Science.gov

Sample records for induced extreme hull

  1. Random Convex Hulls and Extreme Value Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Satya N.; Comtet, Alain; Randon-Furling, Julien

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we study the statistical properties of convex hulls of N random points in a plane chosen according to a given distribution. The points may be chosen independently or they may be correlated. After a non-exhaustive survey of the somewhat sporadic literature and diverse methods used in the random convex hull problem, we present a unifying approach, based on the notion of support function of a closed curve and the associated Cauchy’s formulae, that allows us to compute exactly the mean perimeter and the mean area enclosed by the convex polygon both in case of independent as well as correlated points. Our method demonstrates a beautiful link between the random convex hull problem and the subject of extreme value statistics. As an example of correlated points, we study here in detail the case when the points represent the vertices of n independent random walks. In the continuum time limit this reduces to n independent planar Brownian trajectories for which we compute exactly, for all n, the mean perimeter and the mean area of their global convex hull. Our results have relevant applications in ecology in estimating the home range of a herd of animals. Some of these results were announced recently in a short communication [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103:140602, 2009].

  2. The interaction of extreme waves with hull elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil; Flay, Richard

    2010-05-01

    The problem of the impact of a rogue wave onto a deformable marine structure is formulated in a few publications (see, for example, a short review in http://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/4474). In this paper the results from numerical and experimental investigations of the effect of cavitation on the deformation of a hull element, loaded by a wall of water, generated by an extreme ocean surface wave are considered. The hull element is modelled as a circular metal plate with the edge of the plate rigidly clamped. The plate surface is much smaller than the surface of the wave front, so that at the initial moment of the interaction, the pressure is constant on the plate surface. At the next instant, because of the plate deformation, axisymmetric loading of the plate occurs. The influences of membrane forces and plastic deformations are ignored, and therefore, the equation of plate motion has the following classical form Eh3(wrrrr+2r -1wrrrr- r-2wrr+r-3wr) = - 121- ν2)[ρhwtt+ δ(r,t)(p+ ρ0a0wt)]. Here w is the plate displacement, subscripts t and rindicate derivatives with respect to time and the radial coordinate, PIC is the plate material density, his the plate thickness, Eis Young's modulus, PIC is Poisson's ratio and p is the pressure of the incident surface wave measured on the wall, PIC is the water density, PIC is the speed of sound in water, and PIC is the normal velocity of the plate. The term PIC takes into account the effect of the deformability of the plate. Obviously, the hull of a vessel is not rigid like a solid wall, but starts to deform and to move. This motion produces a reflected pressure wave, which travels from the hull into the water wave with a magnitude equal to PIC . The normal velocity is positive so the reflected pressure PIC is negative (tensile wave). If the fluid pressure drops below some critical value pk, the wet plate surface separates from the water, and cavitation may be generated. The function δ(r,t) takes into account

  3. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  4. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  5. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Phil; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-08-01

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against murine endotoxemia induced by Salmonella lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN). Pretreatment of the mice with RHSE via dietary administration for 2 weeks resulted in the suppression (in %) of LPS/GalN-induced catalase by 70.7, superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 54.6, and transaminase (GOT/GPT) liver enzymes by 40.6/62.5, the amelioration of necrotic liver lesions, and the reduction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by 61.1 and nitrite serum level by 83.4, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme associated with necrotic injury of the lung and kidney by 65.7 and 63.3, respectively. The RHSE also extended the lifespan of the toxemic mice. The results using inflammation biomarkers and from the lifespan studies suggest that the RHSE can protect mice against LPS/GalN-induced liver, lung, and kidney injuries and inflammation by blocking oxidative stress and TNF-α production, thereby increasing the survival of the toxic-shock-induced mice. These beneficial effects and previous studies on the antimicrobial effects against Salmonella Typhimurium in culture and in mice suggest that the smoke extract also has the potential to serve as a new multifunctional resource in human food and animal feeds. Possible mechanisms of the beneficial effects at the cellular and molecular levels and suggested food uses are discussed. PMID:25068861

  6. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

  7. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  8. Extreme ultraviolet-induced photoionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Fok, Tomasz; Jarocki, Roman; Szczurek, Miroslaw

    2014-05-01

    In this work photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of He or Ne gases with a focused extreme ultraviolet (EUV) beam from one of two laser-plasma sources employing Nd:YAG laser systems. The first of them was a 10 Hz laser-plasma EUV source, based on a double-stream gas-puff target, irradiated with a 3 ns per 0.8 J laser pulse. EUV radiation in this case was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence ellipsoidal collector. The second source was based on a 10 ns per 10 J per 10 Hz laser system. In this case EUV radiation was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence multifoil collector. Gases were injected into the interaction region, perpendicularly to an optical axis of the irradiation system, using an auxiliary gas puff valve. Spectral measurements in the EUV range were performed. In all cases the most intense emission lines were assigned to singly charged ions. The other emission lines belong to atoms or doubly charged ions.

  9. Gasohol from almond hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Golden By-Products Inc. has awarded a contract to Bechtel Inc. to study the feasibility of converting almond hulls from California's Central Valley into two million gal/yr of alcohol for use in gasohol.

  10. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  11. Interference-induced peak splitting in extreme ultraviolet superfluorescence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ni; Keitel, Christoph H; Macovei, Mihai

    2013-02-15

    We investigate the laser-induced quantum interference in extreme ultraviolet superfluorescence (SF) occurring in a dense gas of Λ-type helium atoms coupled by a coherent laser field in the visible region. Due to the constructive interatomic and intraatomic interferences, the SF can split in two pulses conveniently controlled by the gas density and intensity of the driving field, suggesting potential applications for pump-probe experiments.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet induced defects on few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, A.; Rizo, P. J.; Zoethout, E.; Scaccabarozzi, L.; Lee, C. J.; Banine, V.; Bijkerk, F.

    2013-07-01

    We use Raman spectroscopy to show that exposing few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) radiation, i.e., relatively low photon energy, results in an increasing density of defects. Furthermore, exposure to EUV radiation in a H2 background increases the graphene dosage sensitivity, due to reactions caused by the EUV induced hydrogen plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the sp2 bonded carbon fraction decreases while the sp3 bonded carbon and oxide fraction increases with exposure dose. Our experimental results confirm that even in reducing environment oxidation is still one of the main source of inducing defects.

  13. Processed oat hulls as potential dietary fiber sources in rats.

    PubMed

    López-Guisa, J M; Harned, M C; Dubielzig, R; Rao, S C; Marlett, J A

    1988-08-01

    Processed oat hull products were evaluated as potential dietary fiber sources. Three levels, 5, 10 and 15%, of processed oat hulls, bleached oat hulls or oat hulls coated with starch, were added to purified diets and fed to groups of rats for 6 wk. Control diets consisted of 5, 10 or 15% alpha-cellulose or commercial nonpurified diet. None of the oat hull products at the three levels tested had any negative effect on rat growth. Fresh and dry fecal weights increased linearly as the concentration of dietary fiber increased and were highly correlated with fiber intake (r = 0.95). Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in all diets was low and apparent calcium absorption was not consistently affected by any diet. None of the oat hull test diets lowered plasma or hepatic cholesterol levels, a finding consistent with the failure to detect mixed-linkage beta-glucans in any of the processed oat hull products. Detailed analysis of the processed oat hull fibers also indicated that they were greater than 95% insoluble fiber and high in cellulose and xylans. Light-microscopy histology of kidney, spleen, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, ileum and colon was normal. The extent of hepatocellular destruction produced by the cholesterol (1%) and cholic acid (0.2%) added to the diet to induce hypocholesterolemia was independent of the kind and amount of dietary fiber.

  14. Extreme ultraviolet induced defects on few-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, A.; Zoethout, E.; Lee, C. J.; Rizo, P. J.; Scaccabarozzi, L.; Banine, V.; Bijkerk, F.

    2013-07-28

    We use Raman spectroscopy to show that exposing few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) radiation, i.e., relatively low photon energy, results in an increasing density of defects. Furthermore, exposure to EUV radiation in a H{sub 2} background increases the graphene dosage sensitivity, due to reactions caused by the EUV induced hydrogen plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the sp{sup 2} bonded carbon fraction decreases while the sp{sup 3} bonded carbon and oxide fraction increases with exposure dose. Our experimental results confirm that even in reducing environment oxidation is still one of the main source of inducing defects.

  15. Extreme thermal noxious stimuli induce pain responses in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Colasanti, Marco; Raffaeli, William; Balciunas, Darius; Giordano, Antonio; Bellipanni, Gianfranco

    2014-03-01

    Exposing tissues to extreme high or low temperature leads to burns. Burned animals sustain several types of damage, from the disruption of the tissue to degeneration of axons projecting through muscle and skin. Such damage causes pain due to both inflammation and axonal degeneration (neuropathic-like pain). Thus, the approach to cure and alleviate the symptoms of burns must be twofold: rebuilding the tissue that has been destroyed and alleviating the pain derived from the burns. While tissue regeneration techniques have been developed, less is known on the treatment of the induced pain. Thus, appropriate animal models are necessary for the development of the best treatment for pain induced in burned tissues. We have developed a methodology in the zebrafish aimed to produce a new animal model for the study of pain induced by burns. Here, we show that two events linked to the onset of burn-induced inflammation and neuropathic-like pain in mammals, degeneration of axons innervating the affected tissues and over-expression of specific genes in sensory tissues, are conserved from zebrafish to mammals.

  16. Extreme Geoelectric Fields Induced By Magnetic Storm Sudden Impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Rigler, E. J.; Swidinsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large magnetic storms, as quantified by the Dst index, can produce geoelectric fields that are hazardous for the operation of electric power grids. The great storm of March 1989, for example, had the highest -Dst value of the 20th century. During the main phase of this storm, rapid magnetic variation induced geoelectric fields in the Earth's lithosphere that caused the complete collapse of the Canadian Hydro-Québec electric-power grid. In this study, we focus specifically on how sudden impulses in geomagnetic activity, those that occur during large storms, can induce geoelectric fields. These impulses can be seen during storm main phases, but they are most usually recognized as storm sudden commencements corresponding to the arrival, at Earth, of coronal mass ejections. We use a newly developed algorithm for estimating induced geoelectric fields from magnetic field variation recorded at ground-based observatories. We train the algorithm on 1-sec geomagnetic and geoelectric field data collected at Japanese observatories during the October 2003 Halloween storm. We then postdict geoelectric fields that would have been realized (but not directly measured at 1-sec resolution) in Japan during the 1989 Québec storm and during another intense storm that occurred in March 1991. The later storm is noteworthy, not because of its intense main phase, but because it commenced with a sudden impulse of enormous magnitude. For the first half minute of the 1991 storm, induced geoelectric fields far exceeded those realized during the 1989 storm. Recognizing the potential hazard, we also analyze a scenario geomagnetic time series of an extreme event sudden commencement, and we calculate the geoelectric fields that this scenario event might plausibly induce. Results show that substantial geoelectric field induction, possibly hazardous for electric power grids, can occur briefly but very abruptly as soon as a magnetic storm commences.

  17. Extreme events due to human-induced climate change.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John F B; Lowe, Jason; Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael

    2006-08-15

    A recent assessment by the intergovernmental panel on climate change concluded that the Earth's climate would be 2-6 degrees C warmer than in the pre-industrial era by the end of the twenty-first century, due to human-induced increases in greenhouse gases. In the absence of other changes, this would lead to the warmest period on Earth for at least the last 1000 years, and probably the last 100,000 years. The large-scale warming is expected to be accompanied by increased frequency and/or intensity of extreme events, such as heatwaves, heavy rainfall, storms and coastal flooding. There are also several possibilities that this large change could initiate nonlinear climate responses which lead to even more extreme and rapid (on the time-scale of decades) climate change, including the collapse of the ocean 'conveyor belt' circulation, the collapse of major ice sheets or the release of large amounts of methane in high latitudes leading to further global warming. Although these catastrophic events are much more speculative than the direct warming due to increased greenhouse gases, their potential impacts are great and therefore should be included in any risk assessment of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change.

  18. High sea-floor stress induced by extreme hurricane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesekera, Hemantha W.; Wang, David W.; Teague, William J.; Jarosz, Ewa

    2010-06-01

    Strong surface waves and currents generated by major hurricanes can produce extreme forces at the seabed that scour the seafloor and cause massive underwater mudslides. Our understanding of these forces is poor due to lack of concurrent measurements of waves and currents under these storms. Using unique observations collected during the passage of a category-4 hurricane, Ivan, bottom stress due to currents and waves over the outer continental shelf in the Gulf of Mexico was examined. During the passage of Ivan, the bottom stress was highly correlated with the wind with a maximum of about 40% of the wind stress. The bottom stress was dominated by the wave-induced stresses, and exceeded critical levels at depths as large as 90 m. Surprisingly, the bottom damaging stress persisted after the passage of Ivan for about a week, and was modulated by near-inertial waves.

  19. Mechanism of shallow disrupted slide induced by extreme rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igwe, O.; Fukuoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    On July 16, 2010, extreme rainfall attacked western Japan and it caused very intense rainfall in Shobara city, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan. This rainfall induced hundreds of shallow disrupted slides and many of those became debris flows. One of this debris flows attacked a house standing in front of the exit of a channel, and claimed a resident’s life. Western Japan had repeatedly similar disasters in the past. Last event took place from July 19 to 26, 2009, when western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes. Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. One of the unusual feature of both disaster was that landslides are distributed in very narrow area. In the 2010 Shobara city disaster, all of the landslides were distributed in 5 km x 3 km, and in the 2009 Hofu city disaster, most devastated zone of landslides were 10 km x 5 km. Rain radars of Meteorological Agency of Government of Japan detected the intense rainfall, however, the spatial resolution is usually larger than 5 km and the disaster area is too small to predict landslides nor issue warning. Furthermore, it was found that the growth rate of baby clouds was very quick. The geology of both areas are rhyolite (Shobara) and granite (Hofu), so the areal assessment of landslide hazard should be prepared before those intense rainfall will come. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called “masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except

  20. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  1. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  2. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  3. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  4. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats, and wheel tires if used, provides a margin of positive...

  5. Theoretical study of hull-rotor aerodynamic interference on semibuoyant vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, S. B.; Smith, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods are developed to predict the pressure distribution and overall loads on the hulls of airships which have close coupled, relatively large and/or high disk loading propulsors for attitude control, station keeping, and partial support of total weight as well as provision of thrust in cruise. The methods comprise a surface-singularity, potential-flow model for the hull and lifting surfaces (such as tails) and a rotor model which calculates the velocity induced by the rotor and its wake at points adjacent to the wake. Use of these two models provides an inviscid pressure distribution on the hull with rotor interference. A boundary layer separation prediction method is used to locate separation on the hull, and a wake pressure is imposed on the separated region for purposes of calculating hull loads. Results of calculations are shown to illustrate various cases of rotor-hull interference and comparisons with small scale data are made to evaluate the method.

  6. A hydraulic absorber for wideband vibration reduction in ship hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, W.J.; Lee, Y.J. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    A vibration reduction of ship hulls by an active absorber system is proposed. In the scheme, a tuned mass is moved according to the hull vibration as measured by a multi-mode sensing system in order to generate a suitable active force for vibration reduction of hull girder. In order to supply the large amount of required power, a hydraulic servo system is implemented. Then the dynamic characteristic of the hydraulic system is considered for system design. Based on stochastic theory and optimal theory, the control law of the system is derived in order to approach the optimal level of vibration reduction. A 10-t absorber is applied to a 87,000-t oil tanker to demonstrate the feasibility of this scheme. The results show that the multi-peak values of resonance are suppressed in frequency response. Moreover, the vibration excited by propeller and engine is reduced to an extremely efficient level by this scheme.

  7. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields prevent chemotherapy induced myelotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Edoardo; Corsetti, Maria Teresa; Sukkar, Samir; Poggi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Side effects of chemo-radiotherapy reduce the quality and also the survivability of patients. The consequent fatigue and infections, related to myelodepression, act to reduce the dose-intensity of the protocol. Late side effects of chemo-radiotherapy include secondary tumours, acute myeloid leukemias and cardiotoxicity. Side effects of chemotherapy are related to oxidative stress produced by the treatment. Oxidative stress also reduces the efficacy of the treatment. Antioxidative treatment with natural (dietetic) or chemical agents has been reported to reduce the toxicity of chemo-radiotherapy and improve the efficacy of treatment. We here report our experience with SEQEX, an electromedical device that generates Extremely Low Frequency ElectroMagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) to produce endogenic cyclotronic ionic resonance, to reduce myelotoxicity consequent to ABVD protocol in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, Artem; Herrwerth, O.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Lezius, M.; Kling, Matthias; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Belkacem, Ali; Ueda, K.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, Claus-Dieter; Moshammer, Robbert; Ullrich, Joachim

    2011-06-17

    Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC = CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +} + CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52 {+-} 15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8 < KER < 8 eV, providing clear evidence for the existence of a fast, nonradiative decay channel.

  9. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Tilborg, J. van; Belkacem, A.; Ueda, K.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2010-12-31

    Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC=CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +}+CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52{+-}15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8

  10. Radiation-induced decomposition of explosives under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael; Yang, Wenge; Liermann, Peter

    2008-11-03

    We present high-pressure and high temperature studies of the synchrotron radiation-induced decomposition of powder secondary high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using white beam synchrotron radiation at the 16 BM-B and 16 BM-D sectors of the HP-CAT beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The radiation-induced decomposition rate TATB showed dramatic slowing with pressure up to 26.6 GPa (the highest pressure studied), implying a positive activation volume of the activated complex. The decomposition rate of PETN varied little with pressure up to 15.7 GPa (the highest pressure studied). Diffraction line intensities were measured as a function of time using energy-dispersive methods. By measuring the decomposition rate as a function of pressure and temperature, kinetic and other constants associated with the decomposition reactions were extracted.

  11. Kr photoionized plasma induced by intense extreme ultraviolet pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    Irradiation of any gas with an intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation beam can result in creation of photoionized plasmas. The parameters of such plasmas can be significantly different when compared with those of the laser produced plasmas (LPP) or discharge plasmas. In this work, the photoionized plasmas were created in a krypton gas irradiated using an LPP EUV source operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The Kr gas was injected into the vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV radiation pulses. The EUV beam was focused onto a Kr gas stream using an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The resulting low temperature Kr plasmas emitted electromagnetic radiation in the wide spectral range. The emission spectra were measured either in the EUV or an optical range. The EUV spectrum was dominated by emission lines originating from Kr III and Kr IV ions, and the UV/VIS spectra were composed from Kr II and Kr I lines. The spectral lines recorded in EUV, UV, and VIS ranges were used for the construction of Boltzmann plots to be used for the estimation of the electron temperature. It was shown that for the lowest Kr III and Kr IV levels, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions were not fulfilled. The electron temperature was thus estimated based on Kr II and Kr I species where the partial LTE conditions could be expected.

  12. Genomics of environmentally induced phenotypes in 2 extremely plastic arthropods.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean-Christophe; Pfrender, Michael E; Tollrian, Ralph; Tagu, Denis; Colbourne, John K

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how genes and the environment interact to shape phenotypes is of fundamental importance for resolving important issues in adaptive evolution. Yet, for most model species with mature genetics and accessible genomic resources, we know little about the natural environmental factors that shape their evolution. By contrast, animal species with deeply understood ecologies and well characterized responses to environmental cues are rarely subjects of genomic investigations. Here, we preview advances in genomics in aphids and waterfleas that may help transform research on the regulatory mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. This insect and crustacean duo has the capacity to produce extremely divergent phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli. Sexual fate and reproductive mode are condition-dependent in both groups, which are also capable of altering morphology, physiology and behavior in response to biotic and abiotic cues. Recently, the genome sequences for the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and the waterflea Daphnia pulex were described by their respective research communities. We propose that an integrative study of genome biology focused on the condition-dependent transcriptional basis of their shared plastic traits and specialized mode of reproduction will provide broad insight into adaptive plasticity and genome by environment interactions. We highlight recent advances in understanding the genome regulation of alternative phenotypes and environmental cue processing, and we propose future research avenues to discover gene networks and epigenetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity.

  13. Mechanism of sand slide - cold lahar induced by extreme rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Masumi; Dok, Atitkagna

    2014-05-01

    Along with the increasing frequencies of extreme rainfall events in almost every where on the earth, shallow slide - debris flow, i.e. cold lahars running long distance often occurs and claims downslope residents lives. In the midnight of 15 October 2013, Typhoon Wilpha attacked the Izu-Oshima, a active volcanic Island and the extreme rainfall of more than 800 mm / 24 hours was recorded. This downpour of more than 80 mm/hr lasted 4 hours at its peak and caused a number of cold lahars. The initial stage of those lahars was shallow slides of surface black volcanic ash deposits, containing mostly fine sands. The thickness was only 50 cm - 1 m. In the reconnaissance investigation, author found that the sliding surface was the boundary of two separate volcanic ash layers between the black and yellow colored and apparently showing contrast of permeability and hardness. Permeability contrast may have contributed to generation of excess pore pressure on the border and trigger the slide. Then, the unconsolidated, unpacked mass was easily fluidized and transformed into mud flows, that which volcanologists call cold lahars. Seismometers installed for monitoring the active volcano's activities, succeeded to detect many tremors events. Many are spikes but 5 larger and longer events were extracted. They lasted 2 -3 minutes and if we assume that this tremors reflects the runout movement, then we can calculate the mean velocity of the lahars. Estimated velocity was 45 - 60 km/h, which is much higher than the average speed 30 - 40 km/h of debris flows observed in Japan. Flume tests of volcanic ash flows by the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute showed the wet volcanic ash can run at higher speed than other materials. The two tremor records were compare d with the local residents witnessed and confirmed by newspaper reported that the reach of the lahar was observed at the exact time when tremor ends. We took the black volcanic ash and conducted ring shear tests to

  14. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  15. Designing seaplane hulls and floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit,

    1926-01-01

    Experimental data, such as the results of tank tests of models, render it possible to predict, at least in principle, as to how a hull or float of a given shape will comport itself. We will see further along, however, how uncertain these methods are and how they leave room for empiricism, which will reign for a long time yet in seaplane research bureaus.

  16. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  17. Concrete hulls for tension-leg platforms

    SciTech Connect

    De Oliveira, J.G. ); Fjeld, S. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes the main features of a concrete-hull tension-leg-platform (TLP) concept developed for the Heidrun field in the Haltenbanken area of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The hydrodynamic response and the methods adopted to optimize the hull dimensions, as well as the mooring system and hull mechanical outfitting, are discussed first. Then construction methods are briefly described. Inspection, maintenance, and repair are also addressed. Finally, the advantages of the concrete-hull TLP concept are summarized, including the concrete hull's adaptability to a large range of design requirements, low cost, and short construction time. This paper shows that the concrete-hull TLP is a very cost-efficient solution for the development of deepwater fields.

  18. 59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN FRONT OF FAMILY HOME IN DAWSON. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1939. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  19. Constraint Induced Movement Techniques To Facilitate Upper Extremity Use in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Taub, E; Wolf, S L

    1997-01-01

    A new therapeutic approach to the rehabilitation of movement after stroke, termed constraint-induced (CI) movement therapy, has been derived from basic research with monkeys given somatosensory deafferentation. CI movement therapy consists of a family of therapies; their common element is that they induce stroke patients to greatly increase the use of an affected upper extremity for many hours a day over a period of 10 to 14 consecutive days. The signature intervention involves motor restriction of the contralateral upper extremity in a sling and training of the affected arm. The therapies result in large changes in amount of use of the affected arm in the activities of daily living outside of the clinic that have persisted for the 2 years measured to date. Patients who will benefit from Cl therapy can be identified before the beginning of treatment. PMID:27620374

  20. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection,...

  1. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection,...

  2. 14 CFR 25.755 - Hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hulls. 25.755 Section 25.755 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy of the hull and auxiliary floats (and wheel tires, if used) provides a margin of...

  3. John Hull and the Money Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  4. Surface Grafting via Photo-Induced Copper-Mediated Radical Polymerization at Extremely Low Catalyst Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Laun, Joachim; Vorobii, Mariia; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Trouillet, Vanessa; Welle, Alexander; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Surface-initiated photo-induced copper-mediated radical polymerization is employed to graft a wide range of polyacrylate brushes from silicon substrates at extremely low catalyst concentrations. This is the first time that the controlled nature of the reported process is demonstrated via block copolymer formation and re-initiation experiments. In addition to unmatched copper catalyst concentrations in the range of few ppb, film thicknesses up to almost 1 μm are achieved within only 1 h.

  5. Surface Grafting via Photo-Induced Copper-Mediated Radical Polymerization at Extremely Low Catalyst Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Laun, Joachim; Vorobii, Mariia; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Trouillet, Vanessa; Welle, Alexander; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Surface-initiated photo-induced copper-mediated radical polymerization is employed to graft a wide range of polyacrylate brushes from silicon substrates at extremely low catalyst concentrations. This is the first time that the controlled nature of the reported process is demonstrated via block copolymer formation and re-initiation experiments. In addition to unmatched copper catalyst concentrations in the range of few ppb, film thicknesses up to almost 1 μm are achieved within only 1 h. PMID:26149622

  6. Nanoscale electron beam-induced deposition and purification of ruthenium for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, J. H.; Stanford, M. G.; Lewis, B. B.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Plank, H.; Rack, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    One critical area for the adoption of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the development of appropriate mask repair strategies. To this end, we have explored focused electron beam-induced deposition of the ruthenium capping or protective layer. Electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) was used to deposit a ruthenium capping/protective film using the liquid bis(ethylcyclopentyldienyl)ruthenium(II) precursor. The carbon to ruthenium atomic ratio in the as-deposited material was estimated to be ~9/1. Subsequent to deposition, we demonstrate an electron stimulated purification process to remove carbon by-products from the deposit. Results indicate that high-fidelity nanoscale ruthenium repairs can be realized.

  7. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  8. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  9. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  10. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  11. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at...

  12. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reactions (if applicable) shall be determined. The hull bending stress shall not exceed the applicable... hull. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile... such case, the hull stress shall not exceed the percentage stress values prescribed in §...

  13. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull identification number... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on each boat hull. (a) The primary hull identification number must be affixed— (1) On boats with transoms,...

  14. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Kon; Park, Sungman; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2014-01-01

    The energy generated by an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is too weak to directly induce genotoxicity. However, it is reported that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) is related to DNA strand breakage and apoptosis. The testes that conduct spermatogenesis through a dynamic cellular process involving meiosis and mitosis seem vulnerable to external stress such as heat, MF exposure, and chemical or physical agents. Nevertheless the results regarding adverse effects of ELF-EMF on human or animal reproductive functions are inconclusive. According to the guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP; 2010) for limiting exposure to time-varying MF (1 Hz to 100 kHz), overall conclusion of epidemiologic studies has not consistently shown an association between human adverse reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to low frequency fields. In animal studies there is no compelling evidence of causal relationship between prenatal development and ELF-MF exposure. However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF. PMID:25025060

  15. Exploring the temporally resolved electron density evolution in extreme ultra-violet induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

    2014-07-01

    We measured the electron density in an extreme ultra-violet (EUV) induced plasma. This is achieved in a low-pressure argon plasma by using a method called microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. The measured electron density just after the EUV pulse is 2.6 × 1016 m-3. This is in good agreement with a theoretical prediction from photo-ionization, which yields a density of 4.5 × 1016 m-3. After the EUV pulse the density slightly increases due to electron impact ionization. The plasma (i.e. electron density) decays in tens of microseconds.

  16. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy F.; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J.

    2013-11-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations).

  17. CudaChain: an alternative algorithm for finding 2D convex hulls on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative GPU-accelerated convex hull algorithm and a novel S orting-based P reprocessing A pproach (SPA) for planar point sets. The proposed convex hull algorithm termed as CudaChain consists of two stages: (1) two rounds of preprocessing performed on the GPU and (2) the finalization of calculating the expected convex hull on the CPU. Those interior points locating inside a quadrilateral formed by four extreme points are first discarded, and then the remaining points are distributed into several (typically four) sub regions. For each subset of points, they are first sorted in parallel; then the second round of discarding is performed using SPA; and finally a simple chain is formed for the current remaining points. A simple polygon can be easily generated by directly connecting all the chains in sub regions. The expected convex hull of the input points can be finally obtained by calculating the convex hull of the simple polygon. The library Thrust is utilized to realize the parallel sorting, reduction, and partitioning for better efficiency and simplicity. Experimental results show that: (1) SPA can very effectively detect and discard the interior points; and (2) CudaChain achieves 5×-6× speedups over the famous Qhull implementation for 20M points.

  18. CudaChain: an alternative algorithm for finding 2D convex hulls on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Mei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative GPU-accelerated convex hull algorithm and a novel S orting-based P reprocessing A pproach (SPA) for planar point sets. The proposed convex hull algorithm termed as CudaChain consists of two stages: (1) two rounds of preprocessing performed on the GPU and (2) the finalization of calculating the expected convex hull on the CPU. Those interior points locating inside a quadrilateral formed by four extreme points are first discarded, and then the remaining points are distributed into several (typically four) sub regions. For each subset of points, they are first sorted in parallel; then the second round of discarding is performed using SPA; and finally a simple chain is formed for the current remaining points. A simple polygon can be easily generated by directly connecting all the chains in sub regions. The expected convex hull of the input points can be finally obtained by calculating the convex hull of the simple polygon. The library Thrust is utilized to realize the parallel sorting, reduction, and partitioning for better efficiency and simplicity. Experimental results show that: (1) SPA can very effectively detect and discard the interior points; and (2) CudaChain achieves 5×-6× speedups over the famous Qhull implementation for 20M points. PMID:27350927

  19. Noah, Joseph and Convex Hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Chau, Y.; Chapman, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The idea of describing animal movement by mathematical models based on diffusion and Brownian motion has a long heritage. It has thus been natural to account for those aspects of motion that depart from the Brownian by the use of models incorporating long memory & subdiffusion (“the Joseph effect”) and/or heavy tails & superdiffusion (“the Noah effect”). My own interest in this problem was originally from a geoscience perspective, and was triggered by the need to model time series in space physics where both effects coincide. Subsequently I have been involved in animal foraging studies [e.g. Edwards et al, Nature, 2007]. I will describe some recent work [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009] which studies how fixed-timestep and variable-timestep formulations of anomalous diffusion are related in the presence of heavy tails and long range memory (stable processes versus the CTRW). Quantities for which different scaling relations are predicted between the two approaches are of particular interest, to aid testability. I will also present some of work in progress on the convex hull of anomalously diffusing walkers, inspired by its possible relevance to the idea of home range in biology, and by Randon-Furling et al’s recent analytical results in the Brownian case [PRL, 2009].

