch, J A; Tuggy, M

    1998-04-01

    Cough and chest wall pain at high altitude have only received passing mention in the medical literature. Increased minute ventilation of cold dry air at very high altitude is likely to cause airway irritation. This in turn may result in airway drying, mucus production, postnasal drip from vasomotor rhinitis, and bronchospasm acting individually or in combination to stimulate the vagal cough reflex. The cough is exacerbated further at extreme altitudes above 5500 m, and may result in intercostal muscle strain and single or multiple rib fractures. We present a case of multiple cough induced stress fractures and arthropathy documented by technetium-99 bone scan in a high altitude climber and suggest the addition of the term High Altitude Cough Syndrome (HACS) to the medical syntax to identify this discrete medical problem of exposure to very high altitude.

  10. Extracellular Ca2(+)-dependent inducible alkaline phosphatase from extremely halophilic archaebacterium Haloarcula marismortui.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, S; Hecht, K; Eisenberg, H; Mevarech, M

    1990-01-01

    When starved of inorganic phosphate, the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Haloarcula marismortui produces the enzyme alkaline phosphatase and secretes it to the medium. This inducible extracellular enzyme is a glycoprotein whose subunit molecular mass is 160 kDa, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. The native form of the enzyme is heterogeneous and composed of multiple oligomeric forms. The enzymatic activity of the halophilic alkaline phosphatase is maximal at pH 8.5, and the enzyme is inhibited by phosphate. Unlike most alkaline phosphatases, the halobacterial enzyme requires Ca2+ and not Zn2+ ions for its activity. Both calcium ions (in the millimolar range) and NaCl (in the molar range) are required for the stability of the enzyme. Images PMID:2123861

  11. Bilateral lower extremity gangrene requiring amputation associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Brian P; Lawrence, Peter F

    2007-01-01

    Heparin is a common cause of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients. Between 10% and 15% of patients receiving therapeutic doses of heparin develop thrombocytopenia. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can cause severe bleeding and thrombosis owing to intravascular platelet aggregation. HIT must be distinguished from other causes of thrombocytopenia. Importantly, heparin use is often associated with an early fall in the platelet count that usually occurs within the first 4 days of initiation and recovers without cessation of heparin treatment. This nonimmune heparin-associated thrombocytopenia has not been found to be associated with thrombosis and does not necessitate discontinuation of heparin. The authors present a case report of a 70-year-old man who received heparin therapy following aortic tissue valve replacement and aortic root repair with graft and developed bilateral lower extremity arterial clots 6 days postoperatively in the setting of positive heparin antibody titers. Ultimately the patient required bilateral above-knee amputations.

  12. Subcycle Extreme Nonlinearities in GaP Induced by an Ultrastrong Terahertz Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicario, Carlo; Shalaby, Mostafa; Hauri, Christoph P.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the experimental observation of extreme laser spectral broadening and a change in optical transmission in gallium phosphite induced by 25 MV /cm terahertz (THz) single-cycle internal field. Such intense THz radiation leads to twofold transient modifications of the optical properties in the electro-optical crystal. First, the electric field provokes extensive cross-phase modulation via the χ(2 ) and χ(3 ) nonlinearities on a copropagating 50 fs near infrared laser pulse which turns into 500% spectral broadening. Second, we observe an instantaneous change of the optical transmission occurring at the THz field which is alleged to interband Zener tunneling and charge carrier density modification by impact ionization turning the semiconductor in a metal-like transient state. The presented scheme displays a pathway to coherently control the optical properties of semiconductors on an ultrafast time scale by a strong THz field.

  13. Characterizing multi-hazard extreme distributions of coastal flooding induced by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díez-Sierra, Javier; Toimil, Alexandra; del Jesus, Manuel; Méndez, Fernando; Medina, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas, which are among the most populated regions on Earth, are the interface between continental land and the ocean. As a consequence of their location, they are subject to complex flooding dynamics, arising from the interaction between coastal and continental dynamics. This complexity is translated to the characterization of extreme distributions and the effects induced by climate change in the distribution of extreme events. In this work, we develop a methodology that serves to characterize the extreme distribution of flooding in a coastal environment. We focus in the dynamics induced by tropical cyclones that are both marine (storm surge and wave run-up) and continental (precipitation and runoff). Our approach makes uses of historical cyclones that have affected the study area in the past. This ensemble is augmented by synthetically generated cyclones in order to better cover the range of possible tracks. A maximum dissimilarity algorithm is used on the augmented database to select a reduced subset of tracks best representing the variability on the data (Camus et al. 2014). This subset is used to carry out a dynamical downscaling. Numerical simulations are carried out for these subset of tropical cyclones to derive the spatial fields of wind (by means of the Hydromet-Rankine Vortex model) and rainfall (using R-Clipper model) induced by the cyclone. SWAN model is used to derive the wave fields (Díaz et al. 2014), H2D to derive the storm surge fields and a CUENCAS-like model (IH-Mole) to derive runoff fields. All the flood-inducing dynamics are the input to the RFSM-EDA model that computes flood depths for the study area. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate synthetic time series of tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclone climate is related to the spatial patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) fields using a non-linear clustering technique, which are used in turn as the main driver of a Monte Carlo simulation. Flood time series are derived from

  14. Neural networks for convex hull computation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Y; Zhang, J S; Xu, Z B

    1997-01-01

    Computing convex hull is one of the central problems in various applications of computational geometry. In this paper, a convex hull computing neural network (CHCNN) is developed to solve the related problems in the N-dimensional spaces. The algorithm is based on a two-layered neural network, topologically similar to ART, with a newly developed adaptive training strategy called excited learning. The CHCNN provides a parallel online and real-time processing of data which, after training, yields two closely related approximations, one from within and one from outside, of the desired convex hull. It is shown that accuracy of the approximate convex hulls obtained is around O[K(-1)(N-1/)], where K is the number of neurons in the output layer of the CHCNN. When K is taken to be sufficiently large, the CHCNN can generate any accurate approximate convex hull. We also show that an upper bound exists such that the CHCNN will yield the precise convex hull when K is larger than or equal to this bound. A series of simulations and applications is provided to demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness, and high efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  15. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b) If you use an underwater remotely... hull plating, you may receive a credit hull exam up to 60 months (5 years). (d) At least 60 days...

  16. Impact of landslides induced by 2014 northeast monsoon extreme rain in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Koay, Swee Peng; Sakai, Naoki; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-04-01

    In December 2014, northeast monsoon brought extreme rainfalls to Malaysia, mainly in the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia and coastal area in Sabah and Sarawak. In this month, many of the rain gauge records in this area exceeded 1,000 mm, which is about 1/3 of average annual rainfall precipitation (2,850mm/year) in Malaysia. This unexpected heavy rainfall induced landslides and floods which brought about large-scale losses in Malaysia equivalent to several hundred million USD as thousands of residents had evacuated from hometown for months, and factories, schools and business activities were shut down for weeks. Among the major infrastructure of the nation, East-west Highway was subjected to damages by 21 landslides. Two large-scale landslides cut off the highway for a week. Authors had installed landslide monitoring instruments at reactivated landslide sites along the highway at N05° 36.042' E101° 35.546'. Records by in-situ inclinometers showed clear deformation from 17th December to 26th December, associated with certain change in piezometeres record for groundwater level monitoring. Several cracks occurred in the slope.

  17. Genetic analysis of ion-beam induced extremely late heading mutants in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Taura, Satoru; Fukutoku, Yasuo; Onoue, Masahira; Shimizu, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Fumio; Sakata, Yusuke; Sato, Muneharu

    2014-01-01

    Two extremely late heading mutants were induced by ion beam irradiation in rice cultivar ‘Taichung 65’: KGM26 and KGM27. The F2 populations from the cross between the two mutants and Taichung 65 showed clear 3 early: 1 late segregation, suggesting control of late heading by a recessive gene. The genes identified in KGM26 and KGM27 were respectively designated as FLT1 and FLT2. The two genes were mapped using the crosses between the two mutants and an Indica cultivar ‘Kasalath’. FLT1 was located on the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 8. FLT2 was located around the centromere of chromosome 9. FLT1 might share the same locus as EHD3 because their chromosomal location is overlapping. FLT2 is inferred to be a new gene because no gene with a comparable effect to that of this gene was mapped near the centromere of chromosome 9. In crosses with Kasalath, homozygotes of late heading mutant genes showed a large variation of days to heading, suggesting that other genes affected late heading mutant genes. PMID:25320557

  18. A mathematical model of extremely low frequency ocean induced electromagnetic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautta, Manik; Faruque, Rumana Binte; Islam, Rakibul

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) system uses the principle that ferromagnetic objects disturb the magnetic lines of force of the earth. These lines of force are able to pass through both water and air in similar manners. A MAD system, usually mounted on an aerial vehicle, is thus often employed to confirm the detection and accomplish localization of large ferromagnetic objects submerged in a sea-water environment. However, the total magnetic signal encountered by a MAD system includes contributions from a myriad of low to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) sources. The goal of the MAD system is to detect small anomaly signals in the midst of these low-frequency interfering signals. Both the Range of Detection (Rd) and the Probability of Detection (Pd) are limited by the ratio of anomaly signal strength to the interfering magnetic noise. In this paper, we report a generic mathematical model to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio or SNR. Since time-variant electro-magnetic signals are affected by conduction losses due to sea-water conductivity and the presence of air-water interface, we employ the general formulation of dipole induced electromagnetic field propagation in stratified media [1]. As a first step we employ a volumetric distribution of isolated elementary magnetic dipoles, each having its own dipole strength and orientation, to estimate the magnetic noise observed by a MAD system. Numerical results are presented for a few realizations out of an ensemble of possible realizations of elementary dipole source distributions.

  19. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Kurt J; King, Lyon B; He, Kai; Cumings, John

    2016-09-16

    An extreme electric field on the order of 10(10) V m(-1) was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid.

  20. Thermalization of electrons in decaying extreme ultraviolet photons induced low pressure argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.; van der Horst, R. M.; Osorio, E. A.; Kroesen, G. M. W.; Banine, V. Y.

    2016-06-01

    We monitored—in the pressure range: 0.5-15 Pa—the electron temperature in decaying plasmas induced in argon gas by pulsed irradiation with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons with wavelengths closely around 13.5 nm. For this purpose, temporal measurements of the space-averaged and electric field weighted electron density after pulsed EUV irradiation are combined with an ambipolar diffusion model of the plasma. Results demonstrate that electrons are thermalized to room temperature before the plasma has fully expanded to the chamber walls for pressures of 3 Pa and higher. At pressures below 3 Pa, the electron temperature was found to be up to 0.1 eV above room temperature which is explained by the fact that plasma expansion is too quick for the electrons to fully thermalize. The comparison between plasma expansion duration towards a surface, plasma decay at a surface and time needed for thermalization and cooling of electrons is essential for designers of EUV lithography tools and EUV sources since the temperature of electrons dictates many fundamental physical processes.

  1. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terhune, Kurt J.; King, Lyon B.; He, Kai; Cumings, John

    2016-09-01

    An extreme electric field on the order of 1010 V m-1 was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid.

  2. Antiadopogenic effects of rice hull smoke extract in 3T3-L1 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells. At concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% RHSE, MDI-induced cells were shown to reduce their cellular lipid content by about 72% and 88%, respectively, compared to ...

  3. Composite hull for full-ocean depth

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, R.E.; Hawkes, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    A lightweight and economical modular design concept for a manned submersible is proposed to give two passengers repeated access to the deepest parts of the ocean in a safe, comfortable, and efficient manner. This versatile craft will allow work and exploration to be accomplished at moderate to maximum depths without any compromise in terms of capabilities or operating cost. Its design follows the experience acquired from the numerous existing minimum volume'' pressure hull submersible, and represents a radical departure from conventional designs. This paper addresses issues of gaining effective, safe working access for full ocean depth. Cylindrical composite hulls have the potential to achieve positive buoyancy sufficient to carry personnel and equipment swiftly back to the surface after completing exploration of the deepest ocean. Buoyancy for a submersible is similar to lift for an airplane, except that without lift, the airplane remains on the surface, but without buoyancy, the submersible never returns to the surface. There are two means of achieving buoyancy. The traditional method used to steel, titanium, or aluminium alloy deep-ocean vehicles is to add a very large buoy to compensate for the negative buoyancy of the hull. The alternate method is for the hull to displace more than its weight in water. This requires at least twice compression strength per unit mass of hull than steel, titanium, or aluminum alloys can provide. Properly constructed organic-matrix composites are light and strong enough to form a dry, 1-atm cabin with buoyancy to carry research staff and equipment to any depth in the ocean. Three different composite hull configurations are presented. Each is capable of serving as a cabin for a two-person crew. None would displace more than 4 tons of seawater. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Osteogenic, stem cell and molecular characterisation of the human induced membrane from extremity bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Ode, G.; Hoelscher, G.; Ingram, J.; Bethea, S.; Bosse, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    longer resident PMMA spacer duration (vs those with shorter residence) showed significant upregulation of bone-related, stem cell, and vascular-related genes. Conclusion The biomembrane technique is gaining favour in the management of complicated bone defects. Novel data on biological mechanisms provide improved understanding of the biomembrane’s osteogenic potential and molecular properties. Cite this article: Dr H. E. Gruber. Osteogenic, stem cell and molecular characterisation of the human induced membrane from extremity bone defects. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:106–115. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000483. PMID:27056768

  5. 48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST TO WEST AND CAPTURING I.P. MILLER LUMBER CO. AT WEST END OF MILL POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1949. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  6. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  7. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  8. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  9. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  10. Dielectric Properties of Peanut-hull Pellets at Microwave Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut-hull pellets are obtained from a waste product, peanut-hulls, which after pelleting can have several uses, namely as a renewable fuel. Rapid and nondestructive characterization of peanut-hull pellets is important for industrial utilization of this resource. Properties such as water content an...

  11. 49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. NOTE OPEN BURNING AREA LOWER RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1951. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  12. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the starboard outboard side of the transom within two inches of the top of the transom, gunwale, or... and within two inches of the top of the hull side, gunwale or hull/deck joint, whichever is lowest. (3... location specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (b) The duplicate hull identification number must...

  13. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  14. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  15. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  16. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  17. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  18. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  19. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  20. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  1. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  2. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  3. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  4. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  5. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  6. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  7. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  8. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  9. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  10. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  11. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  12. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  13. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  14. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  15. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  16. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  17. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  18. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  19. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  20. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST... Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the... Commandant as possessing adequate strength....

  1. Digestion of fibre polysaccharides of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage by adult cockerels.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, M; McNab, J M

    1989-11-01

    Characterization of the carbohydrates of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage using both colorimetric and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques permitted a detailed investigation into the extent of digestion of differing types of fibre. These digestion studies were greatly aided by the development of a rapid bioassay employing starved adult cockerels. Total collection of undigested residues, uncontaminated by food spillage, could be made from trays placed under the cockerels. Chemical analysis showed that pea hulls consisted mainly of fibre with very little available carbohydrate present, whereas more than half of freeze-dried carrot and cabbage consisted of available carbohydrate (sucrose, glucose, fructose, starch) and consequently considerably less fibre was present. The fibre of carrot and cabbage was similarly composed of nearly equal amounts of neutral and acidic polysaccharides, whereas pea-hull fibre had four times as much neutral as acidic polysaccharides. The digestibility of total neutral polysaccharides from all three foodstuffs was extremely low. However, there appeared to be preferential digestion of polysaccharides composed of rhamnose, arabinose and galactose residues, all associated with pectic material, in contrast to the indigestibility of polysaccharides composed of fucose, xylose and glucose. Acidic polysaccharides were digested to a greater extent than neutral ones, and those of carrot and cabbage more so than pea hulls. The polysaccharides which were the most soluble were also the most digestible, but due to the arbitrariness of polysaccharide solubility, quantification of their total digestibility per se was considered not possible.

  2. Nonthermal phase transitions in semiconductors induced by a femtosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Nikita; Jeschke, Harald O.; Ziaja, Beata

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel theoretical approach, which allows the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of both electrons and atoms/ions within free-electron laser excited semiconductors at femtosecond time scales. The approach consists of the Monte-Carlo method treating photoabsorption, high-energy-electron and core-hole kinetics and relaxation processes. Low-energy electrons localized within the valence and conduction bands of the target are treated with a temperature equation, including source terms, defined by the exchange of energy and particles with high-energy electrons and atoms. We follow the atomic motion with the molecular dynamics method on the changing potential energy surface. The changes of the potential energy surface and of the electron band structure are calculated at each time step with the help of the tight-binding method. Such a combination of methods enables investigation of nonequilibrium structural changes within materials under extreme ultraviolet (XUV) femtosecond irradiation. Our analysis performed for diamond irradiated with an XUV femtosecond laser pulse predicts for the first time in this wavelength regime the nonthermal phase transition from diamond to graphite. Similar to the case of visible light irradiation, this transition takes place within a few tens of femtoseconds and is caused by changes of the interatomic potential induced by ultrafast electronic excitations. It thus occurs well before the heating stimulated by electron-phonon coupling starts to play a role. This allows us to conclude that this transition is nonthermal and represents a general mechanism of the response of solids to ultrafast electron excitations.

  3. Fluidized landslides induced by extreme rainfall along basaltic caldera cliff of Mt. Aso in July 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Matsushi, Yuki; Furuya, Gen; Saito, Hitoshi

    2013-04-01

    In the end of the rainy season of 2012, a extreme rainfall affected western Japan in July and induced hundreds of fluidized landslides claiming casualties of more than 20. Measured trigger precipitation was recorded by the nearby ground-based station of the AMeDAS network (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System)as about 80 mm/h for consecutive 4 hours. Analysis of Radar-Raingauge Analyzed Precipitation-operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency showed landslide affected area almost coincided with the ones of heavier precipitation. Most of the landslides took place along the outer caldera rim and flank of the central cone of Mt. Aso, a basaltic active volcano. Most of the landslides slid on the boundary of strongly weathered soils, which used to be new volcanic accretion materials. Outstanding features of these landslides are: (1) This area had been affected by similar heavy rainfall decades ago, however, again a number of landslides took place in the nearby past scars; (2) Many of the soil slide bodies are shallow less than 5 meters deep and possibly immediately transformed into debris flows or mud flows and traveled long distance to reach the downslope communities; (3) Visual observation of the sources showed the high possibility that some of the slides were apparently induced by liquefaction. Similar cases were reported of past 2 landslide disasters in Japan. This strongly suggests that excessive rainfall can trigger numerous mud flows of unexpected reach. We conducted close field study at a typical soil slide - mud flow site. It originally initiated as debris or soil slide on a thin steep bedding plane of about 34 degrees consisting of coarser accretion materials. Needle penetration test showed comparatively weaker strength in the layer. It is underlain by a layer of finer materials. Such a higher permeability contrast could contribute to higher susceptibility of excess pore pressure generation. We took soil samples from the vicinity of sliding

  4. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND..., running rigging, blocks, fittings, and sails; (4) Inspection of all railings and bulwarks and...

  5. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  6. Convex Hull Aided Registration Method (CHARM).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingfan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Yitian; Ai, Danni; Liu, Yonghuai; Wang, Ge; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-08-31

    Non-rigid registration finds many applications such as photogrammetry, motion tracking, model retrieval, and object recognition. In this paper we propose a novel convex hull aided registration method (CHARM) to match two point sets subject to a non-rigid transformation. Firstly, two convex hulls are extracted from the source and target respectively. Then, all points of the point sets are projected onto the reference plane through each triangular facet of the hulls. From these projections, invariant features are extracted and matched optimally. The matched feature point pairs are mapped back onto the triangular facets of the convex hulls to remove outliers that are outside any relevant triangular facet. The rigid transformation from the source to the target is robustly estimated by the random sample consensus (RANSAC) scheme through minimizing the distance between the matched feature point pairs. Finally, these feature points are utilized as the control points to achieve nonrigid deformation in the form of thin-plate spline of the entire source point set towards the target one. The experimental results based on both synthetic and real data show that the proposed algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art ones with respect to sampling, rotational angle, and data noise. In addition, the proposed CHARM algorithm also shows higher computational efficiency compared to these methods.

  7. Regional-Scale High-Latitude Extreme Geoelectric Fields Pertaining to Geomagnetically Induced Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Bernabeu, Emanuel; Eichner, Jan; Viljanen, Ari; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the needs of the high-voltage power transmission industry, we use data from the high-latitude IMAGE magnetometer array to study characteristics of extreme geoelectric fields at regional scales. We use 10-s resolution data for years 1993-2013, and the fields are characterized using average horizontal geoelectric field amplitudes taken over station groups that span about 500-km distance. We show that geoelectric field structures associated with localized extremes at single stations can be greatly different from structures associated with regionally uniform geoelectric fields, which are well represented by spatial averages over single stations. Visual extrapolation and rigorous extreme value analysis of spatially averaged fields indicate that the expected range for 1-in-100-year extreme events are 3-8 V/km and 3.4-7.1 V/km, respectively. The Quebec reference ground model is used in the calculations.

  8. Regional-scale high-latitude extreme geoelectric fields pertaining to geomagnetically induced currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Bernabeu, Emanuel; Eichner, Jan; Viljanen, Ari; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by the needs of the high-voltage power transmission industry, we use data from the high-latitude IMAGE magnetometer array to study characteristics of extreme geoelectric fields at regional scales. We use 10-s resolution data for years 1993-2013, and the fields are characterized using average horizontal geoelectric field amplitudes taken over station groups that span about 500-km distance. We show that geoelectric field structures associated with localized extremes at single stations can be greatly different from structures associated with regionally uniform geoelectric fields, which are well represented by spatial averages over single stations. Visual extrapolation and rigorous extreme value analysis of spatially averaged fields indicate that the expected range for 1-in-100-year extreme events are 3-8 V/km and 3.4-7.1 V/km, respectively. The Quebec reference ground model is used in the calculations.

  9. Characterising the Geomorphic Response of a Tropical Mega-River to an Extreme, Cyclone Induced, Flood Event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.; Best, J.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme events have the ability to induce extensive geomorphic change in fluvial systems as a result of elevated discharge levels, increased sediment transport capacity and associated changes in sheer stresses along channel boundaries. Understanding how rapid rises in water levels change flow structures and channel boundary roughness is key to understanding the relative significance of large events in terms of driving local and system wide geomorphic change. However, capturing the fluvial process dynamics in operation during such events is technically and logistically difficult, especially in the world's largest rivers. During September 2013, on the peak of the monsoon, a series of tropical cyclones induced a large flood event within the Mekong basin. At the peak of the flood wave, discharge measured ~60000 m3/s; the 11th largest flood on record. Pre and post event high resolution topographic surveys of parts of the bed and bank were captured using a combination of contiguous multibeam echo sounding (MBES) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) during the event. Simultaneously detailed measurements of cross sectional and near bank flow structure were acquired using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp). Together, these unique datasets can be used to characterise and assess the geomorphic impact of a cyclone induced extreme flood event on the Mekong. We show how flow structures in the near bank region evolve with stage during the extreme event and how the associated geomorphic response is modulated by the distinctive process dynamics of a mega-river.

  10. Carry-over fluency induced by extreme prolongations: A new behavioral paradigm.

    PubMed

    Briley, P M; Barnes, M P; Kalinowski, J S

    2016-04-01

    Extreme prolongations, which can be generated via extreme delayed auditory feedback (DAF) (e.g., 250-500 ms) or mediated cognitively with timing applications (e.g., analog stopwatch) at 2 s per syllable, have long been behavioral techniques used to inhibit stuttering. Some therapies have used this rate solely to establish initial fluency, while others use extremely slowed speech to establish fluency and add other strategic techniques such as easy onsets and diaphragmatic breathing. Extreme prolongations generate effective, efficient, and immediate forward flowing fluent speech, removing the signature behaviors of discrete stuttering (i.e., syllable repetitions and audible and inaudible postural fixations). Prolonged use of extreme prolongations establishes carry-over fluency, which is spontaneous, effortless speech absent of most, if not all, overt and covert manifestations of stuttering. The creation of this immediate fluency and the immense potential of extreme prolongations to generate long periods of carry-over fluency have been overlooked by researchers and clinicians alike. Clinicians depart from these longer prolongation durations as they attempt to achieve the same fluent results at a near normal rate of speech. Clinicians assume they are re-teaching fluency and slow rates will give rise to more normal rates with less control, but without carry-over fluency, controls and cognitive mediation are always needed for the inherently unstable speech systems of persons who stutter to experience fluent speech. The assumption being that the speech system is untenable without some level of cognitive and motoric monitoring that is always necessary. The goal is omnipresent "near normal rate sounding fluency" with continuous mediation via cognitive and motoric processes. This pursuit of "normal sounding fluency" continues despite ever-present relapse. Relapse has become so common that acceptance of stuttering is the new therapy modality because relapse has come to be

  11. Automatic welding systems for large ship hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregi, B.; Granados, S.; Hascoet, JY.; Hamilton, K.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Welding processes represents about 40% of the total production time in shipbuilding. Although most of the indoor welding work is automated, outdoor operations still require the involvement of numerous operators. To automate hull welding operations is a priority in large shipyards. The objective of the present work is to develop a comprehensive welding system capable of working with several welding layers in an automated way. There are several difficulties for the seam tracking automation of the welding process. The proposed solution is the development of a welding machine capable of moving autonomously along the welding seam, controlling both the position of the torch and the welding parameters to adjust the thickness of the weld bead to the actual gap between the hull plates.

  12. Convex hull test for ordered categorical data.

    PubMed

    Berger, V W; Permutt, T; Ivanova, A

    1998-12-01

    When testing for stochastic order in ordered 2 x J contingency tables, it is common to select the cutoff required to declare significance so as to ensure that the size of the test is exactly alpha conditionally on the margins. It is valid, however, to use the margins to select not only the cutoff but also the form of the test. Linear rank tests, which are locally most powerful and frequently used in practice, suffer from the drawback that they may have power as low as zero to detect some alternatives of interest when the margins satisfy certain conditions. The Smirnov and convex hull tests are shown, through exact conditional power calculations and simulations, to avoid this drawback. The convex hull test is also admissible and palindromic invariant and minimizes the required significance level to have limiting power of one as the alternative moves away from the null in any direction.