  20. Multi-mirror adaptive optics for control of thermally induced aberrations in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, Michel; Scholten, Joni; Weiland, Siep; Coene, Wim

    2016-03-01

    The imaging quality of the projection optics of an extreme ultraviolet lithography scanner degrades under the influence of thermally induced deformations of its mirrors. Wavefronts of different reticle points encounter different parts of the deformed mirrors, resulting in a field dependent wavefront error. This paper presents how ideas from multi-conjugate adaptive optics can be used to reduce these thermally induced aberrations. To this end a generic deformable mirror model is implemented. Linear actuator sensitivities are derived directly, based on nominal ray locations and directions, enabling fast prototyping. An integrated opto-thermo-mechanical mirror heating model is used to determine the evolution of thermally induced abberations over time. This transient simulation is used to analyze four different adaptive optics configurations and two different control algorithms. It is shown that by employing the multi-objective goal-attainment method, it is possible to improve the optical performance significantly when compared to minimizing the l2-norm of the total residual wavefront error vector.

  1. Characterizing multi-hazard extreme distributions of coastal flooding induced by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díez-Sierra, Javier; Toimil, Alexandra; del Jesus, Manuel; Méndez, Fernando; Medina, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas, which are among the most populated regions on Earth, are the interface between continental land and the ocean. As a consequence of their location, they are subject to complex flooding dynamics, arising from the interaction between coastal and continental dynamics. This complexity is translated to the characterization of extreme distributions and the effects induced by climate change in the distribution of extreme events. In this work, we develop a methodology that serves to characterize the extreme distribution of flooding in a coastal environment. We focus in the dynamics induced by tropical cyclones that are both marine (storm surge and wave run-up) and continental (precipitation and runoff). Our approach makes uses of historical cyclones that have affected the study area in the past. This ensemble is augmented by synthetically generated cyclones in order to better cover the range of possible tracks. A maximum dissimilarity algorithm is used on the augmented database to select a reduced subset of tracks best representing the variability on the data (Camus et al. 2014). This subset is used to carry out a dynamical downscaling. Numerical simulations are carried out for these subset of tropical cyclones to derive the spatial fields of wind (by means of the Hydromet-Rankine Vortex model) and rainfall (using R-Clipper model) induced by the cyclone. SWAN model is used to derive the wave fields (Díaz et al. 2014), H2D to derive the storm surge fields and a CUENCAS-like model (IH-Mole) to derive runoff fields. All the flood-inducing dynamics are the input to the RFSM-EDA model that computes flood depths for the study area. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate synthetic time series of tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclone climate is related to the spatial patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) fields using a non-linear clustering technique, which are used in turn as the main driver of a Monte Carlo simulation. Flood time series are derived from

  2. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A vessel's... conditions. (4) Welding systems with hull return except vessels subject to 46 CFR Subchapter D....

  3. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A vessel's... conditions. (4) Welding systems with hull return except vessels subject to 46 CFR Subchapter D....

  4. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A vessel's... conditions. (4) Welding systems with hull return except vessels subject to 46 CFR Subchapter D....

  5. Composite hull for full-ocean depth

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, R.E.; Hawkes, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    A lightweight and economical modular design concept for a manned submersible is proposed to give two passengers repeated access to the deepest parts of the ocean in a safe, comfortable, and efficient manner. This versatile craft will allow work and exploration to be accomplished at moderate to maximum depths without any compromise in terms of capabilities or operating cost. Its design follows the experience acquired from the numerous existing minimum volume'' pressure hull submersible, and represents a radical departure from conventional designs. This paper addresses issues of gaining effective, safe working access for full ocean depth. Cylindrical composite hulls have the potential to achieve positive buoyancy sufficient to carry personnel and equipment swiftly back to the surface after completing exploration of the deepest ocean. Buoyancy for a submersible is similar to lift for an airplane, except that without lift, the airplane remains on the surface, but without buoyancy, the submersible never returns to the surface. There are two means of achieving buoyancy. The traditional method used to steel, titanium, or aluminium alloy deep-ocean vehicles is to add a very large buoy to compensate for the negative buoyancy of the hull. The alternate method is for the hull to displace more than its weight in water. This requires at least twice compression strength per unit mass of hull than steel, titanium, or aluminum alloys can provide. Properly constructed organic-matrix composites are light and strong enough to form a dry, 1-atm cabin with buoyancy to carry research staff and equipment to any depth in the ocean. Three different composite hull configurations are presented. Each is capable of serving as a cabin for a two-person crew. None would displace more than 4 tons of seawater. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Cyclone-induced rapid creation of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaomin; Turner, John; Sun, Bo; Li, Bingrui; Liu, Chengyan

    2014-01-01

    Two polar vessels, Akademik Shokalskiy and Xuelong, were trapped by thick sea ice in the Antarctic coastal region just to the west of 144°E and between 66.5°S and 67°S in late December 2013. This event demonstrated the rapid establishment of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions on synoptic time scales. The event was associated with cyclones that developed at lower latitudes. Near the event site, cyclone-enhanced strong southeasterly katabatic winds drove large westward drifts of ice floes. In addition, the cyclones also gave southward ice drift. The arrival and grounding of Iceberg B9B in Commonwealth Bay in March 2011 led to the growth of fast ice around it, forming a northward protruding barrier. This barrier blocked the westward ice drift and hence aided sea ice consolidation on its eastern side. Similar cyclone-induced events have occurred at this site in the past after the grounding of Iceberg B9B. Future events may be predictable on synoptic time scales, if cyclone-induced strong wind events can be predicted. PMID:24937550

  7. Cyclone-induced rapid creation of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaomin; Turner, John; Sun, Bo; Li, Bingrui; Liu, Chengyan

    2014-01-01

    Two polar vessels, Akademik Shokalskiy and Xuelong, were trapped by thick sea ice in the Antarctic coastal region just to the west of 144°E and between 66.5°S and 67°S in late December 2013. This event demonstrated the rapid establishment of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions on synoptic time scales. The event was associated with cyclones that developed at lower latitudes. Near the event site, cyclone-enhanced strong southeasterly katabatic winds drove large westward drifts of ice floes. In addition, the cyclones also gave southward ice drift. The arrival and grounding of Iceberg B9B in Commonwealth Bay in March 2011 led to the growth of fast ice around it, forming a northward protruding barrier. This barrier blocked the westward ice drift and hence aided sea ice consolidation on its eastern side. Similar cyclone-induced events have occurred at this site in the past after the grounding of Iceberg B9B. Future events may be predictable on synoptic time scales, if cyclone-induced strong wind events can be predicted.

  8. Extreme UV induced dissociation of amorphous solid water and crystalline water bilayers on Ru(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Sturm, J. M.; Lee, Chris J.; Bijkerk, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ = 13.5 nm) induced dissociation of water layers on Ru(0001) was investigated. We irradiated amorphous and crystalline water layers on a Ru crystal with EUV light, and measured the surface coverage of remaining water and oxygen as a function of radiation dose by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The main reaction products are OH and H with a fraction of oxygen from fully dissociated water. TPD spectra from a series of exposures reveal that EUV promotes formation of the partially dissociated water overlayer on Ru. Furthermore, loss of water due to desorption and dissociation is also observed. The water loss cross sections for amorphous and crystalline water are measured at 9 ± 2 × 10- 19 cm2 and 5 ± 1 × 10- 19 cm2, respectively. Comparison between the two cross sections suggests that crystalline water is more stable against EUV induced desorption/dissociation. The dissociation products can oxidize the Ru surface. For this early stage of oxidation, we measured a smaller (compared to water loss) cross section at 2 × 10- 20 cm2, which is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the photon absorption cross section (at 92 eV) of gas phase water. The secondary electron (SE) contributions to the cross sections are also estimated. From our estimation, SE only forms a small part (20-25%) of the observed photon cross section.

  9. Extremely weak lower crust and the lower crustal flow induced by crustal thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerabek, P.; Lexa, O.; Maierova, P.; Schulmann, K.

    2014-12-01

    Orogen building processes are typically associated with crustal thickening and an excess in Gravitational Potential Energy controlled by convergent forces and material resistance. The reduction of gravitational potential commonly occurs via erosion or internal material transfers. Among the latter, the inverse ductile thinning mechanism considered in this work refers to the lower crustal flow induced by lateral pressure gradients in association with extreme ductility of the lower crust. This mechanism has been proposed on the basis of geological evidence in the Vepor Dome, West Carpathians (Jeřábek et al., 2012) and the concept is further developed by means of numerical simulations. The characteristic feature of the lower crustal flow in the Vepor Dome is that it occurs during nappe stacking and overall crustal thickening in the Cretaceous Central West Carpathians orogenic wedge. The along-strike lower crustal flow in the internal part of the wedge induced by thickening and associated lateral pressure gradients is accompanied by synkinematic prograde Barrovian type metamorphism. The high proportion of weak metapelites in the lower crust is suspected to promote nearly instantaneous response to the overburden. To understand dynamics of the proposed mechanism, we designed a two dimensional numerical model characterized by felsic crust with low viscosity layer overlaying elastic mantle lithosphere. In our model, we simulated PT trajectories of individual crustal levels for different rates of tectonic loading and variable initial thermal state. The results of numerical modeling were compared with PT trajectories obtained by thermodynamic modelling and geochronological data from the Vepor Dome. Our numerical simulations imply that the inverse ductile thinning is indeed conditioned by the presence of extremely weak lower crustal layer, however the simulated PT paths were only comparable to our metamorphic data if the constant loading lasted at least 30 m.y. References

  10. Antiadopogenic effects of rice hull smoke extract in 3T3-L1 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells. At concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% RHSE, MDI-induced cells were shown to reduce their cellular lipid content by about 72% and 88%, respectively, compared to ...

  11. Rice hull energy uses in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    As a rice producing country, the Philippines produces a tremendous amount of rice hulls which when converted to energy could displace a substantial amount of imported energy. Realizing this possibility needs a thorough evaluation of both resources and demand characteristics of particular industry where immediate applicability of technical option awaits. This document presents the Philippines' past activities in fuelizing rice hulls and future action plans where its economic relevance could be enhanced. Descriptions of four power plants are included with the author's analysis of their probable market impact and projections of future applications.

  12. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (2) Maintained by the heating system under § 154.178, if, without heat, the contiguous hull structure... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the...”, 1981. (b) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems...

  13. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  14. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  15. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (2) Maintained by the heating system under § 154.178, if, without heat, the contiguous hull structure... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the...”, 1981. (b) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems...

  16. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (2) Maintained by the heating system under § 154.178, if, without heat, the contiguous hull structure... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the...”, 1981. (b) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems...

  17. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  18. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  19. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (2) Maintained by the heating system under § 154.178, if, without heat, the contiguous hull structure... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the...”, 1981. (b) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems...

  20. 46 CFR 151.10-1 - Barge hull classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Barge hull classifications. 151.10-1 Section 151.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-1 Barge hull classifications. (a) Each...

  1. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  2. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (2) Maintained by the heating system under § 154.178, if, without heat, the contiguous hull structure... hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the...”, 1981. (b) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems...

  3. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  4. 46 CFR 151.10-1 - Barge hull classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barge hull classifications. 151.10-1 Section 151.10-1... classifications. (a) Each barge constructed or converted in conformance with this subpart shall be assigned a hull... the hull type classification for the service for which they were originally approved. Changes...

  5. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  6. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  7. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  8. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  9. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  10. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  11. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  12. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  13. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  14. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  15. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  16. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  17. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  18. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  19. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  20. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  1. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  2. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  3. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  4. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

  5. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  6. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  7. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  8. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  9. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... bulkhead deck exclusive of a pilot house. (c) Each vessel that complies with the stability requirements...

  10. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  11. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and... provisions for drainage of sea water from the exposed decks are checked....

  12. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and... provisions for drainage of sea water from the exposed decks are checked....

  13. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and... provisions for drainage of sea water from the exposed decks are checked....

  14. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hulls. 27.755 Section 27.755 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... of positive stability great enough to minimize the probability of capsizing. Personnel and...

  15. Satellite Solar-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Reveals Drought Onset Mechanisms: Insights from Two Contrasting Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Fu, R.; Dickinson, R. E.; Joiner, J.; Frankenberg, C.; Gu, L.; Xia, Y.; Fernando, N.

    2015-12-01

    This study uses the droughts of 2011 in Texas and 2012 over the central Great Plains as case studies to explore the potential of satellite-observed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring drought dynamics. We find that the spatial patterns of negative SIF anomalies from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) closely resembled drought intensity maps from the US Drought Monitor for both events. The drought-induced suppression of SIF occurred throughout 2011 but was exacerbated in summer in the Texas drought. This event was characterized by a persistent depletion of root-zone soil moisture caused by year-long below-normal precipitation. In contrast, for the central Great Plains drought, warmer temperatures and ample precipitation boosted SIF in the spring of 2012; however, a sudden drop in precipitation coupled with unusually high temperatures rapidly depleted soil moisture through evapotranspiration, leading to a rapid onset of drought in early summer. Accordingly, SIF reversed from above to below normal. For both regions, the GOME-2 SIF anomalies were significantly correlated with those of root-zone soil moisture, indicating that the former can potentially be used as proxy of the latter for monitoring agricultural droughts with different onset mechanisms. Further analyses indicate that the contrasting dynamics of SIF during these two extreme events were caused by changes in both fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) and fluorescence yield, suggesting that satellite SIF is sensitive to both structural and physiological/biochemical variations of vegetation. We conclude that the emerging satellite SIF has excellent potential for dynamic drought monitoring.

  16. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Kurt J; King, Lyon B; He, Kai; Cumings, John

    2016-09-16

    An extreme electric field on the order of 10(10) V m(-1) was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid. PMID:27487731

  17. Extremely low-frequency magnetic field induces manganese accumulation in brain, kidney and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Mustafa Salih; Güven, Kemal; Akpolat, Veysi; Akdağ, Mehmet Zulkuf; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Gül-Güven, Reyhan; Çelik, M Yusuf; Erdoğan, Sait

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on accumulation of manganese (Mn) in the kidney, liver and brain of rats. A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Four control groups received 0, 3.75, 15 and 60 mg Mn per kg body weight orally every 2 days for 45 days, respectively. The remaining four groups received same concentrations of Mn and were also exposed to ELF-MF (1.5 mT; 50 Hz) for 4 h for 5 days a week during 45 days. Following the last exposure, kidney, liver and brain were taken from all rats and they were analyzed for Mn accumulation levels using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. In result of the current study, we observed that Mn levels in brain, kidney and liver were higher in Mn groups than in control groups. Mn levels in brain, kidney and liver were also higher in Mn plus ELF-MF groups than in Mn groups. In conclusion, result of the current study showed that the ELF-MF induced manganese accumulation in kidney, liver and brain of rats.

  18. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terhune, Kurt J.; King, Lyon B.; He, Kai; Cumings, John

    2016-09-01

    An extreme electric field on the order of 1010 V m‑1 was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid.

  19. Thermalization of electrons in decaying extreme ultraviolet photons induced low pressure argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.; van der Horst, R. M.; Osorio, E. A.; Kroesen, G. M. W.; Banine, V. Y.

    2016-06-01

    We monitored—in the pressure range: 0.5–15 Pa—the electron temperature in decaying plasmas induced in argon gas by pulsed irradiation with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons with wavelengths closely around 13.5 nm. For this purpose, temporal measurements of the space-averaged and electric field weighted electron density after pulsed EUV irradiation are combined with an ambipolar diffusion model of the plasma. Results demonstrate that electrons are thermalized to room temperature before the plasma has fully expanded to the chamber walls for pressures of 3 Pa and higher. At pressures below 3 Pa, the electron temperature was found to be up to 0.1 eV above room temperature which is explained by the fact that plasma expansion is too quick for the electrons to fully thermalize. The comparison between plasma expansion duration towards a surface, plasma decay at a surface and time needed for thermalization and cooling of electrons is essential for designers of EUV lithography tools and EUV sources since the temperature of electrons dictates many fundamental physical processes.

  20. Impact of landslides induced by 2014 northeast monsoon extreme rain in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Koay, Swee Peng; Sakai, Naoki; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-04-01

    In December 2014, northeast monsoon brought extreme rainfalls to Malaysia, mainly in the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia and coastal area in Sabah and Sarawak. In this month, many of the rain gauge records in this area exceeded 1,000 mm, which is about 1/3 of average annual rainfall precipitation (2,850mm/year) in Malaysia. This unexpected heavy rainfall induced landslides and floods which brought about large-scale losses in Malaysia equivalent to several hundred million USD as thousands of residents had evacuated from hometown for months, and factories, schools and business activities were shut down for weeks. Among the major infrastructure of the nation, East-west Highway was subjected to damages by 21 landslides. Two large-scale landslides cut off the highway for a week. Authors had installed landslide monitoring instruments at reactivated landslide sites along the highway at N05° 36.042' E101° 35.546'. Records by in-situ inclinometers showed clear deformation from 17th December to 26th December, associated with certain change in piezometeres record for groundwater level monitoring. Several cracks occurred in the slope.

  1. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terhune, Kurt J.; King, Lyon B.; He, Kai; Cumings, John

    2016-09-01

    An extreme electric field on the order of 1010 V m-1 was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid.

  2. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Kurt J; King, Lyon B; He, Kai; Cumings, John

    2016-09-16

    An extreme electric field on the order of 10(10) V m(-1) was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid.

  3. Osteogenic, stem cell and molecular characterisation of the human induced membrane from extremity bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Ode, G.; Hoelscher, G.; Ingram, J.; Bethea, S.; Bosse, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    longer resident PMMA spacer duration (vs those with shorter residence) showed significant upregulation of bone-related, stem cell, and vascular-related genes. Conclusion The biomembrane technique is gaining favour in the management of complicated bone defects. Novel data on biological mechanisms provide improved understanding of the biomembrane’s osteogenic potential and molecular properties. Cite this article: Dr H. E. Gruber. Osteogenic, stem cell and molecular characterisation of the human induced membrane from extremity bone defects. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:106–115. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000483. PMID:27056768

  4. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

    2006-09-27

    The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO{sub 2} layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F)/ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination

  5. Nonthermal phase transitions in semiconductors induced by a femtosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Nikita; Jeschke, Harald O.; Ziaja, Beata

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel theoretical approach, which allows the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of both electrons and atoms/ions within free-electron laser excited semiconductors at femtosecond time scales. The approach consists of the Monte-Carlo method treating photoabsorption, high-energy-electron and core-hole kinetics and relaxation processes. Low-energy electrons localized within the valence and conduction bands of the target are treated with a temperature equation, including source terms, defined by the exchange of energy and particles with high-energy electrons and atoms. We follow the atomic motion with the molecular dynamics method on the changing potential energy surface. The changes of the potential energy surface and of the electron band structure are calculated at each time step with the help of the tight-binding method. Such a combination of methods enables investigation of nonequilibrium structural changes within materials under extreme ultraviolet (XUV) femtosecond irradiation. Our analysis performed for diamond irradiated with an XUV femtosecond laser pulse predicts for the first time in this wavelength regime the nonthermal phase transition from diamond to graphite. Similar to the case of visible light irradiation, this transition takes place within a few tens of femtoseconds and is caused by changes of the interatomic potential induced by ultrafast electronic excitations. It thus occurs well before the heating stimulated by electron-phonon coupling starts to play a role. This allows us to conclude that this transition is nonthermal and represents a general mechanism of the response of solids to ultrafast electron excitations.

  6. FPSO global strength and hull optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junyuan; Xiao, Jianhua; Ma, Rui; Cao, Kai

    2014-03-01

    Global strength is a significant item for floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) design, and steel weight plays an important role in the building costs of FPSO. It is the main task to consider and combine these two aspects by optimizing hull dimensions. There are many optional methods for the global strength analysis. A common method is to use the ABS FPSO Eagle software to analyze the global strength including the rule check and direct strength analysis. And the same method can be adopted for the FPSO hull optimization by changing the depth. After calculation and optimization, the results are compared and analyzed. The results can be used as a reference for the future design or quotation purpose.

  7. The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.

  8. Central venous catheters and upper-extremity deep-vein thrombosis complicating immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Aaron P; Cook, Deborah J; Sigouin, Christopher S; Warkentin, Theodore E

    2003-04-15

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a transient antibody-mediated hypercoagulability state strongly associated with lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Whether HIT is additionally associated with upper-limb DVT--either with or without central venous catheter (CVC) use--is unknown. We therefore studied 260 patients with antibody-positive HIT to determine the influence of CVC use on frequency and localization of upper-extremity DVT in comparison with 2 non-HIT control populations (postoperative orthopedic surgery and intensive-care unit patients). Compared with the control populations, both upper- and lower-extremity DVTs were found to be associated with HIT. Upper-extremity DVTs occurred more frequently in HIT patients with a CVC (14 of 145 [9.7%]) versus none of 115 (0%) patients without a CVC (P =.000 35). All upper-extremity DVTs occurred at the CVC site (right, 12; left, 2; kappa = 1.0; P =.011). We conclude that a localizing vascular injury (CVC use) and a systemic hypercoagulability disorder (HIT) interact to explain upper-extremity DVT complicating HIT.

  9. Regional-Scale High-Latitude Extreme Geoelectric Fields Pertaining to Geomagnetically Induced Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Bernabeu, Emanuel; Eichner, Jan; Viljanen, Ari; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the needs of the high-voltage power transmission industry, we use data from the high-latitude IMAGE magnetometer array to study characteristics of extreme geoelectric fields at regional scales. We use 10-s resolution data for years 1993-2013, and the fields are characterized using average horizontal geoelectric field amplitudes taken over station groups that span about 500-km distance. We show that geoelectric field structures associated with localized extremes at single stations can be greatly different from structures associated with regionally uniform geoelectric fields, which are well represented by spatial averages over single stations. Visual extrapolation and rigorous extreme value analysis of spatially averaged fields indicate that the expected range for 1-in-100-year extreme events are 3-8 V/km and 3.4-7.1 V/km, respectively. The Quebec reference ground model is used in the calculations.

  10. Characterising the Geomorphic Response of a Tropical Mega-River to an Extreme, Cyclone Induced, Flood Event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.; Best, J.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme events have the ability to induce extensive geomorphic change in fluvial systems as a result of elevated discharge levels, increased sediment transport capacity and associated changes in sheer stresses along channel boundaries. Understanding how rapid rises in water levels change flow structures and channel boundary roughness is key to understanding the relative significance of large events in terms of driving local and system wide geomorphic change. However, capturing the fluvial process dynamics in operation during such events is technically and logistically difficult, especially in the world's largest rivers. During September 2013, on the peak of the monsoon, a series of tropical cyclones induced a large flood event within the Mekong basin. At the peak of the flood wave, discharge measured ~60000 m3/s; the 11th largest flood on record. Pre and post event high resolution topographic surveys of parts of the bed and bank were captured using a combination of contiguous multibeam echo sounding (MBES) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) during the event. Simultaneously detailed measurements of cross sectional and near bank flow structure were acquired using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp). Together, these unique datasets can be used to characterise and assess the geomorphic impact of a cyclone induced extreme flood event on the Mekong. We show how flow structures in the near bank region evolve with stage during the extreme event and how the associated geomorphic response is modulated by the distinctive process dynamics of a mega-river.

  11. Qhull: Quickhull algorithm for computing the convex hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, C. Bradford; Dobkin, David P.; Huhdanpaa, Hannu

    2013-04-01

    Qhull computes the convex hull, Delaunay triangulation, Voronoi diagram, halfspace intersection about a point, furthest-site Delaunay triangulation, and furthest-site Voronoi diagram. The source code runs in 2-d, 3-d, 4-d, and higher dimensions. Qhull implements the Quickhull algorithm for computing the convex hull. It handles roundoff errors from floating point arithmetic. It computes volumes, surface areas, and approximations to the convex hull.

  12. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10... Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's structure as specified in this...

  13. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10... Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's structure as specified in this...

  14. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10... Charge, Marine Inspection, shall satisfy himself that the vessel's structure as specified in this...

  15. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... After July 1, 1964, and Carrying Certain Dangerous Bulk Cargoes § 32.63-5 Barge hull classifications—B... pollution may occur. (3) Type III barge hull. Barge hulls classed as Type III are those designed to...

  16. Carry-over fluency induced by extreme prolongations: A new behavioral paradigm.

    PubMed

    Briley, P M; Barnes, M P; Kalinowski, J S

    2016-04-01

    Extreme prolongations, which can be generated via extreme delayed auditory feedback (DAF) (e.g., 250-500 ms) or mediated cognitively with timing applications (e.g., analog stopwatch) at 2 s per syllable, have long been behavioral techniques used to inhibit stuttering. Some therapies have used this rate solely to establish initial fluency, while others use extremely slowed speech to establish fluency and add other strategic techniques such as easy onsets and diaphragmatic breathing. Extreme prolongations generate effective, efficient, and immediate forward flowing fluent speech, removing the signature behaviors of discrete stuttering (i.e., syllable repetitions and audible and inaudible postural fixations). Prolonged use of extreme prolongations establishes carry-over fluency, which is spontaneous, effortless speech absent of most, if not all, overt and covert manifestations of stuttering. The creation of this immediate fluency and the immense potential of extreme prolongations to generate long periods of carry-over fluency have been overlooked by researchers and clinicians alike. Clinicians depart from these longer prolongation durations as they attempt to achieve the same fluent results at a near normal rate of speech. Clinicians assume they are re-teaching fluency and slow rates will give rise to more normal rates with less control, but without carry-over fluency, controls and cognitive mediation are always needed for the inherently unstable speech systems of persons who stutter to experience fluent speech. The assumption being that the speech system is untenable without some level of cognitive and motoric monitoring that is always necessary. The goal is omnipresent "near normal rate sounding fluency" with continuous mediation via cognitive and motoric processes. This pursuit of "normal sounding fluency" continues despite ever-present relapse. Relapse has become so common that acceptance of stuttering is the new therapy modality because relapse has come to be

  17. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 1. The prototype cladding hull decontamination system

    SciTech Connect

    Lambright, T.M.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1980-04-01

    A prototype system for decontaminating Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls has been assembled and tested at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The decontamination process consists of treatment with a gaseous mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and argon (Ar) followed by a dilute aqueous etch of ammonium oxalate, ammonium citrate, ammonium fluoride, and hydrogen peroxide. The continuous cleaning process described in this report successfully descaled small portions of most charges, but was unable to handle the original design capacity of 4 kg/hr because of problems in the following areas: control of HF reactor temperatures, regulation of HF and argon mixtures and flows, isolation of the HF reactor atmosphere from the aqueous washer/rinser atmosphere, regulation of undesirable side reactions, and control over hull transport through the system. Due to the limited time available to solve these problems, the system did not attain fully operational status. The work was performed with unirradiated hulls that simulated irradiated hulls. The system was not built to be remotely operable. The process chemistry and system equipment are described in this report with particular emphasis on critical operating areas. Recommendations for improved system operation are included.

  18. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  19. Modeling climate change induced hydrological extremes in the Kafue River Basin in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngongondo, C.; Li, L.; Gong, L.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change impact projections in southern Africa suggest significant declines in flows in the major river basins. However, impacts of climate change on hydrological extremes (floods) in the region remain a grey area despite the threat they pose to human life and property. In this study, the impacts of climate change on extreme flows in the upper Kafue River basin, a major tributary of the Zambezi River, were investigated. Catchment hydrography was determined using the Hydro1k at a spatial resolution of 1 km resulting in an approximate registered area of 23,000 km2. The daily global WASMOD-M model was calibrated and validated during 1971 to 2001 with the WATCH Forcing Data (WFD) against observed discharge at Machiya gauging station from the Gridded River Discharge Data Centre(GRDC). Future climate change scenarios for extreme flows were derived by forcing the model with outputs from three GCM's (ECHAM, CMCC3 and IPSL) under the IPCC's SRES A2 and B1 scenarios from 2020 to 2100 at daily timescale. During calibration and validation, the NS coefficient value was above 0.80 and the Pearson correlation coefficient between observed and simulated flows of 0.9, suggesting acceptable model performance. Current and future extremes for each scenario were analyzed using the Peak Over Threshold (POT) analysis fitted to the Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPA), which provided less RMSE values as compared to Annual Maximum Series (AMS) fitted to the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The results show considerable departures from the reference period extremes for most of GCM scenarios considered, with both the A2 and B1 scenarios of the IPSL resulting in higher projected flows as compared to the other two models. On average, floods with return periods T=5,10,50,100,1000 years increased from Q (m3 s-1) = 626.6, 673.9, 767.1, 802.3, 903.7 during the reference period to Q (m3s-1) = 793.5, 873.4, 1046.2, 1119.2, 1364.8 respectively. The approach in our study has a

  20. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection...

  1. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use. PMID:27177559

  2. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  3. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... distributed water pressures over the hull and float bottom. Personnel and Cargo Accommodations ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and...

  4. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... distributed water pressures over the hull and float bottom. Personnel and Cargo Accommodations ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and...

  5. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distributed water pressures over the hull and float bottom. Personnel and Cargo Accommodations ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and...

  6. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... distributed water pressures over the hull and float bottom. Personnel and Cargo Accommodations ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and...

  7. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) If you use only divers for the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE...) If you use an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must provide the OCMI with a report in a format that is...

  8. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-29 Hull examination reports. (a) If you use only divers for the underwater... confirm the validity of its contents. (b) If you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must provide the OCMI with a report in the format that...

  9. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE), you must provide the Officer... sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b) If you use an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you...

  10. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use. PMID:27177559

  11. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull identification numbers... identification numbers required. (a) A manufacturer (or importer), as defined in § 181.3 of this part, must identify each boat produced or imported with two hull identification numbers that meet the requirements...

  12. 33 CFR 181.25 - Hull identification number format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull identification number format... number format. Each of the hull identification numbers required by § 181.23 must consist of twelve... under § 181.31(b). (b) Characters four through eight must be a serial number assigned by...

  13. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract on glucose-regulating mechanism in type 2 diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to determine the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against type 2 diabetes induced by a high fat diet administered to mice. Dietary administration of 0.5% or 1% RHSE for 7 weeks results in significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride and to...

  14. Damage of multilayer optics with varying capping layers induced by focused extreme ultraviolet beam

    SciTech Connect

    Jody Corso, Alain; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Nardello, Marco; Guglielmina Pelizzo, Maria; Barkusky, Frank; Mann, Klaus; Mueller, Matthias

    2013-05-28

    Extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayers protected by capping layers of different materials were exposed to 13.5 nm plasma source radiation generated with a table-top laser to study the irradiation damage mechanism. Morphology of single-shot damaged areas has been analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy. Threshold fluences were evaluated for each type of sample in order to determine the capability of the capping layer to protect the structure underneath.

  15. Global-warming-induced Increases in Extreme Precipitation are Smallest over Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Durran, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Climate-model simulations predict an intensification of extreme precipitation in almost all areas of the world under global warming. Geographical variations in the magnitude of this intensification are clearly evident in the simulations, but most previous efforts to understand the factors responsible for the changes in extreme precipitation have focused on zonal averages, neglecting the variations that occur in different regions at the same latitude. Here we present climate-model simulations for an ocean-covered earth having simple idealized continents with north-south mountain barriers in its northern midlatitudes. We show that the sensitivity of extreme precipitation to increases in the global mean surface temperature is 3 %/K lower over the mountains than over the oceans and the plains. Fundamental factors responsible for changes in precipitation intensity may be divided between thermodynamic effects, arising through changes in temperature and moisture, and dynamical effects, produced by changes in the ascent rates of saturated air parcels. The difference in sensitivity among these regions is not due to thermodynamic effects, but rather to differences between the gravity-wave dynamics governing vertical velocities over the mountains and the cyclone dynamics governing vertical motions over the oceans and plains.

  16. Comparative Analyses of Two Extremely Fast CMEs Induced Shocks using A H3DMHD Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. T.; Wu, C. C.; Liou, K.; Dryer, Ph D., M.; Plunkett, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    During the last two decades, spacecraft recorded several extremely fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) which have resulted in severe geomagnetic storms. Here, we will report results from a comparative study of two extremely fast CME events: one on 29 October 2003 (Halloween 2003 epoch) and the other on 23 July 2012. Both shock events reached 1 AU within ~20 hours. We employed a global three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation model (H3DMHD, Wu et al. 2007, JGR) to study these two events and compared the results with observations (e.g., 1 AU in-situ data, and coronal images from SOHO/LASCO or STEREO/ SECCHI). It was found that: (i) The peak temperature, velocity, and density of the solar wind for the shock/ICME event are 2 x 107 K, 2500 km s-1, and 35 cm-3, respectively. (ii) The peaks of magnetic field (B) are ~60 and 110 nT for the event on 29 October 2003 and 23 July 2012, respectively. Solar wind densities behind the shocks are extremely low which are due to rarefaction of the interplanetary shocks' propagation. We will discuss this issue in the presentation. Simulations are vastly improved and forecasting arrival times should be done as noted in real time by Zhou and Dryer (Space Weather Quarterly, 2014) review, but CME and B therein is still a major challenge for storm prediction.

  17. A first global-scale hindcast of extreme sea levels induced by extra-tropical storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Flood risk in coastal areas has been increasing in past years. This can be partly attributed to climate change and rising sea levels that increase the likelihood of coastal flood hazards, but also to increasing flood exposure because the global population and capital is increasingly concentrated in coastal zones. Without action, the increasing trends in flood hazard and exposure will be associated with catastrophic flood losses in the future. The adequate allocation of global investments and prioritization of adaptation actions requires an accurate understanding of the current and future coastal flood risk on a global-scale. Despite this, global data on extreme sea levels are scarce. A few studies have assessed coastal flood risk at the global-scale. To date, these have been either based on extreme water levels in the DIVA database or on observations from tide gauges. Both datasets have limitations when assessing flood risk, including low-probability events, on a fully global scale. Hence, there is a need for an improved estimation of extreme sea level on a global-scale. Therefore, we are developing the first global hindcast of coastal water levels which covers the period 1979-2013. To do this, we apply a global hydrodynamic model which is based on the Delft3D Flexible Mesh software from Deltares. By forcing the model with the tidal potential and meteorological fields derived from the ERA-Interim global reanalysis, we are able to simulate the water levels resulting from tides and surges. Subsequently, we apply extreme value statistics to estimate exceedance probabilities. Similar hydrodynamic modelling efforts have been carried out at the regional scale, but as the modelling of surges in shallow coastal areas requires a high-resolution model grid, generally this approach is computationally too costly on a global-scale. However, the recent application of unstructured grids (or flexible mesh) in hydrodynamic models, allowing local refinement of the grid, has enabled

  18. Irreversible shear-induced vitrification of droplets into elastic nanoemulsions by extreme rupturing

    SciTech Connect

    Wilking, James N.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2007-04-15

    Many materials weaken through fracturing when subjected to extreme stresses. By contrast, we show that breaking down repulsive bits of matter dispersed in a viscous liquid can cause a dramatic and irreversible increase in the dispersion's elasticity. Anionically stabilized microscale emulsions subjected to a history of high-pressure microfluidic flow can develop an unusually large elastic modulus as droplets are ruptured to the nanoscale, yielding 'nanonaise'. As the droplet size approaches the Debye screening length, the nanoemulsion vitrifies. Consequently, the onset of elasticity for disordered uniform nanoemulsions can occur at droplet volume fractions far below maximal random jamming of spheres.

  19. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    PubMed

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%. PMID:24919478

  20. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182 Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. If a portion of the contiguous hull structure is designed for a temperature colder than −34 °C (−30 °F) and is not part of...

  1. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182 Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. If a portion of the contiguous hull structure is designed for a temperature colder than −34 °C (−30 °F) and is not part of...

  2. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182 Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. If a portion of the contiguous hull structure is designed for a temperature colder than −34 °C (−30 °F) and is not part of...

  3. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.75-5 Section 32.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  4. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  5. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  6. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  7. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  8. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  9. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  10. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  11. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  12. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  13. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  14. Calculation of the hull and of the car-suspension systems of airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verduzio, R

    1924-01-01

    Differential and integral curves are presented and well as numerous calculations relating to hulls. Some of the calculations include those relating to hulls, those relating to the invariability of the shape of the hulls, and those relating to the suspension of the hull.

  15. Sudden pore pressure rise and rapid landslide initiation induced under extreme rainfall conditions - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Wang, Fawu; Wang, Gonghui

    2010-05-01

    Since July 19 to 26, 2009, western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. Debris flow distribution map was prepared soon based on airphoto interpretation. Japanese Meteorological Agency runs nation-wide ground-based rain gauge network as well as radar rain gauges, which provide hourly to 10 minutes precipitation distribution real-time with spatial resolution of about 5 km. Distribution of daily (cumulative) precipitation of July 21 shows (1) The cumulative precipitation from 6 am -- 12 am of the day was evaluated that their return period could be 200 - 600 years statistically. In 2009, another extraordinary rainfall, of which intensity was evaluated as less than 100 years more more, caused floods in another city claiming many residents lives on the way to evacuation area. Those frequent extraordinary extreme rainfall is not concluded as the consequence of global warming nor climate change, however, those frequency of extreme rainfall events affecting societies are obviously increasing in Japan, too. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called "masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except authors past experiment on the similar masa samples in June 1999 Hiroshima debris flow case. Authors have embedded pore pressure control system for the undrained ring shear apparatus. Strongly weathered sandy soils were sampled just on the smooth and flat granitic

  16. Electron-Impact-Induced Emission Cross Sections of Neon in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Ajello, J. M.; James, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum of neon produced by electron excitation. The measurements were obtained under optically thin conditions, and at a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM). The most prominent features of the EUV spectrum between 45-80 nm are the resonance lines of Ne I at 73.6 and 74.4 nm and a multiplet of Ne II at 46.14 nm (the average value for the line center of the two closely spaced ion lines at 46.07 and 46.22 nm). Absolute emission cross sections of these lines at 300 eV were measured and compared to other previous measurements.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunchun; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing; Duan, Wenyi; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF)-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons and the underlying molecular mechanism. The results of MTT, morphological observation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays showed that compared with control, incubating neurons under ELF-EMF exposure significantly decreased cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells, whereas LSPCs evidently protected the hippocampal neurons against ELF-EMF-induced cell damage. Moreover, a certain concentration of LSPCs inhibited the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) level, as well as prevented the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by ELF-EMF exposure. In addition, supplementation with LSPCs could alleviate DNA damage, block cell cycle arrest at S phase, and inhibit apoptosis and necrosis of hippocampal neurons under ELF-EMF exposure. Further study demonstrated that LSPCs up-regulated the activations of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl proteins and suppressed the expressions of Bad, Bax proteins caused by ELF-EMF exposure. In conclusion, these findings revealed that LSPCs protected against ELF-EMF-induced neurotoxicity through inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27470406

  18. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  19. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage.

  20. Long-term variability and changes in thunderstorm induced extreme precipitation in Slovakia over 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Bližák, V.; Kajaba, P.; Košálová, J.; Bochníček, O.; Lešková, L.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that extreme precipitation associated with intensive rains, in summer induced mostly by local thunderstorm activity, could cause very significant problems in economical and social spheres of the countries. Heavy precipitation and consecutive flash-floods are the most serious weather-related hazards over the territory of Slovakia. The extreme precipitation analyses play a strategic role in many climatological and hydrological evaluations designed for the wide range of technical and engineering applications as well as climate change impact assessments. A thunderstorm, as a violent local storm produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and accompanied by thunder and lightning, represents extreme convective activity in the atmosphere depending upon the release of latent heat, by the condensation of water vapor, for most of its energy. Under the natural conditions of Slovakia the incidence of thunderstorms has been traditionally concentrated in the summer or warm half-year (Apr.-Sept.), but increasing air temperature resulting in higher water vapor content and more intense short-term precipitation is associated with more frequent thunderstorm occurrence in early spring as well as autumn. It is the main reason why the studies of thunderstorm phenomena have increased in Slovakia in recent years. It was found that thunderstorm occurrence, in terms of incidence of storm days, has profoundly changed particularly in spring season (~ 30 % in April and May). The present contribution is devoted to verifying the hypothesis that recently the precipitation has been more intense and significant shifts in seasonal incidence have occurred in particular regions in Slovakia. On the basis of the 60-year (1951-2010) meteorological observation series obtained from more than 20 synoptic stations, the analysis of trends and long-term variability of the days with thunderstorms and the accompanying precipitation for seasons was undertaken. Contribution also attempts to explain the main

  1. Mitigation of mask three-dimensional induced phase effects by absorber optimization in ArFi and extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finders, Jo; Winter, Laurens de; Last, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    We will summarize our work on mask topography-induced effects over the last 5 years. We will give a full physical explanation of the effects that can be observed from exposed wafers in state-of-the-art immersion and extreme ultraviolet photolithography. The mask topography-induced phase leads to vertical and lateral displacements of the aerial image, resulting in feature-dependent best focus and position. The feature dependency has been studied for gratings through pitch and size and for two-trench arrangements. The physical explanation involves the analysis and quantification of phase effects in a similar way as was done for projection lens aberrations one decade ago. Phase effects, derived both from rigorous simulations and an analytical model, will be compared with exposure figure or merits (e.g., best focus per feature) and correlate well. Therefore, the analysis of mask topography induced phase and the reduction thereof by absorber thickness optimization can be used to drive lithography improvements.

  2. Extremely low frequency magnetic field induced changes in motor behaviour of gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Rauš, Snežana; Selaković, Vesna; Radenović, Lidija; Prolić, Zlatko; Janać, Branka

    2012-03-17

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavioural effects of an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in 3-month-old Mongolian gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia. After 10-min occlusion of both common carotid arteries, the gerbils were placed in the vicinity of an electromagnet and continuously exposed to ELF-MF (50Hz, 0.5mT) for 7 days. Their behaviour (locomotion, stereotypy, rotations, and immobility) was monitored on days 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 after reperfusion for 60min in the open field. It was shown that the 10-min global cerebral ischemia per se induced a significant motor activity increase (locomotion, stereotypy and rotations), and consequently immobility decrease until day 4 after reperfusion, compared to control gerbils. Exposure to ELF-MF inhibited development of ischemia-induced motor hyperactivity during the whole period of registration, but significantly in the first 2 days after reperfusion, when the postischemic hyperactivity was most evident. Motor activity of these gerbils was still significantly increased compared to control ones, but only on day 1 after reperfusion. Our results revealed that the applied ELF-MF (50Hz, 0.5mT) decreased motor hyperactivity induced by the 10-min global cerebral ischemia, via modulation of the processes that underlie this behavioural response.

  3. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... heating system under § 154.178. ... structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with...

  4. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... heating system under § 154.178. ... structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with...

  5. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... heating system under § 154.178. ... structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with...

  6. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... heating system under § 154.178. ... structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with...

  7. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-02-26

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

  8. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.231 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As used in the part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing...

  9. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... years). If approved and you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the...

  10. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... years). If approved and you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the...

  11. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... years). If approved and you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the...

  12. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... years). If approved and you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the...

  13. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL IN CENTER OF PICTURE ON SHINGLE BEACH Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  14. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  15. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... heating system under § 154.178. ... structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with...

  16. High Quality Visual Hull Reconstruction by Delaunay Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Gavrilova, Marina L.

    In this paper, we employ Delaunay triangulation techniques to reconstruct high quality visual hulls. From a set of calibrated images, the algorithm first computes a sparse set of initial points with a dandelion model and builds a Delaunay triangulation restricted to the visual hull surface. It then iteratively refines the triangulation by inserting new sampling points, which are the intersections between the visual hull surface and the Voronoi edges dual to the triangulation's facets, until certain criteria are satisfied. The intersections are computed by cutting line segments with the visual hull, which is then converted to the problem of intersecting a line segment with polygonal contours in 2D. A barrel-grid structure is developed to quickly pick out possibly intersecting contour segments and thus accelerate the process of intersecting in 2D. Our algorithm is robust, fast, fully adaptive, and it produces precise and smooth mesh models composed of well-shaped triangles.

  17. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel in a drydock or slipway for an examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body... bilge suction. (b) Underwater survey means the examination of the vessel's underwater hull including...

  18. Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings for steering rods. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Pretreatment of rice hulls by ionic liquid dissolution.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Joan G; Reza, M Toufiq; Vasquez, Victor R; Coronella, Charles J

    2012-06-01

    As a highly available waste product, rice hulls could be a starting block in replacing liquid fossil fuels. However, their silica covering can make further use difficult. This preliminary study investigates effects of dissolving rice hulls in the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM Ac), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, (HMIM Cl), and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIM Cl), and what lignocellulosic components can be precipitated from the used ionic liquid with water and ethanol. EMIM Ac dissolution at 110 °C for 8 h was found to completely remove lignin from rice hulls, while ethanol was capable of precipitating lignin out of the used EMIM Ac. With 8h dissolution at 110 °C using HMIM Cl, approximately 20% of the cellulose in the rice hull sample can be precipitated out using water as co-solvent, while more than 60% of the hemicellulose can be precipitated with ethanol.

  20. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  1. Three-dimensional dispersion induced by extreme tensile strain in La2-xSrxCuO4 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetta, D.; Ariosa, D.; Cancellieri, C.; Abrecht, M.; Mitrovic, S.; Pavuna, D.

    2006-07-01

    The electronic band structure probed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on thin epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4 films under extreme tensile strain shows anomalous features compatible with c -axis dispersion. This result is in striking contrast with the usual quasi-two-dimensional (2D) dispersion observed up to now in most superconducting cuprates, including relaxed and compressively strained La2-xSrxCuO4 films grown under the same conditions. The data were analyzed using a 3D tight-binding dispersion for a body-centered-tetragonal lattice. We relate the enhancement of the c -axis dispersion to the significant displacement of the apical oxygen induced by epitaxial strain.

  2. Correlation method for the measure of mask-induced line-edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-05-25

    As critical dimensions for leading-edge semiconductor devices shrink, line-edge roughness (LER) requirements are pushing well into the single digit nanometer regime. At these scales many new sources of LER must be considered. In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown the lithographic mask to be a source of significant concern. Here we present a correlation-based methodology for experimentally measuring the magnitude of mask contributors to printed LER. The method is applied to recent printing results from a 0.3 numerical aperture EUV microfield exposure tool. The measurements demonstrate that such effects are indeed present and of significant magnitude. The method is also used to explore the effects of illumination coherence and defocus and has been used to verify model-based predictions of mask-induced LER.

  3. Impact of Cardiovascular Health on Hearing: Interview with Ray Hull

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2006-01-01

    Do you belong to a sports club or gym? Do you like to work out, play tennis, swim, or run regularly? If so, you are also improving your hearing health. I did not learn this from a sports column; I learned it from interviewing Ray Hull. Dr. Raymond H. Hull, PhD, is a professor of communication sciences and disorders, audiology, and director of the…

  4. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm.

  5. Frequent Extreme Cold Exposure and Brown Fat and Cold-Induced Thermogenesis: A Study in a Monozygotic Twin

    PubMed Central

    Vosselman, Maarten J.; Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Kingma, Boris R. M.; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as ‘the Iceman’, who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a ‘normal’ sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. Methods The Iceman (subject A) and his brother (subject B) were studied during mild cold (13°C) and thermoneutral conditions (31°C). Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. Results Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal), within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G). CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%), but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. Conclusion No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the low

  6. Fermentation of soybean hulls to ethanol while retaining protein value

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R; Wyman, Professor Charles E; John, Bardsley

    2009-01-01

    Soybean hulls were evaluated as a resource for production of ethanol by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, and no pretreatment of the hulls was found to be needed to realize high ethanol yields with S. cerevisiae D5A. The impact of cellulase, -glucosidase and pectinase dosages were determined at a 15% biomass loading, and ethanol concentrations of 25-30 g/L were routinely obtained, while under these conditions corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass produced 3-4 times lower ethanol yields. Removal of carbohydrates also concentrated the hull protein to over 25% w/w from the original roughly 10%. Analysis of the soybean hulls before and after fermentation showed similar amino acid profiles including an increase in the essential amino acids lysine and threonine in the residues. Thus, eliminating pretreatment should assure that the protein in the hulls is preserved, and conversion of the carbohydrates to ethanol with high yields produces a more concentrated and valuable co-product in addition to ethanol. The resulting upgraded feed product from soybean hulls would likely to be acceptable to monogastric as well as bovine livestock.

  7. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

    PubMed

    Honenberger, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature.

  8. Hull-form optimization of KSUEZMAX to enhance resistance performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Heon; Choi, Jung-Eun; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deploys optimization techniques to obtain the optimum hull form of KSUEZMAX at the conditions of full-load draft and design speed. The processes have been carried out using a RaPID-HOP program. The bow and the stern hull-forms are optimized separately without altering neither, and the resulting versions of the two are then combined. Objective functions are the minimum values of wave-making and viscous pressure resistance coefficients for the bow and stern. Parametric modification functions for the bow hull-form variation are SAC shape, section shape (U-V type, DLWL type), bulb shape (bulb height and size); and those for the stern are SAC and section shape (U-V type, DLWL type). WAVIS version 1.3 code is used for the potential and the viscous-flow solver. Prior to the optimization, a parametric study has been conducted to observe the effects of design parameters on the objective functions. SQP has been applied for the optimization algorithm. The model tests have been conducted at a towing tank to evaluate the resistance performance of the optimized hull-form. It has been noted that the optimized hull-form brings 2.4% and 6.8% reduction in total and residual resistance coefficients compared to those of the original hull-form. The propulsive efficiency increases by 2.0% and the delivered power is reduced 3.7%, whereas the propeller rotating speed increases slightly by 0.41 rpm.

  9. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved. PMID:26938221

  10. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved. PMID:26938221

  11. Exploring the electron density in plasmas induced by extreme ultraviolet radiation in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Osorio, E. A.; Banine, V. Y.

    2015-07-01

    The new generation of lithography tools use high energy EUV radiation which ionizes the present background gas due to photoionization. To predict and understand the long term impact on the highly delicate mirrors, it is essential to characterize these kinds of EUV-induced plasmas. We measured the electron density evolution in argon gas during and just after irradiation by a short pulse of EUV light at 13.5 nm by applying microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. Dependencies on EUV pulse energy and gas pressure have been explored over a range relevant for industrial applications. Our experimental results show that the maximum reached electron density depends linearly on pulse energy. A quadratic dependence caused by photoionization and subsequent electron impact ionization by free electrons is found from experiments where the gas pressure is varied. This is demonstrated by our theoretical estimates presented in this manuscript as well.

  12. Radiation-Induced Decomposition of PETN and TATB under Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael

    2008-11-03

    We conducted a series of experiments investigating decomposition of secondary explosives PETN and TATB at varying static pressures and temperatures using synchrotron radiation. As seen in our earlier work, the decomposition rate of TATB at ambient temperature slows systematically with increasing pressure up to at least 26 GPa but varies little with pressure in PETN at ambient temperature up to 15.7 GPa, yielding important information pertaining to the activation complex volume in both cases. We also investigated the radiation-induced decomposition rate as a function of temperature at ambient pressure and 26 GPa for TATB up to 403 K, observing that the decomposition rate increases with increasing temperature as expected. The activation energy for the TATB reaction at ambient temperature was experimentally determined to be 16 {+-} 3 kJ/mol.

  13. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  14. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  15. Charge Transfer Dissociation of Complex Oligosaccharides: Comparison with Collision-Induced Dissociation and Extreme Ultraviolet Dissociative Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropartz, David; Li, Pengfei; Fanuel, Mathieu; Giuliani, Alexandre; Rogniaux, Hélène; Jackson, Glen P.

    2016-08-01

    The structural characterization of oligosaccharides still challenges the field of analytical chemistry. Tandem mass spectrometry offers many advantages toward this aim, although the generic fragmentation method (low-energy collision-induced dissociation) shows clear limitations and is often insufficient to retrieve some essential structural information on these molecules. In this work, we present the first application of helium charge transfer dissociation (He-CTD) to characterize the structure of complex oligosaccharides. We compare this method with low-energy collision-induced dissociation and extreme-ultraviolet dissociative photoionization (XUV-DPI), which was shown previously to ensure the successful characterization of complex glycans. Similarly to what could be obtained by XUV-DPI, He-CTD provides a complete description of the investigated structures by producing many informative cross-ring fragments and no ambiguous fragmentation. Unlike XUV-DPI, which is performed at a synchrotron source, He-CTD has the undeniable advantage of being implementable in a conventional benchtop ion trap in a conventional laboratory setting.

  16. Charge Transfer Dissociation of Complex Oligosaccharides: Comparison with Collision-Induced Dissociation and Extreme Ultraviolet Dissociative Photoionization.

    PubMed

    Ropartz, David; Li, Pengfei; Fanuel, Mathieu; Giuliani, Alexandre; Rogniaux, Hélène; Jackson, Glen P

    2016-10-01

    The structural characterization of oligosaccharides still challenges the field of analytical chemistry. Tandem mass spectrometry offers many advantages toward this aim, although the generic fragmentation method (low-energy collision-induced dissociation) shows clear limitations and is often insufficient to retrieve some essential structural information on these molecules. In this work, we present the first application of helium charge transfer dissociation (He-CTD) to characterize the structure of complex oligosaccharides. We compare this method with low-energy collision-induced dissociation and extreme-ultraviolet dissociative photoionization (XUV-DPI), which was shown previously to ensure the successful characterization of complex glycans. Similarly to what could be obtained by XUV-DPI, He-CTD provides a complete description of the investigated structures by producing many informative cross-ring fragments and no ambiguous fragmentation. Unlike XUV-DPI, which is performed at a synchrotron source, He-CTD has the undeniable advantage of being implementable in a conventional benchtop ion trap in a conventional laboratory setting. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27582116

  17. Charge Transfer Dissociation of Complex Oligosaccharides: Comparison with Collision-Induced Dissociation and Extreme Ultraviolet Dissociative Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropartz, David; Li, Pengfei; Fanuel, Mathieu; Giuliani, Alexandre; Rogniaux, Hélène; Jackson, Glen P.

    2016-10-01

    The structural characterization of oligosaccharides still challenges the field of analytical chemistry. Tandem mass spectrometry offers many advantages toward this aim, although the generic fragmentation method (low-energy collision-induced dissociation) shows clear limitations and is often insufficient to retrieve some essential structural information on these molecules. In this work, we present the first application of helium charge transfer dissociation (He-CTD) to characterize the structure of complex oligosaccharides. We compare this method with low-energy collision-induced dissociation and extreme-ultraviolet dissociative photoionization (XUV-DPI), which was shown previously to ensure the successful characterization of complex glycans. Similarly to what could be obtained by XUV-DPI, He-CTD provides a complete description of the investigated structures by producing many informative cross-ring fragments and no ambiguous fragmentation. Unlike XUV-DPI, which is performed at a synchrotron source, He-CTD has the undeniable advantage of being implementable in a conventional benchtop ion trap in a conventional laboratory setting.

  18. Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian, Dugesia tigrina

    SciTech Connect

    Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 {micro}T. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 {micro} V/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 {micro}T DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas the previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling.

  19. Strength changes induced by extreme dieting and exercise in severely obese females.

    PubMed

    Pronk, N P; Donnelly, J E; Pronk, S J

    1992-04-01

    Strength changes, induced by very low-calorie diet (VLCD, 520 kcal/day) alone and in combination with exercise, were determined in 109 severely obese females (46.8 +/- 4.69% fat). Experimental treatments included VLCD alone (LC, n = 40), VLCD with endurance exercise (EE, n = 23), VLCD with endurance exercise and resistance strength training (EERST, n = 23), and VLCD with resistance strength training (RST, n = 23). All subjects participated in the study for 90 days while EE, EERST, and RST exercised four times/week according to specified schedules. Results indicated significant differences for the change scores (baseline to 90 days) for bench press, knee flexion, upper body and lower body composite strength scores between RST and all other groups. RST was the only treatment that increased upper and lower body strength. No differences between groups were found for body mass losses, decrease in percent fat and fat mass. In contrast, these variables showed significant change scores for all groups. Decreases in fat-free mass (FFM) were 5.18 +/- 3.40 kg, 4.79 +/- 4.15 kg (p = 0.001), 4.64 +/- 4.23 kg, and 3.26 +/- 2.67 kg for EE, LC, RST, and EERST, respectively. These data suggest that the combination of resistance strength training and VLCD increases strength despite a loss of FFM. However, endurance exercise and VLCD do not seem to affect body mass loss or FFM loss per se. Moreover, it seems that these increases in strength may represent a training effect which might imply improved central neuromuscular function rather than muscular hypertrophy since FFM decreased in all groups.

  20. Induced gravitational collapse at extreme cosmological distances: the case of GRB 090423

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, R.; Izzo, L.; Muccino, M.; Pisani, G. B.; Rueda, J. A.; Wang, Y.; Barbarino, C.; Bianco, C. L.; Enderli, M.; Kovacevic, M.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The induced gravitational collapse (IGC) scenario has been introduced in order to explain the most energetic gamma ray bursts (GRBs), Eiso = 1052-1054 erg, associated with type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). It has led to the concept of binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) originating in a tight binary system composed by a FeCO core on the verge of a SN explosion and a companion neutron star (NS). Their evolution is characterized by a rapid sequence of events: 1) the SN explodes, giving birth to a new NS (νNS). The accretion of SN ejecta onto the companion NS increases its mass up to the critical value; 2) the consequent gravitational collapse is triggered, leading to the formation of a black hole (BH) with GRB emission; 3) a novel feature responsible for the emission in the GeV, X-ray, and optical energy range occurs and is characterized by specific power-law behavior in their luminosity evolution and total spectrum; 4) the optical observations of the SN then occurs. Aims: We investigate whether GRB 090423, one of the farthest observed GRB at z = 8.2, is a member of the BdHN family. Methods: We compare and contrast the spectra, the luminosity evolution, and the detectability in the observations by Swift of GRB 090423 with the corresponding ones of the best known BdHN case, GRB 090618. Results: Identification of constant slope power-law behavior in the late X-ray emission of GRB 090423 and its overlapping with the corresponding one in GRB 090618, measured in a common rest frame, represents the main result of this article. This result represents a very significant step on the way to using the scaling law properties, proven in Episode 3 of this BdHN family, as a cosmological standard candle. Conclusions: Having identified GRB 090423 as a member of the BdHN family, we can conclude that SN events, leading to NS formation, can already occur, namely at 650 Myr after the Big Bang. It is then possible that these BdHNe stem from 40-60 M⊙ binaries. They are probing the

  1. Measurements of HIFU-induced Lesions in BSA Gel Phantoms for HIFU Treatment of Varicose Veins of Lower Extremity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Senoo, Naohiko; Suzuki, Jun; Ichiyanagi, Mitsuhisa; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    HIFU treatment has been developed for various diseases because of its minimal invasiveness, and we are now developing a HIFU treatment for varicose veins of the lower extremity. Previous studies have succeeded in occluding rabbit's veins with HIFU, but the success rate was low (about 10%). Failures were mainly caused by skin burns. When the heating lesion comes close to skin, the absorbed ultrasound energy may cause skin burns. Therefore, it is necessary to study the relationships between HIFU lesions and skin burns to improve the success rate. To visualize heating lesions from HIFU, we used tissue-mimicking BSA gel phantoms. We tried various concentrations of BSA in gels, and determined 14% BSA as the most suitable for phantoms for experiments. The attenuation coefficient of the gel was 0.73 dB/cm, and the denaturation temperature was 70 °C. We put the BSA gel phantom in a water tank in which the temperature was kept at 39 °C, and used HIFU exposures at various intensities and irradiation times. After irradiation, we measured the sizes and positions of HIFU-induced lesions, and the results indicate that the sizes of lesion become larger when the intensitiy rises or irradiation time becomes longer. Furthermore, when the intensity rises and irradiation time becomes longer, the heating lesions move closer to upper surface of the gel, which means skin easily gets burned. Thus we have investigated relationships between HIFU parameters and heated lesions that can be used for further research into HIFU treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremity.