  13. The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.

  14. Geotechnical simulation of tertiary creep behavior of landslides induced by extreme rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dok, Atitkagna; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Rainstorm indirectly provokes landslides because of its ability to level up the groundwater table after certain hours dropping. This process causes excess pore water pressure generation and soil liquefaction at the sliding surface and determines the behavior of landslides triggered by extreme rainfall. Creep deformations are commonly observed in a slope before sliding down. Creep behavior, in particular tertiary creep behavior, is therefore the main focus in predicting the final failure time of a slope. Progressive failure/tertiary creep deformation is the stage when strain rate exponentially increases just before final collapse. This study aims at simulating geotechnical model of tertiary creep behavior in soils, which was empirically discovered by Saito (1965) and Fukuzono (1985) to help issue warning of rainfall-induced landslides in developing countries where there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. Tertiary creep to failure is reproduced by pore-pressure-controlled test in ring shear apparatus, through which obvious relationship of A and α (alpha) values was obtained, following consistent range with those found in previous studies under slightly deviated trend due to different test condition: pore-pressure-controlled and shear stress development tests. Constant shear speed test under shear speed of v=1cm/s was conducted in the ring shear apparatus to obtain the relation curve of shear resistance and shear displacement, from which exponential expression of creep behavior is originated. The model formula is governed by two constants: m and γ (gamma) whose relation with constants A and alpha was examined. Geotechnical simulation of creep behavior is then constructed by assuming that shear strength of soil increases and remains constant after reaching its maximum value in residual condition. This is to quantify normally consolidated condition of soils in natural slope. Shear resistance diminishes, while pore pressure

  15. Attribution of human-induced dynamical and thermodynamical contributions in extreme weather events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; Otto, F.; Stott, P.; Christidis, N.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Schaller, N.

    2016-11-01

    We present a new method that allows a separation of the attribution of human influence in extreme events into changes in atmospheric flows and changes in other processes. Assuming two data sets of model simulations or observations representing a natural, or ‘counter-factual’ climate, and the actual, or ‘factual’ climate, we show how flow analogs used across data sets can provide quantitative estimates of each contribution to the changes in probabilities of extreme events. We apply this method to the extreme January precipitation amounts in Southern UK such as were observed in the winter of 2013/2014. Using large ensembles of an atmospheric model forced by factual and counterfactual sea surface temperatures, we demonstrate that about a third of the increase in January precipitation amounts can be attributed to changes in weather circulation patterns and two thirds of the increase to thermodynamic changes. This method can be generalized to many classes of events and regions and provides, in the above case study, similar results to those obtained in Schaller et al (2016 Nat. Clim. Change 6 627-34) who used a simple circulation index, describing only a local feature of the circulation, as in other methods using circulation indices (van Ulden and van Oldenborgh 2006 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6 863-81).

  16. Global-warming-induced Increases in Extreme Precipitation are Smallest over Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Durran, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Climate-model simulations predict an intensification of extreme precipitation in almost all areas of the world under global warming. Geographical variations in the magnitude of this intensification are clearly evident in the simulations, but most previous efforts to understand the factors responsible for the changes in extreme precipitation have focused on zonal averages, neglecting the variations that occur in different regions at the same latitude. Here we present climate-model simulations for an ocean-covered earth having simple idealized continents with north-south mountain barriers in its northern midlatitudes. We show that the sensitivity of extreme precipitation to increases in the global mean surface temperature is 3 %/K lower over the mountains than over the oceans and the plains. Fundamental factors responsible for changes in precipitation intensity may be divided between thermodynamic effects, arising through changes in temperature and moisture, and dynamical effects, produced by changes in the ascent rates of saturated air parcels. The difference in sensitivity among these regions is not due to thermodynamic effects, but rather to differences between the gravity-wave dynamics governing vertical velocities over the mountains and the cyclone dynamics governing vertical motions over the oceans and plains.

  17. Effects of virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function in acute stage stroke: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Eun-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity motor function recovery in acute stage stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Four acute stage stroke patients participated in the study. A multiple baseline single subject experimental design was utilized. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was used according to the EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke protocol during baseline sessions. Virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy was applied during treatment sessions. The Manual Function Test and the Box and Block Test were used to measure upper extremity function before every session. [Results] The subjects’ upper extremity function improved during the intervention period. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement is effective for upper extremity function recovery in acute stroke patients. PMID:27942143

  18. Effects of virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function in acute stage stroke: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity motor function recovery in acute stage stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Four acute stage stroke patients participated in the study. A multiple baseline single subject experimental design was utilized. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was used according to the EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke protocol during baseline sessions. Virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy was applied during treatment sessions. The Manual Function Test and the Box and Block Test were used to measure upper extremity function before every session. [Results] The subjects' upper extremity function improved during the intervention period. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement is effective for upper extremity function recovery in acute stroke patients.

  19. Irreversible shear-induced vitrification of droplets into elastic nanoemulsions by extreme rupturing

    SciTech Connect

    Wilking, James N.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2007-04-15

    Many materials weaken through fracturing when subjected to extreme stresses. By contrast, we show that breaking down repulsive bits of matter dispersed in a viscous liquid can cause a dramatic and irreversible increase in the dispersion's elasticity. Anionically stabilized microscale emulsions subjected to a history of high-pressure microfluidic flow can develop an unusually large elastic modulus as droplets are ruptured to the nanoscale, yielding 'nanonaise'. As the droplet size approaches the Debye screening length, the nanoemulsion vitrifies. Consequently, the onset of elasticity for disordered uniform nanoemulsions can occur at droplet volume fractions far below maximal random jamming of spheres.

  20. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 1. The prototype cladding hull decontamination system

    SciTech Connect

    Lambright, T.M.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1980-04-01

    A prototype system for decontaminating Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls has been assembled and tested at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The decontamination process consists of treatment with a gaseous mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and argon (Ar) followed by a dilute aqueous etch of ammonium oxalate, ammonium citrate, ammonium fluoride, and hydrogen peroxide. The continuous cleaning process described in this report successfully descaled small portions of most charges, but was unable to handle the original design capacity of 4 kg/hr because of problems in the following areas: control of HF reactor temperatures, regulation of HF and argon mixtures and flows, isolation of the HF reactor atmosphere from the aqueous washer/rinser atmosphere, regulation of undesirable side reactions, and control over hull transport through the system. Due to the limited time available to solve these problems, the system did not attain fully operational status. The work was performed with unirradiated hulls that simulated irradiated hulls. The system was not built to be remotely operable. The process chemistry and system equipment are described in this report with particular emphasis on critical operating areas. Recommendations for improved system operation are included.

  1. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields can impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; Ferreira Filho, Moisés Bonifacio Alves; Jimenez, George Chaves; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-06-01

    Male infertility is often related to reproductive age couples experiencing fertility-related issues. Men may have fertility problems associated with reversible testicular damage. Considering that men have been increasingly exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields generated by the production, distribution and use of electricity, this study analyzed whether 60 Hz and 1 mT magnetic field exposure may impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat shock using rats as an experimental model. Adult male rats were subjected to a single testicular heat shock (HS, 43 °C for 12 min) and then exposed to the magnetic field for 15, 30 and 60 d after HS. Magnetic field exposure during the spermatogenesis recovery induced changes in testis components volume, cell ultrastructure and histomorphometrical parameters. Control animals had a reestablished and active spermatogenesis at 60 d after heat shock, while animals exposed to magnetic field still showed extensive testicular degeneration. Magnetic field exposure did not change the plasma testosterone. In conclusion, extremely low-frequency magnetic field may be harmful to fertility recovery in males affected by reversible testicular damage.

  2. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use. PMID:27177559

  3. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  4. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  5. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  6. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

  7. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use.

  8. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

  9. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  10. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  11. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  12. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  13. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI);...

  14. Evaluation of Computational Codes for Underwater Hull Analysis Model Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-05

    Elsyca CP Master was selected as the best basis for the Underwater Hull Analysis Model; however, additional work performed with COMSOL Multiphysics...since the selection indicates that COMSOL should be re-evaluated if the Underwater Hull Analysis Model program is renewed at some future date. 05-02...8 4.3 COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS ......................................................................................... 10 4.4 ELSYCA CP

  15. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  16. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  17. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  18. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  19. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract on glucose-regulating mechanism in type 2 diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to determine the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against type 2 diabetes induced by a high fat diet administered to mice. Dietary administration of 0.5% or 1% RHSE for 7 weeks results in significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride and to...

  20. Electron-Impact-Induced Emission Cross Sections of Neon in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Ajello, J. M.; James, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum of neon produced by electron excitation. The measurements were obtained under optically thin conditions, and at a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM). The most prominent features of the EUV spectrum between 45-80 nm are the resonance lines of Ne I at 73.6 and 74.4 nm and a multiplet of Ne II at 46.14 nm (the average value for the line center of the two closely spaced ion lines at 46.07 and 46.22 nm). Absolute emission cross sections of these lines at 300 eV were measured and compared to other previous measurements.

  1. Sudden pore pressure rise and rapid landslide initiation induced under extreme rainfall conditions - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Wang, Fawu; Wang, Gonghui

    2010-05-01

    Since July 19 to 26, 2009, western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. Debris flow distribution map was prepared soon based on airphoto interpretation. Japanese Meteorological Agency runs nation-wide ground-based rain gauge network as well as radar rain gauges, which provide hourly to 10 minutes precipitation distribution real-time with spatial resolution of about 5 km. Distribution of daily (cumulative) precipitation of July 21 shows (1) The cumulative precipitation from 6 am -- 12 am of the day was evaluated that their return period could be 200 - 600 years statistically. In 2009, another extraordinary rainfall, of which intensity was evaluated as less than 100 years more more, caused floods in another city claiming many residents lives on the way to evacuation area. Those frequent extraordinary extreme rainfall is not concluded as the consequence of global warming nor climate change, however, those frequency of extreme rainfall events affecting societies are obviously increasing in Japan, too. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called "masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except authors past experiment on the similar masa samples in June 1999 Hiroshima debris flow case. Authors have embedded pore pressure control system for the undrained ring shear apparatus. Strongly weathered sandy soils were sampled just on the smooth and flat granitic

  2. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-05-16

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: {sup 3}He, {sup 11}Li, {sup 14}Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10{sup {minus}10} per fission. Results from the fissioning systems {sup 233}U (n{sub th}, f), {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f), {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f) {sup 241}Pu(n{sub th},f) and {sup 245}Cm(n{sub th},f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed.

  3. Bilateral lower extremity gangrene requiring amputation associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia--a case report.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Brian P; De Ugarte, Daniel A; Reil, Todd D; Beseth, Bryce D; Lawrence, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Heparin use, both prophylactically and therapeutically, is prevalent among hospitalized patients. Patients on heparin may develop a thrombocytopenia that is self-limited. Fewer patients develop a heparin-induced thrombocytopenia that can cause severe bleeding and thrombosis owing to intravascular platelet aggregation. The authors present a case report of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in a patient who underwent aortic arch and aortic valve replacement that resulted in bilateral above-knee amputations. The patient developed limb ischemia related to heparin-associated thrombosis, but had a delay in antibody seroconversion. Early and accurate diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia requires a high clinical suspicion and may be present despite the absence of serum antibodies.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunchun; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing; Duan, Wenyi; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF)-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons and the underlying molecular mechanism. The results of MTT, morphological observation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays showed that compared with control, incubating neurons under ELF-EMF exposure significantly decreased cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells, whereas LSPCs evidently protected the hippocampal neurons against ELF-EMF-induced cell damage. Moreover, a certain concentration of LSPCs inhibited the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) level, as well as prevented the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by ELF-EMF exposure. In addition, supplementation with LSPCs could alleviate DNA damage, block cell cycle arrest at S phase, and inhibit apoptosis and necrosis of hippocampal neurons under ELF-EMF exposure. Further study demonstrated that LSPCs up-regulated the activations of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl proteins and suppressed the expressions of Bad, Bax proteins caused by ELF-EMF exposure. In conclusion, these findings revealed that LSPCs protected against ELF-EMF-induced neurotoxicity through inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  5. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tropical cyclone-induced storm surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Mason, Matthew S.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of major storm surges in the last decade have dramatically emphasized the immense destructive capabilities of extreme water level events, particularly when driven by severe tropical cyclones. Given this risk, it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood and erosion management, engineering and for future land-use planning and to ensure the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. Australia has a long history of coastal flooding from tropical cyclones. Using a novel integration of two modeling techniques, this paper provides the first estimates of present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia, and the first estimates that combine the influence of astronomical tides, storm surges generated by both extra-tropical and tropical cyclones, and seasonal and inter-annual variations in mean sea level. Initially, an analysis of tide gauge records has been used to assess the characteristics of tropical cyclone-induced surges around Australia. However, given the dearth (temporal and spatial) of information around much of the coastline, and therefore the inability of these gauge records to adequately describe the regional climatology, an observationally based stochastic tropical cyclone model has been developed to synthetically extend the tropical cyclone record to 10,000 years. Wind and pressure fields derived for these synthetically generated events have then been used to drive a hydrodynamic model of the Australian continental shelf region with annual maximum water levels extracted to estimate exceedance probabilities around the coastline. To validate this methodology, selected historic storm surge events have been simulated and resultant storm surges compared with gauge records. Tropical cyclone induced exceedance probabilities have been combined with

  6. The influences of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on clonidine-induced sleep in 2-day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Min, Y S; Jeong, J H; Choi, Y M; Lee, B C; Huh, I H; Lee, S Y; Sohn, U D

    2001-08-01

    1. It has been shown that magnetic fields (MFs) affect a variety of biological effects in animal brains. There have been few experiments on the effects of MFs on sleep. Therefore, we investigated whether extremely low frequency (ELF) MFs affect the sleep induced by clonidine, a central alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist. Clonidine produced dose-related increase of the sleeping time and dose-related decrease of the onset time in 2-day-old chicks. 2. Exposure of chicks to MFs (5, 10, 20 G; for 3, 6, 9, 12 h) significantly increased the clonidine-induced sleep time as a direct function of intensity and duration of MF application. Clonidine reduced noradrenaline or tyrosine in the brain, an effect which was not further changed in animals exposed to MF. 3. To determine whether the gamma amino butyric acid A (GABA(A))/benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor system is involved in the decrease in clonidine-induced sleep caused by activation of central alpha(2)-adrenergic systems, we examined exposure of chicks to the effects of the BZD receptor antagonist flumazenil (0.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline (0.1 mg kg-1, i.p.) on clonidine-induced sleep. Bicuculline and flumazenil inhibited the increase of clonidine-induced sleep time by MFs. Clonidine or MFs did not change GABA levels in the brain. 4. These results suggest that MFs can increase clonidine-induced sleep via a change of GABA(A) and BZD receptor system irrespective of the concentration of GABA or noradrenaline in the brain of 2-day-old chicks.

  7. Convex hull of N planar Brownian motions: exact results and an application to ecology.

    PubMed

    Randon-Furling, Julien; Majumdar, Satya N; Comtet, Alain

    2009-10-02

    We compute exactly the mean perimeter and area of the convex hull of N independent planar Brownian paths each of duration T, both for open and closed paths. We show that the mean perimeter =alpha N sqrt[T] and the mean area =beta(N)T for all T. The prefactors alpha N and beta N, computed exactly for all N, increase very slowly (logarithmically) with increasing N. This slow growth is a consequence of extreme value statistics and has interesting implications in an ecological context in estimating the home range of a herd of animals with a population size N.

  8. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  9. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields induce oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Manikonda, Pavan K; Rajendra, Pilankatta; Devendranath, D; Gunasekaran, B; Channakeshava; Aradhya, Shivakumara R S; Sashidhar, Rao B; Subramanyam, Chivukula

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to understand the influence of long-term exposure of rats to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF), focusing on oxidative stress (OS) on different regions of rat's brain. Male Wistar rats (21-day-old) were exposed to ELF-MF (50 Hz; 50 and 100 µT) for 90 days continuously; hippocampal, cerebellar and cortical regions from rats were analyzed for (i) reactive oxygen species (ROS), (ii) metabolites indicative of OS and (iii) antioxidant enzymes. In comparison to control group rats, the rats that were continuously exposed to ELF-MF caused OS and altered glutathione (GSH/GSSG) levels in dose-dependent manner in all the regions of the brain. Accumulation of ROS, lipid peroxidation end products and activity of superoxide dismutase in different regions was in the descending order of cerebellum < hippocampus < cortex. Decrement in GSH/GSSG levels and increment in glutathione peroxidase activity were in the descending order of hippocampus < cerebellum < cortex. The continuous exposure to ELF-MF caused OS in all the examined regions of brain more significantly at 100 µT than at 50 µT. Varied influences observed in different regions of the brain, as documented in this study, may contribute to altered metabolic patterns in its related regions of the central nervous system, leading to aberrant neuronal functions.

  10. Fatal or harmless: extreme bistability induced by sterilizing, sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Berec, Luděk; Maxin, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Models of sexually transmitted infections have become a fixture of mathematical epidemiology. A common attribute of all these models is treating reproduction and mating, and hence pathogen transmission, as uncoupled events. This is fine for humans, for example, where only a tiny fraction of sexual intercourses ends up with having a baby. But it can be a deficiency for animals in which mating and giving birth are tightly coupled, and mating thus mediates both reproduction and pathogen transmission. Here, we model dynamics of sterilizing, sexually transmitted infections in such animals, assuming structural consistency between the processes of reproduction and pathogen transmission. We show that highly sterilizing, sexually transmitted pathogens trigger bistability in the host population. In particular, the host population can end up in two extreme alternative states, disease-free persistence and pathogen-driven extinction, depending on its initial state. Given that sterilizing, sexually transmitted infections that affect animals are abundant, our results might implicate an effective pest control tactic that consists of releasing the corresponding pathogens, possibly after genetically enhancing their sterilization power.

  11. Delayed leaf senescence induces extreme drought tolerance in a flowering plant.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Rosa M; Kojima, Mikiko; Gepstein, Amira; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Mittler, Ron; Gepstein, Shimon; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2007-12-04

    Drought, the most prominent threat to agricultural production worldwide, accelerates leaf senescence, leading to a decrease in canopy size, loss in photosynthesis and reduced yields. On the basis of the assumption that senescence is a type of cell death program that could be inappropriately activated during drought, we hypothesized that it may be possible to enhance drought tolerance by delaying drought-induced leaf senescence. We generated transgenic plants expressing an isopentenyltransferase gene driven by a stress- and maturation-induced promoter. Remarkably, the suppression of drought-induced leaf senescence resulted in outstanding drought tolerance as shown by, among other responses, vigorous growth after a long drought period that killed the control plants. The transgenic plants maintained high water contents and retained photosynthetic activity (albeit at a reduced level) during the drought. Moreover, the transgenic plants displayed minimal yield loss when watered with only 30% of the amount of water used under control conditions. The production of drought-tolerant crops able to grow under restricted water regimes without diminution of yield would minimize drought-related losses and ensure food production in water-limited lands.

  12. Extreme sensitivity of the electric-field-induced band gap to the electronic topological transition in sliding bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu Won; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the effect of electronic topological transition on the electric field-induced band gap in sliding bilayer graphene by using the density functional theory calculations. The electric field-induced band gap was found to be extremely sensitive to the electronic topological transition. At the electronic topological transition induced by layer sliding, four Dirac cones in the Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene reduces to two Dirac cones with equal or unequal Dirac energies depending on the sliding direction. While the critical electric field required for the band gap opening increases with increasing lateral shift for the two Dirac cones with unequal Dirac energies, the critical field is essentially zero with or without a lateral shift for the two Dirac cones with equal Dirac energies. The critical field is determined by the Dirac energy difference and the electronic screening effect. The electronic screening effect was also found to be enhanced with increasing lateral shift, apparently indicating that the massless helical and massive chiral fermions are responsible for the perfect and imperfect electronic screening, respectively.

  13. Extremely low frequency magnetic field induced changes in motor behaviour of gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Rauš, Snežana; Selaković, Vesna; Radenović, Lidija; Prolić, Zlatko; Janać, Branka

    2012-03-17

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavioural effects of an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in 3-month-old Mongolian gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia. After 10-min occlusion of both common carotid arteries, the gerbils were placed in the vicinity of an electromagnet and continuously exposed to ELF-MF (50Hz, 0.5mT) for 7 days. Their behaviour (locomotion, stereotypy, rotations, and immobility) was monitored on days 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 after reperfusion for 60min in the open field. It was shown that the 10-min global cerebral ischemia per se induced a significant motor activity increase (locomotion, stereotypy and rotations), and consequently immobility decrease until day 4 after reperfusion, compared to control gerbils. Exposure to ELF-MF inhibited development of ischemia-induced motor hyperactivity during the whole period of registration, but significantly in the first 2 days after reperfusion, when the postischemic hyperactivity was most evident. Motor activity of these gerbils was still significantly increased compared to control ones, but only on day 1 after reperfusion. Our results revealed that the applied ELF-MF (50Hz, 0.5mT) decreased motor hyperactivity induced by the 10-min global cerebral ischemia, via modulation of the processes that underlie this behavioural response.

  14. Exercise-induced haemorrhagic lesions in the dorsocaudal extremities of the caudal lobes of the lungs of young thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, M

    1999-11-01

    The dorsocaudal extremities of the caudal lobes of the lungs of racehorses are vulnerable to exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). The morphology of the lungs at these sites was studied in 13 Thoroughbred horses aged 18 to 22 months. These animals, which had been performing low-intensity exercise on a track at maximum running speeds of approximately 5-8.5 metres/second (m/s), were withdrawn from the racehorse training programme for reasons of unsuitability. Lung lesions observed in the dorsocaudal lung extremities in 10 of the 13 horses were not found in the craniodorsal or cranioventral portions of the lungs. The lesions, which resembled those previously found in Thoroughbred racehorses aged 5 to 11 years with a history of EIPH, were of two main types, namely, multifocal bronchiolar distortion and alveolar epithelialization. EIPH lesions were found only in horses that had been trained at maximum speeds greater than approximately 7.0 m/s. It would seem, therefore, that exercise intensity is an important factor in the pathogenesis of EIPH and that running speeds greater than approximately 7.0 m/s may be sufficient to generate the pulmonary vascular pressures necessary to cause EIPH lesions in young Thoroughbreds.

  15. Remodeling of heterochromatin induced by heavy metals in extreme old age.

    PubMed

    Lezhava, Teimuraz; Monaselidze, Jamlet; Jokhadze, Tinatin; Gorgoshidze, Maia; Kiladze, Maia; Gaiozishvili, Maia

    2011-09-01

    The levels of chromosome instability and heat absorption of chromatin have been studied in cultured lymphocytes derived from blood of 80-93- and 18-30-year-old individuals, under the effect of heavy metal Cu(II) and Cd(II) salts. The analysis of the results obtained indicates that 50 μM Cu(II) induced a significantly higher level of cells with chromosome aberrations in old donors (13.8 ± 1.5% vs control, 3.8 ± 1.7%), whereas treatment with 100 μM Cd(II) did not induce any changes in the background index. Analysis of the lymphocyte melting curves showed that Cu(II) ions caused more effective condensation of heterochromatin in old healthy individuals compared with young donors, which was expressed by the increase of the T (m) of elderly chromatin by ~3°C compared with the norm. Treatment of lymphocyte chromatin of old individuals with 100 μM Cd(II) caused decondensation (deheterochromatinization) of both the facultative and constitutive domains of heterochromatin. The deheterochromatinization T (m) was decreased by ~3-3.5°C compared with the T (m) observed for young individuals. Thus, the chromatin of cultured lymphocytes from the old-aged individuals underwent modification under the influence of copper and cadmium salts. Cu(II) caused additional heterochromatinization of heterochromatin, and Cd(II) caused deheterochromatinization of facultative and constitutive heterochromatin. Our data may be important as new information on the remodeling of constitutive and facultative heterochromatin induced by heavy metals in aging, aging pathology, and pathology linked with metal ions.

  16. Correlation method for the measure of mask-induced line-edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-05-25

    As critical dimensions for leading-edge semiconductor devices shrink, line-edge roughness (LER) requirements are pushing well into the single digit nanometer regime. At these scales many new sources of LER must be considered. In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown the lithographic mask to be a source of significant concern. Here we present a correlation-based methodology for experimentally measuring the magnitude of mask contributors to printed LER. The method is applied to recent printing results from a 0.3 numerical aperture EUV microfield exposure tool. The measurements demonstrate that such effects are indeed present and of significant magnitude. The method is also used to explore the effects of illumination coherence and defocus and has been used to verify model-based predictions of mask-induced LER.

  17. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  18. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  19. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  20. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  1. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  2. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  3. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  4. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  5. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  6. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  7. Effect of the hull fraction on the beta-glucan contents of barley and oat grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hull fraction of barley and oat grains affects the beta-glucan (BG) content in whole grains. To evaluate the impact of the hull fraction on BG content in various genetic backgrounds and growth conditions, BG contents were analyzed in five hulled barley lines, seven hulled oat lines, and one F2 ...

  8. Calculation of the hull and of the car-suspension systems of airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verduzio, R

    1924-01-01

    Differential and integral curves are presented and well as numerous calculations relating to hulls. Some of the calculations include those relating to hulls, those relating to the invariability of the shape of the hulls, and those relating to the suspension of the hull.

  9. Systematic investigation of resonance-induced single-harmonic enhancement in the extreme-ultraviolet range

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Kieffer, J.-C.; Ozaki, T.

    2007-06-15

    We demonstrate the intensity enhancement of single harmonics in high-order harmonic generation from laser plasma. We identified several targets (In, Sn, Sb, Cr, and Mn) that demonstrate resonance-induced enhancement of single harmonic, that are spectrally close to ionic transitions with strong oscillator strengths. We optimized and obtained enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 21st, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from the above targets, by varying the chirp of the 800 nm wavelength femtosecond laser. We also observe harmonic enhancement by using frequency-doubled pump laser (400 nm wavelength). For Mn plasma pumped by the 400 nm wavelength laser, the maximum order of the enhanced harmonic observed was the 17th order ({lambda}=23.5 nm), which corresponds to the highest photon energy (52.9 eV) reported for an enhanced single harmonic.

  10. Exploring the electron density in plasmas induced by extreme ultraviolet radiation in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Osorio, E. A.; Banine, V. Y.

    2015-07-01

    The new generation of lithography tools use high energy EUV radiation which ionizes the present background gas due to photoionization. To predict and understand the long term impact on the highly delicate mirrors, it is essential to characterize these kinds of EUV-induced plasmas. We measured the electron density evolution in argon gas during and just after irradiation by a short pulse of EUV light at 13.5 nm by applying microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. Dependencies on EUV pulse energy and gas pressure have been explored over a range relevant for industrial applications. Our experimental results show that the maximum reached electron density depends linearly on pulse energy. A quadratic dependence caused by photoionization and subsequent electron impact ionization by free electrons is found from experiments where the gas pressure is varied. This is demonstrated by our theoretical estimates presented in this manuscript as well.