  2. Soybean hulls as a dietary fiber source for dogs.

    PubMed

    Cole, J T; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Hussein, H S; Brent, J L

    1999-04-01

    In Exp. 1, soybean hull samples were obtained from nine sources across the United States and analyzed for nutrient content to determine their suitability for inclusion in dog diets. Compositional data revealed variation in both the amount of total dietary fiber (TDF; 63.8 to 81.2%) in the soybean hulls and the ratio of insoluble:soluble fiber (5.0:1 to 15.4:1). Crude protein content varied widely among sources, ranging from 9.2 to 18.7%. An in vivo trial (Exp. 2) was conducted using a premium dog diet containing 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis). There was a negative linear effect (P < .05) of soybean hull inclusion in the diet on DM, OM, TDF, and GE total-tract digestibilities, as well as on calculated ME. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. Based on these results, ileally cannulated dogs were fed diets containing 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis) in addition to diets containing either 0% supplemental fiber or 7.5% beet pulp (Exp. 3). Nutrient digestion at the ileum was unaffected by inclusion of supplemental fiber. Total tract digestion of DM, OM, and GE was lower ( P < .05) for diets containing supplemental fiber when compared with the diet containing 0% fiber. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. There was no difference in nutrient digestibility between those diets containing soybean hulls and a diet containing beet pulp. Soybean hull inclusion in the diet resulted in a negative linear effect (P < .05) on calculated ME, in addition to lowering ME (P < .05) when compared with the 0% fiber control diet. Calculated ME for dogs fed a 7.5% beet pulp-containing diet was lower (P < .05) than that for dogs fed the soybean hull-containing diets. Results indicate that soybean hulls can be an effective dietary fiber source in dog diets.

  3. Ship resistance of quadramaran with various hull position configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanuar; Gunawan; Muhyi, A.; Jamaluddin, A.

    2016-03-01

    Multihull ships are widely used for sea transportation, and those with four hulls are known as quadramarans. Hull position configurations of a quadramaran include the diamond, tetra, and slice. In general, multihull vessels traveling at high speeds have better hydrodynamic efficiency than monohull ships. This study aims to identify possible effects of various quadramaran hull position configurations on ship resistance for hull dimensions of 2 m length, 0.21 m breadth, and 0.045 m thickness. We conducted a towing test in which we varied the hull spacing and speed at Fr values between 0.08 and 0.62 and measured the total resistance using a load cell transducer. The experimental results reveal that the lowest total resistance was achieved with a diamond quadramaran configuration at Fr = 0.1-0.6 and an effective interference factor of up to 0.35 with S/L = 3/10 and R/L = 1/2 at Fr = 0.62.

  4. MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J.; Stillman, J.

    2010-10-14

    A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.

  5. Regional differences in rice hulls supply for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, Esra; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural by-products are becoming an attractive substrate for bioethanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regional differences in the rice hulls using Escherichia coli KO11 for bioethanol production. The rice hulls coded Edirne were obtained from Thrace Region, and the rice hulls coded Izmir were obtained from Aegean Region in Turkey. Rice hulls were treated by dilute acid before using them as substrates. The cells were incubated on an orbital shaker at 160 rpm under 30 °C during 96 h of the fermentation period. It was found that the maximum yield of ethanol from sugar (0.44 g ethanol/g reducing sugar) was obtained with the substrate C/N ratio of 29.16 in Izmir medium. The main difference was the dominant carbon source available as a substrate. It was detected that glucose concentration was about 2.5 times higher in Izmir medium, whereas xylose concentration was about two times higher in Edirne medium. The different results obtained with rice hulls from different origins could depend on the type of paddy as well as different cultivation conditions. These findings provide a valuable indicator for identifying suitable agricultural waste materials to be used as substrates for bioethanol production.

  6. Protective effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod on immune function injury induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihui; Cheng, Yanxiang; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50Hz, 8mT, 28 days) and their protective mechanism against radiation damage. The results showed that LSPCs increased the organ index of mice and made the damaged blood-producing function and cytokine(INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in spleen) levels by ELF-EMF-irradiation recovered to normal appearance. And experimental results proved that dosing LSPCs inhibit more stagnation of splenocytes in G0/G1 phase caused by ELF-EMF, thus the spleen cells from G0/G1 phase to S phase shift, restore normal cell metabolism, promote the splenocytes proliferation, reduced the apoptosis of spleen cells, effective protect the damage induced by the ELF-EMF radiation. In addition, LSPCs prevented the decline of DNA content caused by ELF-EMF. Western blot determinated the levels of apoptosis genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-cl, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. The results revealed that a significant suppression in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in splenic cells in ELF-EMF group. However, LSPCs restored these changes. Taking these results together, it may be summarized that LSPCs could protect hematopoietic tissues and the immune system from ELF-EMF. And it may be hypothesized that ELF-EMF-induced apoptosis in splenocytes might occur via triggers the trans-activation of Bax and activates caspases-3 and -9, which then cleaves the death substrates, leading to apoptosis in splenocytes of mice treated with ELF-EMF. PMID:27470374

  7. Drought onset mechanisms revealed by satellite solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: Insights from two contrasting extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Fu, Rong; Dickinson, Robert; Joiner, Joanna; Frankenberg, Christian; Gu, Lianhong; Xia, Youlong; Fernando, Nelun

    2015-11-01

    This study uses the droughts of 2011 in Texas and 2012 over the central Great Plains as case studies to explore the potential of satellite-observed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring drought dynamics. We find that the spatial patterns of negative SIF anomalies from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) closely resembled drought intensity maps from the U.S. Drought Monitor for both events. The drought-induced suppression of SIF occurred throughout 2011 but was exacerbated in summer in the Texas drought. This event was characterized by a persistent depletion of root zone soil moisture caused by yearlong below-normal precipitation. In contrast, for the central Great Plains drought, warmer temperatures and relatively normal precipitation boosted SIF in the spring of 2012; however, a sudden drop in precipitation coupled with unusually high temperatures rapidly depleted soil moisture through evapotranspiration, leading to a rapid onset of drought in early summer. Accordingly, SIF reversed from above to below normal. For both regions, the GOME-2 SIF anomalies were significantly correlated with those of root zone soil moisture, indicating that the former can potentially be used as proxy of the latter for monitoring agricultural droughts with different onset mechanisms. Further analyses indicate that the contrasting dynamics of SIF during these two extreme events were caused by changes in both fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation fPAR and fluorescence yield, suggesting that satellite SIF is sensitive to both structural and physiological/biochemical variations of vegetation. We conclude that the emerging satellite SIF has excellent potential for dynamic drought monitoring.

  8. Correlation between vibration-induced white finger and symptoms of upper and lower extremities in vibration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, H; Akamatsu, Y; Miyao, M; Kondo, T; Furuta, M; Yamada, S; Harada, N; Miyake, S; Hosokawa, M

    1988-01-01

    The correlation was investigated between the frequency of attacks of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and numbness or coldness of the fingers and legs in patients with vibration syndrome. Some 1687 patients with vibration syndrome were examined and of these 342 chain-saw operators and 277 rock-drill operators had no disease other than vibration syndrome. Then subjects were matched by age and period of treatment within three years. In the last analysis, 20 in the VWF "almost everyday" group or in the "never" group, and 40 in the "occasionally" group were selected from the chain-saw operators, and from the rock-drill operators 32 in the VWF "everyday" or the "never" group and 64 in the "occasionally" group. The present study showed that, with the frequency of VWF attacks, patients had a higher prevalence of coldness not only in the fingers but also in the legs. These findings suggest a correlation between the severity of circulatory disturbances of the upper extremities and that of the lower ones in patients with vibration syndrome. Further studies on circulatory disturbances in the leg are required.

  9. Electron-induced interaction of selected hydrocarbons with TiO2 surfaces: the relevance to extreme ultraviolet lithography.

    PubMed

    Yakshinskiy, B V; Zalkind, S; Bartynski, R A; Caudillo, R

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize desorption induced by electronic transition processes that affect the reflectivity of TiO2-capped multilayer mirrors used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. A low energy electron beam is employed to mimic excitations initiated by EUV radiation. Temperature programmed desorption, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low energy ion scattering are used to analyze the surface reactions. Carbon film growth on the TiO2(011) crystalline surface is measured during 10-100 eV electron bombardment in benzene or methyl methacrylate vapor over a wide range of pressures and temperatures near 300 K. Low energy secondary electrons excited by EUV photons contribute substantially to the carbon accumulation on clean TiO2 cap layers. For benzene on clean TiO2, secondary electron effects dominate in the initial stages of carbon accumulation, whereas for C-covered TiO2, direct excitations appear to dominate. We report on the adsorption energy, the steady-state coverage of the molecules on the surface and the cross sections for electron-stimulated dissociation: all key parameters for understanding and modeling the processes relating to the EUV lithography mirrors.

  10. Novel π-type vortex in a nanoscale extreme type-II superconductor: Induced by quantum-size effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wenhui; Chen, Yajiang

    2016-11-01

    By numerically solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we report a novel π-type vortex state whose order parameter near the core undergoes an extraordinary π-phase change for a quantum-confined extreme type-II s-wave superconductor. Its supercurrent behaves as the cube of the radial coordinate near the core, and its local density of states spectrum exhibits a significant negative-shifted zero-bias peak. Such π-type vortex state is induced by quantum-size effect, and can survive thermal smearing at temperatures up to a critical value Tτ. The Anderson's approximation indicates that the π-type vortex may remain stable under sufficiently week magnetic field in the case less deep in the type-II limit. Moreover, we find that its appearance is governed by the sample size and kFξ0 with kF the Fermi wave number and ξ0 the zero-temperature coherence length. Similar effects may be expected in quantum-confined ultracold superfluid Fermi gasses, or even high-Tc superconductors with proper kFξ0 value.

  11. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... expanded examination to include an underwater hull examination using divers. If an underwater examination... include a representative sampling of hull gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the...

  12. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underwater hull examination using divers. If an underwater examination is required, the examination must... gaugings. (b) If an underwater survey is required for the annual hull condition assessment, the OCMI...

  13. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  14. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  15. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  16. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  17. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

  18. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning. PMID:21929729

  19. Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.

    PubMed

    Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools.

  20. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade [14C]Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. Images PMID:16346424

  1. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY CLADDING HULLS FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.

    2010-09-29

    The feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls using hydrofluoric acid (HF) was investigated as part of the Global Energy Nuclear Partnership (GNEP) Separations Campaign. The concentrations of the fission product and transuranic (TRU) isotopes in the decontaminated hulls were compared to the limits for determining the low level waste (LLW) classification in the United States (US). The {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations met the disposal criteria for a Class C LLW; although, in a number of experiments the criteria for disposal as a Class B LLW were met. The TRU concentration in the hulls generally exceeded the Class C LLW limit by at least an order of magnitude. The concentration decreased sharply as the initial 30-40 {micro}m of the cladding hull surface were removed. At depths beyond this point, the TRU activity remained relatively constant, well above the Class C limit. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generates a cladding waste which would likely require disposal as a Greater than Class C LLW in the US. If the cladding hulls could be treated to remove a majority of the actinide and fission product contamination, the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a LLW or allow recycle of the Zr metal. Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant cost savings compared to disposal as a Greater than Class C waste which currently has no disposition path. During fuel irradiation and reprocessing, radioactive materials are produced and deposited in the Zircaloy cladding. Due to short depths of penetration, the majority of the fission products and actinide elements are located in the ZrO{sub 2} layer which forms on the surface of the cladding during fuel irradiation. Therefore, if the oxide layer is removed, the majority of the contamination should also be removed. It is very difficult, if not impossible to remove all of the activity from spent fuel cladding since traces of U and Th in the unirradiated Zircaloy

  2. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  3. Swarm slide - debris flow disaster induced by extreme rainfall in Hiroshima, August 2014 and lessons learnt in urban designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, H.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hiroshima city was hit by swarm debris flows along a narrow, and linear-shaped rain band of 2 km x 10 km which appeared in the early morning of August 20, 2014. Most of the flows were induced by shallow slide in the upstream. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows:1. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow byundrained loading onto the torrent deposits.2. Apparently long-term land-use change since 1945 affected and raised the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan.3. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave large societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill to promote rapid completion of the designation over the national territory. MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Tranportation and Tourism) decided to install X-band rain radars at more sites to cover whole city zones

  4. Algorithm for detecting human faces based on convex-hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Minsick; Park, Chang-Woo; Park, Mignon; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new method to detect faces in color based on the convex-hull. We detect two kinds of regions that are skin and hair likeness region. After preprocessing, we apply the convex-hull to their regions and can find a face from their intersection relationship. The proposed algorithm can accomplish face detection in an image involving rotated and turned faces as well as several faces. To validity the effectiveness of the proposed method, we make experiment with various cases.

  5. A sensor system for detection of hull surface defects.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Fernández, Carlos; Sánchez, Pedro; Suardíaz, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results.

  6. A comparative study of ship hull structures fatigue assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petinov, Sergei V.; Polezhayeva, Helena A.; Yermolayeva, Natalya S.

    1992-07-01

    Several methods of fatigue assessment in ship hull structures are compared. The analysis is focused on fatigue problems of hull structures concerning: evaluation, the design state of fatigue damage of a structure formulation, and the adequacy of methods and data bases for the purpose of the analyses. To illustrate the discussion, examples of allowable nominal stress at a given fatigue life calculation are presented for bottom frame web slot and for a bottom longitudinal transverse bulkhead bracket connection in the case of a container ship. The low cycle (local strain) method is regarded as the most advantageous at present almost in all practical problems connected to fatigue.

  7. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  8. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On...

  9. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flammable cargoes in bulk as of the date when the tank vessel was built or as of the date when the vessel...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  10. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flammable cargoes in bulk as of the date when the tank vessel was built or as of the date when the vessel...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  11. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... built, or as of the date when the vessel was converted into a tank vessel. In the absence of such...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  12. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... built, or as of the date when the vessel was converted into a tank vessel. In the absence of such...-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

  13. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  14. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  15. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  16. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  17. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  19. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  20. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  1. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  2. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  3. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  4. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  5. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  6. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  7. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  8. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Double hulls on tank vessels. 157... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10d Double hulls on tank vessels. (a) With the... completed after December 31, 1993; or (4) That is otherwise required to have a double hull by 46...

  9. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Application of Double Hull Requirements 1. Source. These timetables conform to 46 U.S.C. 3703a(c). 2... double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Coast Guard to be as effective as...

  10. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Application of Double Hull Requirements 1. Source. These timetables conform to 46 U.S.C. 3703a(c). 2... double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Coast Guard to be as effective as...

  11. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964, and Carrying...

  12. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964, and Carrying...

  13. Numerical modeling on tertiary creep behavior of extreme rainfall-induced landslides with TRMM application for landslide early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dok, A.; Fukuoka, H.; Katsumi, T.; Inui, T.

    2012-12-01

    In help issue warning of extreme rainfall-induced landslide in tropical soils of Southeast Asian countries, it requires the study of landslide mechanism induced by generated excess pore water pressure at the sliding surface due to groundwater table rise under rainfall storm, and examination of empirical relationship between rainfall characteristics and past landslide occurrence (precipitation analysis). To investigate the tertiary creep behavior in soils found by Fukuzono, 1985 (d2x/dt2=A(dx/dt)α, where x is surface displacement, t is time, and A and α are constant), a series of pore-pressure-controlled tests on saturated sands were undertaken in the ring shear apparatus. The tests were conducted under combined condition of predefined normal stress and shear stress with pore water pressure changes to simulate the potential sliding surface condition in heavy rainfall. Sand, its mixture with clay material, and soil samples taken at actual landslide sliding surface were used for specimen. Repeated shear test for a specimen was also additionally conducted to produce reactivated motion landslides. Numerical model simulating the Tertiary creep behavior (or progressive failure) is constructed to develop a most appropriate method for landslide early warning combined with TRMM satellite rainfall data. TRMM data were selected to apply to the Japanese Soil Water Index (SWI) in distributing threshold of highly nonlinear rainfall patterns for estimating the landslide occurrence in developing regions: Southeast Asian countries, where very limited number of rain gauges is available, and there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. It is through the plot of total water of 3 serial tank models and daily precipitation with case example of landslide disasters took place in Beichuan city, (located on the 2008 Chinese Wenchuan earthquake fault) and Hofu city, Japan which were hit by heavy rainfall attacked in 2009. Consequently, it is

  14. Modeling of steady motion and vertical-plane dynamics of a tunnel hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Christopher S.; Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2014-06-01

    High-speed marine vehicles can take advantage of aerodynamically supported platforms or air wings to increase maximum speed or transportation efficiency. However, this also results in increased complexity of boat dynamics, especially in the presence of waves and wind gusts. In this study, a mathematical model based on the fully unsteady aerodynamic extreme-ground-effect theory and the hydrodynamic added-mass strip theory is applied for simulating vertical-plane motions of a tunnel hull in a disturbed environment, as well as determining its steady states in calm conditions. Calculated responses of the boat to wind gusts and surface waves are demonstrated. The present model can be used as a supplementary method for preliminary estimations of performance of aerodynamically assisted marine craft.

  15. Hulled wheats: Origin, nutritional value and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and domesticated hulled (or non-free threshing) wheat species are among the most ancient cereals of the Fertile Crescent and the Mediterranean Region. They include wild emmer, the progenitor of most cultivated wheat species; wild and domesticated einkorn; and domesticated emmer and spelt wheat....

  16. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (2) All “open hopper” type barges shall be provided with coamings around the hopper space and a 36... provided with an 18-inch minimum coaming all around the hopper. (3) All “open hopper” type barges modified... requirements of the American Bureau of Shipping. (b) Hull structural requirements. (1) All Types I, II, and...

  17. Neighborhood Centre Project, Hull, September 1982 - October 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Margaret; Doyle, Patrick

    Brief reports provided in this paper document aspects of a neighborhood-center project in Hull, England. The project was aimed primarily at facilitating parent/community involvement in the education of very young children through the establishment of parent activity groups. Beginning with activity groups such as mother/toddler clubs, a community…

  18. Water Pressure Distribution on a Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, F L

    1931-01-01

    This is the third in a series of investigations of the water pressures on seaplane floats and hulls, and completes the present program. It consisted of determining the water pressures and accelerations on a Curtiss H-16 flying boat during landing and taxiing maneuvers in smooth and rough water.

  19. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  20. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  1. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  2. 4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, TOP OF FORWARD STARBOARD CARGO HATCH IN FOREGROUND, OPENING FOR PORT HATCH BEYOND Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  3. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  4. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance. (b... of steel, or bronze or other ductile material approved by the Commandant. ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD...

  5. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance. (b... of steel, or bronze or other ductile material approved by the Commandant. ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD...

  6. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance. (b... of steel, or bronze or other ductile material approved by the Commandant. ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD...

  7. Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in Lake Superior. The tender ran aground on rocks several months earlier and was battered by winter storms. The wrecked vessel became part of an underwater preserve and is regularly visited by recreational divers - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter MESQUITE, Charlevoix, Charlevoix County, MI

  8. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Deep-Stepped Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three deep-stepped planing-tail flying-boat hulls differing only in the amount of step fairing. The hulls were derived by increasing the unfaired step depth of a planing-tail hull of a previous aerodynamic investigation to a depth about 92 percent of the hull beam. Tests were also made on a transverse-stepped hull with an extended afterbody for the purpose of comparison and in order to extend and verify the results of a previous investigation. The investigation indicated that the extended afterbody hull had a minimum drag coefficient about the same as a conventional hull, 0.0066, and an angle-of-attack range for minimum drag coefficient of 0.0057 which was 14 percent less than the transverse stepped hull with extended afterbody; the hulls with step fairing had up to 44 percent less minimum drag coefficient than the transverse-stepped hull, or slightly more drag than a streamlined body having approximately the same length and volume. Longitudinal and lateral instability varied little with step fairing and was about the same as a conventional hull.

  9. Triaxial modulation of the acceleration induced in the lower extremity during whole-body vibration training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, David P; Mileva, Katya N; James, Darren C; Zaidell, Lisa N; Goss, Victor G; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify vibration transmissibility through the lower extremity during exercise on a whole-body vibration (WBV) platform. Six healthy adults completed 20 trials of 30-second static squat exercise at 30 or 40 degrees of knee flexion angle on a WBV platform working at combinations of 5 frequencies (VF: 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz) and 2 amplitudes (VA: low, 1.5 mm or high, 3 mm). Accelerations induced by the platform were recorded simultaneously at the shank and the thigh using triaxial accelerometers positioned at the segmental center of mass. Root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration amplitude and transmission ratios between the platform and the leg segments were calculated and compared between the experimental conditions. An alpha level of 0.05 was set to establish significance. Shank vertical acceleration was greatest at the lower VF (p = 0.028), higher VA (p = 0.028), and deeper squat (p = 0.048). Thigh vertical acceleration was not affected by depth of squat (p = 0.25), but it was greatest at higher VA (p = 0.046) and lower VF (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral shank acceleration was greatest at higher VF and deeper squat (both p = 0.046) and at higher VA (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral thigh acceleration was positively related to both VF (p = 0.046) and VA (p = 0.028) but was not affected by knee angle (p = 0.46). Anterior-posterior shank acceleration was higher at deeper squat (p = 0.046) and at lower VF and higher VA (both p = 0.028). Anterior-posterior thigh acceleration was related positively to the VA (p = 0.028), inversely to the VF (p = 0.028), and not dependent on knee angle (p = 0.75). Identification of specific vibration parameters and posture, which underpin WBV training efficacy, will enable coaches and athletes to design WBV training programs to specifically target shank or thigh muscles for enhanced performance.

  10. Scaling of Convex Hull Volume to Body Mass in Modern Primates, Non-Primate Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Brassey, Charlotte A.; Sellers, William I.

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of ‘convex hulling’ has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (volCH) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within volCH has remained unclear. Specifically, when volCH scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.97–0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11–20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85–1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r2 = 0.36, p<0.05). In contrast, primates scale body mass to volCH with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01–1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the ‘missing mass’ of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat

  11. Production of L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan by Arthrobacter aurescens MK5 α-L-arabinofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Kurakake, Masahiro; Takao, Jyunpei; Asano, Osamu; Tanimoto, Hiroko; Komaki, Toshiaki

    2011-03-01

    Arabinoxylans, which are comprised of a xylan backbone to which are attached glycosyl units that are primarily L-arabinofuranosyl units, are ubiquitous among plant species where it is a constituent of the cell wall. Arabinoxylan has attracted much attention as a potential biomass resource and L-arabinose has recently been reported to possess functional properties that are effective in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we report an α-L-arabinofuranohydrolase, isolated from the soil microbe Arthrobacter aurescens strain MK5, effective in releasing L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan. When A. aurescens strain MK5 was grown in a liquid medium, corn hull arabinoxylan, which has a higher arabinose content (Ara/Xyl = 0.6) than oat spelts xylan (Ara/Xyl = 0.12), induced more efficient arabinoxylan hydrolase production. Analysis of enzyme activity in the culture broth revealed that arabinoxylan hydrolase activity was high, and α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase activities were low. The optimum pH of the MK5 arabinoxylan hydrolase at 40 °C was around 7 and enzyme activity was relatively stable at an alkaline pH up to 9.5. The optimum temperature at pH 7 was around 50 °C and enzyme activity was stable under 50 °C. During the hydrolysis of corn hull arabinoxylan, only L-arabinose was released and 45.1% maximum sugar recovery was achieved. The A. aurescens MK5 enzyme was a typical arabinoxylan α-L-arabinofuranohydrolase and was most effective at releasing L-arabinose from corn hull arabinoxylan, which has a high arabinose content. This enzyme may have important industrial applications.

  12. Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H; Throne, James E

    2012-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), selects rough rice (Oryza sativa L. (Poales: Poaceae)) kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction when these kernels are mixed with intact kernels. Differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) of the varieties Francis and Wells were mixed with intact kernels, and the number of adult progeny emerging from intact kernels and from kernels with cracked hulls was determined. The Wells variety had been previously classified as tolerant to R. dominica, while the Francis variety was classified as moderately susceptible. Few F 1 progeny were produced in Wells regardless of the percentage of kernels with cracked hulls, few of the kernels with cracked hulls had emergence holes, and little firass was produced from feeding damage. At 10 and 20% kernels with cracked hulls, the progeny production, number of emergence holes in kernels with cracked hulls, and the amount of firass was greater in Francis than in Wells. The proportion of progeny emerging from kernels with cracked hulls increased as the proportion of kernels with cracked hulls increased. The results indicate that R. dominica select kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction.

  13. Constraint-induced movement therapy as a rehabilitation intervention for upper extremity in stroke patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Etoom, Mohammad; Hawamdeh, Mohannad; Hawamdeh, Ziad; Alwardat, Mohammad; Giordani, Laura; Bacciu, Serenella; Scarpini, Claudia; Foti, Calogero

    2016-09-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is a neurorehabilitation technique designed to improve upper extremity motor functions after stroke. This review aimed to investigate evidence of the effect of CIMT on upper extremity in stroke patients and to identify optimal methods to apply CIMT. Four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and PEDro) and reference lists of relevant articles and reviews were searched. Randomized clinical trials that studied the effect of CIMT on upper extremity outcomes in stroke patients compared with other rehabilitative techniques, usual care, or no intervention were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro score. The following data were extracted for each trial: patients' characteristics, sample size, eligibility criteria, protocols of CIMT and control groups, outcome measurements, and the PEDro score. A total of 38 trials were identified according to the inclusion criteria. The trials included were heterogeneous in CIMT protocols, time since stroke, and duration and frequency of treatment. The pooled meta-analysis of 36 trials found a heterogeneous significant effect of CIMT on upper extremity. There was no significant effect of CIMT at different durations of follow-up. The majority of included articles did not fulfill powered sample size and quality criteria. The effect of CIMT changed in terms of sample size and quality features of the articles included. These meta-analysis findings indicate that evidence for the superiority of CIMT in comparison with other rehabilitative interventions is weak. Information on the optimal dose of CIMT and optimal time to start CIMT is still limited.

  14. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J.; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL−1), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL−1), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL−1), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL−1). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  16. Fabrication of renewable biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Malaya Ranjan

    This is an investigation for fabrication of biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics like polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxy butyrate-co- valerate (PHBV). The study was divided into three parts; the first was the development of a suitable PHBV/PLA blend. The second part involved the fabrication of composites from soy hull and PHBV/PLA blend and its comparison with polypropylene (PP)/soy hull composites. The third part was the effect of compatibilizer on the performance of the composites. From tensile study, the elongation of an optimized blend was found to be improved by 148 and 250% over the virgin polymers PHBV and PLA respectively. Scanning electron microscope revealed a stronger fiber-matrix interaction in PHBV/PLA composites over PP composites. Furthermore, the compatibilizer improved the impact and flexural strength by 56 and 32% respectively over the un-compatibilized counterpart; more significantly the resulting compatibilized composites showed improved hydrophobicity by more than 22% over un-compatibilized counterpart.

  17. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  18. Observed changes of temperature extremes during 1960-2005 in China: natural or human-induced variations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jianfeng; David Chen, Yongqin; Chen, Xiaohong

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to statistically examine changes of surface air temperature in time and space and to analyze two factors potentially influencing air temperature changes in China, i.e., urbanization and net solar radiation. Trends within the temperature series were detected by using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. The scientific problem this study expected to address was that what could be the role of human activities in the changes of temperature extremes. Other influencing factors such as net solar radiation were also discussed. The results of this study indicated that: (1) increasing temperature was observed mainly in the northeast and northwest China; (2) different behaviors were identified in the changes of maximum and minimum temperature respectively. Maximum temperature seemed to be more influenced by urbanization, which could be due to increasing urban albedo, aerosol, and air pollutions in the urbanized areas. Minimum temperature was subject to influences of variations of net solar radiation; (3) not significant increasing and even decreasing temperature extremes in the Yangtze River basin and the regions south to the Yangtze River basin could be the consequences of higher relative humidity as a result of increasing precipitation; (4) the entire China was dominated by increasing minimum temperature. Thus, we can say that the warming process of China was reflected mainly by increasing minimum temperature. In addition, consistently increasing temperature was found in the upper reaches of the Yellow River basin, the Yangtze River basin, which have the potential to enhance the melting of permafrost in these areas. This may trigger new ecological problems and raise new challenges for the river basin scale water resource management.

  19. Tank Tests of Model 36 Flying Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, John

    1938-01-01

    N.A.C.A. Model 36, a hull form with parallel middle body for half the length of the forebody and designed particularly for use with stub wings, was tested according to the general fixed-trim method over the range of practical loads, trims, and speeds. It was also tested free to trim with the center of gravity at two different positions. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The resistance at the hump was exceptionally low but, at high planing speeds, afterbody interference made the performance only mediocre.

  20. Supervised classification of protein structures based on convex hull representation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wu, Ling-Yun; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2007-01-01

    One of the central problems in functional genomics is to establish the classification schemes of protein structures. In this paper the relationship of protein structures is uncovered within the framework of supervised learning. Specifically, the novel patterns based on convex hull representation are firstly extracted from a protein structure, then the classification system is constructed and machine learning methods such as neural networks, Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are applied. The CATH scheme is highlighted in the classification experiments. The results indicate that the proposed supervised classification scheme is effective and efficient.

  1. Numerical study on the 3-D complex characteristics of flow around the hull structure of TLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jia-yang; Zhu, Xin-yao; Yang, Jian-min; Lu, Yan-xiang; Xiao, Long-fei

    2015-06-01

    Vortex-induced motion is based on the complex characteristics of the flow around the tension leg platform (TLP) hull. By considering the flow field of the South China Sea and the configuration of the platform, three typical flow velocities and three flow directions are chosen to study the numerical simulation of the flow field characteristics around the TLP hull. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations combined with the detached eddy simulation turbulence model are employed in the numerical study. The hydrodynamic coefficients of columns and pontoons, the total drag and lift coefficients of the TLP, the formation and development of the wake, and the vorticity iso-surfaces for different inlet velocities and current directions are discussed in this paper. The average value of the drag coefficient of the upstream columns is considerably larger than that of the downstream columns in the inlet direction of 0°. Although the time history of the lift coefficient demonstrates a "beating" behavior, the plot shows regularity in general. The Strouhal number decreases as the inlet velocity increases from the power spectral density plot at different flow velocities. The mean root values of the lift and drag coefficients of the front column decrease as the current direction increases. Under the symmetrical configuration of 45°, the streamwise force on C4 is the smallest, whereas the transverse force is the largest. The broken vortex conditions in current directions of 22.5° and 45° are more serious than that in the current direction of 0°. In addition, turbulence at the bottom of the TLP becomes stronger when the current direction changes from 0° to 45°. However, a high inlet velocity indicates a large region influenced by the broken vortex and shows the emergence of the wake behind the TLP under the same current angle.