  11. In-Water Ship Hull Inspection with Smart Underwater Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Blazed Array” Sonar H. Johannsson, MIT SN‘s 4-18 ordered! 1. “Non-complex” area 2. “Complex” area In-Water Ship Hull Inspection with Autonomous Robots 1...Global SLAM (iSAM) Sonar imagery and SLAM, mesh, path planning In-Water Ship Hull Inspection with Autonomous Robots 1. The Objective and its...Ship Hull Inspection with Autonomous Robots 1. The Objective and its Components The task forms a rich and important robotics problem that spans

  12. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  13. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  14. Spontaneous and mitomycin-C-induced micronuclei in human lymphocytes exposed to extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Scarfi, M.R.; Bersani, F.; Cossarizza, A.; Monti, D.; Castellani, G.; Cadossi, R.; Franceschetti, G.; Franceschi, C. )

    1991-04-15

    The cytokinesis block micronucleus method, a very sensitive cytogenetic assay, was used to ascertain the possible genotoxic effects of extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic fields in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes cultures from 16 healthy donors. Four conditions were studied: lymphocytes not exposed to the field (control cultures); lymphocytes exposed to the field; lymphocytes treated with mitomycin-C and not exposed to the field; and lymphocytes treated with mitomycin-C and exposed to the field. Mitomycin-C-treated cultures were used as control for the micronucleus method, because it is known that mitomycin-C is a potent genotoxic agent, capable of inducing micronuclei. The frequency of micronuclei in field-exposed cultures was similar to the spontaneous frequency observed in control unexposed-cultures. Moreover, the exposure to pulsed magnetic fields did not affect the frequency of micronuclei induced by mitomycin-C, suggesting that, in the experimental conditions used, this kind of field neither affected the integrity of chromosomes nor interfered with the genotoxic activity of mitomycin-C.

  15. Charge Transfer Dissociation of Complex Oligosaccharides: Comparison with Collision-Induced Dissociation and Extreme Ultraviolet Dissociative Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropartz, David; Li, Pengfei; Fanuel, Mathieu; Giuliani, Alexandre; Rogniaux, Hélène; Jackson, Glen P.

    2016-10-01

    The structural characterization of oligosaccharides still challenges the field of analytical chemistry. Tandem mass spectrometry offers many advantages toward this aim, although the generic fragmentation method (low-energy collision-induced dissociation) shows clear limitations and is often insufficient to retrieve some essential structural information on these molecules. In this work, we present the first application of helium charge transfer dissociation (He-CTD) to characterize the structure of complex oligosaccharides. We compare this method with low-energy collision-induced dissociation and extreme-ultraviolet dissociative photoionization (XUV-DPI), which was shown previously to ensure the successful characterization of complex glycans. Similarly to what could be obtained by XUV-DPI, He-CTD provides a complete description of the investigated structures by producing many informative cross-ring fragments and no ambiguous fragmentation. Unlike XUV-DPI, which is performed at a synchrotron source, He-CTD has the undeniable advantage of being implementable in a conventional benchtop ion trap in a conventional laboratory setting.

  16. Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian, Dugesia tigrina

    SciTech Connect

    Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 {micro}T. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 {micro} V/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 {micro}T DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas the previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling.

  17. Convex hull or crossing avoidance? Solution heuristics in the traveling salesperson problem.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, James N; Chronicle, Edward P; Ormerod, Thomas C

    2004-03-01

    Untrained adults appear to have access to cognitive processes that allow them to perform well in the Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem (E-TSP). They do so despite the famous computational intractability of the problem, which stems from its combinatorial complexity. A current hypothesis is the humans' good performance is based on following a strategy of connecting boundary points in order (the convex hull hypothesis). Recently, an alternative has been proposed, that performance is governed by a strategy of avoiding crossings. We examined the crossing avoidance hypothesis from the perspectives of its capacity to explain existing data, its theoretical adequacy, and its ability to explain the results of three new experiments. In Experiment 1, effects on the solution quality of number of points versus number of interior points were compared. In Experiment 2, the distributions of observed paths were compared with those predicted from the two hypotheses. In Experiment 3, figural effects were varied to induce crossings. The results of the experiments were more consistent with the convex hull than with the crossing avoidance hypothesis. Despite its simplicity and intuitive appeal, crossing avoidance does not provide a complete alternative to the convex hull hypothesis. Further elucidation of human strategies and heuristics for optimization problems such as the E-TSP will aid our understanding of how cognitive processes have adapted to the demands of combinatorial difficulty.

  18. Induced gravitational collapse at extreme cosmological distances: the case of GRB 090423

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, R.; Izzo, L.; Muccino, M.; Pisani, G. B.; Rueda, J. A.; Wang, Y.; Barbarino, C.; Bianco, C. L.; Enderli, M.; Kovacevic, M.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The induced gravitational collapse (IGC) scenario has been introduced in order to explain the most energetic gamma ray bursts (GRBs), Eiso = 1052-1054 erg, associated with type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). It has led to the concept of binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) originating in a tight binary system composed by a FeCO core on the verge of a SN explosion and a companion neutron star (NS). Their evolution is characterized by a rapid sequence of events: 1) the SN explodes, giving birth to a new NS (νNS). The accretion of SN ejecta onto the companion NS increases its mass up to the critical value; 2) the consequent gravitational collapse is triggered, leading to the formation of a black hole (BH) with GRB emission; 3) a novel feature responsible for the emission in the GeV, X-ray, and optical energy range occurs and is characterized by specific power-law behavior in their luminosity evolution and total spectrum; 4) the optical observations of the SN then occurs. Aims: We investigate whether GRB 090423, one of the farthest observed GRB at z = 8.2, is a member of the BdHN family. Methods: We compare and contrast the spectra, the luminosity evolution, and the detectability in the observations by Swift of GRB 090423 with the corresponding ones of the best known BdHN case, GRB 090618. Results: Identification of constant slope power-law behavior in the late X-ray emission of GRB 090423 and its overlapping with the corresponding one in GRB 090618, measured in a common rest frame, represents the main result of this article. This result represents a very significant step on the way to using the scaling law properties, proven in Episode 3 of this BdHN family, as a cosmological standard candle. Conclusions: Having identified GRB 090423 as a member of the BdHN family, we can conclude that SN events, leading to NS formation, can already occur, namely at 650 Myr after the Big Bang. It is then possible that these BdHNe stem from 40-60 M⊙ binaries. They are probing the

  19. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Do Not Induce DNA Damage in Human Lens Epithelial Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kan; Lv, Ye; Cheng, Qian; Hua, Jianing; Zeng, Qunli

    2016-05-01

    Non-ionizing radiations, e.g., radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, could induce DNA damage and oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells (LECs) which can be early events in cataractogenesis. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) as another common form of man-made electromagnetic fields has been considered as suspected human carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and become a focus that people play more and more attentions to. This study aimed to determine whether ELF MF can induce DNA damage in cultured human LECs at a relatively low intensity. Human LECs were exposed or sham-exposed to a 50 Hz ELF MF which produced by a well-designed exposure system at the intensity of 0.4 mT. DNA damage in human LECs was examined by the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation assay and further explored with western blot, flow cytometry, and alkaline comet assay. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that 0.4 mT ELF MF did not significantly increase γH2AX foci formation in human LECs after 2, 6, 12, 24, or 48 hr exposure. No significant differences had been detected in γH2AX expression level between the ELF MF- and sham-exposure groups, while no obvious chromosomal DNA fragmentation was detected by alkaline comet assay after ELF MF exposure. The results indicate an absence of genotoxicity in ELF MF-exposed human epithelial cells and do not support the hypothesis that environmental ELF MF might be causally led to genomic instability via chromosomal damage response processes. Neither short nor long term continuous exposure to 50 Hz ELF MF at 0.4 mT could induce DNA damage in human lens epithelial cells in vitro.

  20. Measurements of HIFU-induced Lesions in BSA Gel Phantoms for HIFU Treatment of Varicose Veins of Lower Extremity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Senoo, Naohiko; Suzuki, Jun; Ichiyanagi, Mitsuhisa; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    HIFU treatment has been developed for various diseases because of its minimal invasiveness, and we are now developing a HIFU treatment for varicose veins of the lower extremity. Previous studies have succeeded in occluding rabbit's veins with HIFU, but the success rate was low (about 10%). Failures were mainly caused by skin burns. When the heating lesion comes close to skin, the absorbed ultrasound energy may cause skin burns. Therefore, it is necessary to study the relationships between HIFU lesions and skin burns to improve the success rate. To visualize heating lesions from HIFU, we used tissue-mimicking BSA gel phantoms. We tried various concentrations of BSA in gels, and determined 14% BSA as the most suitable for phantoms for experiments. The attenuation coefficient of the gel was 0.73 dB/cm, and the denaturation temperature was 70 °C. We put the BSA gel phantom in a water tank in which the temperature was kept at 39 °C, and used HIFU exposures at various intensities and irradiation times. After irradiation, we measured the sizes and positions of HIFU-induced lesions, and the results indicate that the sizes of lesion become larger when the intensitiy rises or irradiation time becomes longer. Furthermore, when the intensity rises and irradiation time becomes longer, the heating lesions move closer to upper surface of the gel, which means skin easily gets burned. Thus we have investigated relationships between HIFU parameters and heated lesions that can be used for further research into HIFU treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremity.

  1. Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exteriors with Hull Damage as of 2008, Port Profile, Stern Profile, Bow Profile, Loose Plate - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. 4. VIEW OF THE HULL OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE HULL OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART IN THE ESSEX SHIPBUILDING MUSEUM SHIPYARD. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  3. Active control of radiated pressure of a submarine hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xia; Tso, Yan; Juniper, Ross

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of the active control of low-frequency radiated pressure from submarine hulls is presented. Two typical hull models are examined in this paper. Each model consists of a water-loaded cylindrical shell with a hemispherical shell at one end and conical shell at the other end, which forms a simple model of a submarine hull. The conical end is excited by an axial force to simulate propeller excitations while the other end is free. The control action is implemented through a Tee-sectioned circumferential stiffener driven by pairs of PZT stack actuators. These actuators are located under the flange of the stiffener and driven out of phase to produce a control moment. A number of cost functions for minimizing the radiated pressure are examined. In general, it was found that the control system was capable of reducing more than half of the total radiated pressure from each of the submarine hull for the first three axial modes.

  4. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL IN CENTER OF PICTURE ON SHINGLE BEACH Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  5. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  6. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  7. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  8. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  9. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  10. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-02-26

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

  11. Soybean hulls, wheat middlings, and corn gluten feed as supplements for cattle on forage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Poore, Matthew H; Johns, John T; Burris, W Roy

    2002-07-01

    Soybean hulls, wheat midds, and corn gluten feed are viable alternative supplements for forage-fed cattle. All three result from the processing of major Unites States agricultural crops, so large supplies are available. Their value is better for ruminant animals than for monogastrics because they contain digestible fiber components. These byproducts are widely available throughout the Unites States and will generally be more economical than traditional feed grains or commercial feeds when used appropriately as supplements to forage-based diets. Knowledge about the composition of base forage must be used in planning supplementation strategies because base forages vary in protein and mineral content [9]. Soybean hulls alone may be a good selection in situations in which forages are adequate or high in protein. In situations where forage is marginal or deficient in protein, wheat midds, corn gluten feed, or a mix of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed might be most desirable. All three feeds can be variable in nutrient composition, so they should be analyzed to ensure a balanced nutrient level in diets. Soybean hulls are especially variable in crude protein content and should always be analyzed when forages are marginal or deficient in protein. Despite the fact that published energy levels are substantially lower, research has shown that soybean hulls and wheat midds have a value comparable to corn and soybean meal in forage-based diets. Corn gluten feed has also been comparable to corn and soybean meal in most reports but is closer in value to its published energy levels. In general, results with soybean hulls have been surprisingly good and consistent, whereas responses to wheat midds and corn gluten feed supplementation have been more variable and sometimes disappointing. Feeding rates for soybean hulls can range from low to extremely high depending on forage availability and desired performance. Wheat midds should be limited in most situations to 50% of the

  12. Impact of Cardiovascular Health on Hearing: Interview with Ray Hull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2006-01-01

    Do you belong to a sports club or gym? Do you like to work out, play tennis, swim, or run regularly? If so, you are also improving your hearing health. I did not learn this from a sports column; I learned it from interviewing Ray Hull. Dr. Raymond H. Hull, PhD, is a professor of communication sciences and disorders, audiology, and director of the…

  13. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm.

  14. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

    PubMed

    Honenberger, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature.

  15. Fermentation of soybean hulls to ethanol while retaining protein value

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R; Wyman, Professor Charles E; John, Bardsley

    2009-01-01

    Soybean hulls were evaluated as a resource for production of ethanol by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, and no pretreatment of the hulls was found to be needed to realize high ethanol yields with S. cerevisiae D5A. The impact of cellulase, -glucosidase and pectinase dosages were determined at a 15% biomass loading, and ethanol concentrations of 25-30 g/L were routinely obtained, while under these conditions corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass produced 3-4 times lower ethanol yields. Removal of carbohydrates also concentrated the hull protein to over 25% w/w from the original roughly 10%. Analysis of the soybean hulls before and after fermentation showed similar amino acid profiles including an increase in the essential amino acids lysine and threonine in the residues. Thus, eliminating pretreatment should assure that the protein in the hulls is preserved, and conversion of the carbohydrates to ethanol with high yields produces a more concentrated and valuable co-product in addition to ethanol. The resulting upgraded feed product from soybean hulls would likely to be acceptable to monogastric as well as bovine livestock.

  16. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.

  17. Hull-form optimization of KSUEZMAX to enhance resistance performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Heon; Choi, Jung-Eun; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deploys optimization techniques to obtain the optimum hull form of KSUEZMAX at the conditions of full-load draft and design speed. The processes have been carried out using a RaPID-HOP program. The bow and the stern hull-forms are optimized separately without altering neither, and the resulting versions of the two are then combined. Objective functions are the minimum values of wave-making and viscous pressure resistance coefficients for the bow and stern. Parametric modification functions for the bow hull-form variation are SAC shape, section shape (U-V type, DLWL type), bulb shape (bulb height and size); and those for the stern are SAC and section shape (U-V type, DLWL type). WAVIS version 1.3 code is used for the potential and the viscous-flow solver. Prior to the optimization, a parametric study has been conducted to observe the effects of design parameters on the objective functions. SQP has been applied for the optimization algorithm. The model tests have been conducted at a towing tank to evaluate the resistance performance of the optimized hull-form. It has been noted that the optimized hull-form brings 2.4% and 6.8% reduction in total and residual resistance coefficients compared to those of the original hull-form. The propulsive efficiency increases by 2.0% and the delivered power is reduced 3.7%, whereas the propeller rotating speed increases slightly by 0.41 rpm.

  18. Investigation of weldments in Victoria-class submarine pressure-hull using magnetic flux leakage and Barkhausen noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samimi, A. A.; Babbar, V.; Krause, T. W.; Clapham, L.

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of the stress state within submarine hulls can contribute to risk assessments, which provide assurance that in-service induced stresses will not adversely affect the service life of the naval structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic NDE techniques for identification of stresses associated with weldments in two original pressure hulls of Canada's Victoria class submarines. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and flux-controlled Barkhausen Noise measurements were investigated for identification of patch boundaries and welds in two sections of Victoria-class submarine-hull steel. While MFL showed clear demarcation of weld boundaries, Barkhausen measurements did not provide sufficiently clear response to identify these features in submarine hull samples. For a better understanding of Barkhausen response, uniaxial tensile stress was investigated on separate samples of submarine steel. A nonlinear dependence of Barkhausen response was observed, with a weaker sensitivity to tensile stresses below 200 MPa. This behavior, combined with the presence of substantial surface compressive stresses, was used to explain the observed insensitivity of Barkhausen measurements to the presence of welds.

  19. Protective effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod on immune function injury induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihui; Cheng, Yanxiang; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50Hz, 8mT, 28 days) and their protective mechanism against radiation damage. The results showed that LSPCs increased the organ index of mice and made the damaged blood-producing function and cytokine(INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in spleen) levels by ELF-EMF-irradiation recovered to normal appearance. And experimental results proved that dosing LSPCs inhibit more stagnation of splenocytes in G0/G1 phase caused by ELF-EMF, thus the spleen cells from G0/G1 phase to S phase shift, restore normal cell metabolism, promote the splenocytes proliferation, reduced the apoptosis of spleen cells, effective protect the damage induced by the ELF-EMF radiation. In addition, LSPCs prevented the decline of DNA content caused by ELF-EMF. Western blot determinated the levels of apoptosis genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-cl, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. The results revealed that a significant suppression in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in splenic cells in ELF-EMF group. However, LSPCs restored these changes. Taking these results together, it may be summarized that LSPCs could protect hematopoietic tissues and the immune system from ELF-EMF. And it may be hypothesized that ELF-EMF-induced apoptosis in splenocytes might occur via triggers the trans-activation of Bax and activates caspases-3 and -9, which then cleaves the death substrates, leading to apoptosis in splenocytes of mice treated with ELF-EMF.

  20. Selective Light-Induced Patterning of Carbon Nanotube/Silver Nanoparticle Composite To Produce Extremely Flexible Conductive Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inhyuk; Woo, Kyoohee; Zhong, Zhaoyang; Lee, Eonseok; Kang, Dongwoo; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Young-Man; Jang, Yunseok; Kwon, Sin; Moon, Jooho

    2017-02-22

    Recently, highly flexible conductive features have been widely demanded for the development of various electronic applications, such as foldable displays, deformable lighting, disposable sensors, and flexible batteries. Herein, we report for the first time a selective photonic sintering-derived, highly reliable patterning approach for creating extremely flexible carbon nanotube (CNT)/silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) composite electrodes that can tolerate severe bending (20 000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm). The incorporation of CNTs into a Ag NP film can enhance not only the mechanical stability of electrodes but also the photonic-sintering efficiency when the composite is irradiated by intense pulsed light (IPL). Composite electrodes were patterned on various plastic substrates by a three-step process comprising coating, selective IPL irradiation, and wiping. A composite film selectively exposed to IPL could not be easily wiped from the substrate, because interfusion induced strong adhesion to the underlying polymer substrate. In contrast, a nonirradiated film adhered weakly to the substrate and was easily removed, enabling highly flexible patterned electrodes. The potential of our flexible electrode patterns was clearly demonstrated by fabricating a light-emitting diode circuit and a flexible transparent heater with unimpaired functionality under bending, rolling, and folding.

  1. Novel π-type vortex in a nanoscale extreme type-II superconductor: Induced by quantum-size effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wenhui; Chen, Yajiang

    2016-11-01

    By numerically solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we report a novel π-type vortex state whose order parameter near the core undergoes an extraordinary π-phase change for a quantum-confined extreme type-II s-wave superconductor. Its supercurrent behaves as the cube of the radial coordinate near the core, and its local density of states spectrum exhibits a significant negative-shifted zero-bias peak. Such π-type vortex state is induced by quantum-size effect, and can survive thermal smearing at temperatures up to a critical value Tτ. The Anderson's approximation indicates that the π-type vortex may remain stable under sufficiently week magnetic field in the case less deep in the type-II limit. Moreover, we find that its appearance is governed by the sample size and kFξ0 with kF the Fermi wave number and ξ0 the zero-temperature coherence length. Similar effects may be expected in quantum-confined ultracold superfluid Fermi gasses, or even high-Tc superconductors with proper kFξ0 value.

  2. Electron-induced interaction of selected hydrocarbons with TiO2 surfaces: the relevance to extreme ultraviolet lithography.

    PubMed

    Yakshinskiy, B V; Zalkind, S; Bartynski, R A; Caudillo, R

    2010-03-03

    The aim of this work is to characterize desorption induced by electronic transition processes that affect the reflectivity of TiO2-capped multilayer mirrors used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. A low energy electron beam is employed to mimic excitations initiated by EUV radiation. Temperature programmed desorption, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low energy ion scattering are used to analyze the surface reactions. Carbon film growth on the TiO2(011) crystalline surface is measured during 10-100 eV electron bombardment in benzene or methyl methacrylate vapor over a wide range of pressures and temperatures near 300 K. Low energy secondary electrons excited by EUV photons contribute substantially to the carbon accumulation on clean TiO2 cap layers. For benzene on clean TiO2, secondary electron effects dominate in the initial stages of carbon accumulation, whereas for C-covered TiO2, direct excitations appear to dominate. We report on the adsorption energy, the steady-state coverage of the molecules on the surface and the cross sections for electron-stimulated dissociation: all key parameters for understanding and modeling the processes relating to the EUV lithography mirrors.

  3. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  4. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  5. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  6. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  7. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′46″; thence due east to latitude 42°18′15″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due south to latitude 42°18′07.5″, longitude 70°53′29.5″; thence due west to latitude 42°18′07.5″,...

  8. Flip to Regular Triangulation and Convex Hull.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingcen; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng

    2017-02-01

    Flip is a simple and local operation to transform one triangulation to another. It makes changes only to some neighboring simplices, without considering any attribute or configuration global in nature to the triangulation. Thanks to this characteristic, several flips can be independently applied to different small, non-overlapping regions of one triangulation. Such operation is favored when designing algorithms for data-parallel, massively multithreaded hardware, such as the GPU. However, most existing flip algorithms are designed to be executed sequentially, and usually need some restrictions on the execution order of flips, making them hard to be adapted to parallel computation. In this paper, we present an in depth study of flip algorithms in low dimensions, with the emphasis on the flexibility of their execution order. In particular, we propose a series of provably correct flip algorithms for regular triangulation and convex hull in 2D and 3D, with implementations for both CPUs and GPUs. Our experiment shows that our GPU implementation for constructing these structures from a given point set achieves up to two orders of magnitude of speedup over other popular single-threaded CPU implementation of existing algorithms.

  9. Swarm slide - debris flow disaster induced by extreme rainfall in Hiroshima, August 2014 and lessons learnt in urban designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, H.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hiroshima city was hit by swarm debris flows along a narrow, and linear-shaped rain band of 2 km x 10 km which appeared in the early morning of August 20, 2014. Most of the flows were induced by shallow slide in the upstream. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows:1. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow byundrained loading onto the torrent deposits.2. Apparently long-term land-use change since 1945 affected and raised the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan.3. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave large societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill to promote rapid completion of the designation over the national territory. MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Tranportation and Tourism) decided to install X-band rain radars at more sites to cover whole city zones

  10. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  11. Effects of Masonex and forms of cottonseed hulls on dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vernlund, S D; Harris, B; Van Horn, H H; Wilcox, C J

    1980-12-01

    Thirty-six lactating Holstein cows were in a 5 X 3 factorial partially balanced incomplete block design with three missing categories to study effects of different forms of cottonseed hulls and liquid supplements on milk production and composition. Roughages were regular cottonseed hulls, pelleted cottonseed hulls, pelleted cottonseed hulls with 9% fat, pelleted undelinted cottonseed hulls, and pelleted undelinted cottonseed hulls with 9% fat. Liquid supplements were 8% Maxonex2 (hemicellulose extract) and 8% cane molasses. Control had no supplement. All rations were adjusted to contain 30% cottonseed hulls. Roughages with added fat gave total rations of 2.5% added fat (air dry). Least square means for daily intake of dry matter, milk yield, and fat percent were regular cottonseed hulls 21.6 kg, 20.3 kg, 3.37%; pelleted cottonseed hulls 20.3 kg, 21.4 kg, 3.06%; pelleted cottonseed hulls plus fat 20.1 kg, 21.1 kg, 2.51%; pelleted undelinted cottonseed plus fat 19.4 kg, 20.9 kg, 2.73%. Pelleted cottonseed hulls increased milk yield, decreased dry matter intake and milk fat percent, but did not affect milk fat yields. Rations with pelleted undelinted cottonseed hulls resulted in higher milk fat percent and body weight than pelleted cottonseed hulls. Added fat decreased milk fat percent and yield because of high degree and unsaturation. Liquid treatments produced no detectable effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or fat percent.

  12. Soybean hulls as a dietary fiber source for dogs.

    PubMed

    Cole, J T; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Hussein, H S; Brent, J L

    1999-04-01

    In Exp. 1, soybean hull samples were obtained from nine sources across the United States and analyzed for nutrient content to determine their suitability for inclusion in dog diets. Compositional data revealed variation in both the amount of total dietary fiber (TDF; 63.8 to 81.2%) in the soybean hulls and the ratio of insoluble:soluble fiber (5.0:1 to 15.4:1). Crude protein content varied widely among sources, ranging from 9.2 to 18.7%. An in vivo trial (Exp. 2) was conducted using a premium dog diet containing 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis). There was a negative linear effect (P < .05) of soybean hull inclusion in the diet on DM, OM, TDF, and GE total-tract digestibilities, as well as on calculated ME. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. Based on these results, ileally cannulated dogs were fed diets containing 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis) in addition to diets containing either 0% supplemental fiber or 7.5% beet pulp (Exp. 3). Nutrient digestion at the ileum was unaffected by inclusion of supplemental fiber. Total tract digestion of DM, OM, and GE was lower ( P < .05) for diets containing supplemental fiber when compared with the diet containing 0% fiber. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. There was no difference in nutrient digestibility between those diets containing soybean hulls and a diet containing beet pulp. Soybean hull inclusion in the diet resulted in a negative linear effect (P < .05) on calculated ME, in addition to lowering ME (P < .05) when compared with the 0% fiber control diet. Calculated ME for dogs fed a 7.5% beet pulp-containing diet was lower (P < .05) than that for dogs fed the soybean hull-containing diets. Results indicate that soybean hulls can be an effective dietary fiber source in dog diets.

  13. Identification of salt-induced genes from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte through expressed sequence tags analysis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Bhavanath; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Lal, Sanjay; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2009-04-01

    Salinity severely affects plant growth and development causing crop loss worldwide. We have isolated a large number of salt-induced genes as well as unknown and hypothetical genes from Salicornia brachiata Roxb. (Amaranthaceae). This is the first description of identification of genes in response to salinity stress in this extreme halophyte plant. Salicornia accumulates salt in its pith and survives even at 2 M NaCl under field conditions. For isolating salt responsive genes, cDNA subtractive hybridization was performed between control and 500 mM NaCl treated plants. Out of the 1200 recombinant clones, 930 sequences were submitted to the NCBI database (GenBank accession: EB484528 to EB485289 and EC906125 to EC906292). 789 ESTs showed matching with different genes in NCBI database. 4.8% ESTs belonged to stress-tolerant gene category and approximately 29% ESTs showed no homology with known functional gene sequences, thus classified as unknown or hypothetical. The detection of a large number of ESTs with unknown putative function in this species makes it an interesting contribution. The 90 unknown and hypothetical genes were selected to study their differential regulation by reverse Northern analysis for identifying their role in salinity tolerance. Interestingly, both up and down regulation at 500 mM NaCl were observed (21 and 10 genes, respectively). Northern analysis of two important salt tolerant genes, ASR1 (Abscisic acid stress ripening gene) and plasma membrane H+ATPase, showed the basal level of transcripts in control condition and an increase with NaCl treatment. ASR1 gene is made full length using 5' RACE and its potential role in imparting salt tolerance is being studied.