  2. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182 Section 154.182 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure §...

  3. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182 Section 154.182 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure §...

  4. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  5. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  6. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  7. Barley hulls and straw constituents and emulsifying properties of their hemicelluloses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley hulls (husks) are potential by-products of barley ethanol production. Barley straw is an abundant biomass in the regions producing barley for malting, feeds, and fuel ethanol. Both barley hulls and straw contain valuable hemicelluloses (arabinoxylans) and other useful carbohydrate and non-car...

  8. Edith de Nancrede at Hull-House: Theatre Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Stuart J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the work of Edith de Nancrede in developing theater programs for youth at Chicago's Hull-House during the early part of the twentieth century. Describes how her intense dedication to theater and education contributed to the success of Hull-House and to the achievements of its leader, Jane Addams. (PRA)

  9. 33 CFR 80.135 - Hull, MA to Race Point, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. 80.135 Section 80.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point, MA....

  10. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... underwater visibility is poor, to provide the camera with a clear view of the hull. (b) You may use...

  11. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... underwater visibility is poor, to provide the camera with a clear view of the hull. (b) You may use...

  12. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... underwater visibility is poor, to provide the camera with a clear view of the hull. (b) You may use...

  13. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... underwater visibility is poor, to provide the camera with a clear view of the hull. (b) You may use...

  14. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently discovered and characterized rice hull liquid smoke extract was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-agar method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of rice hull smoke extract was found to be 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial a...

  15. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 25.527 Section 25.527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B. (7) r...

  16. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 25.527 Section 25.527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B. (7) r...

  17. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  18. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  19. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 25.533 Section 25.533 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General....

  20. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 23.533 Section 23.533 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.533 Hull and main...

  1. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 23.533 Section 23.533 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.533 Hull and main...

  2. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 23.527 Section 23.527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.527 Hull and main float...

  3. 46 CFR 128.230 - Penetrations of hulls and watertight bulkheads-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.230 Penetrations of hulls and watertight bulkheads—materials and pressure design. (a) Each piping... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penetrations of hulls and watertight...

  4. Genetic variation and association mapping of silica concentration in rice hulls using a germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association analysis on the genetic variability for silica concentration in rice hulls was performed using a “Mini-Core” set of 174 accessions representative of the germplasm diversity found in the USDA world collection of rice. Hull silica concentration was determined in replicated trials conducte...

  5. 33 CFR 80.135 - Hull, MA to Race Point, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. 80.135 Section 80.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point, MA....

  6. Influence of combinations of oat hulls and sodium trimetaphosphate upon dental caries in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stookey, G K; McDonald, J L

    1980-05-01

    Two rat caries studies were conducted in which oat hulls, sodium trimetaphosphate, and combinations thereof were incorporated into two different caries-producing diets. The type of diet used was found to influence the anti-caries effects of oat hulls. In many instances, the cariostatic effect of the two agents was additive or even synergistic. PMID:6928874

  7. Composition of liquid rice hull smoke and anti-inflamatory effects in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidative, antiallergic, and antiinflammatory activities of a new liquid rice hull (husk) smoke extract prepared by pyrolysis of rice hulls followed by liquefaction of the resulting smoke were assessed in vitro and in vivo. At pH 5, the liquid smoke extract inhibited 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ...

  8. Development of cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method for parametric submarine hull form design to optimize hull resistance using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrismianto, Deddy; Zakki, Ahmad Fauzan; Arswendo, Berlian; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-12-01

    Optimization analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) have been applied simultaneously, in which a parametric model plays an important role in finding the optimal solution. However, it is difficult to create a parametric model for a complex shape with irregular curves, such as a submarine hull form. In this study, the cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method are used to generate a solid model of a parametric submarine hull form taking three input parameters into account: nose radius, tail radius, and length-height hull ratio ( L/ H). Application program interface (API) scripting is also used to write code in the ANSYS design modeler. The results show that the submarine shape can be generated with some variation of the input parameters. An example is given that shows how the proposed method can be applied successfully to a hull resistance optimization case. The parametric design of the middle submarine type was chosen to be modified. First, the original submarine model was analyzed, in advance, using CFD. Then, using the response surface graph, some candidate optimal designs with a minimum hull resistance coefficient were obtained. Further, the optimization method in goal-driven optimization (GDO) was implemented to find the submarine hull form with the minimum hull resistance coefficient ( C t ). The minimum C t was obtained. The calculated difference in C t values between the initial submarine and the optimum submarine is around 0.26%, with the C t of the initial submarine and the optimum submarine being 0.001 508 26 and 0.001 504 29, respectively. The results show that the optimum submarine hull form shows a higher nose radius ( r n ) and higher L/ H than those of the initial submarine shape, while the radius of the tail ( r t ) is smaller than that of the initial shape.

  9. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  10. Discovery of star formation in the extreme outer galaxy possibly induced by a high-velocity cloud impact

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi; Yasui, Chikako; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Saito, Masao

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of star formation activity in perhaps the most distant molecular cloud in the extreme outer galaxy. We performed deep near-infrared imaging with the Subaru 8.2 m telescope, and found two young embedded clusters at two CO peaks of 'Digel Cloud 1' at the kinematic distance of D = 16 kpc (Galactocentric radius R {sub G} = 22 kpc). We identified 18 and 45 cluster members in the two peaks, and the estimated stellar densities are ∼5 and ∼3 pc{sup –2}, respectively. The observed K-band luminosity function suggests that the age of the clusters is less than 1 Myr and also that the distance to the clusters is consistent with the kinematic distance. On the sky, Cloud 1 is located very close to the H I peak of high-velocity cloud Complex H, and there are some H I intermediate velocity structures between the Complex H and the Galactic disk, which could indicate an interaction between them. We suggest the possibility that Complex H impacting on the Galactic disk has triggered star formation in Cloud 1 as well as the formation of the Cloud 1 molecular cloud.

  11. Spectral investigations of photoionized plasmas induced in atomic and molecular gases using nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Wachulak, P.

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, results of spectral investigations of low temperature photoionized plasmas, created by irradiation of gases with intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, are presented. The LPP source was based on a double-stream KrXe/He gas-puff target irradiated with 4 ns/0.8 J/10 Hz Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region λ ≈ 10–12 nm; however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV beam was focused on a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the EUV range. Radiation spectra, measured for plasmas produced in various gases, are dominated by emission lines, originating from single charged ions. Significant differences in spectral intensities and distributions between plasmas created in neon and molecular gases were observed.

  12. Spectral investigations of photoionized plasmas induced in atomic and molecular gases using nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Wachulak, P.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, results of spectral investigations of low temperature photoionized plasmas, created by irradiation of gases with intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, are presented. The LPP source was based on a double-stream KrXe/He gas-puff target irradiated with 4 ns/0.8 J/10 Hz Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region λ ≈ 10-12 nm; however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV beam was focused on a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the EUV range. Radiation spectra, measured for plasmas produced in various gases, are dominated by emission lines, originating from single charged ions. Significant differences in spectral intensities and distributions between plasmas created in neon and molecular gases were observed.

  13. Faba bean hulls as a potential source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed for the first time to assess the potential use of faba bean hulls as a source of pectin. The study involved extracting pectin under various conditions of pH, temperature and extraction time and determining how these conditions affected pectin yield and its characteristics. The maximum yield of extracted pectin did not coincide with the highest degree of esterification since the maximum yield (15.75 %) was recorded at pH 1.5 and at a temperature of 85 °C for an 80-min extraction period and solid to liquid (1: 25) ratio, while the highest degree of esterification (54.62 %) occurred at pH 2.5 and at temperature of 90 °C for a 60-min extraction period. The composition of the pectin varied according to the extraction conditions: the neutral sugars galactose, arabinose and rhamnose increased under milder extraction conditions while glucose, mannose and xylose sugars predominated under harsher extraction conditions. The results indicated that faba bean hulls contains adequate amount of pectin, suitable for commercial utilization. PMID:26345029

  14. Hot-compressed water extraction of polysaccharides from soy hulls.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Fei-Yun; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-07-01

    The polysaccharides of soy hulls were extracted by hot-compressed water at temperatures of 110 from 180°C and various treatment times (10-150min) in a batch system. It was determined that a moderate temperature and short time are suitable for the preparation of polysaccharides. The structure of xylan and the inter- and intra-chain hydrogen bonding of cellulose fibrils in the soy hulls were not significantly broken down. The polysaccharides obtained were primarily composed of α-L-arabinofuranosyl units, 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid units and α-D-galactose units attached with substituted units. A sugar analysis indicated that arabinose was the major component, constituting 35.6-46.9% of the polysaccharide products extracted at 130°C, 140°C, and 150°C. This investigation contributes to the knowledge of the polysaccharides of soy by-products, which can reduce the environmental impact of waste from the food industries. PMID:26920272

  15. Faba bean hulls as a potential source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed for the first time to assess the potential use of faba bean hulls as a source of pectin. The study involved extracting pectin under various conditions of pH, temperature and extraction time and determining how these conditions affected pectin yield and its characteristics. The maximum yield of extracted pectin did not coincide with the highest degree of esterification since the maximum yield (15.75 %) was recorded at pH 1.5 and at a temperature of 85 °C for an 80-min extraction period and solid to liquid (1: 25) ratio, while the highest degree of esterification (54.62 %) occurred at pH 2.5 and at temperature of 90 °C for a 60-min extraction period. The composition of the pectin varied according to the extraction conditions: the neutral sugars galactose, arabinose and rhamnose increased under milder extraction conditions while glucose, mannose and xylose sugars predominated under harsher extraction conditions. The results indicated that faba bean hulls contains adequate amount of pectin, suitable for commercial utilization.

  16. Pressure Stagnation Line on a Planing Hull in Calm Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Christine; Judge, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    High-speed planing boats are subjected to repeat impacts due to slamming, which can cause structural damage and discomfort or injury to passengers. An experimental study aimed at understanding and predicting the physics of a planing craft re-entering the water after becoming partially airborne was conducted. A subset of this experiment includes calm water analysis to gain an understanding of the pressure stagnation line and its correlation with the wetted surface on the planning craft in calm water conditions. A planing hull model was towed in a 116-m long, 8-m wide tow-tank with a water depth of 5 m. Hull models at 1/10 and 1/4 of full-scale were examined. These models, only free to move in heave and pitch, were instrumented to measure dynamic pressures with point-pressure sensors at 12 locations near the LCG (longitudinal center of gravity) and transom as well as a highly spatially resolved pressure mapping system. These pressure measurements were sampled at rates up to 20 kHz. Using these pressure measurements along with underwater photos of the wetted surface allowed for the v-shaped wetted line and stagnation line to be measured. Preliminary results show that the peak pressures occur before the wetted line and that atmospheric pressure is reached at the transom. Supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  17. The limits of drought-induced rapid cold-hardening: extremely brief, mild desiccation triggers enhanced freeze-tolerance in Eurosta solidaginis larvae.

    PubMed

    Gantz, J D; Lee, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cold-hardening (RCH) is a highly conserved response in insects that induces physiological changes within minutes to hours of exposure to low temperature and provides protection from chilling injury. Recently, a similar response, termed drought-induced RCH, was described following as little as 6h of desiccation, producing a loss of less than 10% of fresh mass. In this study, we investigated the limits and mechanisms of this response in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). The cold-hardiness of larvae increased markedly after as few as 2h of desiccation and a loss of less than 1% fresh mass, as organismal survival increased from 8% to 41% following exposure to -18 °C. Tissue-level effects of desiccation were observed within 1h, as 87% of midgut cells from desiccated larvae remained viable following freezing compared to 57% of controls. We also demonstrated that drought-induced RCH occurs independently of neuroendocrine input, as midgut tissue desiccated ex vivo displayed improved freeze-tolerance relative to control tissue (78-11% survival, respectively). Finally, though there was an increase in hemolymph osmolality beyond the expected effects of the osmo-concentration of solutes during dehydration, we determined that this increase was not due to the synthesis of glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, or trehalose. Our results indicate that E. solidaginis larvae are extremely sensitive to desiccation, which is a triggering mechanism for one or more physiological pathways that confer enhanced freeze-tolerance.

  18. The limits of drought-induced rapid cold-hardening: extremely brief, mild desiccation triggers enhanced freeze-tolerance in Eurosta solidaginis larvae.

    PubMed

    Gantz, J D; Lee, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cold-hardening (RCH) is a highly conserved response in insects that induces physiological changes within minutes to hours of exposure to low temperature and provides protection from chilling injury. Recently, a similar response, termed drought-induced RCH, was described following as little as 6h of desiccation, producing a loss of less than 10% of fresh mass. In this study, we investigated the limits and mechanisms of this response in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). The cold-hardiness of larvae increased markedly after as few as 2h of desiccation and a loss of less than 1% fresh mass, as organismal survival increased from 8% to 41% following exposure to -18 °C. Tissue-level effects of desiccation were observed within 1h, as 87% of midgut cells from desiccated larvae remained viable following freezing compared to 57% of controls. We also demonstrated that drought-induced RCH occurs independently of neuroendocrine input, as midgut tissue desiccated ex vivo displayed improved freeze-tolerance relative to control tissue (78-11% survival, respectively). Finally, though there was an increase in hemolymph osmolality beyond the expected effects of the osmo-concentration of solutes during dehydration, we determined that this increase was not due to the synthesis of glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, or trehalose. Our results indicate that E. solidaginis larvae are extremely sensitive to desiccation, which is a triggering mechanism for one or more physiological pathways that confer enhanced freeze-tolerance. PMID:25545423

  19. Extreme tolerance and developmental buffering of UV-C induced DNA damage in embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Josiah T; Podrabsky, Jason E

    2015-01-01

    Free-living aquatic embryos are often at risk of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV-R). Successful completion of embryonic development depends on efficient removal of DNA lesions, and thus many aquatic embryos have mechanisms to reverse DNA lesions induced by UV-R. However, little is known of how embryos that are able to enter embryonic dormancy may respond to UV-R exposure and subsequent DNA damage. Embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus are unique among vertebrates because their normal embryonic development includes (1) a complete dispersion of embryonic blastomeres prior to formation of the definitive embryonic axis, and (2) entry into a state of metabolic depression and developmental arrest termed diapause. Here, we show that developing and diapausing embryos of A. limnaeus have exceptional tolerance of UV-C radiation and can successfully complete embryonic development after receiving substantial doses of UV-C, especially if allowed to recover in full-spectrum light. Recovery in full-spectrum light permits efficient removal of the most common type of DNA lesion induced by UV-R: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Interestingly, whole-mount embryo TUNEL assays suggest that apoptosis may not be a major contributor to cell death in embryos UV-C irradiated during dispersion/reaggregation or diapause. We also observed embryo mortality to be significantly delayed by several weeks in diapausing embryos irradiated and allowed to recover in the dark. These atypical responses to UV-R induced DNA damage may be due to the unique annual killifish life history and provide insight into DNA damage repair and recognition mechanisms during embryonic dormancy.

  20. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Fadakar, Kaveh; Saba, Valiallah; Farzampour, Shahrokh

    2013-06-01

    The electromagnetic fields (EMF) have various behavioral and biological effects on human body. There are growing concerns about the consequences of exposure to EMF. However, some studies have shown beneficial effects of these waves on human. In this paper, we study the effect of acute, sub acute and long-term exposure to 50 Hz, 0.1 mT magnetic fields (MF) on the seizure induction threshold in mice. 64 mice are used and divided into four groups. Eight mice in any group were selected to be exposed to MF for specific duration and the others were used as a control group. The duration of the applied exposures was as follows: (1) 1 day (acute), (2) 3 days (sub acute), (3) 2 weeks (sub acute), (4) 1 month (long term). The mice were exposed 2 h for a day. After exposure, the pentylentetrazol (PTZ) is injected to the mice to induce seizure and the needed dose for the seizure induction threshold is measured. In the acute exposure, the threshold to induce seizure in the exposed and sham-exposed groups was 44.25 and 46.5 mg, respectively, while the difference was not significant (p value = 0.5). In the sub acute exposure (3 days), the mean amount of drug to induce seizure was 47.38 mg in the exposed and 43.88 mg in the sham-exposed groups, however, the difference was not significant (p value = 0.3). The results were 52.38 and 46.75 mg after 2 weeks of exposure which were not significantly different either (p value = 0.2). After 1 month of exposure to MF, the threshold for the induction of seizure was significantly increased (p value < 0.05). The mean dosage to induce seizure in the exposed and control group was 54.3 and 45.75 mg, respectively. However, considering the p value, the difference in the seizure induction threshold between the exposed and sham-exposed groups after acute and sub acute exposure was not significant, analyzing the effects of acute, sub acute and long-term exposures totally indicates that increasing the exposure time increases the

  1. Extreme Rainfall and Flood Events for the Hudson River Induced by Tropical Cyclones: a Statistical Forecast Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conticello, F.; Hall, T. M.; Lall, U.; Orton, P. M.; Cioffi, F.; Georgas, N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) lead to potentially severe coastal flooding through wind surge and also through rainfall-runoff processes. There is growing interest in modeling these processes simultaneously. Here, a statistical approach that can facilitate this process is presented with an application to the Hudson River Basin that is associated with the New York City metropolitan area. Three submodels are used in sequence. The first submodel is a stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones developed by Hall and Yonekura (2011). It uses archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and of sea surface temperature (SST). The second submodel translates the attributes of a tropical cyclone simulated by the first model to the streamflows at specific points of the tributaries of the Hudson River. That points are the closure sections of five different watersheds. Two different approaches are used and compared: 1) an ANN-cyclone/rainfall clustering model which calculates the rainfall intensity at selected stations within the watershed, that are then used as inputs of an ANN rainfall/runoff model; 2) an ANN/ Bayesian multivariate approach that translates the TC attributes ( track, SST, Velocities,..) directly in streamflows in the tributaries. Finally, the streamflows of the tributaries of the Hudson River are to be used as inputs in a hydrodynamic model that includes storm surge dynamics for the simulation of coastal flooding along the Hudson River. Calibration and validation of the model is carried out by using, selected tropical cyclone data since 1950, and hourly and daily station rainfall and streamflow recorded for such extreme events. Seven stream gauges (Croton River, Rondout Creek, Wappinger Creek, Troy dam, Mohawk River at Cohoes, Mohawk River diversion at Crescent Dam, Hudson River above lock one nr Waterford) and over 20 rain gauges are

  2. A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wieggers, R. C.; Goedheer, W. J.; Akdim, M. R.; Bijkerk, F.; Zegeling, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV pulse and the ion-induced sputtering of the coating material of a normal incidence collector mirror is computed. The relation between the time and position at which the ions are created and their final energy is studied, revealing how the evolution and the properties of the sheath influence the amount of sputtered material. The influence of the gas pressure and the source intensity is studied, evaluating the behavior of Ar{sup +} and Ar{sup 2+} ions. A way to reduce the damage to the collector mirror is presented.

  3. To compare the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy versus motor relearning programme to improve motor function of hemiplegic upper extremity after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Sana; Soomro, Nabila; Amjad, Fareeha; Fauz, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy versus motor relearning programme to improve motor function of hemiplegic upper extremity after stroke. Method: A sample of 42 patients was recruited from the Physiotherapy Department of IPM&R and Neurology OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi through non probability purposive sampling technique. Twenty one patients were placed to each experimental and control groups. Experimental group was treated with Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and control group was treated with motor relearning programme (MRP) for three consecutive weeks. Pre and post treatment measurements were determined by upper arm section of Motor Assessment Scale (MAS) and Self Care item of Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Scale. Results: Intra group analysis showed statistically significant results (p-value<0.05) in all items of MAS in both groups. However, advanced hand activities item of MAS in MRP group showed insignificant result (p-value=0.059). Self-care items of FIM Scale also showed significant result (p-value< 0.05) in both groups except dressing upper body item (p-value=0.059) in CIMT group and grooming and dressing upper body items (p-value=0.059 & 0.063) in MRP group showed insignificant p-values. Conclusion: CIMT group showed more significant improvement in motor function and self-care performance of hemiplegic upper extremity as compared to MRP group in patients with sub-acute stroke assessed by the MAS and FIM scales. Thus CIMT is proved to be more statistically significant and clinically effective intervention in comparison to motor relearning programme among the patients aged between 35-60 years. Further studies are needed to evaluate CIMT effects in acute and chronic post stroke population. PMID:26649007

  4. Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lingxiao; Gong, Lingyun; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat) with refined wheat flour (HFS-W) or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB) as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD). However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets. PMID:24763110

  5. Anthropogenic changes to seawater buffer capacity combined with natural reef metabolism induce extreme future coral reef CO2 conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Emily C; McNeil, Ben I; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard; Bates, Michael L

    2013-05-01

    Ocean acidification, via an anthropogenic increase in seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 ), is potentially a major threat to coral reefs and other marine ecosystems. However, our understanding of how natural short-term diurnal CO2 variability in coral reefs influences longer term anthropogenic ocean acidification remains unclear. Here, we combine observed natural carbonate chemistry variability with future carbonate chemistry predictions for a coral reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef based on the RCP8.5 CO2 emissions scenario. Rather than observing a linear increase in reef flat partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in concert with rising atmospheric concentrations, the inclusion of in situ diurnal variability results in a highly nonlinear threefold amplification of the pCO2 signal by the end of the century. This significant nonlinear amplification of diurnal pCO2 variability occurs as a result of combining natural diurnal biological CO2 metabolism with long-term decreases in seawater buffer capacity, which occurs via increasing anthropogenic CO2 absorption by the ocean. Under the same benthic community composition, the amplification in the variability in pCO2 is likely to lead to exposure to mean maximum daily pCO2 levels of ca. 2100 μatm, with corrosive conditions with respect to aragonite by end-century at our study site. Minimum pCO2 levels will become lower relative to the mean offshore value (ca. threefold increase in the difference between offshore and minimum reef flat pCO2 ) by end-century, leading to a further increase in the pCO2 range that organisms are exposed to. The biological consequences of short-term exposure to these extreme CO2 conditions, coupled with elevated long-term mean CO2 conditions are currently unknown and future laboratory experiments will need to incorporate natural variability to test this. The amplification of pCO2 that we describe here is not unique to our study location, but will occur in all shallow coastal environments where high

  6. A smart ROV solution for ship hull and harbor inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Scott; Wood, Jon; Vazquez, Jose; Mignotte, Pierre-Yves; Privat, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    Hull and harbor infrastructure inspections are frequently performed manually and involve quite a bit of risk and human and monetary resources. In any kind of threat and resource constrained environment, this involves unacceptable levels of risk and cost. Modern Remotely Operated Vehicles are highly refined machines that provide features and capabilities previously unavailable. Operations once carried out by divers can now be carried out more quickly, efficiently and safely by smart enabled ROVs. ROVs are rapidly deployable and capable of continuous, reliable operations in adverse conditions. They also provide a stable platform on which multiple sensors may be mounted and utilized to meet the harbor inspection problem. Automated Control software provides ROV's and their pilots with the capability to inspect complex, constrained environments such as those found in a harbor region. This application and the user interface allow the ROV to automatically conduct complex maneuvers relative to the area being inspected and relieves the training requirements and work load for the pilot, allowing he or she to focus on the primary task of survey, inspection and looking for possible threats (such as IEDs, Limpet Mines, signs of sabotage, etc). Real-time sensor processing tools can be integrated into the smart ROV solution to assist the operator. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are used to search through the sensor data collected by the ROV in real time. These algorithms provide immediate feedback on possible threats and notify the operator of regions that may require manual verification. Sensor data (sonar or video) is also mosaiced, providing the operator with real-time situational awareness and a coverage map of the hull or seafloor. Detected objects may also be placed in the context of the large scale characteristics of the hull (or bottom or pilings) and localized. Within the complex areas such as the harbor pier pilings and the running gear of the ship, real

  7. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Low-drag, Planing-tail Flying-boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suydam, Henry B

    1948-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat incorporating a low-drag, planing-tail hull were determined from model tests made in Langley tank number 2 and compared with tests of the same flying boat incorporating a conventional-type hull. The planing-tail model, with which stable take-offs were possible for a large range of elevator positions at all center-of-gravity locations tested, had more take-off stability than the conventional model. No upper-limit porpoising was encountered by the planing-tail model. The maximum changes in rise during landings were lower for the planing-tail model than for the conventional model at most contact trims, an indication of improved landing stability for the planing-tail model. The hydrodynamic resistance of the planing-tail hull was lower than the conventional hull at all speeds, and the load-resistance ratio was higher for the planing-tail hull, being especially high at the hump. The static trim of the planing-tail hull was much higher than the conventional hull, but the variation of trim with speed during take-off was smaller.

  8. Maximum margin classification based on flexible convex hulls for fault diagnosis of roller bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ming; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jinde; Cheng, Junsheng

    2016-01-01

    A maximum margin classification based on flexible convex hulls (MMC-FCH) is proposed and applied to fault diagnosis of roller bearings. In this method, the class region of each sample set is approximated by a flexible convex hull of its training samples, and then an optimal separating hyper-plane that maximizes the geometric margin between flexible convex hulls is constructed by solving a closest pair of points problem. By using the kernel trick, MMC-FCH can be extended to nonlinear cases. In addition, multi-class classification problems can be processed by constructing binary pairwise classifiers as in support vector machine (SVM). Actually, the classical SVM also can be regarded as a maximum margin classification based on convex hulls (MMC-CH), which approximates each class region with a convex hull. The convex hull is a special case of the flexible convex hull. To train a MMC-FCH classifier, time-domain and frequency-domain statistical parameters are extracted not only from raw vibration signals but also from the resulting intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by performing empirical mode decomposition (EMD) on the raw signals, and then the distance evaluation technique (DET) is used to select salient features from the whole statistical features. The experiments on bearing datasets show that the proposed method can reliably recognize different bearing faults.

  9. Immune challenge induces differential corticosterone and interleukin-6 responsiveness in rats bred for extremes in anxiety-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Salome, N; Tasiemski, A; Dutriez, I; Wigger, A; Landgraf, R; Viltart, O

    2008-02-19

    Disturbances in mood such as anxiety and depression are often associated with altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, but also with changes in cytokine production, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), an essential immune factor produced by macrophages and lymphocytes during inflammatory processes. The reciprocal relationship between the HPA axis and the immune system is now well established. In order to understand better the endocrine reactivity of anxious individuals faced with an immune challenge, a model of innate anxiety-related behavior, HAB and LAB rats (HABs, high and LABs, low anxiety-related behavior) was used in this study. We sought to determine whether injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a differential HPA axis reactivity and plasma IL-6 release in HABs and LABs. After LPS injection, the plasma adrenal corticotrophic hormone increase did not differ between HABs and LABs, whereas a larger increase in plasma corticosterone levels occurred in HABs than in LABs at 2 h after injection. Moreover, basal IL-6 levels were lower in HABs than in LABs, leading to a higher IL-6 2 h/basal ratio in HABs. In conclusion, we propose for the first time a link between the endocrine and immune systems of HABs and LABs and suggest that IL-6 could be a neuroendocrine correlate of trait anxiety in HABs. PMID:18207648

  10. Functional brain measurements within the prefrontal area on pseudo-"blindsight" induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic stimulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ueno, Shoogo

    2015-05-01

    For evaluating the effects of phosphene as pseudo-blindsight closely, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate whether or not the phosphene appearance itself substantially affects the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal area. Seven healthy volunteers ranging in age from 22 to 72 participated in the visual stimulation experiments. First, we examined the influences of electromagnetic stimulations at around the threshold (10 mT) for a blindsight-like phosphene on the responses. According to the results of the aged volunteers, we found the possibility that the delay in the phosphene perception might be caused by aging beyond a certain age. In the results of our measurements using the stimulation of 50 mT, no significant difference in the perception delay for all the volunteers could be detected. When the field strength was decreased from 50 mT to the threshold in steps of 10 mT, the results obtained at the threshold are equivalent to that obtained at 50 mT. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that pseudo-blindsight induced by electromagnetic stimulation of above 50 mT is able to excite all the volunteers' retinal photoreceptor cells provisionally. Hence the continuous stimulations for a long period of time might gradually activate synaptic plasticity on the neural network of the retina.

  11. Tank Tests of Model 11-G Flying-boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J B

    1935-01-01

    The NACA model 11-G flying-boat hull, a modification of NACA model 11-A was tested over a range of loadings. The planing bottom of model 11-G has a variable-radius flare, or concavity, at the chines in contrast to the straight V planing bottom of model 11-A. The results are given as curves of resistance and trimming moment plotted against speed for various angles of trim. The characteristics of the form at the optimum angles of trim are given in non-dimensional form as curves of resistance coefficient, best trim angle, and trimming-moment coefficient plotted against speed coefficient. As compared with the original form, model 11-G is shown to have higher resistance at all loads and speeds and higher maximum trimming moments at heavy loads. The spray pattern, however, is generally more favorable, indicating that the service performance of model 11-A would be improved by some form of chime flare.

  12. Underwater sound of rigid-hulled inflatable boats.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Liong, Syafrin; Koessler, Matthew Walter; Duncan, Alec J; Gourlay, Tim

    2016-06-01

    Underwater sound of rigid-hulled inflatable boats was recorded 142 times in total, over 3 sites: 2 in southern British Columbia, Canada, and 1 off Western Australia. Underwater sound peaked between 70 and 400 Hz, exhibiting strong tones in this frequency range related to engine and propeller rotation. Sound propagation models were applied to compute monopole source levels, with the source assumed 1 m below the sea surface. Broadband source levels (10-48 000 Hz) increased from 134 to 171 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m with speed from 3 to 16 m/s (10-56 km/h). Source power spectral density percentile levels and 1/3 octave band levels are given for use in predictive modeling of underwater sound of these boats as part of environmental impact assessments. PMID:27369176

  13. Static and dynamic collaborative optimization of ship hull structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hai-Yan; Wang, De-Yu

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this effort was to provide a static and dynamic collaborative optimization (CO) model for the design of ship hull structure. The CO model integrated with static, mode and dynamic analyses. In the system-level optimization model, a new objective function was advised, integrating all the subsystem-levels’ objective functions, so as to eliminate the effects of dimensions and magnitude order. The proposed CO architecture enabled multi-objectives of the system and subsystem-level to be considered at both levels during optimization. A bi-level optimization strategy was advised, using the multi-island genetic algorithm. The proposed model was demonstrated with a deck optimization problem of container ship stern. The analysis progress and results of example show that the CO strategy is not only feasible and reliable, but also well suited for use in actual optimization problems of ship design.

  14. Effects of symmetrical foundation on sound radiation from a submarine hull structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyang; Su, Jinpeng; Wang, Jian; Hua, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    The effects of a passive noise control method for suppressing sound radiation from a submarine hull structure are investigated. The control method is realized by symmetrizing the foundation about the horizontal plane. The coupled finite element method and boundary element method are adopted to compute the acoustic characteristics of the submerged hull. From the numerical results, the symmetrical foundation has advantages in sound radiation reduction when the hull is subjected to the axial load, but has little influences in the vertical and transverse load cases. Using the modal decomposition technique, the contributions of each individual mode to the sound radiation are analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the control method. PMID:26627793

  15. The effectiveness of double hulls in reducing vessel-accident oil spillage.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Talley, Wayne K; Jin, Di

    2011-11-01

    While much work has been done in investigating determinants of oil spillage attributed to vessel accidents, little research has been conducted on the effectiveness of ship hull design in reducing marine pollution. This paper addresses whether the double-hull requirement reduces vessel-accident oil spillage. The volume of oil spillage due to oil-cargo vessel accidents was investigated using tobit regressions and an empirical data set of individual vessel accident pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard from 2001 to 2008. The results indicate that the double hull design on average reduces the size of oil spills by 20% and 62% in tank barge and tanker ship accidents, respectively.

  16. Tank tests of a family of flying-boat hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, James M; Parkinson, John B

    1934-01-01

    This report presents towing tests made in the N.A.C.A. tank of a parent form and five variations of a flying-boat hull. The beams of two of the derived forms were made the same as that of the parent and the lengths changed by increasing and decreasing the spacing of stations. The lengths of the two others of the derived forms were made the same as that of the parent while the beams were changed by increasing and decreasing the spacing of buttocks, all other widths being changed in proportion. The remaining derived form has the same length and beam as the parent, but the lines of the forebody were altered to give a planing bottom with no longitudinal curvature forward of the step. The test data were analyzed to determine the minimum resistance and the angle at which it occurs for all speeds and loads. The results of this analysis are given in the form of non dimensional curves for each model. The effect of variation in over-all size, as indicated by a "complete" test on any given hull, is pointed out. The effect of changing length alone by the spacing of buttocks, as well as the effects of the changes in length-beam ratio and longitudinal curvature that result from these operations are discussed. The difficulties encountered in interpreting test results of systematic families derived by the method used are emphasized. Further studies are suggested in which changes in the variable under consideration would not be obscured by secondary changes in other important variables.

  17. Effects of Revegetation on Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Erosion-Induced Carbon Loss under Extreme Rainstorms in the Hill and Gully Region of the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujin; Jiao, Juying; Wang, Zhijie; Cao, Binting; Wei, Yanhong; Hu, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Loess Plateau, an ecologically vulnerable region, has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Revegetation has been implemented to control soil erosion and improve ecosystems in the Loess Plateau region through a series of ecological recovery programs. However, the increasing atmospheric CO2 as a result of human intervention is affecting the climate by global warming, resulting in the greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as storms that may weaken the effectiveness of revegetation and cause severe soil erosion. Most research to date has evaluated the effectiveness of revegetation on soil properties and soil erosion of different land use or vegetation types. Here, we study the effect of revegetation on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and erosion-induced carbon loss related to different plant communities, particularly under extreme rainstorm events. Materials and methods: The erosion-pin method was used to quantify soil erosion, and soil samples were taken at soil depths of 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm and 10–20 cm to determine the SOC content for 13 typical hillside revegetation communities in the year of 2013, which had the highest rainfall with broad range, long duration and high intensity since 1945, in the Yanhe watershed. Results and discussion: The SOC concentrations of all plant communities increased with soil depth when compared with slope cropland, and significant increases (p < 0.05) were observed for most shrub and forest communities, particularly for natural ones. Taking the natural secondary forest community as reference (i.e., soil loss and SOC loss were both 1.0), the relative soil loss and SOC loss of the other 12 plant communities in 2013 ranged from 1.5 to 9.4 and 0.30 to 1.73, respectively. Natural shrub and forest communities showed greater resistance to rainstorm erosion than grassland communities. The natural grassland communities with lower SOC content produced lower SOC loss even with higher soil

  18. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  19. Consolidation of cladding hulls from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, D. D., Jr.

    1998-04-10

    To consolidate metallic waste that is residual from Argonne National Laboratory's electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel, waste ingots are currently being cast using an induction furnace located in a hot cell. These ingots, which have been developed to serve as final waste forms destined for repository disposal, are stainless steel (SS)-Zr alloys (the Zr is very near 15 wt.%). The charge for the alloys consists of stainless steel cladding hulls, Zr from the fuel being treated, noble metal fission products, and minor amounts of actinides that are present with the cladding hulls. The actual in-dated cladding hulls have been characterized before they were melted into ingots, and the final as-cast ingots have been characterized to determine the degree of consolidation of the charge material. It has been found that ingots can be effectively cast from irradiated cladding hulls residual from the electrometallurgical treatment process by employing an induction furnace located in a hot cell.

  20. 46 CFR 167.15-27 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-27 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As used in this part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing a vessel in a drydock...

  1. 46 CFR 167.15-27 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-27 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As used in this part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing a vessel in a drydock...

  2. 46 CFR 176.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conducting the hull examination; (b) The name of the participating diving contractor and underwater remotely... damage, underwater body cleanliness (if known), and the anticipated draft of the vessel at the time...

  3. Evaluation of soy hulls as a potential ingredient of functional foods for the prevention of obesity.

    PubMed

    Olguin, María Catalina; Posadas, Marta Delia; Revelant, Gilda Celina; Labourdette, Verónica Beatriz; Elías, Héctor Daniel; Venezia, María Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems is rising to epidemic proportions throughout the world. Soy hulls, an industrial waste from oil extraction, contain a high proportion of fiber--soluble and insoluble--and may be a potential ingredient of functional foods for the prevention of obesity. However, crude soybeans, as do all legumes, present challenges to their use because of intensive antitrypsin and antichimotrypsin activity that impairs normal growth in humans and other mammals, requiring inactivation. To evaluate possible antinutritional effects of soybean hulls, diets with 10 percent fiber from soybean hulls or cellulose were offered to weanling IIMb/Beta obese rats during their prepubertal timeframe. The fact that no significant differences were found in growth, blood parameters nor in fat depots' weight and lipid content plus the proven beneficial effects on obese adult rats suggest that soy hulls may be a useful ingredient of functional foods for the prevention and treatment of human obesity.

  4. Thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatment for conversion of soybean hulls to fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Juhyun; Alavi, Sajid; Vadlani, Praveen; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent

    2011-08-01

    Thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass was investigated using soybean hulls as the substrate. The enzyme cocktail used to hydrolyze pretreated soybean hulls to fermentable sugars was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Structural changes in substrate and sugar yields from thermo-mechanical processing were compared with two traditional pretreatment methods that utilized dilute acid (1% sulfuric acid) and alkali (1% sodium hydroxide). Extrusion processing parameters (barrel temperature, in-barrel moisture, screw speed) and processing aids (starch, ethylene glycol) were studied with respect to reducing sugar and glucose yields. The conditions resulting in the highest cellulose to glucose conversion (95%) were screw speed 350rpm, maximum barrel temperature 80°C and in-barrel moisture content 40%wb. Compared with untreated soybean hulls, glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean hulls increased by 69.6%, 128.7% and 132.2%, respectively, when pretreated with dilute acid, alkali and extrusion.

  5. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gross tons— (i) After January 1, 1995, if the vessel is 40 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 45 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides; (ii) After January 1, 1996, if the vessel is 39 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 44 years old or older and has a...

  6. Physicochemical changes in the hull of corn grains during their alkaline cooking.

    PubMed

    González, Regino; Reguera, Edilso; Mendoza, Leobardo; Figueroa, Juan Manuel; Sánchez-Sinencio, Feliciano

    2004-06-16

    The alkaline cooking of corn in a solution of Ca(OH)2 to produce corn-based foods is oriented to make corn proteins available, to incorporate Ca to the cooked grains, and also to remove the corn hull. This process (nixtamalization) is known in Mexico and Guatemala from prehispanic times; however, the effect of the alkaline cooking on the corn hull remains poorly documented. In this work, the physicochemical changes that take place in the corn hull during its cooking in a saturated solution of Ca(OH)2 were studied using infrared, X-ray diffraction, 13C cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR, confocal imaging microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry techniques. The main effect of this treatment on the hull is the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin, increasing the hull permeability and, as a consequence, facilitating the entry of the alkaline solution into the corn kernel. No significant changes were observed in the cellulose fiber network, which remains as native cellulose I, with a crystalline index, according to 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra, of 0.60. The alkaline treatment does not allow the cellulose fibers to swell and their regeneration in the form of cellulose(II). It seems any attempt to make use of the Ca binding capacity of the hull to increase the Ca availability in nixtamalized corn-based foods requires a separated treatment for the hull and kernel. On alkaline cooking, the hull hemicellulose fraction dissolves, losing its ability to bind Ca as a way to incorporate this element into foods elaborated from nixtamalized corn.

  7. Participants' perceptions of a lifestyle approach to promoting physical activity: targeting deprived communities in Kingston-Upon-Hull

    PubMed Central

    Wormald, Helen; Waters, Heidi; Sleap, Mike; Ingle, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Background The health benefits of an active lifestyle have been extensively documented and generally accepted. In the UK, declining physical activity levels are a major contributing factor to a number of public health concerns such as obesity and coronary heart disease. Clearly, there is an urgent need to support people in developing sustainable active lifestyles. In 2003, a new lifestyle-based physical activity service called Active Lifestyles (AL) was set up in Kingston-upon-Hull to help local residents to become more active and develop healthier lifestyles. The service targeted the most deprived communities in the city. The aim of the study was to explore participants' perceptions of the operation and effectiveness of the AL service. Methods Five focus groups were conducted in community centres and offices in the health promotion service in Kingston-upon-Hull. Sixteen white adult males (n = 5) and females (n = 11) participated in the study. Ages ranged from 15–73 years (mean age = 53 years). Data were analysed using a content analysis technique based on the 'framework' approach. Results Three broad themes emerged from the focus groups; the referral process; operational aspects of the AL service; and perceived benefits of the service. Overall, participants were extremely positive about the AL service. Many reported increased activity levels, modified eating habits, and enhanced awareness and education regarding healthier living. Most participants reported that local awareness of the AL service was low and greater promotion was required so more people could benefit. The success of the service was highly dependent upon the qualities and approach of the AL advisor. Conclusion The service appears to have filled a gap in service provision since it offered support to the most sedentary, older, unfit and overweight individuals, many of whom live in the most deprived parts of Kingston-upon-Hull. Traditional exercise referral schemes that focus solely on facility

  8. Some results on the statistics of hull perimeters in large planar triangulations and quadrangulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitter, Emmanuel

    2016-11-01

    The hull perimeter at distance d in a planar map with two marked vertices at distance k from each other is the length of the closed curve separating these two vertices and lying at distance d from the first one (d\\lt k). We study the statistics of hull perimeters in large random planar triangulations and quadrangulations as a function of both k and d. Explicit expressions for the probability density of the hull perimeter at distance d, as well as for the joint probability density of hull perimeters at distances d 1 and d 2, are obtained in the limit of infinitely large k. We also consider the situation where the distance d at which the hull perimeter is measured corresponds to a finite fraction of k. The various laws that we obtain are identical for triangulations and for quadrangulations, up to a global rescaling. Our approach is based on recursion relations recently introduced by the author which determine the generating functions of so-called slices, i.e. pieces of maps with appropriate distance constraints. It is indeed shown that the map decompositions underlying these recursion relations are intimately linked to the notion of hull perimeters and provide a simple way to fully control them.

  9. Comparison of the genotoxic effects induced by 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in GC-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weixia; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Lei; He, Mindi; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; Pi, Huifeng; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhong, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been considered to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. However, their genotoxic effects remain controversial. To make experiments controllable and results comparable, we standardized exposure conditions and explored the potential genotoxicity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF and 1800 MHz RF-EMF. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was intermittently (5 min on and 10 min off) exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF at an intensity of 1, 2 or 3 mT or to RF-EMF in GSM-Talk mode at the specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1, 2 or 4 W/kg. After exposure for 24 h, we found that neither ELF-EMF nor RF-EMF affected cell viability using Cell Counting Kit-8. Through the use of an alkaline comet assay and immunofluorescence against γ-H2AX foci, we found that ELF-EMF exposure resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks at 3 mT, whereas RF-EMF exposure had insufficient energy to induce such effects. Using a formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-modified alkaline comet assay, we observed that RF-EMF exposure significantly induced oxidative DNA base damage at a SAR value of 4 W/kg, whereas ELF-EMF exposure did not. Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different.

  10. Data on photo-nanofiller models for self-cleaning foul release coating of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Selim, Mohamed S; El-Safty, Sherif A; El-Sockary, Maher A; Hashem, Ahmed I; Abo Elenien, Ossama M; El-Saeed, Ashraf M; Fatthallah, Nesreen A

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Smart photo-induced silicone/TiO2 nanocomposites with dominant [110] exposed surfaces for self-cleaning foul-release coatings of ship hulls" (Selimet al., 2016) [1]. This article reports on successfully designing and controlling TiO2 spherical single crystal photo-nanofillers and indicating evidence of fouling resistance after stimulation through UV radiation exposure. These data also reveal that the influence of well-dispersed spherical TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) into the polymer matrix surface features on the prepared fouling release (FR) coating. Single crystal TiO2 nanospheres have played a large role in the scenario of photocatalysis due to its cost effectiveness, inert nature and photo stability. The model output and the surface and mechanical behavior data of the fabricated UV-irradiated silicone-based FR nanocoatings are made publicly available through analyzing nanocomposite topology, superhydrophilicity and self-cleaning efficiency in order to enable critical analysis of the tailored model. It also investigates the photo-bactericidal effect confirmed through biofilm coverage data disability. The modeled nanocomposites were subjected to comparable studies with other published models so as to understand how different UV-irradiated nano-scale parameters propagate and affect bulk film response. PMID:27579341

  11. Data on photo-nanofiller models for self-cleaning foul release coating of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Selim, Mohamed S; El-Safty, Sherif A; El-Sockary, Maher A; Hashem, Ahmed I; Abo Elenien, Ossama M; El-Saeed, Ashraf M; Fatthallah, Nesreen A

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Smart photo-induced silicone/TiO2 nanocomposites with dominant [110] exposed surfaces for self-cleaning foul-release coatings of ship hulls" (Selimet al., 2016) [1]. This article reports on successfully designing and controlling TiO2 spherical single crystal photo-nanofillers and indicating evidence of fouling resistance after stimulation through UV radiation exposure. These data also reveal that the influence of well-dispersed spherical TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) into the polymer matrix surface features on the prepared fouling release (FR) coating. Single crystal TiO2 nanospheres have played a large role in the scenario of photocatalysis due to its cost effectiveness, inert nature and photo stability. The model output and the surface and mechanical behavior data of the fabricated UV-irradiated silicone-based FR nanocoatings are made publicly available through analyzing nanocomposite topology, superhydrophilicity and self-cleaning efficiency in order to enable critical analysis of the tailored model. It also investigates the photo-bactericidal effect confirmed through biofilm coverage data disability. The modeled nanocomposites were subjected to comparable studies with other published models so as to understand how different UV-irradiated nano-scale parameters propagate and affect bulk film response.

  12. Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Masita; Maitra, Saikat; Ahmad, Naveed; Bustam, Azmi; Sen, T K; Dutta, Binay K

    2010-07-15

    The potential of physic seed hull (PSH), Jantropha curcas L. as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated. It has been found that the amount of adsorption for both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) increased with the increase in initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the solution pH (in acidic range), but decreased with the increase in the particle size of the adsorbent. The adsorption process for both metal ions on PSH consists of three stages-a rapid initial adsorption followed by a period of slower uptake of metal ions and virtually no uptake at the final stage. The kinetics of metal ions adsorption on PSH followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in the three adsorption isotherms-Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data best fit in the Langmuir isotherm indication monolayer chemisorption of the metal ions. The adsorption capacity of PSH for both Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was found to be comparable with other available adsorbents. About 36-47% of the adsorbed metal could be leached out of the loaded PSH using 0.1M HCl as the eluting medium. PMID:20362390

  13. Lamb wave detection of limpet mines on ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Jill; Hinders, Mark; Friedman, Adam

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the use of ultrasonic guided waves for identifying the mass loading due to underwater limpet mines on ship hulls. The Dynamic Wavelet Fingerprint Technique (DFWT) is used to render the guided wave mode information in two-dimensional binary images because the waveform features of interest are too subtle to identify in time domain. The use of wavelets allows both time and scale features from the original signals to be retained, and image processing can be used to automatically extract features that correspond to the arrival times of the guided wave modes. For further understanding of how the guided wave modes propagate through the real structures, a parallel processing, 3D elastic wave simulation is developed using the finite integration technique (EFIT). This full field, technique models situations that are too complex for analytical solutions, such as built up 3D structures. The simulations have produced informative visualizations of the guided wave modes in the structures as well as mimicking directly the output from sensors placed in the simulation space for direct comparison to experiments. Results from both drydock and in-water experiments with dummy mines are also shown.

  14. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

    PubMed

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  15. Field models and numerical dosimetry inside an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor: the theoretical link between the electromagnetically induced mechanical forces and the biological mechanisms of the cell tensegrity.

    PubMed

    Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Di Barba, Paolo; Magenes, Giovanni; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio; Fassina, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    We have implemented field models and performed a detailed numerical dosimetry inside our extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor which has been successfully used in in vitro Biotechnology and Tissue Engineering researches. The numerical dosimetry permitted to map the magnetic induction field (maximum module equal to about 3.3 mT) and to discuss its biological effects in terms of induced electric currents and induced mechanical forces (compression and traction). So, in the frame of the tensegrity-mechanotransduction theory of Ingber, the study of these electromagnetically induced mechanical forces could be, in our opinion, a powerful tool to understand some effects of the electromagnetic stimulation whose mechanisms remain still elusive.

  16. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject's quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities. PMID:26834387

  17. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject's quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities.

  18. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject’s quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities. PMID:26834387

  19. Effects of breadfruit seed hull ash on the microstructures and properties of Al-Si-Fe alloy/breadfruit seed hull ash particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atuanya, C. U.; Ibhadode, A. O. A.; Dagwa, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructures and properties of Al-Si-Fe alloy matrix composites reinforced with different weight fractions of breadfruit seed hull (husk) ash particles of size 500 nm were investigated. Six (6) different weight fractions of breadfruit seed hull ash particles were added to aluminium alloy matrix using a double stir-casting method. Microstructural analysis shows that with the increase of the reinforcement weight fraction, the matrix grain size decreases. The mechanical properties of the composites are improved over the matrix materials, except for the slightly decrease of the impact energy. Fracture surface examination indicates that there is a good interfacial bonding between the aluminium alloy matrix and the breadfruit seed hull ash particles and that fracture initiation does not occur at the particle-matrix interface. Hence, incorporation of breadfruit seed hull ash particles in aluminium matrix can lead to the production of low cost aluminium composites with improved hardness and strength. These composites can find applications in automotive components where light weight materials are required with good stiffness and strength.

  20. Growth and survival of Enterobacteriaceae and inoculated Salmonella on walnut hulls and maturing walnut fruit.

    PubMed

    Blessington, Tyann; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Harris, Linda J

    2014-09-01

    Postharvest contamination of in-shell walnuts may occur when the fruit is dropped to or harvested from the orchard floor or as the outer hull is removed with mechanical abrasion and water. To evaluate the effect of maturity on the potential for microbial contamination, 'Howard' walnut fruits were collected weekly from the tree canopy, from 6 to 7 weeks before to 1 week after typical commercial harvest. The numbers of microorganisms able to form colonies on plate count agar, MacConkey agar (presumptive Enterobacteriaceae), or violet red bile lactose agar (presumptive coliforms) were compared on whole walnut fruits collected by hand directly from the tree or after exposure to the orchard floor for 10 min or 24 h. Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 was inoculated at <1 to 8 log CFU/g onto 5-g hull pieces (from walnut fruit of different maturities) and stored at ambient temperature (23 to 26°C) in unsealed bags (38 to 90% relative humidity [RH] within bag) or in low humidity (20 to 45% RH) or high humidity (68 to 89% RH) for up to 14 days. Salmonella at 2 or 5 log CFU/ml was inoculated onto hulls before or up to 14 days after blending with water. As the walnut fruit matured, the indigenous bacterial levels on the surface increased, irrespective of whether fruit was collected from the tree or the ground. The RH influenced the growth of inoculated bacteria on hull pieces: Salmonella declined to <0.3 log CFU/g within 24 h at low RH but multiplied from 2 to 6 log CFU/g over 14 days of storage at >40% RH. Salmonella populations declined to <1 CFU/ml within 24 h in freshly blended green hulls but survived or multiplied in blended brown hulls or in blended green hulls that had been stored for 24 h or more before being inoculated.

  1. Macroalgal introductions by hull fouling on recreational vessels: seaweeds and sailors.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P; Maggs, Christine A

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  2. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-11-30

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells.

  3. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-01-01

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells. PMID:26638894

  4. Marine propulsion device with engine heat recovery system and streamlining hull closures

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H. W.

    1985-11-12

    A Marine Jet Propulsion System for use as an inboard engine for boats is herein described. An engine or motor means is attached in a driving relationship to a pump and thrust output apparatus. Heat generated by and rejected by the engine or motor is passed into the pump base for dissipation into the outputted jet thrust stream. Air and/or exhaust gas from the engine is ejected around the jet output stream to reduce against-the-hull turbulence and jet stream or thrust energy losses. Streamlining hull closures for the jet pump intake and output ports are provided to reduce system hull drag when not in use and to limit marine organism growth inside the pump.

  5. Research and development of a digital design system for hull structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yi-Ting; Ji, Zhuo-Shang; Liu, Yin-Dong

    2007-06-01

    Methods used for digital ship design were studied and formed the basis of a proposed frame model suitable for ship construction modeling. Based on 3-D modeling software, a digital design system for hull structures was developed. Basic software systems for modeling, modifying, and assembly simulation were developed. The system has good compatibility, and models created by it can be saved in different 3-D file formats, and 2D engineering drawings can be output directly. The model can be modified dynamically, overcoming the necessity of repeated modifications during hull structural design. Through operations such as model construction, intervention inspection, and collision detection, problems can be identified and modified during the hull structural design stage. Technologies for centralized control of the system, database management, and 3-D digital design are integrated into this digital model in the preliminary design stage of shipbuilding.

  6. The effectiveness of double hulls in reducing vessel-accident oil spillage.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Talley, Wayne K; Jin, Di

    2011-11-01

    While much work has been done in investigating determinants of oil spillage attributed to vessel accidents, little research has been conducted on the effectiveness of ship hull design in reducing marine pollution. This paper addresses whether the double-hull requirement reduces vessel-accident oil spillage. The volume of oil spillage due to oil-cargo vessel accidents was investigated using tobit regressions and an empirical data set of individual vessel accident pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard from 2001 to 2008. The results indicate that the double hull design on average reduces the size of oil spills by 20% and 62% in tank barge and tanker ship accidents, respectively. PMID:21924747

  7. Effect of Length-Beam Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Flying-Boat Hulls without Wing Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G.; Riebe, John M.

    1948-01-01

    Contains experimental results of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of flying boat hulls of length beam ratios 6, 9, 12, and 15 without wing interference. The results are compared with those taken on the same family of hulls in the presence of a wing.

  8. Scattering effect of submarine hull on propeller non-cavitation noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingsan; Shen, Yang; Jin, Shuanbao; Hu, Pengfei; Lan, Rensheng; Zhuang, Shuangjiang; Liu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the non-cavitation noise caused by propeller running in the wake of submarine with the consideration of scattering effect caused by submarine's hull. The computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analogy method are adopted to predict fluctuating pressure of propeller's blade and its underwater noise radiation in time domain, respectively. An effective iteration method which is derived in the time domain from the Helmholtz integral equation is used to solve multi-frequency waves scattering due to obstacles. Moreover, to minimize time interpolation caused numerical errors, the pressure and its derivative at the sound emission time is obtained by summation of Fourier series. It is noted that the time averaging algorithm is used to achieve a convergent result if the solution oscillated in the iteration process. Meanwhile, the developed iteration method is verified and applied to predict propeller noise scattered from submarine's hull. In accordance with analysis results, it is summarized that (1) the scattering effect of hull on pressure distribution pattern especially at the frequency higher than blade passing frequency (BPF) is proved according to the contour maps of sound pressure distribution of submarine's hull and typical detecting planes. (2) The scattering effect of the hull on the total pressure is observable in noise frequency spectrum of field points, where the maximum increment is up to 3 dB at BPF, 12.5 dB at 2BPF and 20.2 dB at 3BPF. (3) The pressure scattered from hull is negligible in near-field of propeller, since the scattering effect surrounding analyzed location of propeller on submarine's stern is significantly different from the surface ship. This work shows the importance of submarine's scattering effect in evaluating the propeller non-cavitation noise.

  9. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  10. Welding torch trajectory generation for hull joining using autonomous welding mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hascoet, J. Y.; Hamilton, K.; Carabin, G.; Rauch, M.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Shipbuilding processes involve highly dangerous manual welding operations. Welding of ship hulls presents a hazardous environment for workers. This paper describes a new robotic system, developed by the SHIPWELD consortium, that moves autonomously on the hull and automatically executes the required welding processes. Specific focus is placed on the trajectory control of such a system and forms the basis for the discussion in this paper. It includes a description of the robotic hardware design as well as some methodology used to establish the torch trajectory control.

  11. Tank tests of a model of a flying-boat hull with a fluted bottom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1935-01-01

    A 1/5-scale model of a flying-boat hull having flutes in the bottom both forward and aft of the step (NACA model 19) was tested to determine its water performance. The model was also tested after the successive removal of the flutes on the afterbody and forebody. The results from these tests are compared with those from tests of a model of the hull of the Navy PN-8 flying boat and it is concluded that the fluted-bottom model and its modifications are inferior to the model of the PN-8.

  12. Zinc electrowinning analysis in a modified Hull cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColm, Thomas Dean

    The Hull cell is an analytical cell designed with trapezoidal geometry to incorporate a range of current densities into a single experiment. It was conceived to examine electroplating processes rather than mass production processes. A modified analytical cell was designed, developed and applied to the diagnosis of zinc electrowinning. Emphasis was placed on obtaining the quantitative variation of current efficiency with current density and the associated microscopic variation in deposit morphology. Current density distributions came by placing an insulating baffle in between parallel electrodes. The baffle position and length were easily adjusted, allowing the generation of 12 different distributions for a single applied potential. Ten electrically isolated 1 cm2 segments comprised the cathode. Measurement of the potential drop across I ohm resistors in each of the ten isolated parallel branches permitted direct quantitative determination of current densities. The small segments permitted simple SEM and X-ray analysis of deposits. The cell was designed to allow the continual cycling of electrolyte. In conjunction with experimental analysis, a technique for the determination of current efficiency was tested and developed. The technique involved the comparison of charge passed for the electrodeposition and subsequent electrodissolution of a given mass of zinc and removed the necessity to determine the mass directly. In no prior studies on zinc electrowinning had current efficiencies been determined this way. The cell and technique were developed and verified by the correct diagnosis of industrial zinc electrowinning. Successful determination of the effects of key variables including temperature, acid to zinc ratio and impurity effects on current efficiency and deposit morphology was demonstrated. In parallel with experimental work, cell electrochemistry was modeled. Primary and secondary input parameters were those pertinent to zinc electrowinning. The resultant

  13. Antioxidant, anti-microbial and antimutagenicity activities of pistachio (Pistachia vera) green hull extract.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Ahmad; Barzegar, Mohsen; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Esfahani, Zohre Hamidi

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-microbial and antimutagenicity activities of pistachio (Ahmadaghaei variety) green hull extracts (crude and purified extracts) were studied. At first, different solvents were compared for determining of the best solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds from pistachio green hull. Water and acetonitrile with 49.32 and 6.22 (mg of gallic acid equivalents/g sample) were the best and the worst solvent in the extraction of phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of crude and purified extracts were assessed through ABTS assay, DPPH assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) method. A concentration-dependent antioxidative capacity was verified in ABTS, DPPH assays and BCB method. The anti-microbial capacity was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. Aqueous and purified extracts inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria; Bacillus cereus was the most susceptible one with MIC of 1mg/mL and 0.5mg/mL for the crude and purified extracts, respectively. The results of antimutagenicity test showed that phenolic compounds of pistachio green hull have antimutagenicity activity against direct mutagen of 2-nitrofluorene. The results obtained indicate that pistachio green hull may become important as a cheap and noticeable source of compounds with health protective potential and anti-microbial activity.

  14. 32. Interior of fabrication buildingrolling loft table in foreground/hull of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Interior of fabrication building-rolling loft table in foreground/hull of stardust #2 in middle. C-clamps and lofting patterns for minesweeper construction located along walls. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  15. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 176.650 Section 176.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... as a clear box, if underwater visibility is poor, to provide the camera with a clear view of the...

  16. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 176.650 Section 176.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... as a clear box, if underwater visibility is poor, to provide the camera with a clear view of the...

  17. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 176.650 Section 176.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... as a clear box, if underwater visibility is poor, to provide the camera with a clear view of the...

  18. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 176.650 Section 176.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... as a clear box, if underwater visibility is poor, to provide the camera with a clear view of the...

  19. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exceptions stated in § 157.08(n), this section applies to a tank vessel— (1) For which the building contract... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Double hulls on tank vessels. 157... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS...

  20. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. G Appendix G to Part 157—Timetables for... States (46 U.S.C. app. 14). (b) A vessel of less than 5,000 gross tons for which a building contract or... double hull for the prevention of a discharge of oil. (c) A vessel for which a building contract...

  1. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exceptions stated in § 157.08(n), this section applies to a tank vessel— (1) For which the building contract... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Double hulls on tank vessels. 157... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS...