  14. Computational study on turbulent flows around modern tanker hull forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wu-Joan; Kim, Do-Hyun; van, Suak-Ho

    2002-02-01

    To enhance the applicability of CFD techniques to the hull form design of modern commercial ships, an efficient and robust numerical method for turbulent flow calculation is developed. The preprocessor is composed of hull form presentation, surface mesh generation, and field grid generation. The finite-volume method is utilised to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Three k- turbulence models, i.e., the standard k- model (SKE), the RNG-based k- model (RNG), and the realisable k- model (RKE), are evaluated to investigate the difference caused by the turbulence model. The developed numerical method is applied to two practical VLCC hull forms with the same forebody and the slightly different afterbodies in order to find out whether CFD can capture the difference of stern flow due to hull form variation. It is found that RKE successfully predict the strength and location of bilge vortex, while SKE and RNG fail. However, all three models can provide the right information on the nominal wake difference between two hull forms. Copyright

  15. MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J.; Stillman, J.

    2010-10-14

    A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.

  16. Partwise cross-parameterization via nonregular convex hull domains.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huai-Yu; Pan, Chunhong; Zha, Hongbin; Yang, Qing; Ma, Songde

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel partwise framework for cross-parameterization between 3D mesh models. Unlike most existing methods that use regular parameterization domains, our framework uses nonregular approximation domains to build the cross-parameterization. Once the nonregular approximation domains are constructed for 3D models, different (and complex) input shapes are transformed into similar (and simple) shapes, thus facilitating the cross-parameterization process. Specifically, a novel nonregular domain, the convex hull, is adopted to build shape correspondence. We first construct convex hulls for each part of the segmented model, and then adopt our convex-hull cross-parameterization method to generate compatible meshes. Our method exploits properties of the convex hull, e.g., good approximation ability and linear convex representation for interior vertices. After building an initial cross-parameterization via convex-hull domains, we use compatible remeshing algorithms to achieve an accurate approximation of the target geometry and to ensure a complete surface matching. Experimental results show that the compatible meshes constructed are well suited for shape blending and other geometric applications.

  17. Regional differences in rice hulls supply for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, Esra; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural by-products are becoming an attractive substrate for bioethanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regional differences in the rice hulls using Escherichia coli KO11 for bioethanol production. The rice hulls coded Edirne were obtained from Thrace Region, and the rice hulls coded Izmir were obtained from Aegean Region in Turkey. Rice hulls were treated by dilute acid before using them as substrates. The cells were incubated on an orbital shaker at 160 rpm under 30 °C during 96 h of the fermentation period. It was found that the maximum yield of ethanol from sugar (0.44 g ethanol/g reducing sugar) was obtained with the substrate C/N ratio of 29.16 in Izmir medium. The main difference was the dominant carbon source available as a substrate. It was detected that glucose concentration was about 2.5 times higher in Izmir medium, whereas xylose concentration was about two times higher in Edirne medium. The different results obtained with rice hulls from different origins could depend on the type of paddy as well as different cultivation conditions. These findings provide a valuable indicator for identifying suitable agricultural waste materials to be used as substrates for bioethanol production.

  18. Rift induced delamination of mantle lithosphere and crustal uplift: a new mechanism for explaining Rwenzori Mountains' extreme elevation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, Herbert; Schmeling, Harro

    2010-10-01

    With heights of 4-5 km, the topography of Rwenzori Mountains, a large horst of old crustal rocks located inside a young passive rift system, poses the question “Why are the Rwenzori Mountains so high?”. The Cenozoic Western Rift branch of the East African Rift System is situated within the Late Proterozoic mobile belts between the Archean Tanzania Craton and Congo Craton. The special geological setting of the massif at a rift node encircled by the ends of the northern Western Rift segments of Lake Albert and Lake Edward suggests that the mechanism responsible for the high elevation of the Rwenzoris is related to the rifting process. Our hypothesis is based on the propagation of the rift tips, surrounding the stiff old lithosphere at Rwenzori region, thereby triggering the delamination of the cold and dense mantle lithosphere (ML) root by reducing viscosity and strength of the undermost lower crust. As a result, this unloading induces fast isostatic pop-up of the less dense crustal Rwenzori block. We term this RID—“ rift induced delamination of Mantle Lithosphere”. The physical consistency of the RID hypothesis is tested numerically. Viscous flow of 2D models is approximated by a Finite Difference Method with markers in an Eulerian formulation. The equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy are solved for a multi-component system. Based on laboratory data of appropriate rock samples, a temperature-, pressure- and stress-dependent rheology is assumed. Assuming a simple starting model with a locally heated ML, the ML block between the weakened zones becomes unstable and sinks into the asthenosphere, while the overlying continental crust rises up. Thus, RID seems to be a viable mechanism to explain geodynamically the extreme uplift. Important conditions are a thermal anomaly within the ML, a ductile lower crust with visco-plastic rheology allowing significant strength reduction and lateral density variations. The special situation of a two

  19. Scaling of convex hull volume to body mass in modern primates, non-primate mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Sellers, William I

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of 'convex hulling' has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (vol(CH)) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within vol(CH) has remained unclear. Specifically, when vol(CH) scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r(2) = 0.97-0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11-20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85-1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r(2) = 0.36, p<0.05). In contrast, primates scale body mass to vol(CH) with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01-1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r(2) = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the 'missing mass' of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat.

  20. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  1. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  2. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  3. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  4. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  5. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  6. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  7. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  8. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  9. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  10. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning.

  11. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  12. Isolation and chemical analyses of nonfermented fiber fractions of oat hulls and cottonseed hulls.

    PubMed

    Garleb, K A; Bourquin, L D; Hsu, J T; Wagner, G W; Schmidt, S J; Fahey, G C

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate, using both in situ and in vivo methodology, the nonfermented fiber fraction of oat hulls (OH) and cottonseed hulls (CSH) and to compare the concentrations of alkali-labile phenolic monomers, nitrobenzene oxidizable phenolic monomers, and neutral monosaccharides, as well as the cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) carbon-13 (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, of the nonfermented fraction with the original OH or CSH. The in situ isolation procedure involved a 30-h ruminal pretreatment and an 8-h acid:pepsin pretreatment followed by 1 to 7 additional days of incubation in the rumen. Fractions not fermented in vivo were isolated from duodena, ileal, and fecal material obtained from a site and extent of digestion trial in which these byproducts were fed to sheep at 80% of the diet (as-fed basis) and they represented the sole source of dietary fiber. Based on nonfermented fraction composition, both in situ and in vivo, all components analyzed were degraded to some extent. Also, all components present in original byproduct material were present in both the in situ and in vivo nonfermented fractions. Based on NMR analysis, cellulose crystallinity did not change during either long-term in situ or in vivo fermentation. However, CSH cellulose was more crystalline than that of OH. The ADL content of OH and CSH was 6.1% and 19.4%, respectively, and very little (15%) of the ADL disappeared during either in situ or in vivo fermentation. Much of the p-coumaric and ferulic acid of OH, associated with the cell wall matrix as lignin-carbohydrate and phenolic-carbohydrate complexes, was recovered in the fermented fractions. Data are interpreted to indicate that lignin encrustation and cellulose crystallinity are factors affecting CSH fermentation. Lignin encrustation and the presence of lignin-carbohydrate/phenolic-carbohydrate complexes are factors that inhibit OH fermentation.

  13. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Fernández, Carlos; Sánchez, Pedro; Suardíaz, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results. PMID:22163590

  14. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    end of the tail cone starts at approximately 76%L. The “X”-rudders located at approximately 86-91%L are the aft control surfaces. The present model ...Top view Side view L ψ Casing NACA−0015 Fin Hull surfaces control Aft y z xψ Nose Figure 1: A schematic diagram of the generic conventional hull form...which can affect the motion control , manoeuvring and signature of the submarine. The flow-topology model (e.g. Fig. 31) shows the presence of a pair

  15. Algorithm for detecting human faces based on convex-hull.

    PubMed

    Park, Minsick; Park, Chang-Woo; Park, Mignon; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2002-03-25

    In this paper, we proposed a new method to detect faces in color based on the convex-hull. We detect two kinds of regions that are skin and hair likeness region. After preprocessing, we apply the convex-hull to their regions and can find a face from their intersection relationship. The proposed algorithm can accomplish face detection in an image involving rotated and turned faces as well as several faces. To validity the effectiveness of the proposed method, we make experiment with various cases.

  16. Hordeum Vulgare Hull in the Design of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Purohit, S; Bhandari, A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, fast disintegrating tablets were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this method, the hull of Hordeum vulgare, cross carmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used as superdisintegrants (4 and 6%), along with microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol, to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time, the formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern. Tablets having H. vulgare hull showed the release profile comparable to those tablets having sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium. PMID:21897660

  17. Of Curriculum Conceptions, Orientations, and Cultures: A Rejoinder to John E. Hull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Brummelen, Harro

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a rejoinder to John E. Hull. Van Brummelen first states his appreciation of John Hull's thoughtful evaluation of his views of curriculum, views in which many Christian educators have played a part. It has been several decades since the author spelled out what Hull calls an "education for discipleship"…

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  19. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  20. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  1. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  2. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  3. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  4. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  5. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  6. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  7. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  8. HULL User Guide for Three-Dimensional Linking with EPIC 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    plotting assistance. The current HULL code, as documented here, was developed primarily at the r Air Force Armament Laboratory and is currently...59 VI Plot Designators .......................................... 93 Ki SECTION I HULL is a system of computer programs which solve...2 ALTERNATE INPUT GENE RATE COMP:LEABLE CODE COMPILER POOCESSING HULL CR SOLVE FINITE TNPUT DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS CARD .1-[INPUT PRODUCE PLOTS

  9. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  10. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  11. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  12. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  13. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  14. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  15. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  16. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  17. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  18. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  19. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  20. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  1. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... classification requirements, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  2. Triaxial modulation of the acceleration induced in the lower extremity during whole-body vibration training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, David P; Mileva, Katya N; James, Darren C; Zaidell, Lisa N; Goss, Victor G; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify vibration transmissibility through the lower extremity during exercise on a whole-body vibration (WBV) platform. Six healthy adults completed 20 trials of 30-second static squat exercise at 30 or 40 degrees of knee flexion angle on a WBV platform working at combinations of 5 frequencies (VF: 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz) and 2 amplitudes (VA: low, 1.5 mm or high, 3 mm). Accelerations induced by the platform were recorded simultaneously at the shank and the thigh using triaxial accelerometers positioned at the segmental center of mass. Root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration amplitude and transmission ratios between the platform and the leg segments were calculated and compared between the experimental conditions. An alpha level of 0.05 was set to establish significance. Shank vertical acceleration was greatest at the lower VF (p = 0.028), higher VA (p = 0.028), and deeper squat (p = 0.048). Thigh vertical acceleration was not affected by depth of squat (p = 0.25), but it was greatest at higher VA (p = 0.046) and lower VF (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral shank acceleration was greatest at higher VF and deeper squat (both p = 0.046) and at higher VA (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral thigh acceleration was positively related to both VF (p = 0.046) and VA (p = 0.028) but was not affected by knee angle (p = 0.46). Anterior-posterior shank acceleration was higher at deeper squat (p = 0.046) and at lower VF and higher VA (both p = 0.028). Anterior-posterior thigh acceleration was related positively to the VA (p = 0.028), inversely to the VF (p = 0.028), and not dependent on knee angle (p = 0.75). Identification of specific vibration parameters and posture, which underpin WBV training efficacy, will enable coaches and athletes to design WBV training programs to specifically target shank or thigh muscles for enhanced performance.

  3. Supporting Schools with Loss: 'Lost for Words' in Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on efforts in Hull, England, to better train teachers to manage bereaved children. Evaluation following training shows an increased level of trained staff in schools, more use of policies and procedures, and a higher level of individuals in schools having responsibility for responses to bereavement. (Contains eight references.)…

  4. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 154.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the... secondary barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature...

  5. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 154.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the... secondary barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature...

  6. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 154.176 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the... secondary barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature...

  7. Hulled wheats: Origin, nutritional value and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and domesticated hulled (or non-free threshing) wheat species are among the most ancient cereals of the Fertile Crescent and the Mediterranean Region. They include wild emmer, the progenitor of most cultivated wheat species; wild and domesticated einkorn; and domesticated emmer and spelt wheat....

  8. 4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, TOP OF FORWARD STARBOARD CARGO HATCH IN FOREGROUND, OPENING FOR PORT HATCH BEYOND Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. Neighborhood Centre Project, Hull, September 1982 - October 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Margaret; Doyle, Patrick

    Brief reports provided in this paper document aspects of a neighborhood-center project in Hull, England. The project was aimed primarily at facilitating parent/community involvement in the education of very young children through the establishment of parent activity groups. Beginning with activity groups such as mother/toddler clubs, a community…

  10. Online support vector machine based on convex hull vertices selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Min

    2013-04-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) method, as a promising classification technique, has been widely used in various fields due to its high efficiency. However, SVM cannot effectively solve online classification problems since, when a new sample is misclassified, the classifier has to be retrained with all training samples plus the new sample, which is time consuming. According to the geometric characteristics of SVM, in this paper we propose an online SVM classifier called VS-OSVM, which is based on convex hull vertices selection within each class. The VS-OSVM algorithm has two steps: 1) the samples selection process, in which a small number of skeleton samples constituting an approximate convex hull in each class of the current training samples are selected and 2) the online updating process, in which the classifier is updated with newly arriving samples and the selected skeleton samples. From the theoretical point of view, the first d+1 (d is the dimension of the input samples) selected samples are proved to be vertices of the convex hull. This guarantees that the selected samples in our approach keep the greatest amount of information of the convex hull. From the application point of view, the new algorithm can update the classifier without reducing its classification performance. Experimental results on benchmark data sets have shown the validity and effectiveness of the VS-OSVM algorithm.

  11. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  12. Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in Lake Superior. The tender ran aground on rocks several months earlier and was battered by winter storms. The wrecked vessel became part of an underwater preserve and is regularly visited by recreational divers - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter MESQUITE, Charlevoix, Charlevoix County, MI

  13. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  14. Water Pressure Distribution on a Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, F L

    1931-01-01

    This is the third in a series of investigations of the water pressures on seaplane floats and hulls, and completes the present program. It consisted of determining the water pressures and accelerations on a Curtiss H-16 flying boat during landing and taxiing maneuvers in smooth and rough water.

  15. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  16. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  17. Small scale rice hull gas producer-gasoline engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Creamer, K.S.; Jenkins, B.M.; Goss, J.R.; Chancellor, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, a unique rice hull gas producer fueled a 3.7 kW, single cylinder, gasoline engine. At 3600 RPM and WOT, the engine developed 43% of the rated power on gasoline. Brake thermal efficiency was 16.8%. System thermal efficiency was 9.4%. Optimal spark advance for producer gas was 23/sup 0/.

  18. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Deep-Stepped Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three deep-stepped planing-tail flying-boat hulls differing only in the amount of step fairing. The hulls were derived by increasing the unfaired step depth of a planing-tail hull of a previous aerodynamic investigation to a depth about 92 percent of the hull beam. Tests were also made on a transverse-stepped hull with an extended afterbody for the purpose of comparison and in order to extend and verify the results of a previous investigation. The investigation indicated that the extended afterbody hull had a minimum drag coefficient about the same as a conventional hull, 0.0066, and an angle-of-attack range for minimum drag coefficient of 0.0057 which was 14 percent less than the transverse stepped hull with extended afterbody; the hulls with step fairing had up to 44 percent less minimum drag coefficient than the transverse-stepped hull, or slightly more drag than a streamlined body having approximately the same length and volume. Longitudinal and lateral instability varied little with step fairing and was about the same as a conventional hull.

  19. Effect of Yeast Hulls on Stuck and Sluggish Wine Fermentations: Importance of the Lipid Component

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Eeva; Ingledew, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of yeast hulls (yeast ghosts) on sluggish or stuck white wine fermentations was studied. The enhancing effect on yeast growth and fermentation rate displayed by the hulls was shown to be similar to the effect provided by lipid extract from the same hulls. Unsaturated fatty acids and sterols were incorporated into the yeast from lipid extracts during fermentation carried out under oxygen-limited conditions. Adsorption of toxic medium-chain fatty acid (decanoic acid) onto the yeast hulls took place through a dialysis membrane. However, when the hulls were placed inside a dialysis bag, the increase in yeast growth and fermentation rate seen when freely suspended hulls were used did not occur. Accordingly, the effect of yeast hulls in preventing stuck fermentations cannot be attributed only to the adsorption and consequent removal of medium-chain fatty acids from the juice. PMID:16347950

  20. Scaling of Convex Hull Volume to Body Mass in Modern Primates, Non-Primate Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Brassey, Charlotte A.; Sellers, William I.

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of ‘convex hulling’ has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (volCH) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within volCH has remained unclear. Specifically, when volCH scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.97–0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11–20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85–1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r2 = 0.36, p<0.05). In contrast, primates scale body mass to volCH with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01–1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the ‘missing mass’ of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat

  1. Effects of adlay hull extracts on uterine contraction and Ca2+ mobilization in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Shih-Min; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chiang, Wenchang; Wang, Paulus S

    2008-09-01

    Dysmenorrhea is directly related to elevated PGF(2alpha) levels. It is treated with nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Western medicine. Since NSAIDs produce many side effects, Chinese medicinal therapy is considered as a feasible alternative medicine. Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating dysmenorrhea. However, the relationship between smooth muscle contraction and adlay extracts remains veiled. Therefore, we investigated this relationship in the rat uterus by measuring uterine contraction activity and recording the intrauterine pressure. We studied the in vivo and in vitro effects of the methanolic extracts of adlay hull (AHM) on uterine smooth muscle contraction. The extracts were fractionated using four different solvents: water, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane; the four respective fractions were AHM-Wa, AHM-Bu, AHM-EA, and AHM-Hex. AHM-EA and its subfractions (175 microg/ml) inhibited uterine contractions induced by PGF(2alpha), the Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644, and high K(+) in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. AHM-EA also inhibited PGF(2alpha)-induced uterine contractions in vivo; furthermore, 375 microg/ml of AHM-EA inhibited the Ca(2+)-dependent uterine contractions. Thus 375 microg/ml of AHM-EA consistently suppressed the increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations induced by PGF(2alpha) and high K(+). We also demonstrated that naringenin and quercetin are the major pure chemical components of AHM-EA that inhibit PGF(2alpha)-induced uterine contractions. Thus AHM-EA probably inhibited uterine contraction by blocking external Ca(2+) influx, leading to a decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Thus adlay hull may be considered as a feasible alternative therapeutic agent for dysmenorrhea.

  2. Production of L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan by Arthrobacter aurescens MK5 α-L-arabinofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Kurakake, Masahiro; Takao, Jyunpei; Asano, Osamu; Tanimoto, Hiroko; Komaki, Toshiaki

    2011-03-01

    Arabinoxylans, which are comprised of a xylan backbone to which are attached glycosyl units that are primarily L-arabinofuranosyl units, are ubiquitous among plant species where it is a constituent of the cell wall. Arabinoxylan has attracted much attention as a potential biomass resource and L-arabinose has recently been reported to possess functional properties that are effective in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we report an α-L-arabinofuranohydrolase, isolated from the soil microbe Arthrobacter aurescens strain MK5, effective in releasing L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan. When A. aurescens strain MK5 was grown in a liquid medium, corn hull arabinoxylan, which has a higher arabinose content (Ara/Xyl = 0.6) than oat spelts xylan (Ara/Xyl = 0.12), induced more efficient arabinoxylan hydrolase production. Analysis of enzyme activity in the culture broth revealed that arabinoxylan hydrolase activity was high, and α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase activities were low. The optimum pH of the MK5 arabinoxylan hydrolase at 40 °C was around 7 and enzyme activity was relatively stable at an alkaline pH up to 9.5. The optimum temperature at pH 7 was around 50 °C and enzyme activity was stable under 50 °C. During the hydrolysis of corn hull arabinoxylan, only L-arabinose was released and 45.1% maximum sugar recovery was achieved. The A. aurescens MK5 enzyme was a typical arabinoxylan α-L-arabinofuranohydrolase and was most effective at releasing L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan, which has a high arabinose content. This enzyme may have important industrial applications.

  3. Photon-induced generation and spatial control of extreme pressure at the nanoscale with a gold bowtie nano-antenna platform.

    PubMed

    Boutopoulos, Christos; Dagallier, Adrien; Sansone, Maria; Blanchard-Dionne, Andre-Pierre; Lecavalier-Hurtubise, Évelyne; Boulais, Étienne; Meunier, Michel

    2016-10-06

    Precise spatial and temporal control of pressure stimulation at the nanometer scale is essential for the fabrication and manipulation of nano-objects, and for exploring single-molecule behaviour of matter under extreme conditions. However, state-of-the-art nano-mechanical transducers require sophisticated driving hardware and are currently limited to moderate pressure regimes. Here we report a gold plasmonic bowtie (AuBT) nano-antennas array that can generate extreme pressure stimulus of ∼100 GPa in the ps (10(-12) s) time scale with sub-wavelength resolution upon irradiation with ultra-short laser pulses. Our method leverages the non-linear interaction of photons with water molecules to excite a nano-plasma in the plasmon-enhanced near-field and induce extreme thermodynamic states. The proposed method utilizes laser pulses, which in contrast to micro- and nano-mechanical actuators offers simplicity and versatility. We present time-resolved shadowgraphic imaging, electron microscopy and simulation data that suggest that our platform can efficiently create cavitation nano-bubbles and generate intense pressure in specific patterns, which can be controlled by the selective excitation of plasmon modes of distinct polarizations. This novel platform should enable probing non-invasively the mechanical response of cells and single-molecules at time and pressure regimes that are currently difficult to reach with other methods.

  4. Rapid attribution of the August 2016 flood-inducing extreme precipitation in south Louisiana to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wiel, Karin; Kapnick, Sarah B.; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Whan, Kirien; Philip, Sjoukje; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Singh, Roop K.; Arrighi, Julie; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-02-01

    A stationary low pressure system and elevated levels of precipitable water provided a nearly continuous source of precipitation over Louisiana, United States (US), starting around 10 August 2016. Precipitation was heaviest in the region broadly encompassing the city of Baton Rouge, with a 3-day maximum found at a station in Livingston, LA (east of Baton Rouge), from 12 to 14 August 2016 (648.3 mm, 25.5 inches). The intense precipitation was followed by inland flash flooding and river flooding and in subsequent days produced additional backwater flooding. On 16 August, Louisiana officials reported that 30 000 people had been rescued, nearly 10 600 people had slept in shelters on the night of 14 August and at least 60 600 homes had been impacted to varying degrees. As of 17 August, the floods were reported to have killed at least 13 people. As the disaster was unfolding, the Red Cross called the flooding the worst natural disaster in the US since Super Storm Sandy made landfall in New Jersey on 24 October 2012. Before the floodwaters had receded, the media began questioning whether this extreme event was caused by anthropogenic climate change. To provide the necessary analysis to understand the potential role of anthropogenic climate change, a rapid attribution analysis was launched in real time using the best readily available observational data and high-resolution global climate model simulations. The objective of this study is to show the possibility of performing rapid attribution studies when both observational and model data and analysis methods are readily available upon the start. It is the authors' aspiration that the results be used to guide further studies of the devastating precipitation and flooding event. Here, we present a first estimate of how anthropogenic climate change has affected the likelihood of a comparable extreme precipitation event in the central US Gulf Coast. While the flooding event of interest triggering this study occurred in south

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J.; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL−1), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL−1), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL−1), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL−1). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  6. Comparison of pistachio hull essential oils from different Tunisian localities.

    PubMed

    Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim

    2007-03-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit is well known for its oleaginous and edible seed. Less information is available about the hull constituted by the epicarp and the mesocarp. This part of the fruit contains an essential oil that can be valorized. Tunisia is one of the countries cultivating pistachio trees. This work presents essential oil composition of pistachio hulls (Mateur variety) from different geographical localities: Grombalia (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle-East). Yields were more important in Sfax samples (0.53% on a dry weight basis). Alpha-terpinolene was the major compound for Grombalia fruits (35.7%), whereas Kairouan and Sfax samples where characterized by alpha-pinene (42.5 and 43.8% respectively). For all samples, monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated (more than 79.8% of the essential oil).

  7. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-08-02

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls.

  8. Extreme Heat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber Incident Drought Earthquakes Extreme Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber ... Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ...

  9. Diatom community structure on commercially available ship hull coatings.

    PubMed

    Zargiel, Kelli A; Coogan, Jeffrey S; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2011-10-01

    Diatoms are primary colonizers of both antifouling and fouling-release ship hull coatings. There are few published studies which report on diatom community development on modern ship hull coatings. This study reports diatom communities on eight commercial marine ship hull coatings exposed at three static immersion sites along the east coast of Florida, viz. Daytona, Sebastian, and Miami. The coatings tested were three ablative copper systems (Ameron ABC-3, International BRA-640, and Hempel Olympic 76600), two copper-free biocidal systems (E-Paint SN-1, Sherwin Williams HMF), and three fouling-release (FR) systems (International Intersleek 700, International Intersleek 900, and Hempel Hempasil). One hundred and twenty-seven species comprising 44 genera were identified, including some of the more commonly known foulers, viz. Achnanthes, Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis, Licmophora, Melosira, Navicula, Nitzschia, Synedra, and Toxarium. A significant difference was seen among sites, with the more estuarine site, Sebastian, having lower overall diatom abundance and higher diversity than Daytona and Miami. Copper coatings were primarily fouled by Amphora delicatissima and Entomoneis pseudoduplex. Copper-free coatings were fouled by Cyclophora tenuis, A. delicatissima, Achnanthes manifera, and Amphora bigibba. FR surfaces were typified by C. tenuis, and several species of Amphora. The presence of C. tenuis is new to the biofouling literature, but as new coatings are developed, this diatom may be one of many that prove to be problematic for static immersion. Results show coatings can be significantly influenced by geographical area, highlighting the need to test ship hull coatings in locations similar to where they will be utilized.

  10. Filtration of Runoff From Pressure Washing Vessel Hull in Drydock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    FINAL REPORT FILTRATION OF RUNOFF FROM PRESSURE WASHING VESSEL HULL IN DRYDOCK Prepared by National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO) For...NATIONAL STEEL AND SHIPBUILDING COMPANY Harbor Drive and 28th Street Post Office Box 85278 San Diego, California 92186-5278 In BehaIf of SNAME SPC PANEL SP...cooperative cost sharing effort between the U.S. Navy and National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO). The Facility and Environmental Effects Panel (SP-1

  11. Review of Hull Structural Monitoring Systems for Navy Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    similar to that shown in Figure 8(a) [40]. An alternative approach (developed by Systems Planning and Analysis , Inc., see Kiddy et al [30]) called a...timely main engine repair / operation; optimising periods between hull and propeller cleaning; assessing alternative paint strategies . The BMT...over 25 years experience related to research, design, construction and modification of naval ships and submarines. He has degrees in B. Eng (Naval

  12. Experimental Program for the Determination of Hull Structural Damping Coefficients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    experimental conditions must be recorded and presented as part of the data. Completeness requires that all factors related to the data must be measured...carrier, and a Ŕ,000 ton container ship). - 17. Ley Weds I. Distribution Steemen, Damping Document is available to the Hull vibrations public through the...Vibration ............................... 18 2.1.1.2 Forced Vibration Steady State ............... 19 2.1.1.3 Transient or Non- Harmonic Vibration

  13. Submarine Pressure Hull Collapse Considering Corrosion and Penetrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Original signed by Liam Gannon Liam Gannon Defence Scientist Approved by Original signed by Neil Pegg Neil Pegg Head/Warship Performance Approved...pressure is examined and different methods of modelling the casting within the pressure hull are evaluated. The loss of strength caused by corrosion... pratique , l’augmentation de la charge de rupture de la coque touchée par la corrosion peut atteindre 19 %, pour un amincissement de 20 % du bordé

  14. A Single Vehicle Solution for Hull Inspection and Harbor Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    harbor surveys and ship hull inspections in support of port security operations. Figure 1. REMUS 100 Duct Thruster UUV with multibeam sonar...Marine Sonic Technology dual frequency (900/1800 kHz) side scan sonar and a Blueview forward looking multibeam sonar. The side scan integration required...forward look multibeam . A second module was built N00014-08-1-0109 Page 3 for the Blueview dual frequency (900/2250 kHz) multibeam . Software for

  15. Brush development for underwater ship hull coating maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribou, Melissa Eileen

    Ship hull grooming has been proposed as an environmentally friendly method of maintaining ship hull coatings in a fouling-free condition. It is defined as the frequent and gentle cleaning of a ship hull coating to prevent the establishment of fouling. This research investigated the grooming tool properties and operational requirements needed to implement the method. The grooming tool needs to provide sufficient force to remove incipient fouling without damaging the surface and consume minimal energy. Research showed that a vertical rotating brush design containing brushes filled with angled polypropylene bristles provided an effective method. This brush system was able to successfully prevent incipient fouling from becoming established on a copper ablative and two silicone fouling release coatings when groomed on a weekly basis; however, biofilm was not completely controlled. Brush design and operational parameters in relation to brush normal forces were investigated and models were developed to understand the relationship between bristle stiffness, dimensions, and angular velocity. A preliminary look at wear found that bristle stiffness has an effect on the degree of marring of the surface of a silicone fouling release coating. The knowledge gained by this research may be used to optimize grooming brush design and operational parameters that can be applied to the design and deployment of low power autonomous underwater vehicles that will groom the ship while in port.

  16. Free-surface flow around an appended hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, A.; Pacuraru, F.

    2010-08-01

    The prediction of the total drag experienced by an advancing ship is a complicated problem which requires a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull, the physical processes from which these forces arise as well as their mutual interaction. A general numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic performance of a twin-propeller combatant ship is presented in the paper, which describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around the ship hull equipped with rotating propellers and rudders. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  17. Fabrication of renewable biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Malaya Ranjan

    This is an investigation for fabrication of biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics like polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxy butyrate-co- valerate (PHBV). The study was divided into three parts; the first was the development of a suitable PHBV/PLA blend. The second part involved the fabrication of composites from soy hull and PHBV/PLA blend and its comparison with polypropylene (PP)/soy hull composites. The third part was the effect of compatibilizer on the performance of the composites. From tensile study, the elongation of an optimized blend was found to be improved by 148 and 250% over the virgin polymers PHBV and PLA respectively. Scanning electron microscope revealed a stronger fiber-matrix interaction in PHBV/PLA composites over PP composites. Furthermore, the compatibilizer improved the impact and flexural strength by 56 and 32% respectively over the un-compatibilized counterpart; more significantly the resulting compatibilized composites showed improved hydrophobicity by more than 22% over un-compatibilized counterpart.

  18. Structural and acoustic response of a finite stiffened submarine hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-zhong; Jiang, Chen-ban; Xu, Rui-yang

    2016-12-01

    After borrowing the idea of precise integration method, a precise integration transfer matrix method (PITMM) is proposed by modifying traditional transfer matrix method. The submarine hull can be modeled as joined conicalcylindrical-spherical shells. By considering the effect of the ring-stiffeners, the field transfer matrixes of shells of revolution are obtained accurately by PITMM. After assembling the field transfer matrixes into an entire matrix, the dynamic model is established to solve the dynamic responses of the joined shell. By describing the sound pressure in fluid by modified wave superposition method (MWSM) and collocating points along the meridian line of the joined shell, finally the structural and acoustic responses of a finite stiffened submarine hull can be predicted by coupled PITMM and MWSM. The effectiveness of the present method has been verified by comparing the structural and acoustic responses of the spherical shell with existing results. Furthermore, the effects of the model truncation, stiffness and thickness on the structural and acoustic responses of the submarine hull are studied.

  19. SUBHUL: Submarine Pressure Hull Finite Element Model Generator. User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    pressure hull, on the other hand, must withstand the hydrostatic pressure at the design diving depth. Within the fairings are the ballast tanks ...Figure 2.2). On older designs ballast tanks increase the overall diameter. In modern submarines the pressure hull is locally reduced in diameter to...External Ballast Tanks BALLAST TANK FAIRING SECTION A-A EXTERNAL BALLAST TANKS PRESSURE HULL FAIRING Figure 2.3 Ballast Tanks Formed by Local

  20. Observed changes of temperature extremes during 1960-2005 in China: natural or human-induced variations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jianfeng; David Chen, Yongqin; Chen, Xiaohong

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to statistically examine changes of surface air temperature in time and space and to analyze two factors potentially influencing air temperature changes in China, i.e., urbanization and net solar radiation. Trends within the temperature series were detected by using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. The scientific problem this study expected to address was that what could be the role of human activities in the changes of temperature extremes. Other influencing factors such as net solar radiation were also discussed. The results of this study indicated that: (1) increasing temperature was observed mainly in the northeast and northwest China; (2) different behaviors were identified in the changes of maximum and minimum temperature respectively. Maximum temperature seemed to be more influenced by urbanization, which could be due to increasing urban albedo, aerosol, and air pollutions in the urbanized areas. Minimum temperature was subject to influences of variations of net solar radiation; (3) not significant increasing and even decreasing temperature extremes in the Yangtze River basin and the regions south to the Yangtze River basin could be the consequences of higher relative humidity as a result of increasing precipitation; (4) the entire China was dominated by increasing minimum temperature. Thus, we can say that the warming process of China was reflected mainly by increasing minimum temperature. In addition, consistently increasing temperature was found in the upper reaches of the Yellow River basin, the Yangtze River basin, which have the potential to enhance the melting of permafrost in these areas. This may trigger new ecological problems and raise new challenges for the river basin scale water resource management.

  1. The repair of gamma-ray-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes after exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, D; Hone, P; Edwards, A; Cox, R; Halls, J

    2004-01-01

    G(0) human blood lymphocytes were irradiated with 2.0 Gy gamma-rays and cultured to metaphase whilst held in a 50-Hz power frequency magnetic field of 0.23, 0.47 or 0.7 mT. No differences were found in the frequencies of gamma-induced chromosome aberrations observed in cells held in the EM fields compared with replicates held in a sham coil. Similar field conditions have been reported to increase the frequency of gamma-induced HPRT mutations, leading to a suggestion that the EM fields alter the fidelity of repair of genomic lesions. This was not confirmed by the chromosome aberration assay described here.

  2. Spectral investigations of photoionized plasmas induced in atomic and molecular gases using nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Wachulak, P.

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, results of spectral investigations of low temperature photoionized plasmas, created by irradiation of gases with intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, are presented. The LPP source was based on a double-stream KrXe/He gas-puff target irradiated with 4 ns/0.8 J/10 Hz Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region λ ≈ 10–12 nm; however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV beam was focused on a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the EUV range. Radiation spectra, measured for plasmas produced in various gases, are dominated by emission lines, originating from single charged ions. Significant differences in spectral intensities and distributions between plasmas created in neon and molecular gases were observed.

  3. Discovery of star formation in the extreme outer galaxy possibly induced by a high-velocity cloud impact

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi; Yasui, Chikako; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Saito, Masao

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of star formation activity in perhaps the most distant molecular cloud in the extreme outer galaxy. We performed deep near-infrared imaging with the Subaru 8.2 m telescope, and found two young embedded clusters at two CO peaks of 'Digel Cloud 1' at the kinematic distance of D = 16 kpc (Galactocentric radius R {sub G} = 22 kpc). We identified 18 and 45 cluster members in the two peaks, and the estimated stellar densities are ∼5 and ∼3 pc{sup –2}, respectively. The observed K-band luminosity function suggests that the age of the clusters is less than 1 Myr and also that the distance to the clusters is consistent with the kinematic distance. On the sky, Cloud 1 is located very close to the H I peak of high-velocity cloud Complex H, and there are some H I intermediate velocity structures between the Complex H and the Galactic disk, which could indicate an interaction between them. We suggest the possibility that Complex H impacting on the Galactic disk has triggered star formation in Cloud 1 as well as the formation of the Cloud 1 molecular cloud.

  4. X-ray-induced apoptosis of BEL-7402 cell line enhanced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wen; Wei, Zhao; Zhiqiang, Cheng; Zheng, Fang

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to test whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) could enhance the apoptosis-induction effect of X-ray radiotherapy on liver cancer cell line BEL-7402 in vitro. EMF exposure was performed inside an energized solenoid coil. X-ray irradiation was performed using a linear accelerator. Apoptosis rates of BEL-7402 cells were analyzed using Annexin V-Fit Apoptosis Detection kit. Apoptosis rates of EMF group and sham EMF group were compared when combined with X-ray irradiation. Our results suggested that the apoptosis rate of BEL-7402 cells exposed to low doses of X-ray irradiation could be significantly increased by EMF. More EMF exposures obtain significantly higher apoptosis rates than fewer EMF exposures when combined with 2 Gy X-ray irradiation. These findings suggested that ELF-EMF could augment the cell apoptosis effects of low doses of X-ray irradiation on BEL-7402 cells in a synergistic and cumulative way.

  5. The limits of drought-induced rapid cold-hardening: extremely brief, mild desiccation triggers enhanced freeze-tolerance in Eurosta solidaginis larvae.

    PubMed

    Gantz, J D; Lee, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cold-hardening (RCH) is a highly conserved response in insects that induces physiological changes within minutes to hours of exposure to low temperature and provides protection from chilling injury. Recently, a similar response, termed drought-induced RCH, was described following as little as 6h of desiccation, producing a loss of less than 10% of fresh mass. In this study, we investigated the limits and mechanisms of this response in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). The cold-hardiness of larvae increased markedly after as few as 2h of desiccation and a loss of less than 1% fresh mass, as organismal survival increased from 8% to 41% following exposure to -18 °C. Tissue-level effects of desiccation were observed within 1h, as 87% of midgut cells from desiccated larvae remained viable following freezing compared to 57% of controls. We also demonstrated that drought-induced RCH occurs independently of neuroendocrine input, as midgut tissue desiccated ex vivo displayed improved freeze-tolerance relative to control tissue (78-11% survival, respectively). Finally, though there was an increase in hemolymph osmolality beyond the expected effects of the osmo-concentration of solutes during dehydration, we determined that this increase was not due to the synthesis of glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, or trehalose. Our results indicate that E. solidaginis larvae are extremely sensitive to desiccation, which is a triggering mechanism for one or more physiological pathways that confer enhanced freeze-tolerance.

  6. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field induces neural differentiation of hBM-MSCs through regulation of (Zn)-metallothionein-3.

    PubMed

    Aikins, Anastasia Rosebud; Hong, Sung-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Yoon, Cheol-Ho; Chung, Joo-Hee; Kim, MiJung; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2017-03-29

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELFEMF) can stimulate neural differentiation in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (hBM-MSCs), and this provides an opportunity for research on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metallothionein-3 (MT3), an isoform of the metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, involved in maintaining intracellular zinc (Zn) homeostasis and the deregulation of zinc homeostasis, has separately been implicated in AD. Here, we investigated the effect of ELFEMF-induced neural differentiation of hBM-MSCs on Zn-MT3 homeostatic interaction. Exposure to ELFEMF induced neural differentiation of hBM-MSCs, which was characterized by decreased proliferation and enhanced neural-like morphology. We observed expression of neuronal markers such as β-tubulin3, pleiotrophin, and neurofilament-M at the mRNA level and MAP2 at the protein level. ELFEMF-induced neural differentiation correlated with decreased expression of metal-response element-transcription factor 1 and MT3, as well as decreased intracellular Zn concentration. In addition, upregulation of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 was observed, but there was no change in γ-enolase expression. These data indicate a possible regulatory mechanism for MT3 during neural differentiation. Our findings provide considerable insight into molecular mechanisms involved in neural differentiation, which is useful for developing new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;9999:XX-XX. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The young low-mass star ISO-Oph-50: extreme variability induced by a clumpy, evolving circumstellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Alexander; Mužić, Koraljka; Geers, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    ISO-Oph-50 is a young low-mass object in the ˜1 Myr old Ophiuchus star-forming region undergoing dramatic changes in its optical/near/mid-infrared brightness by 2-4 mag. We present new multi-band photometry and near-infrared spectra, combined with a synopsis of the existing literature data. Based on the spectroscopy, the source is confirmed as a mid-M dwarf, with evidence for ongoing accretion. The near-infrared light curves show large-scale variations, with 2-4 mag amplitude in the bands IJHK, with the object generally being bluer when faint. Near its brightest state, the object shows colour changes consistent with variable extinction of ΔAV ˜ 7 mag. High-cadence monitoring at 3.6 μm reveals quasi-periodic variations with a typical time-scale of 1-2 weeks. The best explanation for these characteristics is a low-mass star seen through circumstellar matter, whose complex variability is caused by changing inhomogeneities in the inner parts of the disc. When faint, the direct stellar emission is blocked; the near-infrared radiation is dominated by scattered light. When bright, the emission is consistent with a photosphere strongly reddened by circumstellar dust. Based on the available constraints, the inhomogeneities have to be located at or beyond ˜0.1 au distance from the star. If this scenario turns out to be correct, a major portion of the inner disc has to be clumpy, structured, and/or in turmoil. In its observational characteristics, this object resembles other types of young stellar objects with variability caused in the inner disc. Compared to other objects, however, ISO-Oph-50 is clearly an extreme case, given the large amplitude of the brightness and colour changes combined with the erratic behaviour. ISO-Oph-50 has been near its brightest state since 2013; further monitoring is highly encouraged.

  8. Extreme Rainfall and Flood Events for the Hudson River Induced by Tropical Cyclones: a Statistical Forecast Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conticello, F.; Hall, T. M.; Lall, U.; Orton, P. M.; Cioffi, F.; Georgas, N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) lead to potentially severe coastal flooding through wind surge and also through rainfall-runoff processes. There is growing interest in modeling these processes simultaneously. Here, a statistical approach that can facilitate this process is presented with an application to the Hudson River Basin that is associated with the New York City metropolitan area. Three submodels are used in sequence. The first submodel is a stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones developed by Hall and Yonekura (2011). It uses archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and of sea surface temperature (SST). The second submodel translates the attributes of a tropical cyclone simulated by the first model to the streamflows at specific points of the tributaries of the Hudson River. That points are the closure sections of five different watersheds. Two different approaches are used and compared: 1) an ANN-cyclone/rainfall clustering model which calculates the rainfall intensity at selected stations within the watershed, that are then used as inputs of an ANN rainfall/runoff model; 2) an ANN/ Bayesian multivariate approach that translates the TC attributes ( track, SST, Velocities,..) directly in streamflows in the tributaries. Finally, the streamflows of the tributaries of the Hudson River are to be used as inputs in a hydrodynamic model that includes storm surge dynamics for the simulation of coastal flooding along the Hudson River. Calibration and validation of the model is carried out by using, selected tropical cyclone data since 1950, and hourly and daily station rainfall and streamflow recorded for such extreme events. Seven stream gauges (Croton River, Rondout Creek, Wappinger Creek, Troy dam, Mohawk River at Cohoes, Mohawk River diversion at Crescent Dam, Hudson River above lock one nr Waterford) and over 20 rain gauges are

  9. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Fadakar, Kaveh; Saba, Valiallah; Farzampour, Shahrokh

    2013-06-01

    The electromagnetic fields (EMF) have various behavioral and biological effects on human body. There are growing concerns about the consequences of exposure to EMF. However, some studies have shown beneficial effects of these waves on human. In this paper, we study the effect of acute, sub acute and long-term exposure to 50 Hz, 0.1 mT magnetic fields (MF) on the seizure induction threshold in mice. 64 mice are used and divided into four groups. Eight mice in any group were selected to be exposed to MF for specific duration and the others were used as a control group. The duration of the applied exposures was as follows: (1) 1 day (acute), (2) 3 days (sub acute), (3) 2 weeks (sub acute), (4) 1 month (long term). The mice were exposed 2 h for a day. After exposure, the pentylentetrazol (PTZ) is injected to the mice to induce seizure and the needed dose for the seizure induction threshold is measured. In the acute exposure, the threshold to induce seizure in the exposed and sham-exposed groups was 44.25 and 46.5 mg, respectively, while the difference was not significant (p value = 0.5). In the sub acute exposure (3 days), the mean amount of drug to induce seizure was 47.38 mg in the exposed and 43.88 mg in the sham-exposed groups, however, the difference was not significant (p value = 0.3). The results were 52.38 and 46.75 mg after 2 weeks of exposure which were not significantly different either (p value = 0.2). After 1 month of exposure to MF, the threshold for the induction of seizure was significantly increased (p value < 0.05). The mean dosage to induce seizure in the exposed and control group was 54.3 and 45.75 mg, respectively. However, considering the p value, the difference in the seizure induction threshold between the exposed and sham-exposed groups after acute and sub acute exposure was not significant, analyzing the effects of acute, sub acute and long-term exposures totally indicates that increasing the exposure time increases the

  10. A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wieggers, R. C.; Goedheer, W. J.; Akdim, M. R.; Bijkerk, F.; Zegeling, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV pulse and the ion-induced sputtering of the coating material of a normal incidence collector mirror is computed. The relation between the time and position at which the ions are created and their final energy is studied, revealing how the evolution and the properties of the sheath influence the amount of sputtered material. The influence of the gas pressure and the source intensity is studied, evaluating the behavior of Ar{sup +} and Ar{sup 2+} ions. A way to reduce the damage to the collector mirror is presented.

  11. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Laser-induced extreme UV radiation sources for manufacturing next-generation integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V. M.; Vinokhodov, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. S.; Kiryukhin, Yu B.; Mishchenko, V. A.; Prokof'ev, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2009-10-01

    The development of high-power discharge sources emitting in the 13.5±0.135-nm spectral band is of current interest because they are promising for applications in industrial EUV (extreme ultraviolet) lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits according to technological precision standards of 22 nm and smaller. The parameters of EUV sources based on a laser-induced discharge in tin vapours between rotating disc electrodes are investigated. The properties of the discharge initiation by laser radiation at different wavelengths are established and the laser pulse parameters providing the maximum energy characteristics of the EUV source are determined. The EUV source developed in the study emits an average power of 276 W in the 13.5±0.135-nm spectral band on conversion to the solid angle 2π sr in the stationary regime at a pulse repetition rate of 3000 Hz.

  12. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  13. To compare the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy versus motor relearning programme to improve motor function of hemiplegic upper extremity after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Sana; Soomro, Nabila; Amjad, Fareeha; Fauz, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy versus motor relearning programme to improve motor function of hemiplegic upper extremity after stroke. Method: A sample of 42 patients was recruited from the Physiotherapy Department of IPM&R and Neurology OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi through non probability purposive sampling technique. Twenty one patients were placed to each experimental and control groups. Experimental group was treated with Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and control group was treated with motor relearning programme (MRP) for three consecutive weeks. Pre and post treatment measurements were determined by upper arm section of Motor Assessment Scale (MAS) and Self Care item of Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Scale. Results: Intra group analysis showed statistically significant results (p-value<0.05) in all items of MAS in both groups. However, advanced hand activities item of MAS in MRP group showed insignificant result (p-value=0.059). Self-care items of FIM Scale also showed significant result (p-value< 0.05) in both groups except dressing upper body item (p-value=0.059) in CIMT group and grooming and dressing upper body items (p-value=0.059 & 0.063) in MRP group showed insignificant p-values. Conclusion: CIMT group showed more significant improvement in motor function and self-care performance of hemiplegic upper extremity as compared to MRP group in patients with sub-acute stroke assessed by the MAS and FIM scales. Thus CIMT is proved to be more statistically significant and clinically effective intervention in comparison to motor relearning programme among the patients aged between 35-60 years. Further studies are needed to evaluate CIMT effects in acute and chronic post stroke population. PMID:26649007

  14. Biofouling and Design of a Biomimetic Hull-Grooming Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-14

    used by the fouling organisms to adhere to the surface to develop a strong polymer that will not peel off of the ship hull in the marine...skin of a pilot whale.13 The dolphin’s physical defenses include desquamation or peeling off of different parts of the body’s surface, ritual...Baum, C. et al. “A covalently cross-linked gel derived from the epidermis of the pilot whale Globicephala melas.” Biorheology. (39) p. 703-717. 2002

  15. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of an Aerodynamically Refined Planing-Tail Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert; Suydam, Henry B.

    1948-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of an aerodynamically refined planing-tail hull were determined from dynamic model tests in Langley tank no. 2. Stable take-off could be made for a wide range of locations of the center of gravity. The lower porpoising limit peak was high, but no upper limit was encountered. Resistance was high, being about the same as that of float seaplanes. A reasonable range of trims for stable landings was available only in the aft range of center-of-gravity locations.

  16. Tank Tests of Model 36 Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, John

    1938-01-01

    N.A.C.A. Model 36, a hull form with parallel middle body for half the length of the forebody and designed particularly for use with stub wings, was tested according to the general fixed-trim method over the range of practical loads, trims, and speeds. It was also tested free to trim with the center of gravity at two different positions. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The resistance at the hump was exceptionally low but, at high planing speeds, afterbody interference made the performance only mediocre.

  17. Numerical Study of the Hull-Propeller-Rudder Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, Adrian; Pacuraru, Florin

    2009-09-01

    The paper describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around a maneuvering containership equipped with a rotating propeller and rudder. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  18. The xylose-rich pectins from pea hulls.

    PubMed

    Renard, C M; Weightman, R M; Thibault, J F

    1997-08-01

    The hot acid extract of pea hull, HSP, was rich in galacturonic acid, arabinose and xylose. It was fractionated by copper precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The copper-soluble fraction represented 26% of HSP and was mostly composed of an arabinan with a low degree of branching, some heteroxylans and a glucan, probably starch. The copper-precipitate (74% of HSP) contained pectins and some residual arabinan, xylan, glucan and mannan. One of the pectic fractions was rich in terminal xylose and fucose; it could be partially degraded by endo-polygalacturonase but not by endo-xylanase and seemed to contain xylogalacturonans.

  19. Supervised classification of protein structures based on convex hull representation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wu, Ling-Yun; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2007-01-01

    One of the central problems in functional genomics is to establish the classification schemes of protein structures. In this paper the relationship of protein structures is uncovered within the framework of supervised learning. Specifically, the novel patterns based on convex hull representation are firstly extracted from a protein structure, then the classification system is constructed and machine learning methods such as neural networks, Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are applied. The CATH scheme is highlighted in the classification experiments. The results indicate that the proposed supervised classification scheme is effective and efficient.

  20. Anthropogenic changes to seawater buffer capacity combined with natural reef metabolism induce extreme future coral reef CO2 conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Emily C; McNeil, Ben I; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard; Bates, Michael L

    2013-05-01

    Ocean acidification, via an anthropogenic increase in seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 ), is potentially a major threat to coral reefs and other marine ecosystems. However, our understanding of how natural short-term diurnal CO2 variability in coral reefs influences longer term anthropogenic ocean acidification remains unclear. Here, we combine observed natural carbonate chemistry variability with future carbonate chemistry predictions for a coral reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef based on the RCP8.5 CO2 emissions scenario. Rather than observing a linear increase in reef flat partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in concert with rising atmospheric concentrations, the inclusion of in situ diurnal variability results in a highly nonlinear threefold amplification of the pCO2 signal by the end of the century. This significant nonlinear amplification of diurnal pCO2 variability occurs as a result of combining natural diurnal biological CO2 metabolism with long-term decreases in seawater buffer capacity, which occurs via increasing anthropogenic CO2 absorption by the ocean. Under the same benthic community composition, the amplification in the variability in pCO2 is likely to lead to exposure to mean maximum daily pCO2 levels of ca. 2100 μatm, with corrosive conditions with respect to aragonite by end-century at our study site. Minimum pCO2 levels will become lower relative to the mean offshore value (ca. threefold increase in the difference between offshore and minimum reef flat pCO2 ) by end-century, leading to a further increase in the pCO2 range that organisms are exposed to. The biological consequences of short-term exposure to these extreme CO2 conditions, coupled with elevated long-term mean CO2 conditions are currently unknown and future laboratory experiments will need to incorporate natural variability to test this. The amplification of pCO2 that we describe here is not unique to our study location, but will occur in all shallow coastal environments where high

  1. Hulled and hull-less barley cultivars with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an average initial BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled and hull-less barley cultivars. The hulled cultivars were Harrington normal barley (NB)...

  2. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B. (5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds. (6) K... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of...

  3. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. (5) W... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis... being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being...

  4. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B. (5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds. (6) K... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of...