  2. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exceptions stated in § 157.08(n), this section applies to a tank vessel— (1) For which the building contract... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Double hulls on tank vessels. 157... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS...

  3. Polymeric procyanidins as radical-scavenging components in red-hulled rice.

    PubMed

    Oki, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Mami; Kobayashi, Mio; Nishiba, Yoichi; Furuta, Shu; Suda, Ikuo; Sato, Tetsuo

    2002-12-18

    The extracts from white-, black-, and red-hulled rice were prepared by sequential extraction with six different polar solvents, and their radical-scavenging activities were measured by methods using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) and tert-butyl hydroperoxyl radical (t-BuOO*). The extracts prepared with highly polar solvents, methanol and deionized water, exhibited higher DPPH* and t-BuOO* scavenging activities in all three cultivars. In addition, the acetone extract from red-hulled rice exhibited a high DPPH* and t-BuOO* scavenging activity, while no such activity was detected for the acetone extracts from white- and black-hulled rice. The major components responsible for the radical scavenging in the acetone extract from red-hulled rice were identified as procyanidins by acidic hydrolysis, vanillin assay, and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. GPC analysis of the acetylated procyanidins revealed that the average molecular weight is about 5000, in a range of about 500-18,000. PMID:12475265

  4. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be accepted as standard by the inspectors: (a) American Bureau of Shipping “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date of... Northchase Drive, Houston, TX 77060. (b) U. S. Navy Standard Construction Specification in effect on the...

  5. Acetone Extract of Almond Hulls Provides Protection against Oxidative Damage and Membrane Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Meshkini, Azadeh

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have revealed that among foods, the consumption of edible nuts has beneficial effects on health which are attributed to their high content of potent antioxidants. Among nuts, the whole seed of the almond (Prunus dulcis) has been demonstrated to possess potent free radical scavenging activity, which is related to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the polyphenol content and the antioxidant ability of almond hull, which is an agriculture solid waste. The present results revealed that among different extraction methods, the acetone extract of almond hulls has a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and a high antioxidant ability, which were determined by using the phosphomolybdenum method and by measuring the potency of the antioxidant, respectively. Moreover, the experimental data disclosed that the acetone extract of almond hulls provides protection against the oxidative damage and the membrane protein degradation that are caused in human erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide. These phenomena may likely be due to the recruitment of antioxidants by cell membranes and/or translocation to cytosol. Overall, almond hull extract could be considered as a natural source of antioxidants, and its consumption could have a positive effect on human health. PMID:27342887

  6. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  7. Sunflower seed hulls as supplementary fuel to coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brudenell, W.N.; Holland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of biomass as a supplementary fuel to fossil-fuel power plants is gaining increasing attention due to escalating energy costs. The design of a sunflower seed hulls combustion system for an existing lignite-fired power plant is presented in this paper. 5 refs.

  8. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 23.533 Section 23.533 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... takeoff position; and βK=angle of dead rise at keel, in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of...

  9. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 23.533 Section 23.533 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... takeoff position; and βK=angle of dead rise at keel, in accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of...

  10. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 25.533 Section 25.533 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... flaps extended in the appropriate takeoff position; and βk=angle of dead rise at keel, in...

  11. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 25.533 Section 25.533 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... flaps extended in the appropriate takeoff position; and βk=angle of dead rise at keel, in...

  12. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 25.533 Section 25.533 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... flaps extended in the appropriate takeoff position; and βk=angle of dead rise at keel, in...

  13. Micro-heterogeneity of corn hulls cellulosic fiber biopolymer studied by multiple-particle tracking (MPT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel technique named multiple-particle tracking (MPT) was used to investigate the micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim, a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The Multiple-Particle Tracking (MPT) method was used in this study, which was originally described by ...

  14. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landing cases EC28SE91.005 (b) The following values are used: (1) nw=water reaction load factor (that is....012 (except that this factor may not be less than that necessary to obtain the minimum value of step..., from the center of gravity of the seaplane to the hull longitudinal station at which the load factor...

  15. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landing cases EC28SE91.005 (b) The following values are used: (1) nw=water reaction load factor (that is....012 (except that this factor may not be less than that necessary to obtain the minimum value of step..., from the center of gravity of the seaplane to the hull longitudinal station at which the load factor...

  16. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... following values are used: (1) n W=water reaction load factor (that is, the water reaction divided by... not be less than that necessary to obtain the minimum value of step load factor of 2.33). (3) V S...

  17. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landing cases EC28SE91.005 (b) The following values are used: (1) nw=water reaction load factor (that is....012 (except that this factor may not be less than that necessary to obtain the minimum value of step... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference...

  18. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of distance, measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of the seaplane to... following values are used: (1) n W=water reaction load factor (that is, the water reaction divided by... not be less than that necessary to obtain the minimum value of step load factor of 2.33). (3) V S...

  19. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landing cases EC28SE91.005 (b) The following values are used: (1) nw=water reaction load factor (that is....012 (except that this factor may not be less than that necessary to obtain the minimum value of step... 2 of appendix I of this part. (7) rx=ratio of distance, measured parallel to hull reference...

  20. Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) mixed with intact kernels affected progeny production of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in two rough rice varieties, Francis and Wells. Wells had been previously classified as...

  1. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1 Section 189.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... fuel oil tanks. (c) Underwater survey means the examination, while the vessel is afloat, of...

  2. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1 Section 189.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... fuel oil tanks. (c) Underwater survey means the examination, while the vessel is afloat, of...

  3. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manner that they do not contribute to the strength and stiffness of the barge. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70 percent of the yield strength when specified, whichever is greater. (2) The Commandant may consider...

  4. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manner that they do not contribute to the strength and stiffness of the barge. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70 percent of the yield strength when specified, whichever is greater. (2) The Commandant may consider...

  5. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete your underwater survey, you may use divers or an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV). (a) If you use divers...

  6. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or slipway for an examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through... fuel oil tanks. (c) Underwater survey means the examination, while the vessel is afloat, of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

  7. 46 CFR 91.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or slipway for an examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through... respectively. (d) Underwater survey means the examination, while the vessel is afloat, of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

  8. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings. (b... accomplished as specified in parts 38 and 151 of this chapter respectively. (d) Underwater survey means the examination, while the vessel is afloat, of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and...

  9. Almond hulls as a biofuels feedstock: Variations in carbohydrates by variety and location in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulls of the almond (Prunus Amygdalus) have a high content of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), and are a potential feedstock for biofuels and other uses. Six almond varieties across seven counties in the state of California were studied to assess the amount and variability of sugars...

  10. Evaluation of Individualized Instruction for Welders-HT [Hull Technician]"A" School, San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safarjan, William R.; Abrams, Macy L.

    A preliminary evaluation is made of an individualized training program for fuel gas and arc welding at Hull Technician Class A School, San Diego. Individualized instruction differed from former training procedures in that students were able to select the content, rate, and method most appropriate to their learning experience. Subjects were 184…

  11. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls on toxic tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing experiment was conducted in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (SBH) on weight gain, hair coat rating, rectal temperature, and serum prolactin of steers grazed on toxic tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)]. Forty steers [initial BW in 2004 = 25...

  12. From the Lab Bench: Soy Hulls: A Special Feed for Cattle on Toxic Endophyte Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy hulls have a nutritive value that is comparable to a moderate quality hay and is often fed as a hay substitute. However, based on results of published research we conducted, it may offer more than the typical hay if fed to cattle grazing toxic endophyte tall fescue. A grazing experiment was co...

  13. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bending stress shall not exceed the following limits: (1) Independent tanks may be installed in such a... stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material or 70... reduction in hull stress when independent tanks are installed in such a manner as to contribute to...

  14. Antioxidant, anti-microbial and antimutagenicity activities of pistachio (Pistachia vera) green hull extract.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Ahmad; Barzegar, Mohsen; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Esfahani, Zohre Hamidi

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-microbial and antimutagenicity activities of pistachio (Ahmadaghaei variety) green hull extracts (crude and purified extracts) were studied. At first, different solvents were compared for determining of the best solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds from pistachio green hull. Water and acetonitrile with 49.32 and 6.22 (mg of gallic acid equivalents/g sample) were the best and the worst solvent in the extraction of phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of crude and purified extracts were assessed through ABTS assay, DPPH assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) method. A concentration-dependent antioxidative capacity was verified in ABTS, DPPH assays and BCB method. The anti-microbial capacity was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. Aqueous and purified extracts inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria; Bacillus cereus was the most susceptible one with MIC of 1mg/mL and 0.5mg/mL for the crude and purified extracts, respectively. The results of antimutagenicity test showed that phenolic compounds of pistachio green hull have antimutagenicity activity against direct mutagen of 2-nitrofluorene. The results obtained indicate that pistachio green hull may become important as a cheap and noticeable source of compounds with health protective potential and anti-microbial activity. PMID:19781589

  15. Micro-heterogeneity of Cellulosic Fiber Biopolymer Prepared from Corn Hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Z-trim is a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim biopolymer were investigated by monitoring the thermally driven displacements of well-dispersed micro-spheres via video fluorescence microscopy named multiple-particle track...

  16. Micro-Heterogeneity of Cellulosic Fiber Biopolymer Prepared from Corn Hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Z-trim is a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim biopolymer were investigated by monitoring the thermally driven displacements of well-dispersed micro-spheres via video fluorescence microscopy named multiple-particle track...

  17. Hausdorff methods for approximating the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in integer problems with monotone objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive methods for the polyhedral approximation of the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in multiobjective monotone integer optimization problems are proposed and studied. For these methods, theoretical convergence rate estimates with respect to the number of vertices are obtained. The estimates coincide in order with those for filling and augmentation H-methods intended for the approximation of nonsmooth convex compact bodies.

  18. Acetone Extract of Almond Hulls Provides Protection against Oxidative Damage and Membrane Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Meshkini, Azadeh

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have revealed that among foods, the consumption of edible nuts has beneficial effects on health which are attributed to their high content of potent antioxidants. Among nuts, the whole seed of the almond (Prunus dulcis) has been demonstrated to possess potent free radical scavenging activity, which is related to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the polyphenol content and the antioxidant ability of almond hull, which is an agriculture solid waste. The present results revealed that among different extraction methods, the acetone extract of almond hulls has a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and a high antioxidant ability, which were determined by using the phosphomolybdenum method and by measuring the potency of the antioxidant, respectively. Moreover, the experimental data disclosed that the acetone extract of almond hulls provides protection against the oxidative damage and the membrane protein degradation that are caused in human erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide. These phenomena may likely be due to the recruitment of antioxidants by cell membranes and/or translocation to cytosol. Overall, almond hull extract could be considered as a natural source of antioxidants, and its consumption could have a positive effect on human health.

  19. The Gluckstern-Hull formula for electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, H.E.

    1980-05-01

    The Gluckstern-Hull formula for the electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung cross section, containing the emitted photon angular dependence with the recoil electron angular dependence integrated out, is shown to be correct. This formula is required to calculate continuum x-ray spectra radiated from anisotropic relativistic beam-plasma systems.

  20. Field models and numerical dosimetry inside an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor: the theoretical link between the electromagnetically induced mechanical forces and the biological mechanisms of the cell tensegrity.

    PubMed

    Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Di Barba, Paolo; Magenes, Giovanni; Lenzi, Andrea; Naro, Fabio; Fassina, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    We have implemented field models and performed a detailed numerical dosimetry inside our extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor which has been successfully used in in vitro Biotechnology and Tissue Engineering researches. The numerical dosimetry permitted to map the magnetic induction field (maximum module equal to about 3.3 mT) and to discuss its biological effects in terms of induced electric currents and induced mechanical forces (compression and traction). So, in the frame of the tensegrity-mechanotransduction theory of Ingber, the study of these electromagnetically induced mechanical forces could be, in our opinion, a powerful tool to understand some effects of the electromagnetic stimulation whose mechanisms remain still elusive. PMID:25202652

  1. Convex-hull mass estimates of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus): application of a CT-based mass estimation technique.

    PubMed

    Brassey, Charlotte A; O'Mahoney, Thomas G; Kitchener, Andrew C; Manning, Phillip L; Sellers, William I

    2016-01-01

    The external appearance of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus, Linnaeus, 1758) has been a source of considerable intrigue, as contemporaneous accounts or depictions are rare. The body mass of the dodo has been particularly contentious, with the flightless pigeon alternatively reconstructed as slim or fat depending upon the skeletal metric used as the basis for mass prediction. Resolving this dichotomy and obtaining a reliable estimate for mass is essential before future analyses regarding dodo life history, physiology or biomechanics can be conducted. Previous mass estimates of the dodo have relied upon predictive equations based upon hind limb dimensions of extant pigeons. Yet the hind limb proportions of dodo have been found to differ considerably from those of their modern relatives, particularly with regards to midshaft diameter. Therefore, application of predictive equations to unusually robust fossil skeletal elements may bias mass estimates. We present a whole-body computed tomography (CT) -based mass estimation technique for application to the dodo. We generate 3D volumetric renders of the articulated skeletons of 20 species of extant pigeons, and wrap minimum-fit 'convex hulls' around their bony extremities. Convex hull volume is subsequently regressed against mass to generate predictive models based upon whole skeletons. Our best-performing predictive model is characterized by high correlation coefficients and low mean squared error (a = - 2.31, b = 0.90, r (2) = 0.97, MSE = 0.0046). When applied to articulated composite skeletons of the dodo (National Museums Scotland, NMS.Z.1993.13; Natural History Museum, NHMUK A.9040 and S/1988.50.1), we estimate eviscerated body masses of 8-10.8 kg. When accounting for missing soft tissues, this may equate to live masses of 10.6-14.3 kg. Mass predictions presented here overlap at the lower end of those previously published, and support recent suggestions of a relatively slim dodo. CT-based reconstructions provide a means of

  2. Convex-hull mass estimates of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus): application of a CT-based mass estimation technique.

    PubMed

    Brassey, Charlotte A; O'Mahoney, Thomas G; Kitchener, Andrew C; Manning, Phillip L; Sellers, William I

    2016-01-01

    The external appearance of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus, Linnaeus, 1758) has been a source of considerable intrigue, as contemporaneous accounts or depictions are rare. The body mass of the dodo has been particularly contentious, with the flightless pigeon alternatively reconstructed as slim or fat depending upon the skeletal metric used as the basis for mass prediction. Resolving this dichotomy and obtaining a reliable estimate for mass is essential before future analyses regarding dodo life history, physiology or biomechanics can be conducted. Previous mass estimates of the dodo have relied upon predictive equations based upon hind limb dimensions of extant pigeons. Yet the hind limb proportions of dodo have been found to differ considerably from those of their modern relatives, particularly with regards to midshaft diameter. Therefore, application of predictive equations to unusually robust fossil skeletal elements may bias mass estimates. We present a whole-body computed tomography (CT) -based mass estimation technique for application to the dodo. We generate 3D volumetric renders of the articulated skeletons of 20 species of extant pigeons, and wrap minimum-fit 'convex hulls' around their bony extremities. Convex hull volume is subsequently regressed against mass to generate predictive models based upon whole skeletons. Our best-performing predictive model is characterized by high correlation coefficients and low mean squared error (a = - 2.31, b = 0.90, r (2) = 0.97, MSE = 0.0046). When applied to articulated composite skeletons of the dodo (National Museums Scotland, NMS.Z.1993.13; Natural History Museum, NHMUK A.9040 and S/1988.50.1), we estimate eviscerated body masses of 8-10.8 kg. When accounting for missing soft tissues, this may equate to live masses of 10.6-14.3 kg. Mass predictions presented here overlap at the lower end of those previously published, and support recent suggestions of a relatively slim dodo. CT-based reconstructions provide a means of

  3. Influence of canola hulls on gain in weight of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.

    PubMed

    Davis, G R; Campbell, S J; McGregor, D I

    1983-12-01

    Larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., Gembloux strain, race F, were reared on diets in which the protein component was supplied by defatted ground seed, defatted ground dehulled fraction, or defatted ground hulls of Brassica napus L. cv. Tower or Brassica campestris L. cv. Candle, obtained from autoclaved seed. They were also fed casein diets to which defatted ground hulls of Tower or Candle seed were added. Gain in weight was equally good for all diets containing Candle seed fractions and for diets containing Tower ground seed. However, it was lower for diets containing the ground dehulled fraction or the ground hulls of Tower. Addition of Candle hulls or of a mixture of equal proportions (w/w) of Candle and Tower hulls to diets containing dehulled Tower did not improve the gain in weight of larvae, compared with that of larvae fed diets containing the dehulled fraction, alone. Similar additions of Tower hulls or of the mixture to diets containing the dehulled fraction of Candle had no adverse effect on larval gain in weight, compared to that registered by larvae fed the dehulled fraction of Candle. Significant improvement in weight gain in comparison with that recorded for larvae fed the unsupplemented casein diet could not be demonstrated when ground hulls of Tower or Candle were added to this diet. Considered collectively, weight gains of larvae of T. molitor were consistently greater when Candle products were fed than when Tower products provided the protein fraction of the diet.

  4. A General Tank Test of a Model of the Hull of the British Singapore IIC Flying Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R; Truscott, Starr

    1936-01-01

    A general test was made in the N.A.C.A. tank of a 1/12-size model of the hull of the British Singapore IIC flying boat loaned by the Director of Research, British Air Ministry. The results are given in charts and are compared with the results of tests of a model of an American flying-boat hull, the Sikorsky S-40. The Singapore hull has a greater hump resistance but a much lower high-speed resistance than the S-40.

  5. Combined microscopies study of the C-contamination induced by extreme-ultraviolet radiation: A surface-dependent secondary-electron-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezioso, S.; Donarelli, M.; Bisti, F.; Palladino, L.; Santucci, S.; Spadoni, S.; Avaro, L.; Liscio, A.; Palermo, V.; Ottaviano, L.

    2012-05-01

    SiO2 and Al2O3 surfaces exposed to periodically modulated extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light (λ = 46.9 nm) have been investigated at the μm scale by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Kelvin probe force microscopy. The formation of a carbon contamination layer preserving the same periodical modulation of the EUV dose has been observed. The mechanisms of hydrocarbon molecules deposition have been studied with the help of correlation plots between the modulated Auger signal and the corresponding EUV dose. A surface-dependent secondary-electron-based model has been proposed.

  6. Combined microscopies study of the C-contamination induced by extreme-ultraviolet radiation: A surface-dependent secondary-electron-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Prezioso, S.; Donarelli, M.; Bisti, F.; Palladino, L.; Santucci, S.; Ottaviano, L.; Spadoni, S.; Avaro, L.; Liscio, A.; Palermo, V.

    2012-05-14

    SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces exposed to periodically modulated extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light ({lambda} = 46.9 nm) have been investigated at the {mu}m scale by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Kelvin probe force microscopy. The formation of a carbon contamination layer preserving the same periodical modulation of the EUV dose has been observed. The mechanisms of hydrocarbon molecules deposition have been studied with the help of correlation plots between the modulated Auger signal and the corresponding EUV dose. A surface-dependent secondary-electron-based model has been proposed.

  7. Extreme ultra-violet burst, particle heating, and whistler wave emission in fast magnetic reconnection induced by kink-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Zhai, Xiang; Bellan, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    A spatially localized energetic extreme ultra-violet (EUV) burst is imaged at the presumed position of fast magnetic reconnection in a plasma jet produced by a coaxial helicity injection source; this EUV burst indicates strong localized electron heating. A circularly polarized high frequency magnetic field perturbation is simultaneously observed at some distance from the reconnection region indicating that the reconnection emits whistler waves and that Hall dynamics likely governs the reconnection. Spectroscopic measurement shows simultaneous fast ion heating. The electron heating is consistent with Ohmic dissipation, while the ion heating is consistent with ion trajectories becoming stochastic.

  8. Changes in maximal and explosive strength, electromyography, and muscle thickness of lower and upper extremities induced by combined strength and endurance training in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of present study was to examine to what extent an 8-week endurance-based military training period interferes with muscle strength development in the conscripts (n = 72) compared with that caused by sport-related military training with added strength training (ST) or endurance training (ET). More specifically, we examined the effects of these 3 training modes on maximal isometric force, maximal rate of force development (RFD), electromyography (EMG), and muscle thickness of the lower and upper extremities. The measurements included isometric force-time parameters of leg and arm extensors and EMG activity from the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and triceps brachii muscles. The 8-week basic training period combined with added ST and ET significantly improved maximal bilateral isometric force of the arm extensors in ST by 11.8% (p < 0.001), ET by 13.9% (p < 0.001), and normal training (NT) by 7.8% (p < 0.05). Strength training and ET showed significant increases in maximal EMG activity of the trained arm muscles. A significant increase was observed in maximal RFD of the upper extremities only in ST by 28.1% (p < 0.05). Both ST and ET increased their maximal leg extension strength by 12.9% (p < 0.01) and 9.1% (p < 0.05), respectively, whereas no significant change occurred in NT (5.2%, p = 0.45). No significant changes were observed in the shape of the force-time curves of leg extensors. No increases occurred in muscle thickness either in the lower or upper extremities. The present BT training with a large amount of endurance-based military training interfered with strength development, and especially, explosive power development of the lower extremities in the ST group. The optimal improvements in neuromuscular characteristics may not be possible without some decreases in the amount of the endurance-based military training and/or some increases in the amount of the maximal/explosive strength training during the BT.

  9. A general tank test of a model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat including a special working chart for the determination of hull performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1938-01-01

    The results of a general tank test of a 1/6 full-size model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat (N.A.C.A. model 18) are given in non-dimensional form. In addition to the usual curves, the results are presented in a new form that makes it possible to apply them more conveniently than in the forms previously used. The resistance was compared with that of N.A.C.A. models 11-C and 26(Sikorsky S-40) and was found to be generally less than the resistance of either.

  10. 46 CFR 115.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system; (3) It has operated exclusively in fresh water... this section where it is considered safe and reasonable to do so. In making this determination,...

  11. 46 CFR 71.50-17 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system; (3) It has operated exclusively in fresh water... reasonable to do so. In making this determination, the OCMI will consider the vessel's overall condition,...

  12. 46 CFR 176.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... if— (1) It is constructed of steel or aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system; (3... reasonable to do so. In making this determination, the OCMI will consider the vessel's overall condition,...

  13. 46 CFR 176.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... if— (1) It is constructed of steel or aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system; (3... reasonable to do so. In making this determination, the OCMI will consider the vessel's overall condition,...

  14. 46 CFR 71.50-17 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system; (3) It has operated exclusively in fresh water... reasonable to do so. In making this determination, the OCMI will consider the vessel's overall condition,...

  15. Analysis of Non-Tropical Cyclone Induced Flood Events over South East Asia: Investigating Flood Frequency and Extremes in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcella, M. P.; CHEN, C.; Senarath, S. U.

    2013-12-01

    Much work has been completed in analyzing Southeast Asia's tropical cyclone climatology and the associated flooding throughout the region. Although, an active and strong monsoon season also brings major flooding across the Philippines resulting in the loss of lives and significant economic impacts, only a limited amount of research work has been conducted to investigate the frequency and flood loss estimates of these non-tropical cyclone (TC) storms. In this study, using the TRMM 3-hourly rainfall product, tropical cyclone rainfall is removed to construct a non-TC rainfall climatology across the region. Given this data, stochastically generated rainfall that is both spatially and temporally correlated across the country is created to generate a longer historically-based record of non-TC precipitation. After defining the rainfall criteria that constitutes a flood event based on observed floods and TRMM data, this event definition is applied to the stochastic catalog of rainfall to determine flood events. Subsequently, a thorough analysis of non-TC flood extremes, frequency, and distribution is completed for the country of the Philippines. As a result, the above methodology and datasets provide a unique opportunity to further study flood occurrences and their extremes across most of South East Asia.

  16. Improved yielding and reduced puffiness under extreme temperatures induced by fruit-specific expression of rolB in processing tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Shabtai, Sara; Salts, Yehiam; Kaluzky, Galina; Barg, Rivka

    2007-05-01

    Tomato fruit production is severely hampered by both extremely high and low temperatures, mainly due to impaired microsporogenesis and pollination under these conditions. Even mild temperature stress, leading to partial damage to pollen viability can result in the production of under-fertilized puffy fruits of poor quality, while severe stress can abolish fruit set completely. Genetic or transgenic parthenocarpy that enables fertilization-independent fruit development offers a solution for tomato yielding under conditions unfavorable for pollen production and/or fertilization. A transgenic processing tomato UC82 line, expressing rolB specifically during early stages of fruit development was compared to the parental line with respect to yield and fruit quality under extreme temperatures. Under both high and low temperatures the transgenic line performed significantly better than the parental line. Its yield was significantly higher mainly due to a higher number of fruits that did develop, and also because of increased fruit weight. While the UC82 fruits developed under high temperatures were very puffy and severely malformed, the transgenic fruits maintained improved jelly fill and were of smooth and regular shape. Interestingly, under high temperatures the improved jelly fill in the transgenic line was accompanied by a higher number of seeds, suggesting that not only the developing seeds promote development of the placental tissue but also that proliferation of this tissue supports better seed development. PMID:17279365

  17. Structural transformations in hull material clad by nitrogen stainless steel using various methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagaradze, V. V.; Kataeva, N. V.; Mushnikova, S. Yu.; Khar'kov, O. A.; Kalinin, G. Yu.; Yampol'skii, V. D.

    2014-02-01

    Specimens of a 10N3KhDMBF shipbuilding hull steel were clad by a 04Kh20N6G11M2AFB nitrogen austenitic steel using various treatment conditions, which included hot rolling, austenitic facing, and explosive welding followed by hot rolling and heat treatment. Between the base and cladding materials, an intermediate layer with variable concentrations of chromium, manganese, and nickel was found, in which a martensitic structure was formed. In all the cases, the strength of bonding of the cladding layer to the hull steel (determined in tests for shear to fracture) was fairly high (σsh = 437-520 MPa). The only exception was the specimen produced by unidirectional facing without subsequent hot rolling (σsh = 308 MPa), in which nonfusions between the faced beads of stainless steel were detected.

  18. Design and realization a skiff racing boat hull made of natural fibers reinforced composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collotta, M.; Solazzi, L.; Pandini, S.; Tomasoni, G.; Alberti, M.; Donzella, G.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the development of a racing boat with an hull made of a composite material reinforced by natural fibers. In particular, we report here the design and realization of the boat hull, the assessment of its mechanical performance by means of a computer assisted simulation, and the cost analysis to assess the economic sustainability of the new composite developed. The results have shown that the new composite has a performance comparable with conventional glass fiber reinforced composites employed for the realization of this type of boat, accordingly to the technology employed and the lamination sequence adopted. Moreover, the FEM analysis performed over the skiff of the designed and constructed boat has demonstrated a successful choice of the material for real application, as it was later confirmed by the good performance of the boat in water. Finally, the cost analysis highlighted the economic sustainability of the new composite, allowing a cost saving of over 28% with respect to carbon fiber composites.

  19. Antioxidant, nutritional and functional characteristics of wheat bread enriched with ground flaxseed hulls.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Anders, Andrzej; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant capacity, nutritional and functional quality of wheat bread supplemented with 1-5% flaxseed hull (FH) were studied. Analyses of the chemically-extractable fraction show that supplementation with 5% of FH increased (compared to control) phenolics content (by 93%), radicals scavenging ability (by 176%) and reducing power (by 220%). Furthermore, phenolic antioxidants were bioaccessible in vitro (samples after simulated digestion). Fortification had no significant influence on rapidly and slowly digestible starch, in vitro starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index; however, a decrease (up to 8%) of relative proteins digestibility was determined. Enrichment decreased loaf volume and increased crumb hardness. The results from sensory evaluation show that the incorporation of FH had a slightly unfavorable effect on bread sensory properties but ensured satisfactory consumer acceptability. In view of these facts, it is concluded that flaxseed hulls may be a beneficial food additive. PMID:27507444

  20. A trait-based test for habitat filtering: Convex hull volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornwell, W.K.; Schwilk, D.W.; Ackerly, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Community assembly theory suggests that two processes affect the distribution of trait values within communities: competition and habitat filtering. Within a local community, competition leads to ecological differentiation of coexisting species, while habitat filtering reduces the spread of trait values, reflecting shared ecological tolerances. Many statistical tests for the effects of competition exist in the literature, but measures of habitat filtering are less well-developed. Here, we present convex hull volume, a construct from computational geometry, which provides an n-dimensional measure of the volume of trait space occupied by species in a community. Combined with ecological null models, this measure offers a useful test for habitat filtering. We use convex hull volume and a null model to analyze California woody-plant trait and community data. Our results show that observed plant communities occupy less trait space than expected from random assembly, a result consistent with habitat filtering. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. A thermogravimetric analysis of the combustion kinetics of karanja (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls char.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Azharul; Auta, M; Kabir, G; Hameed, B H

    2016-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Karanj fruit hulls char (KFH-char) was investigated with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The TGA outlined the char combustion thermographs at a different heating rate and isoconversional methods expressed the combustion kinetics. The Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods authenticated the char average activation energy at 62.13 and 68.53kJ/mol respectively, enough to derive the char to burnout. However, the Coats-Redfern method verified the char combustion via complex multi-step mechanism; the second stage mechanism has 135kJ/mol average activation energy. The TGA thermographs and kinetic parameters revealed the adequacy of the KFH-char as fuel substrate than its precursor, Karanj fruit hulls (KFH).

  2. Completion and workover fluid for oil and gas wells comprising ground peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described of carrying out operations in a bore hole extending into the subsurface formations, comprising the steps of forming a slurry comprising a liquid fluid; a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will be retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh; and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent, and circulating said slurry in said bore hole. A dry mixture is described for mixing with a fluid to be circulated in a bore hole, comprising: a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh, and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent.