  5. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B. (5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds. (6) K... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of...

  6. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. (5) W... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis... being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being...

  7. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... which the load factor is being determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. (5) W... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis... being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being...

  8. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determined in accordance with figure 1 of appendix B. (5) W= seaplane design landing weight in pounds. (6) K... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of...

  9. 33 CFR 80.135 - Hull, MA to Race Point, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. 80.135 Section 80.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point, MA....

  10. Barley hulls and straw constituents and emulsifying properties of their hemicelluloses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley hulls (husks) are potential by-products of barley ethanol production. Barley straw is an abundant biomass in the regions producing barley for malting, feeds, and fuel ethanol. Both barley hulls and straw contain valuable hemicelluloses (arabinoxylans) and other useful carbohydrate and non-car...

  11. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1 Section 189.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations....

  12. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1 Section 189.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations....

  13. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  14. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  15. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  16. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  17. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  18. Effect of rice hull mulch on nutrient concentration of fertilized irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parboiled rice hulls are an effective mulch for controlling weeds in nursery containers. A layer of rice hulls between 1.25 and 2.5 cm deep has been shown to provide effective control of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa), and creeping woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata...

  19. Edith de Nancrede at Hull-House: Theatre Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Stuart J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the work of Edith de Nancrede in developing theater programs for youth at Chicago's Hull-House during the early part of the twentieth century. Describes how her intense dedication to theater and education contributed to the success of Hull-House and to the achievements of its leader, Jane Addams. (PRA)

  20. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  1. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  2. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  3. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  4. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all...

  5. 46 CFR 71.50-19 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-19 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. If your vessel meets the eligibility criteria in § 71.50-17 of this part, you may... examination date to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI), who will oversee the hull...

  6. 46 CFR 71.50-19 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-19 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. If your vessel meets the eligibility criteria in § 71.50-17 of this part, you may... examination date to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI), who will oversee the hull...

  7. Composition of liquid rice hull smoke and anti-inflamatory effects in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidative, antiallergic, and antiinflammatory activities of a new liquid rice hull (husk) smoke extract prepared by pyrolysis of rice hulls followed by liquefaction of the resulting smoke were assessed in vitro and in vivo. At pH 5, the liquid smoke extract inhibited 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ...

  8. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  9. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  10. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  11. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  12. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the country of origin code for the United States, if information is displayed on the boat within 2 inches...

  13. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  14. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  15. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  16. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  17. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  18. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  19. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  20. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  1. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the bottom plating and stringers and their attachments to the supporting structure, the following... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

  2. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently discovered and characterized rice hull liquid smoke extract was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-agar method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of rice hull smoke extract was found to be 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial a...

  3. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  4. Development of cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method for parametric submarine hull form design to optimize hull resistance using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrismianto, Deddy; Zakki, Ahmad Fauzan; Arswendo, Berlian; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-12-01

    Optimization analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) have been applied simultaneously, in which a parametric model plays an important role in finding the optimal solution. However, it is difficult to create a parametric model for a complex shape with irregular curves, such as a submarine hull form. In this study, the cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method are used to generate a solid model of a parametric submarine hull form taking three input parameters into account: nose radius, tail radius, and length-height hull ratio ( L/ H). Application program interface (API) scripting is also used to write code in the ANSYS design modeler. The results show that the submarine shape can be generated with some variation of the input parameters. An example is given that shows how the proposed method can be applied successfully to a hull resistance optimization case. The parametric design of the middle submarine type was chosen to be modified. First, the original submarine model was analyzed, in advance, using CFD. Then, using the response surface graph, some candidate optimal designs with a minimum hull resistance coefficient were obtained. Further, the optimization method in goal-driven optimization (GDO) was implemented to find the submarine hull form with the minimum hull resistance coefficient ( C t ). The minimum C t was obtained. The calculated difference in C t values between the initial submarine and the optimum submarine is around 0.26%, with the C t of the initial submarine and the optimum submarine being 0.001 508 26 and 0.001 504 29, respectively. The results show that the optimum submarine hull form shows a higher nose radius ( r n ) and higher L/ H than those of the initial submarine shape, while the radius of the tail ( r t ) is smaller than that of the initial shape.

  5. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  6. A multilayer self-organizing model for convex-hull computation.

    PubMed

    Pal, S; Datta, A; Pal, N R

    2001-01-01

    A self-organizing neural-network model is proposed for computation of the convex-hull of a given set of planar points. The network evolves in such a manner that it adapts itself to the hull-vertices of the convex-hull. The proposed network consists of three layers of processors. The bottom layer computes some angles which are passed to the middle layer. The middle layer is used for computation of the minimum angle (winner selection). These information are passed to the topmost layer as well as fed back to the bottom layer. The network in the topmost layer self-organizes by labeling the hull-processors in an orderly fashion so that the final convex-hull is obtained from the topmost layer. Time complexity of the proposed model is analyzed and is compared with existing models of similar nature.

  7. A connectionist model for convex-hull of a planar set.

    PubMed

    Datta, A; Pal, S; Pal, N R

    2000-04-01

    A neural network model is proposed for computation of the convex-hull of a finite planar set. The model is self-organizing in that it adapts itself to the hull-vertices of the convex-hull in an orderly fashion without any supervision. The proposed network consists of three layers of processors. The bottom layer computes the activation functions, the outputs of which are passed onto the middle layer. The middle layer is used for winner selection. These information are passed onto the topmost layer as well as fed back to the bottom layer. The network in the topmost layer self-organizes by labeling the hull-processors in an orderly fashion so that the final convex-hull is obtained from the topmost layer. Time complexities of the proposed model are analyzed and are compared with existing models of similar nature.

  8. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  9. Functional brain measurements within the prefrontal area on pseudo-"blindsight" induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic stimulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ueno, Shoogo

    2015-05-01

    For evaluating the effects of phosphene as pseudo-blindsight closely, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate whether or not the phosphene appearance itself substantially affects the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal area. Seven healthy volunteers ranging in age from 22 to 72 participated in the visual stimulation experiments. First, we examined the influences of electromagnetic stimulations at around the threshold (10 mT) for a blindsight-like phosphene on the responses. According to the results of the aged volunteers, we found the possibility that the delay in the phosphene perception might be caused by aging beyond a certain age. In the results of our measurements using the stimulation of 50 mT, no significant difference in the perception delay for all the volunteers could be detected. When the field strength was decreased from 50 mT to the threshold in steps of 10 mT, the results obtained at the threshold are equivalent to that obtained at 50 mT. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that pseudo-blindsight induced by electromagnetic stimulation of above 50 mT is able to excite all the volunteers' retinal photoreceptor cells provisionally. Hence the continuous stimulations for a long period of time might gradually activate synaptic plasticity on the neural network of the retina.

  10. Hydrodynamic Towing Evaluation of SSN-637 Class Short-Hull and Long-Hull Submarines with Modified Bows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Unarnnounced By I CP ’ v Distributilon/ Availability Codes Avail and/alp Dist Speojal S S 0 00 0 0 1 J ABSTRACT An experimental evaluation was conducted...TEU 25 TEU 25STEU 25 TEU 25 TEU 4 31.OS 21.05 (2.06)t 7 I32.05 20.0 S (51) 10-25S j______J 10.0s P - Porn S - Starboard Table 6. Horizontal towline...10 22.08 13.OS 14.OS (5.14) _______ ______ _________1________ P - Porn S - Starboard Table 10. Horizontal towline angles for a short-hull

  11. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A . While the mean perimeter and the mean area have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P (A ) and P (L ) . In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P (A ) and P (L ) are as small as 10-300. We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T , a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A /T and L /√{T } , respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively.

  12. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K; Majumdar, Satya N

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A. While the mean perimeter 〈L〉 and the mean area 〈A〉 have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P(A) and P(L). In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P(A) and P(L) are as small as 10(-300). We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T, a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A/T and L/√[T], respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively.

  13. Hot-compressed water extraction of polysaccharides from soy hulls.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Fei-Yun; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The polysaccharides of soy hulls were extracted by hot-compressed water at temperatures of 110 from 180°C and various treatment times (10-150min) in a batch system. It was determined that a moderate temperature and short time are suitable for the preparation of polysaccharides. The structure of xylan and the inter- and intra-chain hydrogen bonding of cellulose fibrils in the soy hulls were not significantly broken down. The polysaccharides obtained were primarily composed of α-L-arabinofuranosyl units, 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid units and α-D-galactose units attached with substituted units. A sugar analysis indicated that arabinose was the major component, constituting 35.6-46.9% of the polysaccharide products extracted at 130°C, 140°C, and 150°C. This investigation contributes to the knowledge of the polysaccharides of soy by-products, which can reduce the environmental impact of waste from the food industries.

  14. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  15. Effects of Revegetation on Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Erosion-Induced Carbon Loss under Extreme Rainstorms in the Hill and Gully Region of the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujin; Jiao, Juying; Wang, Zhijie; Cao, Binting; Wei, Yanhong; Hu, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Loess Plateau, an ecologically vulnerable region, has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Revegetation has been implemented to control soil erosion and improve ecosystems in the Loess Plateau region through a series of ecological recovery programs. However, the increasing atmospheric CO2 as a result of human intervention is affecting the climate by global warming, resulting in the greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as storms that may weaken the effectiveness of revegetation and cause severe soil erosion. Most research to date has evaluated the effectiveness of revegetation on soil properties and soil erosion of different land use or vegetation types. Here, we study the effect of revegetation on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and erosion-induced carbon loss related to different plant communities, particularly under extreme rainstorm events. Materials and methods: The erosion-pin method was used to quantify soil erosion, and soil samples were taken at soil depths of 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm and 10–20 cm to determine the SOC content for 13 typical hillside revegetation communities in the year of 2013, which had the highest rainfall with broad range, long duration and high intensity since 1945, in the Yanhe watershed. Results and discussion: The SOC concentrations of all plant communities increased with soil depth when compared with slope cropland, and significant increases (p < 0.05) were observed for most shrub and forest communities, particularly for natural ones. Taking the natural secondary forest community as reference (i.e., soil loss and SOC loss were both 1.0), the relative soil loss and SOC loss of the other 12 plant communities in 2013 ranged from 1.5 to 9.4 and 0.30 to 1.73, respectively. Natural shrub and forest communities showed greater resistance to rainstorm erosion than grassland communities. The natural grassland communities with lower SOC content produced lower SOC loss even with higher soil

  16. Systems design of transformation toughened blast-resistant naval hull steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Arup

    A systems approach to computational materials design has demonstrated a new class of ultratough, weldable secondary hardened plate steels combining new levels of strength and toughness while meeting processability requirements. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (Cv > 85 ft-lbs (115 J) corresponding to KId > 200 ksi.in1/2 (220 MPa.m1/2)) at strength levels of 150--180 ksi (1034--1241 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A theoretical design concept was explored integrating the mechanism of precipitated nickel-stabilized dispersed austenite for transformation toughening in an alloy strengthened by combined precipitation of M2C carbides and BCC copper both at an optimal ˜3nm particle size for efficient strengthening. This concept was adapted to plate steel design by employing a mixed bainitic/martensitic matrix microstructure produced by air-cooling after solution-treatment and constraining the composition to low carbon content for weldability. With optimized levels of copper and M2C carbide formers based on a quantitative strength model, a required alloy nickel content of 6.5 wt% was predicted for optimal austenite stability for transformation toughening at the desired strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa) yield strength. A relatively high Cu level of 3.65 wt% was employed to allow a carbon limit of 0.05 wt% for good weldability. Hardness and tensile tests conducted on the designed prototype confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness-strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 60% in Charpy

  17. A smart ROV solution for ship hull and harbor inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Scott; Wood, Jon; Vazquez, Jose; Mignotte, Pierre-Yves; Privat, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    Hull and harbor infrastructure inspections are frequently performed manually and involve quite a bit of risk and human and monetary resources. In any kind of threat and resource constrained environment, this involves unacceptable levels of risk and cost. Modern Remotely Operated Vehicles are highly refined machines that provide features and capabilities previously unavailable. Operations once carried out by divers can now be carried out more quickly, efficiently and safely by smart enabled ROVs. ROVs are rapidly deployable and capable of continuous, reliable operations in adverse conditions. They also provide a stable platform on which multiple sensors may be mounted and utilized to meet the harbor inspection problem. Automated Control software provides ROV's and their pilots with the capability to inspect complex, constrained environments such as those found in a harbor region. This application and the user interface allow the ROV to automatically conduct complex maneuvers relative to the area being inspected and relieves the training requirements and work load for the pilot, allowing he or she to focus on the primary task of survey, inspection and looking for possible threats (such as IEDs, Limpet Mines, signs of sabotage, etc). Real-time sensor processing tools can be integrated into the smart ROV solution to assist the operator. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are used to search through the sensor data collected by the ROV in real time. These algorithms provide immediate feedback on possible threats and notify the operator of regions that may require manual verification. Sensor data (sonar or video) is also mosaiced, providing the operator with real-time situational awareness and a coverage map of the hull or seafloor. Detected objects may also be placed in the context of the large scale characteristics of the hull (or bottom or pilings) and localized. Within the complex areas such as the harbor pier pilings and the running gear of the ship, real

  18. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Low-drag, Planing-tail Flying-boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suydam, Henry B

    1948-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat incorporating a low-drag, planing-tail hull were determined from model tests made in Langley tank number 2 and compared with tests of the same flying boat incorporating a conventional-type hull. The planing-tail model, with which stable take-offs were possible for a large range of elevator positions at all center-of-gravity locations tested, had more take-off stability than the conventional model. No upper-limit porpoising was encountered by the planing-tail model. The maximum changes in rise during landings were lower for the planing-tail model than for the conventional model at most contact trims, an indication of improved landing stability for the planing-tail model. The hydrodynamic resistance of the planing-tail hull was lower than the conventional hull at all speeds, and the load-resistance ratio was higher for the planing-tail hull, being especially high at the hump. The static trim of the planing-tail hull was much higher than the conventional hull, but the variation of trim with speed during take-off was smaller.

  19. Antioxidant constituents of almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] hulls.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Gary R; Dao, Lan T

    2003-01-15

    Almond hulls (Nonpareil variety) were extracted with methanol and analyzed by reversed phase HPLC with diode array detection. The extract contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid), and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (neochlorogenic acid) in the ratio 79.5:14.8:5.7. The chlorogenic acid concentration of almond hulls was 42.52 +/- 4.50 mg/100 g of fresh weight (n = 4; moisture content = 11.39%). Extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit the oxidation of methyl linoleate at 40 degrees C. At an equivalent concentration (10 microg/1 g of methyl linoleate) almond hull extracts had higher antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. At higher concentrations (50 microg/1 g of methyl linoleate) almond hull extracts showed increased antioxidant activity that was similar to chlorogenic acid and morin [2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one] standards (at the same concentrations). These data indicate that almond hulls are a potential source of these dietary antioxidants. The sterols (3beta,22E)-stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol (stigmasterol) and (3beta)-stigmast-5-en-3-ol (beta-sitosterol) (18.9 mg and 16.0 mg/100 g of almond hull, respectively) were identified by GC-MS of the silylated almond hull extract.

  20. Maximum margin classification based on flexible convex hulls for fault diagnosis of roller bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ming; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jinde; Cheng, Junsheng

    2016-01-01

    A maximum margin classification based on flexible convex hulls (MMC-FCH) is proposed and applied to fault diagnosis of roller bearings. In this method, the class region of each sample set is approximated by a flexible convex hull of its training samples, and then an optimal separating hyper-plane that maximizes the geometric margin between flexible convex hulls is constructed by solving a closest pair of points problem. By using the kernel trick, MMC-FCH can be extended to nonlinear cases. In addition, multi-class classification problems can be processed by constructing binary pairwise classifiers as in support vector machine (SVM). Actually, the classical SVM also can be regarded as a maximum margin classification based on convex hulls (MMC-CH), which approximates each class region with a convex hull. The convex hull is a special case of the flexible convex hull. To train a MMC-FCH classifier, time-domain and frequency-domain statistical parameters are extracted not only from raw vibration signals but also from the resulting intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by performing empirical mode decomposition (EMD) on the raw signals, and then the distance evaluation technique (DET) is used to select salient features from the whole statistical features. The experiments on bearing datasets show that the proposed method can reliably recognize different bearing faults.

  1. JCL (job control language) procedures to run the HULL code on the Cyber 205 computer installed on CSIRONET. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The HULL code is a suite of programs for solving problems of hydrodynamic flow. HULL is a self contained system, with internal maintenance and editing facilities, currently capable of running on a number of computer sited through the world. A utility for the HULL system called SAIL manages the internally coded system, and is used to generate Fortran programs appropriate to the problem being solved. The Materials Research Laboratories obtained a current version of the HULL system early in 1986 from Eglin AFB, through TTCP channels. This version (HULL 120) is capable of solving problems in two or three dimensions, using Eulerian or Lagrangian equations of motion, or a combination of both. Hull 120 has models for elastic/plastic material behaviour, and explosive burn routines, HULL 120 is currently being installed and tested on a Control Data Cyber 205 supercomputer on the CSIRONET network. Part of the installation involves embedding into the HUll system the necessary parameters and changes to make HULL-generated code run correctly on the 205. This process is not yet complete, and will be reported separately. A second part of the installation involves writing the job control language to run HULL. This report describes a complex set of JCL procedures developed at MRL to run HULL programs on the CSIRONET Cyber 205.

  2. Comparison of the genotoxic effects induced by 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in GC-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weixia; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Lei; He, Mindi; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; Pi, Huifeng; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhong, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been considered to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. However, their genotoxic effects remain controversial. To make experiments controllable and results comparable, we standardized exposure conditions and explored the potential genotoxicity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF and 1800 MHz RF-EMF. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was intermittently (5 min on and 10 min off) exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF at an intensity of 1, 2 or 3 mT or to RF-EMF in GSM-Talk mode at the specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1, 2 or 4 W/kg. After exposure for 24 h, we found that neither ELF-EMF nor RF-EMF affected cell viability using Cell Counting Kit-8. Through the use of an alkaline comet assay and immunofluorescence against γ-H2AX foci, we found that ELF-EMF exposure resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks at 3 mT, whereas RF-EMF exposure had insufficient energy to induce such effects. Using a formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-modified alkaline comet assay, we observed that RF-EMF exposure significantly induced oxidative DNA base damage at a SAR value of 4 W/kg, whereas ELF-EMF exposure did not. Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different.

  3. Tank Tests of Model 11-G Flying-boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J B

    1935-01-01

    The NACA model 11-G flying-boat hull, a modification of NACA model 11-A was tested over a range of loadings. The planing bottom of model 11-G has a variable-radius flare, or concavity, at the chines in contrast to the straight V planing bottom of model 11-A. The results are given as curves of resistance and trimming moment plotted against speed for various angles of trim. The characteristics of the form at the optimum angles of trim are given in non-dimensional form as curves of resistance coefficient, best trim angle, and trimming-moment coefficient plotted against speed coefficient. As compared with the original form, model 11-G is shown to have higher resistance at all loads and speeds and higher maximum trimming moments at heavy loads. The spray pattern, however, is generally more favorable, indicating that the service performance of model 11-A would be improved by some form of chime flare.

  4. Probabilistic ultimate strength analysis of submarine pressure hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerik, Burak Can; Shin, Hyun-Kyoung; Cho, Sang-Rai

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the application of structural reliability analysis to submarine pressure hulls to clarify the merits of probabilistic approach in respect thereof. Ultimate strength prediction methods which take the inelastic behavior of ring-stiffened cylindrical shells and hemi-spherical shells into account are reviewed. The modeling uncertainties in terms of bias and coefficient of variation for failure prediction methods in current design guidelines are defined by evaluating the compiled experimental data. A simple ultimate strength formulation for ring-stiffened cylinders taking into account the interaction between local and global failure modes and an ultimate strength formula for hemispherical shells which have better accuracy and reliability than current design codes are taken as basis for reliability analysis. The effects of randomness of geometrical and material properties on failure are assessed by a prelimnary study on reference models. By evaluation of sensitivity factors important variables are determined and comparesons are made with conclusions of previous reliability studies.

  5. Revisiting the method of characteristics via a convex hull algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFloch, Philippe G.; Mercier, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    We revisit the method of characteristics for shock wave solutions to nonlinear hyperbolic problems and we propose a novel numerical algorithm-the convex hull algorithm (CHA)-which allows us to compute both entropy dissipative solutions (satisfying all entropy inequalities) and entropy conservative (or multi-valued) solutions. From the multi-valued solutions determined by the method of characteristics, our algorithm "extracts" the entropy dissipative solutions, even after the formation of shocks. It applies to both convex and non-convex flux/Hamiltonians. We demonstrate the relevance of the proposed method with a variety of numerical tests, including conservation laws in one or two spatial dimensions and problem arising in fluid dynamics.

  6. Convex hull of a Brownian motion in confinement.

    PubMed

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Majumdar, Satya N

    2015-05-01

    We study the effect of confinement on the mean perimeter of the convex hull of a planar Brownian motion, defined as the minimum convex polygon enclosing the trajectory. We use a minimal model where an infinite reflecting wall confines the walk to one side. We show that the mean perimeter displays a surprising minimum with respect to the starting distance to the wall and exhibits a nonanalyticity for small distances. In addition, the mean span of the trajectory in a fixed direction θ∈]0,π/2[, which can be shown to yield the mean perimeter by integration over θ, presents these same two characteristics. This is in striking contrast to the one-dimensional case, where the mean span is an increasing analytical function. The nonmonotonicity in the two-dimensional case originates from the competition between two antagonistic effects due to the presence of the wall: reduction of the space accessible to the Brownian motion and effective repulsion.

  7. Convex hull of a Brownian motion in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2015-05-01

    We study the effect of confinement on the mean perimeter of the convex hull of a planar Brownian motion, defined as the minimum convex polygon enclosing the trajectory. We use a minimal model where an infinite reflecting wall confines the walk to one side. We show that the mean perimeter displays a surprising minimum with respect to the starting distance to the wall and exhibits a nonanalyticity for small distances. In addition, the mean span of the trajectory in a fixed direction θ ∈]0 ,π /2 [ , which can be shown to yield the mean perimeter by integration over θ , presents these same two characteristics. This is in striking contrast to the one-dimensional case, where the mean span is an increasing analytical function. The nonmonotonicity in the two-dimensional case originates from the competition between two antagonistic effects due to the presence of the wall: reduction of the space accessible to the Brownian motion and effective repulsion.

  8. Isosurface construction in any dimension using Convex Hulls.

    PubMed

    Bhaniramka, Praveen; Wenger, Rephael; Crawfis, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We present an algorithm for constructing isosurfaces in any dimension. The input to the algorithm is a set of scalar values in a d-dimensional regular grid of (topological) hypercubes. The output is a set of (d-1)-dimensional simplices forming a piecewise linear approximation to the isosurface. The algorithm constructs the isosurface piecewise within each hypercube in the grid using the convex hull of an appropriate set of points. We prove that our algorithm correctly produces a triangulation of a (d-1)-manifold with boundary. In dimensions three and four, lookup tables with 2(8) and 2(16) entries, respectively, can be used to speed the algorithm's running time. In three dimensions, this gives the popular Marching Cubes algorithm. We discuss applications of four-dimensional isosurface construction to time varying isosurfaces, interval volumes, and morphing.

  9. Underwater sound of rigid-hulled inflatable boats.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Liong, Syafrin; Koessler, Matthew Walter; Duncan, Alec J; Gourlay, Tim

    2016-06-01

    Underwater sound of rigid-hulled inflatable boats was recorded 142 times in total, over 3 sites: 2 in southern British Columbia, Canada, and 1 off Western Australia. Underwater sound peaked between 70 and 400 Hz, exhibiting strong tones in this frequency range related to engine and propeller rotation. Sound propagation models were applied to compute monopole source levels, with the source assumed 1 m below the sea surface. Broadband source levels (10-48 000 Hz) increased from 134 to 171 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m with speed from 3 to 16 m/s (10-56 km/h). Source power spectral density percentile levels and 1/3 octave band levels are given for use in predictive modeling of underwater sound of these boats as part of environmental impact assessments.

  10. Preventive Effects of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities on Sciatic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengsong; Bian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hong; Jia, Aiming

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia and hypoxia are important physiological changes in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Chinese herbal medicine prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities (TDFE) is useful for increasing blood flow. To help determine whether TDFE could protect the peripheral nerves of diabetic patients from the degeneration caused by high blood glucose, TDFE was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 6 or 12 weeks. Plantar thermal stimulation reaction time thresholds, sciatic nerve conduction velocities, and the levels of HIF-1α mRNA, HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and the endothelial marker vWF in sciatic nerves were measured at the end of the sixth and twelfth weeks. The thermal thresholds and sciatic nerve conduction velocities of the rats differed after 12 weeks, and the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats that were given TDFE displayed higher levels of HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and HIF-1α mRNA than those of the diabetic model rats. The results at 6 weeks differed from those at 12 weeks. These results suggest that the early preventive application of TDFE effectively delayed the development of DPN and that TDFE increased HIF-1α mRNA levels in the sciatic nerves of diabetic rats through 12 weeks of treatment. PMID:27057201

  11. Rice-hull-fired power plant burns a nuisance waste, sells electricity, ash

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1985-07-01

    Agrielectric Power Partners, Ltd., Lake Charles, LA, operate a 10.6 MW power plant fueled by rice hulls. The system is financially viable because PURPA regulations require the local utility to buy excess power from the producer. The installation also disposes of agricultural waste and process byproducts in an environmentally sound manner. The rice hulls are burned in a cyclonic effect boiler. Ash, which is 20% rice hulls on a dry basis, is finding markets as ladle and tundish insulation in the steel industry and as an absorbent for liquid waste spills.

  12. Effects of symmetrical foundation on sound radiation from a submarine hull structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyang; Su, Jinpeng; Wang, Jian; Hua, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    The effects of a passive noise control method for suppressing sound radiation from a submarine hull structure are investigated. The control method is realized by symmetrizing the foundation about the horizontal plane. The coupled finite element method and boundary element method are adopted to compute the acoustic characteristics of the submerged hull. From the numerical results, the symmetrical foundation has advantages in sound radiation reduction when the hull is subjected to the axial load, but has little influences in the vertical and transverse load cases. Using the modal decomposition technique, the contributions of each individual mode to the sound radiation are analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the control method.

  13. Tank tests of a family of flying-boat hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, James M; Parkinson, John B

    1934-01-01

    This report presents towing tests made in the N.A.C.A. tank of a parent form and five variations of a flying-boat hull. The beams of two of the derived forms were made the same as that of the parent and the lengths changed by increasing and decreasing the spacing of stations. The lengths of the two others of the derived forms were made the same as that of the parent while the beams were changed by increasing and decreasing the spacing of buttocks, all other widths being changed in proportion. The remaining derived form has the same length and beam as the parent, but the lines of the forebody were altered to give a planing bottom with no longitudinal curvature forward of the step. The test data were analyzed to determine the minimum resistance and the angle at which it occurs for all speeds and loads. The results of this analysis are given in the form of non dimensional curves for each model. The effect of variation in over-all size, as indicated by a "complete" test on any given hull, is pointed out. The effect of changing length alone by the spacing of buttocks, as well as the effects of the changes in length-beam ratio and longitudinal curvature that result from these operations are discussed. The difficulties encountered in interpreting test results of systematic families derived by the method used are emphasized. Further studies are suggested in which changes in the variable under consideration would not be obscured by secondary changes in other important variables.

  14. Field models and numerical dosimetry inside an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor: the theoretical link between the electromagnetically induced mechanical forces and the biological mechanisms of the cell tensegrity.

    PubMed

    Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Di Barba, Paolo; Magenes, Giovanni; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio; Fassina, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    We have implemented field models and performed a detailed numerical dosimetry inside our extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor which has been successfully used in in vitro Biotechnology and Tissue Engineering researches. The numerical dosimetry permitted to map the magnetic induction field (maximum module equal to about 3.3 mT) and to discuss its biological effects in terms of induced electric currents and induced mechanical forces (compression and traction). So, in the frame of the tensegrity-mechanotransduction theory of Ingber, the study of these electromagnetically induced mechanical forces could be, in our opinion, a powerful tool to understand some effects of the electromagnetic stimulation whose mechanisms remain still elusive.

  15. Consolidation of cladding hulls from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, D. D., Jr.

    1998-04-10

    To consolidate metallic waste that is residual from Argonne National Laboratory's electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel, waste ingots are currently being cast using an induction furnace located in a hot cell. These ingots, which have been developed to serve as final waste forms destined for repository disposal, are stainless steel (SS)-Zr alloys (the Zr is very near 15 wt.%). The charge for the alloys consists of stainless steel cladding hulls, Zr from the fuel being treated, noble metal fission products, and minor amounts of actinides that are present with the cladding hulls. The actual in-dated cladding hulls have been characterized before they were melted into ingots, and the final as-cast ingots have been characterized to determine the degree of consolidation of the charge material. It has been found that ingots can be effectively cast from irradiated cladding hulls residual from the electrometallurgical treatment process by employing an induction furnace located in a hot cell.

  16. Tank Tests of an Alternate Hull Form for the Consolidated Vultee PB2Y-3 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Posner, Jack

    1946-01-01

    Tests have been made in Langley tank no. I of a dynamic model of the Consolidated Vultee PB2Y-3 airplane. These tests were made using an alternate hull form, the purpose of which was to reduce the bow spray and eliminate the landing instability which are objectionable features of the production design. The major differences from the PB2Y-3 hull included a deeper step to improve the landing stability , and a lengthened forebody and increased beam to reduce the sway in the propellers and on the flaps. The tests showed that the spray characteristics of the revised hull form were much better than that ot the production design. In addition the take-off and landing stability of the model with the alternate hull were satisfactory.

  17. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... have been made, or where other critical areas of concern have been identified, the OCMI may require an... hull condition assessment, the OCMI may require the presence of a third party examiner and a...

  18. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  19. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  20. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  1. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  2. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  3. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols and their distribution in whole mung bean, hull and cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Singh, Barinderjit; Singh, Narpinder; Thakur, Sheetal; Kaur, Amritpal

    2017-03-01

    In this study, extraction of polyphenols using different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and water) with ultrasound and conventional method from whole mung bean (WMB), hull and cotyledon was conducted. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total antioxidant activities (TAA), ferric reducing power (FRP) and DPPH radical scavenging activity were determined. Ultrasound treated extracts exhibited higher TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH in different mung bean fractions than CSE. Among the solvents, acetone showed better TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH. Hull had significantly higher TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH than WMB and cotyledon. Sinapic acid (SA) was the major polyphenol in different fractions. Acetone extract of hull showed high polyphenol content. SA, ferulic acid, catechin, p-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin and luteolin were the major contributors to antioxidant activity of acetone extract. Mung bean hull contained the maximum polyphenols and acetone was observed to be the best extraction medium for polyphenols in combination with ultrasound.

  4. Congruency effects in dot comparison tasks: convex hull is more important than dot area.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy; Hogan, Grace; Inglis, Matthew

    2016-11-16

    The dot comparison task, in which participants select the more numerous of two dot arrays, has become the predominant method of assessing Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity. Creation of the dot arrays requires the manipulation of visual characteristics, such as dot size and convex hull. For the task to provide a valid measure of ANS acuity, participants must ignore these characteristics and respond on the basis of number. Here, we report two experiments that explore the influence of dot area and convex hull on participants' accuracy on dot comparison tasks. We found that individuals' ability to ignore dot area information increases with age and display time. However, the influence of convex hull information remains stable across development and with additional time. This suggests that convex hull information is more difficult to inhibit when making judgements about numerosity and therefore it is crucial to control this when creating dot comparison tasks.

  5. Inhibition of α-glucosidase by polysaccharides from the fruit hull of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-22

    We isolated and purified polysaccharides from the Camellia oleifera Abel. fruit hull and studied its hypoglycemic potential. Our results revealed six polysaccharides (CFPA-1-5 & CFPB) from the aqueous extract from the defatted C. oleifera fruit hull. Purified polysaccharides (purity >90%) were investigated for the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Two polysaccharides, CFPB and CFPA-3 were present in high concentration in the fruit hull and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 concentrations of 11.80 and 10.95 μg/mL, respectively. This result suggests that polysaccharides (CFP) extracted from the fruit hull of C. oleifera may have potential as functional foods with featuring a hypoglycemic effect.

  6. Congruency effects in dot comparison tasks: convex hull is more important than dot area

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy; Hogan, Grace; Inglis, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dot comparison task, in which participants select the more numerous of two dot arrays, has become the predominant method of assessing Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity. Creation of the dot arrays requires the manipulation of visual characteristics, such as dot size and convex hull. For the task to provide a valid measure of ANS acuity, participants must ignore these characteristics and respond on the basis of number. Here, we report two experiments that explore the influence of dot area and convex hull on participants’ accuracy on dot comparison tasks. We found that individuals’ ability to ignore dot area information increases with age and display time. However, the influence of convex hull information remains stable across development and with additional time. This suggests that convex hull information is more difficult to inhibit when making judgements about numerosity and therefore it is crucial to control this when creating dot comparison tasks. PMID:28163886

  7. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. A Common Sense Design Manual for Producibility of Hull Foundations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    ship’s hull. These motions can be approximated by considering the ship’s hull girder as a free-free beam with added mass included to represent the...BENDING LONGITUDINAL TRANSVERSE 1. FLANGE BENDING 2. BEAM BENDING 3. FRAME BENDING VERTICAL Deck Mounted A–Frame/ Truss STANDARD FOUNDATION TYPE 20 C...be carried out. Interference of foundation structure, i.e. legs, diagonals , braces , with adjacent piping systems. Interface of foundations with

  8. David Hull's generalized natural selection as an explanation for scientific change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Michelle Yvette

    2001-10-01

    Philosophers of science such as Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn have employed evolutionary idiom in describing scientific change. In Science as a Process (1988) Hull makes evolutionary theory explanatorily applicable. He modifies key evolutionary terms in order that both biological evolution and scientific change are instances of a general selection process. According to Hull, because of naturally-existing competition for credit among researchers and the professional lineages they constitute, scientists are constrained to cooperate and collaborate. This process entails two important philosophical consequences. First, it allows for a natural justification of why the sciences can provide objective empirical knowledge. Second, appreciating its strength means that a philosophical analysis of scientific change is solidly difficult features to combine. I work on strengthening two weaknesses in Hull's arguments. First, operating in his analysis is an unexplicated notion of ``information'' running parallel to the equally opaque notion of genetic information. My third chapter provides a clear account of ``genetic information'' whose usefulness extends beyond the assistance it can render Hull as a clear concept is needed in biological contexts as well. The fourth and fifth chapters submit evidence of scientific change from radio astronomy. Hull insists on empirical backing for philosophical theses but his own book stands to suffer from selection effects as it offers cases drawn from a single subspecialty in the biological sciences. I found that in the main scientists and the change they propel accords well with Hull's explanation. However, instances of major change reveal credit- and resource-sharing to a degree contrary with what Hull would expect. My conclusion is that the naturalness of competition, instantiated during the course of standardized and relatively ``normal'' scientific research, is not the norm during periods of new research and its uncertain standards of

  9. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume 2. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-06

    Best Available Copy ., AD-A007 341 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL...PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME II APPENDICES By Alan J. Stev/crt 6 December 1974 Approved...of the comparative performance of high eflic.icncy ship propulsion systems, four arrangement drawings have been prepared. Each drawing shows the

  10. Peanut hulls as a litter source for broiler breeder replacement pullets.

    PubMed

    Lien, R J; Hess, J B; Conner, D E; Wood, C W; Shelby, R A

    1998-01-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were reared on either peanut hulls or pine shavings to determine effects of litter type on growth performance and litter characteristics. Pullets were reared to 20 wk of age in rooms initially bedded with 8 cm of clean shavings or hulls. Heating and ventilation were standardized in all rooms. Restricted skip-a-day feeding was used to attain recommended growth curves. Water was continuously provided for ad libitum consumption. Litter and environmental variables were measured throughout rearing and 2 wk after pullets were removed from the litter materials. Feed consumption, BW, mortality, and uniformity at 20 wk were not affected by litter type; however, gizzard weights were decreased in pullets reared on hulls. Litter bulk density increased with use and was greater for shavings through 11 wk, but not thereafter. Particle size decreased with use in both litter types. Through 11 wk, there were more particles in the > 4 mm range and less in the < 1.7 mm range with hulls. Litter moisture increased with use but was not affected by litter type. Litter pH was greater in unused shavings, but during and after use was generally greater in hulls. With both litter types, litter and environmental ammonia levels increased to 11 wk then decreased; however, this effect was more pronounced for hulls. Bacteria populations were not affected by litter type; however, greater fungal populations were observed in shavings at 7 and 15 wk. Aflatoxins were detected in unused hulls but not shavings. Because aflatoxin levels decreased during use and Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus populations were not detected in samples collected during use, aflatoxins observed were presumed to have been formed prior to use. Peanut hulls performed similarly to pine shavings as a litter source for breeder pullets; however, the specific influence of the aflatoxins contained in this litter source on bird performance deserves further study.

  11. Hydrodynamic design of an underwater hull cleaning robot and its evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Man Hyung; Park, Yu Dark; Park, Hyung Gyu; Park, Won Chul; Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Kil Soo; Chun, Ho Hwan

    2012-12-01

    An underwater hull cleaning robot can be a desirable choice for the cleaning of large ships. It can make the cleaning process safe and economical. This paper presents a hydrodynamic design of an underwater cleaning robot and its evaluation for an underwater ship hull cleaning robot. The hydrodynamic design process of the robot body is described in detail. Optimal body design process with compromises among conflicting design requirements is given. Experimental results on the hydrodynamic performance of the robot are given.

  12. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Severe Upper-Extremity Impairment after Stroke in an Outpatient Rehabilitation Setting: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Jennifer; Hutchings, Lisa; Osmond, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Laboratory studies confirm that constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) improves upper-extremity (UE) function after stroke. Due to strict patient criteria and the intensive resources required, CIMT has been slow to become part of rehabilitation practice. Our purpose was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted experimental protocol within an outpatient clinical setting for a patient with moderate to severe UE impairment who did not meet traditional CIMT criteria. Patient Description: AJ, a 16-year-old male, experienced a left middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke due to carotid artery dissection one year before beginning CIMT. He demonstrated some proximal movement but no wrist or finger extension. He had received intensive rehabilitation for 12 months prior to beginning CIMT. Intervention: Two occupational therapists and two physiotherapists collaborated to provide CIMT task training for 6 hours daily for 2 weeks. A knitted mitten extending to the elbow restrained the less-involved UE during 90% of waking hours. Tasks were tailored to AJ's interests, with the goal of integrating his affected UE into his behavioural repertoire. Measures and Outcomes: After 2 weeks of CIMT, AJ improved in all measures (grip and lateral pinch strength, Action Research Arm Test [ARAT], and Box and Block Test) except the Chedoke McMaster Impairment Inventory. Greatest gains were seen at 6 months in the ARAT and Box and Block Test, which coincided with patient and family reports of AJ's using his arm in everyday functional tasks. Implications: Shared workload, emphasis on relevant functional tasks, and complete family participation likely influenced the success of CIMT. Our findings suggest that the strict CIMT criteria used in previous studies may exclude patients who might benefit from the treatment. Controlled trials should be undertaken to examine the effects of CIMT in patients with moderate to severe UE impairment. PMID:20145779

  13. Ingestive Behavior and Nitrogen Balance of Confined Santa Ines Lambs Fed Diets Containing Soybean Hulls

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Milena Patrícia Viana; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Filho, Antônio Eustáquio; dos Santos, Edileusa de Jesus; Chagas, Daiane Maria Trindade; Barroso, Daniele Soares; Filho, George Abreu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of substituting corn with soybean hulls on the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance of Santa Ines lambs. A total of 25 lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg at approximately six months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 m×1.0 m), considering an entirely casual experimental delineation. Soybean hulls were substituted for corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter (DM). The time spent feeding, ruminating, masticating, and resting was not affected by the substitution of corn with soybean hulls. In fact, the feeding efficiency in g DM/h and the rumination efficiency in g DM/bolus increased linearly with soybean hull substitution in the feed. Although the nitrogen balance was not altered by the use of soybean hulls as a substitute for corn in the diets of Santa Ines lambs, the N ingested and N digested expressed in g/d, N retained as a percentage of that ingested, and N retained as a percentage of that digested displayed quadratic behavior. In conclusion, corn can be substituted with soybean hulls up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the concentrate, without changing the ingestive behavior and nitrogen balance. PMID:25049922

  14. Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product.

  15. Some results on the statistics of hull perimeters in large planar triangulations and quadrangulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitter, Emmanuel

    2016-11-01

    The hull perimeter at distance d in a planar map with two marked vertices at distance k from each other is the length of the closed curve separating these two vertices and lying at distance d from the first one (d\\lt k). We study the statistics of hull perimeters in large random planar triangulations and quadrangulations as a function of both k and d. Explicit expressions for the probability density of the hull perimeter at distance d, as well as for the joint probability density of hull perimeters at distances d 1 and d 2, are obtained in the limit of infinitely large k. We also consider the situation where the distance d at which the hull perimeter is measured corresponds to a finite fraction of k. The various laws that we obtain are identical for triangulations and for quadrangulations, up to a global rescaling. Our approach is based on recursion relations recently introduced by the author which determine the generating functions of so-called slices, i.e. pieces of maps with appropriate distance constraints. It is indeed shown that the map decompositions underlying these recursion relations are intimately linked to the notion of hull perimeters and provide a simple way to fully control them.

  16. A Fast Algorithm of Convex Hull Vertices Selection for Online Classification.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuguang; Nie, Xiangli; Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-20

    Reducing samples through convex hull vertices selection (CHVS) within each class is an important and effective method for online classification problems, since the classifier can be trained rapidly with the selected samples. However, the process of CHVS is NP-hard. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm to select the convex hull vertices, based on the convex hull decomposition and the property of projection. In the proposed algorithm, the quadratic minimization problem of computing the distance between a point and a convex hull is converted into a linear equation problem with a low computational complexity. When the data dimension is high, an approximate, instead of exact, convex hull is allowed to be selected by setting an appropriate termination condition in order to delete more nonimportant samples. In addition, the impact of outliers is also considered, and the proposed algorithm is improved by deleting the outliers in the initial procedure. Furthermore, a dimension convention technique via the kernel trick is used to deal with nonlinearly separable problems. An upper bound is theoretically proved for the difference between the support vector machines based on the approximate convex hull vertices selected and all the training samples. Experimental results on both synthetic and real data sets show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Data on photo-nanofiller models for self-cleaning foul release coating of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Selim, Mohamed S; El-Safty, Sherif A; El-Sockary, Maher A; Hashem, Ahmed I; Abo Elenien, Ossama M; El-Saeed, Ashraf M; Fatthallah, Nesreen A

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Smart photo-induced silicone/TiO2 nanocomposites with dominant [110] exposed surfaces for self-cleaning foul-release coatings of ship hulls" (Selimet al., 2016) [1]. This article reports on successfully designing and controlling TiO2 spherical single crystal photo-nanofillers and indicating evidence of fouling resistance after stimulation through UV radiation exposure. These data also reveal that the influence of well-dispersed spherical TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) into the polymer matrix surface features on the prepared fouling release (FR) coating. Single crystal TiO2 nanospheres have played a large role in the scenario of photocatalysis due to its cost effectiveness, inert nature and photo stability. The model output and the surface and mechanical behavior data of the fabricated UV-irradiated silicone-based FR nanocoatings are made publicly available through analyzing nanocomposite topology, superhydrophilicity and self-cleaning efficiency in order to enable critical analysis of the tailored model. It also investigates the photo-bactericidal effect confirmed through biofilm coverage data disability. The modeled nanocomposites were subjected to comparable studies with other published models so as to understand how different UV-irradiated nano-scale parameters propagate and affect bulk film response.

  18. Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Masita; Maitra, Saikat; Ahmad, Naveed; Bustam, Azmi; Sen, T K; Dutta, Binay K

    2010-07-15

    The potential of physic seed hull (PSH), Jantropha curcas L. as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated. It has been found that the amount of adsorption for both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) increased with the increase in initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the solution pH (in acidic range), but decreased with the increase in the particle size of the adsorbent. The adsorption process for both metal ions on PSH consists of three stages-a rapid initial adsorption followed by a period of slower uptake of metal ions and virtually no uptake at the final stage. The kinetics of metal ions adsorption on PSH followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in the three adsorption isotherms-Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data best fit in the Langmuir isotherm indication monolayer chemisorption of the metal ions. The adsorption capacity of PSH for both Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was found to be comparable with other available adsorbents. About 36-47% of the adsorbed metal could be leached out of the loaded PSH using 0.1M HCl as the eluting medium.

  19. Minimum convex hull mass estimations of complete mounted skeletons.

    PubMed

    Sellers, W I; Hepworth-Bell, J; Falkingham, P L; Bates, K T; Brassey, C A; Egerton, V M; Manning, P L

    2012-10-23

    Body mass is a critical parameter used to constrain biomechanical and physiological traits of organisms. Volumetric methods are becoming more common as techniques for estimating the body masses of fossil vertebrates. However, they are often accused of excessive subjective input when estimating the thickness of missing soft tissue. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach where a minimum convex hull is derived mathematically from the point cloud generated by laser-scanning mounted skeletons. This has the advantage of requiring minimal user intervention and is thus more objective and far quicker. We test this method on 14 relatively large-bodied mammalian skeletons and demonstrate that it consistently underestimates body mass by 21 per cent with minimal scatter around the regression line. We therefore suggest that it is a robust method of estimating body mass where a mounted skeletal reconstruction is available and demonstrate its usage to predict the body mass of one of the largest, relatively complete sauropod dinosaurs: Giraffatitan brancai (previously Brachiosaurus) as 23200 kg.

  20. Minimum convex hull mass estimations of complete mounted skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, W. I.; Hepworth-Bell, J.; Falkingham, P. L.; Bates, K. T.; Brassey, C. A.; Egerton, V. M.; Manning, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    Body mass is a critical parameter used to constrain biomechanical and physiological traits of organisms. Volumetric methods are becoming more common as techniques for estimating the body masses of fossil vertebrates. However, they are often accused of excessive subjective input when estimating the thickness of missing soft tissue. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach where a minimum convex hull is derived mathematically from the point cloud generated by laser-scanning mounted skeletons. This has the advantage of requiring minimal user intervention and is thus more objective and far quicker. We test this method on 14 relatively large-bodied mammalian skeletons and demonstrate that it consistently underestimates body mass by 21 per cent with minimal scatter around the regression line. We therefore suggest that it is a robust method of estimating body mass where a mounted skeletal reconstruction is available and demonstrate its usage to predict the body mass of one of the largest, relatively complete sauropod dinosaurs: Giraffatitan brancai (previously Brachiosaurus) as 23200 kg. PMID:22675141

  1. Effects of breadfruit seed hull ash on the microstructures and properties of Al-Si-Fe alloy/breadfruit seed hull ash particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atuanya, C. U.; Ibhadode, A. O. A.; Dagwa, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructures and properties of Al-Si-Fe alloy matrix composites reinforced with different weight fractions of breadfruit seed hull (husk) ash particles of size 500 nm were investigated. Six (6) different weight fractions of breadfruit seed hull ash particles were added to aluminium alloy matrix using a double stir-casting method. Microstructural analysis shows that with the increase of the reinforcement weight fraction, the matrix grain size decreases. The mechanical properties of the composites are improved over the matrix materials, except for the slightly decrease of the impact energy. Fracture surface examination indicates that there is a good interfacial bonding between the aluminium alloy matrix and the breadfruit seed hull ash particles and that fracture initiation does not occur at the particle-matrix interface. Hence, incorporation of breadfruit seed hull ash particles in aluminium matrix can lead to the production of low cost aluminium composites with improved hardness and strength. These composites can find applications in automotive components where light weight materials are required with good stiffness and strength.

  2. Time-Domain Method for Computing Forces and Moments Acting on Three Dimensional Surface-Piercing Ship Hulls with Forward Speed.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    coefficients for a fairly coarse representation of the hull and free surface. ii INTRODUCTION This report describes a computational method designed to...acceleration boundary condition. This deter- mines the time-derivative of the body-induced component of the flow, 4BD (as well as OBD through integration...earlier, Fkj(IMP) = -PffdSB Cj(X*, 0+) nk(X*) For later time steps the time-domain force t Fkj(t) = f Kkj()d, t > 0+ 27 II was computed using the method

  3. Extreme Heat Guidebook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 'Climate Change and Extreme Heat: What You Can Do to Prepare' handbook explains the connection between climate change and extreme heat events, and outlines actions citizens can take to protect their health during extreme heat.

  4. Development of a remotely controlled testing platform with low-drag air-ventilated hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Konstantin I.; Perry, Nicholaus I.; Mattson, Alexander W.; Chaney, Christopher S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the development and testing of a remotely controlled boat platform with an innovative air-ventilated hull. The application of air cavities on the underside of ship hulls is a promising means for reducing hydrodynamic drag and pollutant emissions and increasing marine transportation efficiency. Despite this concept's potential, design optimization and high-performance operation of novel air-cavity ships remain a challenging problem. Hull construction and sensor instrumentation of the model-scale air-cavity boat is described in the paper. The modular structure of the hull allows for easy modifications, and an electric propulsion unit enables self-propelled operation. The boat is controlled remotely via a radio transmission system. Results of initial tests are reported, including thrust, speed, and airflow rate in several loading conditions. The constructed platform can be used for optimizing air-cavity systems and testing other innovative hull designs. This system can be also developed into a high-performance unmanned boat.

  5. Augmented convex hull plots: Rationale, implementation in R and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Gaj; Pohar, Maja

    2005-04-01

    The paper addresses the possibility to replace cluttered multi-group scatter-plots with augmented convex hull plots. By replacing scatter-plot points with convex hulls, space is gained for visualization of descriptive statistics with error bars or confidence ellipses within the convex hulls. An informative addition to the plot is calculation of the area of convex hull divided by corresponding group size as a bivariate dispersion measure. Marginal distributions can be depicted on the sides of the main plot in established ways. Bivariate density plots might be used instead of convex hulls in the presence of outliers. Like any scatter-plot type visualization, the technique is not limited to raw data -- points can be derived from any dimension reduction technique, or simple functions can be used as axes instead of original dimensions. The limited possibilities for producing such plots in existing software are surveyed, and our general and flexible implementation in R -- the publicly available chplot function -- is presented. Examples based on our daily biostatistical consulting practice illustrate the technique with various options.

  6. Effects of internal mass distribution and its isolation on the acoustic characteristics of a submerged hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Herwig; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of machinery isolation in marine vessels is to isolate structural vibration of the onboard machinery from the hull and to reduce far-field radiation of underwater noise. A substantial proportion of the total submarine mass is on flexible mounts that isolate supported masses from the hull at frequencies above the mounting system resonant frequency. This reduces the dynamically effective mass of the hull and affects the signature of the marine vessel due to propeller excitation. A fully coupled finite element/boundary element (FE/BE) model has been developed to investigate the effect of mass distribution and isolation in a submerged hull. The finite element model of the structure includes internal structures to represent the machinery and other flexibly mounted components. Changes in the radiated sound power demonstrate the effect of machinery isolation on the acoustic signature of the submerged hull due to the external propeller forces. Results are also presented to show how the arrangement of flexible mounts for a large internal structure can influence the radiation due to machinery forces.

  7. Effects of Hull Scratching, Soaking, and Boiling on Antinutrients in Japanese Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata).

    PubMed

    Une, Satsuki; Nonaka, Koji; Akiyama, Junich

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hull processing, soaking, and boiling on the content or activity of antinutrients in the red sword bean (RSB; Canavalia gladiata) were investigated. RSB seeds were compared with kidney bean (KB; Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds that are starch based and often used as processed products in Japan. RSB seeds had higher weight, thicker hull, and higher protein content, but lower moisture content compared with KB seeds. Because of the strong and thick hull, the relative water absorption of untreated RSB seeds was very low after soaking. Seeds were soaked after dehulling, scratching, and roasting. The results showed that hull scratching was the optimal method for increasing water absorption during soaking compared with dehulling and roasting. After soaking, the water used for soaking was discarded, since it had a high content of polyphenols and bitter taste, and RSB seeds were boiled in fresh water for 20, 40, and 60 min. The results showed that polyphenol and tannin contents, antioxidant activity, and hemagglutinating activity, as well as maltase, sucrase, and trypsin inhibitor activities in scratched RSB seeds decreased significantly after boiling compared with those in raw seeds, whereas amylase inhibitor activity showed no significant change. Overall, it was concluded that the combination of hull scratching, soaking, and boiling in fresh water can reduce thermal-stable or sensitive antinutrients in RSB and thus, significantly improve its nutritional value.

  8. Macroalgal Introductions by Hull Fouling on Recreational Vessels: Seaweeds and Sailors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P.; Maggs, Christine A.

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  9. Intake and digestibility of low-quality native grass hay by beef cows supplemented with graded levels of soybean hulls.

    PubMed

    Martin, S K; Hibberd, C A

    1990-12-01

    Twelve Hereford cows and four mature, ruminally cannulated Hereford x Angus heifers were fed supplements providing either 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3 kg/d of soybean hulls and including 440 g of protein/d (cottonseed meal was used to equalize protein intake) to determine the effects of supplementation on intake and utilization of low-quality native grass hay. Cattle were housed in individual pens and fed coarsely chopped (5-cm screen) native grass hay harvested in mid-November (4.1% CP, 76.9% NDF). Hay OM intake peaked (quadratic, P = .04) at 10.1 kg/d with 1 kg of soybean hulls and decreased when 2 kg (9.8 kg/d) or 3 kg (9.1 kg/d) of soybean hulls were fed. Although hay intake decreased when soybean hulls replaced cottonseed meal, feeding 3 kg soybean hulls decreased hay OM intake by only .64 kg. Total OM digestibility increased linearly (P = .009) with added increments of soybean hulls (45.8%, 46.2%, 46.6% and 48.6% for 0 through 3 kg soybean hulls/d, respectively), indicating that hulls were more digestible than the hay. Digestibility of NDF was not affected (P = .14) by level of soybean hull supplementation, although ADF digestibility increased (linear, P = .03). Increases in OM intake and digestibility with soybean hulls combined to increase digestible OM intake (linear, P = .0001). Soybean hull supplementation increased ruminal VFA concentrations (linear, P = .04) and the molar proportion of propionate (linear, P = .006).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-11-30

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells.

  11. Enhanced saccharification of rice straw and hull by microwave-alkali pretreatment and lignocellulolytic enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Tuteja, Shuchi; Singh, Namita; Bishnoi, Narsi R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, statistical design of experiments was employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave-alkali pretreatment of rice straw and hulls. Process parameters important in pretreatment of biomass were identified by a Plackett-Burman design and the parameters with significant effects were optimized using a box-behnken design (BBD). Experimental results show that alkali concentration (AC), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the saccharification of rice straw and hulls. Optimum conditions of pretreatment were AC 2.75%, IT 22.50 min and SC 30 g/L, as optimized by BBD. The growth and production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from Aspergillus heteromorphus, solid state fermentation (SSF) was performed using rice straw and hulls pretreated under optimum conditions. Cellulases and xylanase reached the highest enzyme activity at 6th day of fermentation while maximum manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activity occurred at 12th day.

  12. Hull-form optimization of a container ship based on bell-shaped modification function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hee Jong

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a hydrodynamic hull-form optimization algorithm for a container ship was presented in terms of the minimum wave-making resistance. Bell-shaped modification functions were developed to modify the original hull-form and a sequential quadratic programming algorithm was used as an optimizer. The wave-making resistance as an objective function was obtained by the Rankine source panel method in which non-linear free surface conditions and the trim and sinkage of the ship were fully taken into account. Numerical computation was performed to investigate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed hull-form modification algorithm for the container carrier. The computational results were validated by comparing them with the experimental data.

  13. Marine propulsion device with engine heat recovery system and streamlining hull closures

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H. W.

    1985-11-12

    A Marine Jet Propulsion System for use as an inboard engine for boats is herein described. An engine or motor means is attached in a driving relationship to a pump and thrust output apparatus. Heat generated by and rejected by the engine or motor is passed into the pump base for dissipation into the outputted jet thrust stream. Air and/or exhaust gas from the engine is ejected around the jet output stream to reduce against-the-hull turbulence and jet stream or thrust energy losses. Streamlining hull closures for the jet pump intake and output ports are provided to reduce system hull drag when not in use and to limit marine organism growth inside the pump.

  14. Static analysis of the hull plate using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at presenting the static analysis for two levels of a container ship's construction as follows: the first level is at the girder / hull plate and the second level is conducted at the entire strength hull of the vessel. This article will describe the work for the static analysis of a hull plate. We shall use the software package ANSYS Mechanical 14.5. The program is run on a computer with four Intel Xeon X5260 CPU processors at 3.33 GHz, 32 GB memory installed. In terms of software, the shared memory parallel version of ANSYS refers to running ANSYS across multiple cores on a SMP system. The distributed memory parallel version of ANSYS (Distributed ANSYS) refers to running ANSYS across multiple processors on SMP systems or DMP systems.

  15. Basic dye adsorption onto an agro-based waste material--sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanfang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Yongqian; Ma, Li; Wu, Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G; Yang, Linzhang

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. The adsorption process of MB onto abandoned sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.) (SH) was investigated in a batch system. The results showed that a wide range of pH (3.54-10.50) was favorable for the adsorption of MB onto SH. The Langmuir model displayed the best fit for the isothermal data. The exothermic adsorption process fits a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (359.88 mg g(-1)) was higher than most previously investigated low-cost bioadsorbents (e.g., peanut hull, wheat straw, etc.). This study indicated that sesame hull is a promising, unconventional, affordable and environmentally friendly bio-measure that is easily deployed for removing high levels of MB from wastewater.

  16. The Langevin Hull: Constant pressure and temperature dynamics for non-periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Vardeman, Charles F; Stocker, Kelsey M; Gezelter, J Daniel

    2011-04-12

    We have developed a new isobaric-isothermal (NPT) algorithm which applies an external pressure to the facets comprising the convex hull surrounding the system. A Langevin thermostat is also applied to the facets to mimic contact with an external heat bath. This new method, the "Langevin Hull", can handle heterogeneous mixtures of materials with different compressibilities. These systems are problematic for traditional affine transform methods. The Langevin Hull does not suffer from the edge effects of boundary potential methods, and allows realistic treatment of both external pressure and thermal conductivity due to the presence of an implicit solvent. We apply this method to several different systems including bare metal nanoparticles, nanoparticles in an explicit solvent, as well as clusters of liquid water. The predicted mechanical properties of these systems are in good agreement with experimental data and previous simulation work.

  17. Applicability of convex hull in multiple detector response space for neutron dose measurements.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2009-08-01

    A novel neutron dose measurement method that flexibly responds to variations in the neutron field is being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. This is an implementation of the multi-detector method (first introduced in 1960s) for neutron dose evaluation using a convex hull in the response space defined for multiple detectors. The convex hull provides a range of possible neutron dose corresponding to the incident neutron spectrum. Feasibility of the method was studied using a simulated response of mixed gas proportional counter. Monochromatic neutrons are shown to be fundamentally suitable for mapping the convex. The convex hull can be further reduced taking into consideration a priori information about physically possible incident neutron spectra, for example, theoretically derived moderated neutron spectra originated from a fission neutron source.

  18. Selectivity of the Cd2+/Ca2+ exchange on modified rice hull silica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Flores, Norma A; Solache, Marcos; Olguín, M Teresa; Fripiat, José J; Pacheco-Malagón, Graciela; Saniger, José M; Bulbulian, Silvia

    2009-03-01

    The rice hull ash is composed by 94% of SiO2, an agricultural waste that can be recovered and purified by a depolymerization reaction yielding an organo-silicic gel. The purpose of this paper is to show that this silica can be used to fix Cd2+ from aqueous solution. The pH of hydrolysis of the organo-silicic gel is the main factor modifying the distribution between the solid and the solution. The contact time between the Cd2+ solution and the solid was studied to optimize the sorption conditions. The equilibrium measurements were performed after 40 hours at room temperature. The competition with Ca2+ ions in the solutions was also studied in order to evaluate the selectivity of the Cd2+ fixation. It was found that the rice hull ash has a higher capacity to fix Cd2+ than the rice hull derivatives.

  19. Effect of Length-Beam Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Flying-Boat Hulls without Wing Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G.; Riebe, John M.

    1948-01-01

    Contains experimental results of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of flying boat hulls of length beam ratios 6, 9, 12, and 15 without wing interference. The results are compared with those taken on the same family of hulls in the presence of a wing.

  20. Performance and physiology of steers grazing toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls and implanting with steroid hormones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing experiment with steers grazing toxic tall fescue indicated that feeding pelleted soybean hulls in conjunction with steroid hormone implants can increase steer weight gain, and feeding soyben hulls can reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte...

  1. Scattering effect of submarine hull on propeller non-cavitation noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingsan; Shen, Yang; Jin, Shuanbao; Hu, Pengfei; Lan, Rensheng; Zhuang, Shuangjiang; Liu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the non-cavitation noise caused by propeller running in the wake of submarine with the consideration of scattering effect caused by submarine's hull. The computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analogy method are adopted to predict fluctuating pressure of propeller's blade and its underwater noise radiation in time domain, respectively. An effective iteration method which is derived in the time domain from the Helmholtz integral equation is used to solve multi-frequency waves scattering due to obstacles. Moreover, to minimize time interpolation caused numerical errors, the pressure and its derivative at the sound emission time is obtained by summation of Fourier series. It is noted that the time averaging algorithm is used to achieve a convergent result if the solution oscillated in the iteration process. Meanwhile, the developed iteration method is verified and applied to predict propeller noise scattered from submarine's hull. In accordance with analysis results, it is summarized that (1) the scattering effect of hull on pressure distribution pattern especially at the frequency higher than blade passing frequency (BPF) is proved according to the contour maps of sound pressure distribution of submarine's hull and typical detecting planes. (2) The scattering effect of the hull on the total pressure is observable in noise frequency spectrum of field points, where the maximum increment is up to 3 dB at BPF, 12.5 dB at 2BPF and 20.2 dB at 3BPF. (3) The pressure scattered from hull is negligible in near-field of propeller, since the scattering effect surrounding analyzed location of propeller on submarine's stern is significantly different from the surface ship. This work shows the importance of submarine's scattering effect in evaluating the propeller non-cavitation noise.

  2. Tank tests of a model of a flying-boat hull with a fluted bottom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1935-01-01

    A 1/5-scale model of a flying-boat hull having flutes in the bottom both forward and aft of the step (NACA model 19) was tested to determine its water performance. The model was also tested after the successive removal of the flutes on the afterbody and forebody. The results from these tests are compared with those from tests of a model of the hull of the Navy PN-8 flying boat and it is concluded that the fluted-bottom model and its modifications are inferior to the model of the PN-8.

  3. Hull fouling of maritime vessels as a pathway for marine species invasions to the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Godwin, L Scott

    2003-04-01

    The natural barriers to species invasions that exist in isolated marine environments such as Hawaii are overcome by anthropogenic influences on the dispersal patterns of marine organisms. This creates a situation where the marine habitats of the Hawaiian Archipelago are more readily exposed to marine non-indigenous species. A case study of a particular anthropogenic dispersal mode, maritime vessel hull fouling, is reviewed. This mode has effects on altered environments, such as harbors, as well as unaltered coastal habitats. Hull fouling of commercial maritime vessels is documented as a transport vector, and an inter-island dispersal mechanism for marine non-indigenous species to the main Hawaiian Islands.

  4. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-06

    i pi» ■«■■i . ilMi<MI««iPMpM«l««P«nMVHV*W«nPW- AD-A007 340 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS...OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME I By Alan J. Stewart 6 December 1974 Approved for Public Release... Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types 7. AH r:i.iR(JJ Alan J. Stewart 9. Pr.fii-OFIMING OiiüANIi ATION NAMI A’JD AOOMESS Bradford

  5. Welding torch trajectory generation for hull joining using autonomous welding mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hascoet, J. Y.; Hamilton, K.; Carabin, G.; Rauch, M.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Shipbuilding processes involve highly dangerous manual welding operations. Welding of ship hulls presents a hazardous environment for workers. This paper describes a new robotic system, developed by the SHIPWELD consortium, that moves autonomously on the hull and automatically executes the required welding processes. Specific focus is placed on the trajectory control of such a system and forms the basis for the discussion in this paper. It includes a description of the robotic hardware design as well as some methodology used to establish the torch trajectory control.

  6. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  7. AFWL (Air Force Weapons Laboratory) vectorized EPHULL (Elastic/Plastic HULL) code user manual. Final report, March 1985-May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    This report was prepared as a user manual for implementing the vectorized Elastic/Plastic HULL (EPHULL) Composite HULL code and SAIL code on the AFWL CRAY computer. Major programs required to operate the Composite HULL code and supporting programs and files on the AFWL CRAY are described. The Composite HULL code developed through this work is usable over the range of problems formerly accommodated by either Vector HULL or EPHULL, and is simpler and less time-consuming for new users to learn. The Cylinder In Situ Test (CIST) Equation of State (EOS) in this manual was rewritten from the California Research Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (CRALE) code for use with a variety of soils.

  8. Resistance and seakeeping numerical performance analyses of a semi-small waterplane area twin hull at medium to high speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernengo, Giuliano; Bruzzone, Dario

    2016-03-01

    The hydrodynamic analysis of a new semi-small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH) suitable for various applications such as small and medium size passenger ferries is presented. This may be an attractive crossover configuration resulting from the merging of two classical shapes: a conventional SWATH and a fast catamaran. The final hull design exhibits a wedge-like waterline shape with the maximum beam at the stern; the hull ends with a very narrow entrance angle, has a prominent bulbous bow typical of SWATH vessels, and features full stern to arrange waterjet propellers. Our analysis aims to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrodynamic performance of a hull with such a complex shape both in terms of resistance of the hull in calm water and seakeeping capability in regular head waves and compare the performance with that of a conventional SWATH. The analysis is performed using a boundary element method that was preliminarily validated on a conventional SWATH vessel.

  9. Destructive testings: dry drilling operations with TruPro system to collect samples in a powder form, from two hulls containing immobilized wastes in a hydraulic binder

    SciTech Connect

    Pombet, Denis; Desnoyers, Yvon; Charters, Grant; Aggarwal, Sue

    2013-07-01

    The TruPro{sup R} process enables to collect a significant number of samples to characterize radiological materials. This innovative and alternative technique is experimented for the ANDRA quality-control inspection of cemented packages. It proves to be quicker and more prolific than the current methodology. Using classical statistics and geo-statistics approaches, the physical and radiological characteristics of two hulls containing immobilized wastes (sludges or concentrates) in a hydraulic binder are assessed in this paper. The waste homogeneity is also evaluated in comparison to ANDRA criterion. Sensibility to sample size (support effect), presence of extreme values, acceptable deviation rate and minimum number of data are discussed. The final objectives are to check the homogeneity of the two characterized radwaste packages and also to validate and reinforce this alternative characterization methodology. (authors)

  10. Physical origins of mobility degradation in extremely scaled SiO2/HfO2 gate stacks with La and Al induced dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Takashi; Copel, Matt; Bruley, John; Frank, Martin M.; Watanabe, Heiji; Narayanan, Vijay

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate metal-gate-induced interfacial layer (IL) scaling using a HfO2 dielectric and clarify the kinetics underlying this process. The intrinsic IL scaling effect on electron mobility is separated from La and Al-induced dipole effects. We find that the mobility degradation for La-containing high-κ dielectrics is not due to the La-induced dipole but due to the intrinsic IL scaling effect, whereas the Al-induced dipole brings about additional mobility degradation. This unique nature of the La-induced dipole enables aggressive equivalent oxide thickness scaling down to 0.42 nm without extrinsic mobility degradation when combined with IL scaling.

  11. Convex-hull mass estimates of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus): application of a CT-based mass estimation technique.

    PubMed

    Brassey, Charlotte A; O'Mahoney, Thomas G; Kitchener, Andrew C; Manning, Phillip L; Sellers, William I

    2016-01-01

    The external appearance of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus, Linnaeus, 1758) has been a source of considerable intrigue, as contemporaneous accounts or depictions are rare. The body mass of the dodo has been particularly contentious, with the flightless pigeon alternatively reconstructed as slim or fat depending upon the skeletal metric used as the basis for mass prediction. Resolving this dichotomy and obtaining a reliable estimate for mass is essential before future analyses regarding dodo life history, physiology or biomechanics can be conducted. Previous mass estimates of the dodo have relied upon predictive equations based upon hind limb dimensions of extant pigeons. Yet the hind limb proportions of dodo have been found to differ considerably from those of their modern relatives, particularly with regards to midshaft diameter. Therefore, application of predictive equations to unusually robust fossil skeletal elements may bias mass estimates. We present a whole-body computed tomography (CT) -based mass estimation technique for application to the dodo. We generate 3D volumetric renders of the articulated skeletons of 20 species of extant pigeons, and wrap minimum-fit 'convex hulls' around their bony extremities. Convex hull volume is subsequently regressed against mass to generate predictive models based upon whole skeletons. Our best-performing predictive model is characterized by high correlation coefficients and low mean squared error (a = - 2.31, b = 0.90, r (2) = 0.97, MSE = 0.0046). When applied to articulated composite skeletons of the dodo (National Museums Scotland, NMS.Z.1993.13; Natural History Museum, NHMUK A.9040 and S/1988.50.1), we estimate eviscerated body masses of 8-10.8 kg. When accounting for missing soft tissues, this may equate to live masses of 10.6-14.3 kg. Mass predictions presented here overlap at the lower end of those previously published, and support recent suggestions of a relatively slim dodo. CT-based reconstructions provide a means of

  12. The Effect of Buckwheat Hull Extract on Lipid Oxidation in Frozen-Stored Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Szwengiel, Artur; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Górecka, Danuta

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of antioxidants on lipid stability of frozen-stored meat products. Buckwheat hull extract was used to enrich fried meatballs made from ground pork. During 180-d storage of meat products, lipid oxidation (peroxide and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] value) was periodically monitored. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The addition of antioxidants decreased lipid oxidation in stored meatballs. The highest ability to control peroxide and TBARS values was demonstrated for buckwheat hull extract. Moreover, buckwheat hull extract showed a higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity as well as higher Fe(II) ion chelating ability, as compared with BHT. The total content of phenolic compounds are highly correlated to the individual polyphenols in extract of buckwheat hull, among which the following were assayed: 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, isovanillic acid and p-coumaric acid, and flavonoids: isoorientin, quercetin, quercetin 3-d-glucoside, rutin, and vitexin. These results indicate that plant extracts can be used to prolong shelf life of products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality.

  13. Sunflower seed hulls as supplementary fuel to coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brudenell, W.N.; Holland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of biomass as a supplementary fuel to fossil-fuel power plants is gaining increasing attention due to escalating energy costs. The design of a sunflower seed hulls combustion system for an existing lignite-fired power plant is presented in this paper. 5 refs.

  14. Micro-heterogeneity of corn hulls cellulosic fiber biopolymer studied by multiple-particle tracking (MPT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel technique named multiple-particle tracking (MPT) was used to investigate the micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim, a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The Multiple-Particle Tracking (MPT) method was used in this study, which was originally described by ...

  15. Micro-Heterogeneity of Cellulosic Fiber Biopolymer Prepared from Corn Hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Z-trim is a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim biopolymer were investigated by monitoring the thermally driven displacements of well-dispersed micro-spheres via video fluorescence microscopy named multiple-particle track...

  16. Micro-heterogeneity of corn hulls cellulosic fiber biopolymer studied by multiple-particle tracking (MPT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel technique named multiple-particle tracking (MPT) was used to investigate the micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim, a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The principle of MPT technique is to monitor the thermally driven motion of inert micro-spheres, which...

  17. Micro-heterogeneity of Cellulosic Fiber Biopolymer Prepared from Corn Hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Z-trim is a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim biopolymer were investigated by monitoring the thermally driven displacements of well-dispersed micro-spheres via video fluorescence microscopy named multiple-particle track...

  18. Rice hull mulch affects germination of bittercress and creeping woodsorrel in container plant culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulches are commonly used to control weeds in container nursery crops, especially in sites where preemergence herbicides are either not labeled or potentially phytotoxic to the crop. Parboiled rice hulls have been shown to provide effective weed control when applied 1.25 to 2.5 cm deep over the con...

  19. Effects of Secondary Structure on the Stress and Stability of Submarine Pressure Hulls,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    which might have significant impact on the global stress pattern of -’ the submarine section. The stress pattern for the ballast tank and pressure hull...Specific rapwtrttg perois SCVWIIsL DREA Report &SPONSORING ACTIVITY (%A qam" of a. Oepiuntgni ogM offtice W tuifso SI10-10~ WIG OeseNCRta 41 8tel

  20. Dielectric-based method for determining moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dielectric-based method was used to determine nondestructively and instantaneously moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets from free-space measurement of their dielectric properties at microwave frequencies. Results of measurement along with standard errors of calibration are show...

  1. Pinto Bean Hull Extract Supplementation Favorably Affects Markers of Bone Metabolism and Bone Structure in Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) have many health benefits attributed to their high content of protein, non-digestible starches, fiber, and other bioactive components. Hulls from dry beans are rich in phenolics known to possess antioxidant activity that is beneficial to human health. The object...

  2. Acetone Extract of Almond Hulls Provides Protection against Oxidative Damage and Membrane Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Meshkini, Azadeh

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have revealed that among foods, the consumption of edible nuts has beneficial effects on health which are attributed to their high content of potent antioxidants. Among nuts, the whole seed of the almond (Prunus dulcis) has been demonstrated to possess potent free radical scavenging activity, which is related to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the polyphenol content and the antioxidant ability of almond hull, which is an agriculture solid waste. The present results revealed that among different extraction methods, the acetone extract of almond hulls has a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and a high antioxidant ability, which were determined by using the phosphomolybdenum method and by measuring the potency of the antioxidant, respectively. Moreover, the experimental data disclosed that the acetone extract of almond hulls provides protection against the oxidative damage and the membrane protein degradation that are caused in human erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide. These phenomena may likely be due to the recruitment of antioxidants by cell membranes and/or translocation to cytosol. Overall, almond hull extract could be considered as a natural source of antioxidants, and its consumption could have a positive effect on human health.

  3. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182 Section 154.182 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... secondary barrier, each 100m (328 ft.) of full penetration butt welded joints in that portion of...

  4. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls and steroid hormone implantation on toxic tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling steers were grazed on endophyte-infected ‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures for 77 days in 2007 and for 86 days in 2008 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (PSBH) and steroid hormone implants (SHI) on steer performance and physiology. Steers were str...

  5. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... bending stress shall not exceed the following limits: (1) Independent tanks may be installed in such a... stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70... reduction in hull stress when independent tanks are installed in such a manner as to contribute to...

  6. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PROTECTION OF VESSEL HULL DESIGNS § 212.5 Recordation... distinctive identification in a design protection notice required by 17 U.S.C. 1306. A distinctive identification of an owner may not be used in a design notice before it has first been recorded with the...

  7. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice.

  8. Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) mixed with intact kernels affected progeny production of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in two rough rice varieties, Francis and Wells. Wells had been previously classified as...

  9. CFD Analysis of a Penta-hulled, Air-Entrapment, High-Speed Planning Vessel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    f. Hydrofoils ................................................................................10 4. Analytic Hierarchy Process...ruled out as a possibility. f. Hydrofoils The main advantage to a hydrofoil hull shape is the high speeds created during non displacement mode. The...internal arrangement space. However, the vulnerability of the foils during high speed caused us to rule out the hydrofoil during the initial study. 4

  10. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  11. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bending stress shall not exceed the following limits: (1) Independent tanks may be installed in such a... stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70... reduction in hull stress when independent tanks are installed in such a manner as to contribute to...

  12. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manner that they do not contribute to the strength and stiffness of the barge. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70 percent of the yield strength when specified, whichever is greater. (2) The Commandant may consider...

  13. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manner that they do not contribute to the strength and stiffness of the barge. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70 percent of the yield strength when specified, whichever is greater. (2) The Commandant may consider...

  14. A 1 log N parallel algorithm for detecting convex hulls on image boards.

    PubMed

    Lin, J C; Lin, J Y

    1998-01-01

    By finding the maximum and minimum of {yi-mxi|1=orhull of N arbitrarily given points on an image board, The mathematical theory needed is included, and computation time is 1 log N.

  15. Hausdorff methods for approximating the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in integer problems with monotone objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive methods for the polyhedral approximation of the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in multiobjective monotone integer optimization problems are proposed and studied. For these methods, theoretical convergence rate estimates with respect to the number of vertices are obtained. The estimates coincide in order with those for filling and augmentation H-methods intended for the approximation of nonsmooth convex compact bodies.

  16. Mean perimeter of the convex hull of a random walk in a semi-infinite medium.

    PubMed

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Majumdar, Satya N

    2015-08-01

    We study various properties of the convex hull of a planar Brownian motion, defined as the minimum convex polygon enclosing the trajectory, in the presence of an infinite reflecting wall. Recently [Phys. Rev. E 91, 050104(R) (2015)], we announced that the mean perimeter of the convex hull at time t, rescaled by √Dt, is a nonmonotonous function of the initial distance to the wall. In this article, we first give all the details of the derivation of this mean rescaled perimeter, in particular its value when starting from the wall and near the wall. We then determine the physical mechanism underlying this surprising nonmonotonicity of the mean rescaled perimeter by analyzing the impact of the wall on two complementary parts of the convex hull. Finally, we provide a further quantification of the convex hull by determining the mean length of the portion of the reflecting wall visited by the Brownian motion as a function of the initial distance to the wall.

  17. Mean perimeter of the convex hull of a random walk in a semi-infinite medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2015-08-01

    We study various properties of the convex hull of a planar Brownian motion, defined as the minimum convex polygon enclosing the trajectory, in the presence of an infinite reflecting wall. Recently [Phys. Rev. E 91, 050104(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.050104], we announced that the mean perimeter of the convex hull at time t , rescaled by √{D t }, is a nonmonotonous function of the initial distance to the wall. In this article, we first give all the details of the derivation of this mean rescaled perimeter, in particular its value when starting from the wall and near the wall. We then determine the physical mechanism underlying this surprising nonmonotonicity of the mean rescaled perimeter by analyzing the impact of the wall on two complementary parts of the convex hull. Finally, we provide a further quantification of the convex hull by determining the mean length of the portion of the reflecting wall visited by the Brownian motion as a function of the initial distance to the wall.

  18. [3-D endocardial surface modelling based on the convex hull algorithm].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Xi, Ri-hui; Shen, Hai-dong; Ye, You-li; Zhang, Yong

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a method based on the convex hull algorithm is presented for extracting modelling data from the locations of catheter electrodes within a cardiac chamber, so as to create a 3-D model of the heart chamber during diastole and to obtain a good result in the 3-D reconstruction of the chamber based on VTK.

  19. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. G Appendix G to Part 157—Timetables...

  20. Gasified rice hull biochar is a source of phosphorus and potassium for container-grown plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar materials have been reported to improve the chemical, physical, and biological properties of mineral soils and soilless substrates. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of gasified rice hull biochar (GRHB) on available nutrients in a container substrate. Two experimen...