  3. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  4. Design of high-speed planing hulls for the improvement of resistance and seakeeping performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Sun Young; You, Young Jun; Rhee, Key Pyo; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Yeon Gyu

    2013-03-01

    High-speed vessels require good resistance and seakeeping performance for safe operations in rough seas. The resistance and seakeeping performance of high-speed vessels varies significantly depending on their hull forms. In this study, three planing hulls that have almost the same displacement and principal dimension are designed and the hydrodynamic characteristics of those hulls are estimated by high-speed model tests. All model ships are deep-V type planing hulls. The bows of no.2 and no.3 model ships are designed to be advantageous for wave-piercing in rough water. No.2 and no.3 model ships have concave and straight forebody cross-sections, respectively. And length-to-beam ratios of no.2 and no.3 models are larger than that of no.1 model. In calm water tests, running attitude and resistance of model ships are measured at various speeds. And motion tests in regular waves are performed to measure the heave and pitch motion responses of the model ships. The required power of no.1 (VPS) model is smallest, but its vertical motion amplitudes in waves are the largest. No.2 (VWC) model shows the smallest motion amplitudes in waves, but needs the greatest power at high speed. The resistance and seakeeping performance of no.3 (VWS) model ship are the middle of three model ships, respectively. And in regular waves, no.1 model ship experiences `fly over' phenomena around its resonant frequency. Vertical accelerations at specific locations such as F.P., center of gravity of model ships are measured at their resonant frequency. It is necessary to measure accelerations by accelerometers or other devices in model tests for the accurate prediction of vertical accelerations in real ships.

  5. The impact on floats or hulls during landing as affected by bottom width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewes, E

    1936-01-01

    For floats and hulls having V bottoms the impact force does not necessarily increase with increasing width. Therefore, the weight of the float landing gear, side walls, and other parts, and of the fuselage construction need not be increased with increasing bottom width, but the weight of the bottom construction itself, on the other hand, does not increase with increase in bottom width and is largely determined by the type of construction.

  6. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...The Coast Guard is amending the escort requirements for certain tankers operating on the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS). This interim rule is necessary to implement section 711 of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010 (Act), which mandates two tug escorts for double hull tankers over 5,000 gross tons transporting oil in bulk in PWS. The Act directed the Coast Guard to......

  7. Molecular Clustering Interrelationships and Carbohydrate Conformation in Hull and Seeds Among Barley Cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    N Liu; P Yu

    2011-12-31

    The objective of this study was to use molecular spectral analyses with the diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) bioanlytical technique to study carbohydrate conformation features, molecular clustering and interrelationships in hull and seed among six barley cultivars (AC Metcalfe, CDC Dolly, McLeod, CDC Helgason, CDC Trey, CDC Cowboy), which had different degradation kinetics in rumen. The molecular structure spectral analyses in both hull and seed involved the fingerprint regions of ca. 1536-1484 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to aromatic lignin semicircle ring stretch), ca. 1293-1212 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to cellulosic compounds in the hull), ca. 1269-1217 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to cellulosic compound in the seeds), and ca. 1180-800 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to total CHO C-O stretching vibrations) together with an agglomerative hierarchical cluster (AHCA) and principal component spectral analyses (PCA). The results showed that the DRIFT technique plus AHCA and PCA molecular analyses were able to reveal carbohydrate conformation features and identify carbohydrate molecular structure differences in both hull and seeds among the barley varieties. The carbohydrate molecular spectral analyses at the region of ca. 1185-800 cm{sup -1} together with the AHCA and PCA were able to show that the barley seed inherent structures exhibited distinguishable differences among the barley varieties. CDC Helgason had differences from AC Metcalfe, MeLeod, CDC Cowboy and CDC Dolly in carbohydrate conformation in the seed. Clear molecular cluster classes could be distinguished and identified in AHCA analysis and the separate ellipses could be grouped in PCA analysis. But CDC Helgason had no distinguished differences from CDC Trey in carbohydrate conformation. These carbohydrate conformation/structure difference could partially explain why the varieties were different in digestive behaviors in animals. The molecular spectroscopy

  8. Hydroethanolic Pistacia atlantica hulls extract improved wound healing process; evidence for mast cells infiltration, angiogenesis and RNA stability.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Mohammad Reza; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Doostmohammadi, Jamal; Ebrahimzadeh, Mahmood

    2015-05-01

    In Iranian traditional therapy folk, the Pistacia is used for treatment of wound inflammation. Here in the present study, the In vivo effect of Pistacia atlantica hulls ointment (PAO) on the wound healing process was assessed. Excision and incision wounds were induced in rats. Three different doses of PAO were administrated. Following 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, the tissue samples were obtained and skin irritation ratio, hydroxyproline content, as well as immune cells, fibroblasts, fibrocytes distribution and collagen density were analyzed. Moreover, the cellular RNA damage examined using epi-fluorescent microscope. Hydroethanolic extract of PAO significantly (P < 0.05) increased wound contraction percentage and up-regulated hydroxyproline content. The animals in medium and high dose PAO-treated groups exhibited remarkably (P < 0.05) higher fibroblast distribution and significantly (P < 0.05) lower immune cells infiltration. PAO up-regulated mast cells distribution on day 7 and elevated neovascularization in a dose dependent manner. Significantly lower RNA damage was revealed in PAO-treated animals. Our data showed that, PAO shortened the inflammation phase by provoking the fibroblast proliferation. Moreover, PAO enhanced mast cells distribution and infiltration, which in turn promoted the neovascularization. Ultimately, promoted angiogenesis increased RNA stability in different cell types. Thus, Hydroethanolic extract of PAO can be considered as an appropriate compound for wound healing medicine.

  9. Apoptotic effects of γ-mangostin from the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana on human malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Fang; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Chen, Hui-Ju; Yang, Ling-Ling

    2010-12-07

    Gliomas are a common type of primary brain tumor with glioblastoma multiforme accounting for the majority of human brain tumors. In this paper, high grade human malignant glioblastomas (MGs) including U87 MG and GBM 8401 were used to evaluate the antitumor effects of γ-mangostin, a xanthone derivative isolated and purified from the hull of the tropical fruit Garcinia mangostana. The γ-mangostin showed potent antiproliferative activity toward MGs in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, flow cytometric analysis of cell morphology in the apoptotic cells revealed an increase in hypodiploid cells in γ-mangostin treated U87 MG and GBM 8401 cells, while significant enhancement of intracellular peroxide production was detected in the same γ-mangostin treated cells by DCHDA assay and DiOC(6)(3) stain. g-Mangostin induced apoptosis, which in turn mediates cytotoxicity in human MG cells was prevented by the addition of catalase. Naturally derived medicines and herbal therapies are drawing increasing attention in regard to the treatment of many health issues, and this includes the testing of new phytochemicals or nutrients for brain tumor patients. This has led to γ-mangostin being identified as a potential leading compound for the development of an anti-brain tumor agent.

  10. Box-Behnken design for extraction optimization, characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of Cicer arietinum L. hull polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zipeng; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Qingxia; Ye, Hong; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Hongcheng; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-08-20

    The optimal extraction conditions with a yield of 5.37±0.15% for extraction of polysaccharides from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) hull (CHPS) were determined as extraction temperature 99°C, extraction time 2.8h and ratio of water to raw material 24mL/g. Three fractions of CHPS-1, CHPS-2 and CHPS-3, with average molecular weight of 3.1×10(6), 1.5×10(6) and 7.8×10(5)Da, respectively, were obtained from crude CHPS by chromatography of DEAE Fast Flow and Sephadex G-100. CHPS-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucose and arabinose, CHPS-2 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose, xylose and arabinose, CHPS-3 was composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and rhamnose. CHPS-3 showed the strongest reducing power and protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells and highest scavenging activities against DPPH and ABTS radicals, while CHPS-2 showed the highest scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical. PMID:27178941

  11. Analysis of radiation induced effects in high-density commercial memories on-board Alsat-1: The impact of extreme solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentoutou, Youcef; Bensikaddour, El-Habib

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a long-term study on radiation effects in non-hardened high density memory devices operating within the main on-board computer system of the Algerian microsatellite Alsat-1 in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). A statistical analysis of single-event upset (SEU) activity is presented for commercial SRAM devices, and their response to extreme solar events shows SEU rate significant increases correlated with high-energy protons (E > 100 MeV). Ground based neutron monitor data are used to illustrate the long-term correlation between galactic cosmic rays and Alsat-1 upsets. The short-term effects of energetic solar particles are illustrated with space environment data from GOES-11. The Alsat-1 observed SEU rates are compared to the predicted rates based on ground test data and environment models. The prediction results are in good agreement with in-flight data.

  12. Study on stochastic phenomena induced in chemically amplified poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate) resist (high performance model resist for extreme ultraviolet lithography)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius J.; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    Understanding of stochastic phenomena is essential to the development of highly sensitive resist for nanofabrication. In this study, we investigated the stochastic effects in a chemically amplified resist consisting of poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butyl methacrylate), triphenylsulfonium nonafluorobutanesulfonate (an acid generator), and tri-n-octylamine (a quencher). The SEM images of resist patterns were analyzed, using Monte Carlo simulation on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. It was estimated that +/-0.82σ fluctuation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule led to line edge roughness formation. Here, σ is the standard deviation of the number of protected units per polymer molecule after postexposure baking.

  13. Realistic evaluation of hull performance for rowing shells, canoes, and kayaks in unsteady flow.

    PubMed

    Day, Alexander; Campbell, Ian; Clelland, David; Doctors, Lawrence J; Cichowicz, Jakub

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of hull dynamics in shallow water on the hydrodynamic performance of rowing shells as well as canoes and kayaks. An approach was developed to generate data in a towing tank using a test rig capable of reproducing realistic speed profiles. The impact of unsteady shallow-water effects on wave-making resistance was examined via experimental measurements on a benchmark hull. The data generated were used to explore the validity of a computational approach developed to predict unsteady shallow-water wave resistance. Comparison of measured and predicted results showed that the computational approach correctly predicted complex unsteady wave-resistance phenomena at low oscillation frequency and speed, but that total resistance was substantially under-predicted at moderate oscillation frequency and speed. It was postulated that this discrepancy arose from unsteady viscous effects. This was investigated via hot-film measurements for a full-scale single scull in unsteady flow in both towing-tank and field-trial conditions. Results suggested a strong link between acceleration and turbulence and demonstrated that the measured real-world viscous-flow behaviour could be successfully reproduced in the tank. Thus a suitable tank-test approach could provide a reliable guide to hull performance characterization in unsteady flow. PMID:21756127

  14. Tank Tests of NACA Model 40 Series of Hulls for Small Flying Boats and Amphibians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Dawson, John R

    1937-01-01

    The NACA model 40 series of flying-boat hull models consists of 2 forebodies and 3 afterbodies combined to provide several forms suitable for use in small marine aircraft. One forebody is the usual form with hollow bow sections and the other has a bottom surface that is completely developable from bow to step. The afterbodies include a short pointed afterbody with an extension for the tail surfaces, a long afterbody similar to that of a seaplane float but long enough to carry the tail surfaces, and a third obtained by fitting a second step in the latter afterbody. The various combinations were tested in the NACA Tank by the general method over a suitable range of loadings. Fixed-trim tests were made for all speeds likely to be used and free-to-trim tests were made at low speeds to slightly beyond the hump speed. The characteristics of the hulls at best trim angles have been deduced from the data of the tests at fixed trim angles and are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients applicable to any size hull.

  15. Optimization of hull-less pumpkin seed roasting conditions using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Vujasinović, Vesna; Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka

    2012-05-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize hull-less pumpkin seed roasting conditions before seed pressing to maximize the biochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the virgin pumpkin oils obtained using a hydraulic press. Hull-less pumpkin seeds were roasted for various lengths of time (30 to 70 min) at various roasting temperatures (90 to 130 °C), resulting in 9 different oil samples, while the responses were phospholipids content, total phenols content, α- and γ-tocopherols, and antioxidative activity [by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical assay]. Mathematical models have shown that roasting conditions influenced all dependent variables at P < 0.05. The higher roasting temperatures had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on phospholipids, phenols, and α-tocopherols contents, while longer roasting time had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on γ-tocopherol content and antioxidant capacity, among the samples prepared under different roasting conditions. The optimum conditions for roasting the hull-less pumpkin seeds were 120 °C for duration of 49 min, which resulted in these oil concentrations: phospholipids 0.29%, total phenols 23.06 mg/kg, α-tocopherol 5.74 mg/100 g, γ-tocopherol 24.41 mg/100 g, and an antioxidative activity (EC(50)) of 27.18 mg oil/mg DPPH.

  16. PIXE Analysis of Metal Hull Bolts From HMB DeBraak

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, Francis D.; Cole, Lord K.; Slater, Charles J.; Vanhoy, Jeffrey R.; Fithian, Charles H.

    2009-03-10

    HMB DeBraak was a 16-gun British brig-sloop that sank in a squall on May 25, 1798 off Cape Henlopen, Delaware. Silt covered the wooden hull shortly after it sank, preserving it until DeBraak was raised in 1986. The items recovered from the ship include metal bolts that held the hull together. We used PIXE to measure the compositions of 45 of the bolts and found that they are nearly pure copper (98.3% on average), with most also containing small amounts of iron (0.87%), nickel (0.039%), arsenic (0.43%), silver (0.089%), lead (0.18%), and bismuth (0.12%). A few contain a little indium, tin, or antimony, but none contain zinc above the quantization level. The compositions are similar to those reported for 18th-century English copper, but different from several copper alloys also used to make hull bolts. We conclude that, when DeBraak was last fitted out in 1795-1797, the Royal Navy was still using bolts similar to William Forbes's mechanically hardened pure copper bolts. Forbes's process represents the successful innovation and application of new technology in Royal Navy ships during the wars of the late 18th century.

  17. Countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from almond hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Kevin M; Offeman, Richard D; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Bayati, Andre K; Orts, William J

    2015-03-11

    Almond hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable.

  18. Extreme river response to climate-induced aggradation in a forested, montane basin, Carbon River, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyeler, J. D.; Rossi, R. K.; Kennard, P. M.; Beason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is drastically affecting the alpine landscape of Mount Rainier, encouraging glacial retreat, changes in snowpack thickness and longevity, and sediment delivery to downstream fluvial systems, leading to an extremely transport limited system and aggradation of the river valleys. River aggradation encourages devastating interactions between the pro-glacial braided fluvial systems and streamside floodplain ecosystems, in most places occupied by old-growth conifer forests. Current aggradation rates of the channels, bordered by late seral stage riparian forests, inhibit floodplain development, leading to an inverted relationship between perched river channels and lower-elevation adjacent floodplains. This disequilibrium creates a steeper gradient laterally towards the floodplains, rather than downstream; promoting flooding of streamside forest, removal and burial of vegetation with coarse alluvium, incision of avulsion channels, tree mortality, wood recruitment to channels, and ultimately widening the alluviated valley towards the glacially carved hillslopes. Aggradation and loss of streamside old-growth forest poses a significant problem to park infrastructure (e.g. roads, trails, and campgrounds) due to flood damage with as frequent as a two-year event. Other park rivers, the White River and Tahoma Creek, characterize two end-member cases. Despite an extremely perched channel, the White River is relatively stable; experiencing small avulsions while the old-growth streamside forest has remained mostly intact. These relatively small avulsions however severely impact park infrastructure, causing extensive flood damage and closure of the heavily trafficked state highway. Conversely debris flows on Tahoma Creek destroyed the streamside forest and migration across the valley is uninhibited. Mature streamside forests tend to oppose avulsions, sieving wood at the channel margins, promoting sediment deposition and deflection of erosive flows. Our study seeks to

  19. Change of name for the Oriental robber fly Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae, Asilinae), nec Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Fisher, Eric

    2015-08-14

    A new name for the Oriental genus Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae) is proposed. Homonymy exists between this Oriental robber fly genus and the more senior Neotropical phlebotomine sand fly genus Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (sensu Galati 2003) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and the following replacement name is proposed: Ekkentronomyia nom. nov. for Nyssomyia Hull (nec Barretto 1962). Accordingly, a new combination is herein proposed for the only species currently included in this genus: Ekkentronomyia ochracea (Hull, 1962) comb. nov.

  20. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.

    2015-04-15

    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by two soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (SXR/EUV) laser plasma sources with different parameters is presented. The two sources are based on double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with high (500 J/0.3 ns) and low energy (10 J/1 ns) laser pulses. In both cases, the SXR/EUV beam irradiated the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The measured Ne plasma radiation spectra are dominated by emission lines corresponding to radiative transitions in singly charged ions. A significant difference concerns origin of the lines: K-shell or L-shell emissions occur in case of the high and low energy irradiating system, respectively. In high energy system, the electron density measurements were also performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density for Ne plasma reached the value of 2·10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  1. Direct photo-etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Bayer, Armin; Mann, Klaus

    2007-06-15

    In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-based EUV plasma source (pulse energy 3 mJ at {lambda}=13.5 nm, plasma diameter {approx}300 {mu}m). By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a pulse energy density of {approx}75 mJ/cm{sup 2} at a pulse length of 6 ns can be achieved in the image plane of the objective. As demonstrated for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), photoetching of polymer surfaces is possible at this EUV fluence level. This paper presents first results, including a systematic determination of PMMA etching rates under EUV irradiation. Furthermore, the contribution of out-of-band radiation to the surface etching of PMMA was investigated by conducting a diffraction experiment for spectral discrimination from higher wavelength radiation. Imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma accomplished the generation of an EUV spot of 1 {mu}m diameter, which was employed for direct writing of surface structures in PMMA.

  2. Reversible strain-induced magnetization switching in FeGa nanomagnets: Pathway to a rewritable, non-volatile, non-toggle, extremely low energy straintronic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    We report reversible strain-induced magnetization switching between two stable/metastable states in ~300 nm sized FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. Voltage of one polarity applied across the substrate generates compressive strain in a nanomagnet and switches its magnetization to one state, while voltage of the opposite polarity generates tensile strain and switches the magnetization back to the original state. The two states can encode the two binary bits, and, using the right voltage polarity, one can write either bit deterministically. This portends an ultra-energy-efficient non-volatile “non-toggle” memory.

  3. Reversible strain-induced magnetization switching in FeGa nanomagnets: Pathway to a rewritable, non-volatile, non-toggle, extremely low energy straintronic memory

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    We report reversible strain-induced magnetization switching between two stable/metastable states in ~300 nm sized FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. Voltage of one polarity applied across the substrate generates compressive strain in a nanomagnet and switches its magnetization to one state, while voltage of the opposite polarity generates tensile strain and switches the magnetization back to the original state. The two states can encode the two binary bits, and, using the right voltage polarity, one can write either bit deterministically. This portends an ultra-energy-efficient non-volatile “non-toggle” memory. PMID:26657829

  4. Reversible strain-induced magnetization switching in FeGa nanomagnets: Pathway to a rewritable, non-volatile, non-toggle, extremely low energy straintronic memory.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    We report reversible strain-induced magnetization switching between two stable/metastable states in ~300 nm sized FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. Voltage of one polarity applied across the substrate generates compressive strain in a nanomagnet and switches its magnetization to one state, while voltage of the opposite polarity generates tensile strain and switches the magnetization back to the original state. The two states can encode the two binary bits, and, using the right voltage polarity, one can write either bit deterministically. This portends an ultra-energy-efficient non-volatile "non-toggle" memory. PMID:26657829

  5. The preventive effect of lotus seedpod procyanidins on cognitive impairment and oxidative damage induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuqing; Wang, Zhigao; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Lu, Rongzhu; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) administered by oral gavage on the cognitive deficits and oxidative damage of mice at extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50 Hz, 8 mT, 28 days). The results showed that 90 mg kg⁻¹ LSPCs treatment significantly increased body weight compared with the ELF-EMF group at ELF-EMF exposure and effectively maintained liver index, thymus index, kidney index and spleen index close to normal. A water maze test indicated that learning and memory abilities of the ELF-EMF group deteriorated significantly with ELF-EMF exposure when compared with the control group, but the ELF-EMF + LSPCs90 group had remarkably improved learning and memory abilities compared with the ELF-EMF group. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mostly exhibited significant increases, while the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased significantly under ELF-EMF exposure in the ELF-EMF group. LSPCs (especially 60, 90 mg kg⁻¹) administration decreased MDA, ROS, NO content and lowered NOS activity in LSPCs treatment groups. Furthermore, LSPCs (60, 90 mg kg⁻¹) treatment significantly augmented GPx, CAT, SOD activity in the hippocampus and serum. Pathological observation showed that number of pyramidal cells of the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus of the LSPCs treatment groups was significantly greater than the ELF-EMF group. All the data suggested that the LSPCs can effectively prevent learning and memory damage and oxidative damage caused by the ELF-EMF, most likely through the ability of LSPCs to scavenge oxygen free radicals and to stimulate antioxidant enzyme activity.

  6. Characterization of a salt-induced DhAHP, a gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, from the extremely halophilic yeast Debaryomyces hansenii

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Debaryomyces hansenii is one of the most salt tolerant species of yeast and has become a model organism for the study of tolerance mechanisms against salinity. The goal of this study was to identify key upregulated genes that are involved in its adaptation to high salinity. Results By using forward subtractive hybridization we have cloned and sequenced DhAHP from D. hansenii that is significantly upregulated during salinity stress. DhAHP is orthologous to the alkly hydroperoxide reductase of the peroxiredoxin gene family, which catalyzes the reduction of peroxides at the expense of thiol compounds. The full-lengthed cDNA of DhAHP has 674 bp of nucleotide and contains a 516 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a deduced protein of 172 amino acid residues (18.3 kDa). D. hansenii Ahp is a cytosolic protein that belongs to the Ahp of the 1-Cys type peroxiredoxins. Phylogentically, the DhAhp and Candida albicans Ahp11 (Swiss-Prot: Q5AF44) share a common ancestry but show divergent evolution. Silence of its expression in D. hansenii by RNAi resulted in decreased tolerance to salt whereas overexpression of DhAHP in D. hansenii and the salt-sensitive yeasts Saccharomyces cereviasiae and Pichia methanolica conferred a higher tolerance with a reduced level of reactive oxygen species. Conclusion In conclusion, for the first time our study has identified alkly hydroperoxide reductase as a key protein involved in the salt tolerance of the extremely halophilic D. hansenii. Apparently, this enzyme plays a multi-functional role in the yeast's adaptation to salinity; it serves as a peroxidase in scavenging reactive oxygen species, as a molecular chaperone in protecting essential proteins from denaturation, and as a redox sensor in regulating H2O2-mediated cell defense signaling. PMID:19715588

  7. Hemolysis induced by an extreme mountain ultra-marathon is not associated with a decrease in total red blood cell volume.

    PubMed

    Robach, P; Boisson, R-C; Vincent, L; Lundby, C; Moutereau, S; Gergelé, L; Michel, N; Duthil, E; Féasson, L; Millet, G Y

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged running is known to induce hemolysis. It has been suggested that hemolysis may lead to a significant loss of red blood cells; however, its actual impact on the erythrocyte pool is unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that prolonged running with high hemolytic potential decreases total red blood cell volume (RCV). Hemolysis (n = 22) and RCV (n = 19) were quantified in ultra-marathon runners before and after a 166-km long mountain ultra-endurance marathon (RUN) with 9500 m of altitude gain/loss. Assessment of total hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and RCV was performed using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique. RUN induced a marked acute-phase response and promoted hemolysis, as shown by a decrease in serum haptoglobin (P < 0.05). Elevated serum erythropoietin concentration and reticulocyte count after RUN were indicative of erythropoietic stimulation. Following RUN, runners experienced hemodilution, mediated by a large plasma volume expansion and associated with a large increase in plasma aldosterone. However, neither Hbmass nor RCV were found to be altered after RUN. Our findings indicate that mechanical/physiological stress associated with RUN promotes hemolysis but this has no impact on total erythrocyte volume. We therefore suggest that exercise 'anemia' is entirely due to plasma volume expansion and not to a concomitant decrease in RCV.

  8. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  9. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  10. Coordinated Changes in Antioxidative Enzymes Protect the Photosynthetic Machinery from Salinity Induced Oxidative Damage and Confer Salt Tolerance in an Extreme Halophyte Salvadora persica L.

    PubMed Central

    Rangani, Jaykumar; Parida, Asish K.; Panda, Ashok; Kumari, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Salinity-induced modulations in growth, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content (RWC), lipid peroxidation, photosynthesis, photosystem II efficiency, and changes in activity of various antioxidative enzymes were studied in the halophyte Salvadora persica treated with various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mM NaCl) to obtain an insight into the salt tolerance ability of this halophyte. Both fresh and dry biomass as well as leaf area (LA) declined at all levels of salinity whereas salinity caused an increase in leaf succulence. A gradual increase was observed in the Na+ content of leaf with increasing salt concentration up to 750 mM NaCl, but at higher salt concentration (1000 mM NaCl), the Na+ content surprisingly dropped down to the level of 250 mM NaCl. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of the leaf remained unaffected by salinity. The photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), the transpiration rate (E), quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate remained unchanged at low salinity (250 to 500 mM NaCl) whereas, significant reduction in these parameters were observed at high salinity (750 to 1000 mM NaCl). The RWC% and water use efficiency (WUE) of leaf remained unaffected by salinity. The salinity had no effect on maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) which indicates that PS II is not perturbed by salinity-induced oxidative damage. Analysis of the isoforms of antioxidative enzymes revealed that the leaves of S. persica have two isoforms each of Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD and one isoform of Cu-Zn SOD, three isoforms of POX, two isoforms of APX and one isoform of CAT. There was differential responses in activity and expression of different isoforms of various antioxidative enzymes. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content (a product of lipid peroxidation) of leaf remained unchanged in S. persica treated with various levels of salinity. Our results suggest that the absence of pigment

  11. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    quantities of biochemical compounds which appear in blood vessels with the activation of acute phase response pathways. The mechanisms underlying the subsidence in α1-AGP content as well as its consequences for the organism are not clear now. Nevertheless, an ascertainment of concentration changes of α1-AGP and other APPs, their time courses at the early stages of APR, stimulated by extreme impacts, requires additional experiments.

  12. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001). The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93) was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content. PMID:26785070

  13. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies. PMID:24175575

  14. Numerical simulation of the stokes wave for the flow around a ship hull coupled with the VOF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengtao, Chen; Jingjun, Zhong; Peng, Sun

    2015-06-01

    The surface wave generated by flow around a ship hull moving near free surface of water is simulated numerically in this study. The three-dimensional implicit finite volume method (FVM) is applied to solve Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation. The realizable k-e turbulence model has been implemented to capture turbulent flow around the ship hull in the free surface zone. The volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with the Stokes wave theory has been used to determine the free surface effect of water. By using is a six degrees of freedom model, the ship hull's movement is numerically solved with the Stokes wave together. Under the action of Stokes waves on the sea, the interface between the air and water waves at the same regular pattern and so does the pressure and the vertical velocity. The ship hull moves in the same way as the wave. The amplitude of the ship hull's heave is less than the wave height because of the viscosity damping. This method could provide an important reference for the study of ships' movement, wave and hydrodynamics.

  15. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  16. [Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins].

    PubMed

    Barazarte, Humberto; Sangronis, Elba; Unai, Emaldi

    2008-03-01

    Commercial exploitation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) generates a volume of hulls that could be used in the production of pectins on an industrial scale. Therefore, pectins from cocoa hulls were extracted at different pH and temperature conditions, and their main chemical characteristics were evaluated. EDTA at 0.5% was used for the extraction at pHs 3, 4 and 5 and temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 degrees C, under a 3 2 factorial design. The response variables were yield, content of anhydrous galacturonic acid (AGA), content of metoxil, degree of esterification and equivalent weight of the pectins extracted. The strength of the pectic gel was determined with a TA-XT2 texturometer. Strawberry jam was made with the pectin extracted, and its acceptability was determined using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results obtained were as follows: an extraction yield from 2.64 to 4.69 g/100 g; an AGA content between 49.8 and 64.06 g/100 g; a content of metoxil between 4.72 and 7.18 g/100 g; a degree of esterification between 37.94 and 52.20%; an equivalent weight from 385.47 to 464.61 g/equivalent of H+, and a degree of gelation between 28.64 and 806.03 g force. The pectin extracted at pH 4 and 90 degrees C showed a gelation power of 422.16 g force, purity 62.26 g/100 g of AGA, and a yield of extraction of 3.89 g/100 g and allowed to prepare ajam with an average level of liking of "like moderately". Pectins from cocoa hulls show potential application in the food industry, but it is necessary to optimize the extraction parameters to increase its yield. PMID:18589574

  17. Removal of As(V) using iron oxide impregnated carbon prepared from Tamarind hull.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Abhijit; Agarwal, Vaibhav; De, Sirshendu; Basu, Jayanta K

    2010-08-01

    Iron oxide impregnated tamarind hull carbon (IOITHC) was developed for use as an adsorbent for the removal of As(V) from water. Tamarind hull was used as the source of carbonaceous material, which was first treated with ferric chloride and ammonium hydroxide solutions with successive calcination at 873-974 K in a muffle furnace for 1 h to prepare an arsenic adsorbent. The B.E.T surface area of IOITHC was found to be 304.6 m(2) g(-1) and the average iron content in the adsorbent was found to be 7 wt%. The point of zero charge (pH(zpc)) of IOITHC was found to be 6.9. As(V) and arsenic (as total) adsorption on IOITHC were investigated in batch mode using As(V) spiked distilled water and real contaminated groundwater (CGW). The effects of speed of agitation, adsorbent particle size, temperature, pH of the solution, and concentration of the adsorbate on the adsorption process were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of about 1.2 mg g(-1) As(V) was achieved. The removal of As(V) on IOITHC was compared with the untreated tamarind hull carbon as well as with the activated commercial carbon and IOITHC was found to be better adsorbent. Arsenic adsorption from arsenic contaminated groundwater (CGW) on IOITHC in batch mode indicates that 98% removal was achieved for adsorbent loading of 3.0 g L(-1) with initial arsenic concentration of 264 microg L(-1). Desorption study of arsenic from As(V)-loaded IOITHC was performed using aqueous solution in the pH range of 3 to 12. PMID:20563914

  18. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    Over the past three decades the Town of Hull, MA has solidified its place in U.S. wind energy history through its leadership in community-based generation. This is illustrated by its commissioning of the first commercial-scale wind turbine on the Atlantic coastline, the first suburban-sited turbine in the continental United States, pursuit of community-based offshore wind, and its push toward creating an energy independent community. The town's history and demographics are briefly outlined, followed by experience in projects to provide wind power, including pre-construction and feasibility efforts, financial aspects, and market/industry factors.

  19. The adsorption of Congo red and vacuum pump oil by rice hull ash.

    PubMed

    Chou, K S; Tsai, J C; Lo, C T

    2001-06-01

    Rice hull ash (RHA) of large surface area was obtained by acid wash and then calcination at 600 degrees C for 4 h. The white ash was then mixed with kaolin and starch to make pellet adsorbents with reasonable strength to be utilized in a packed column. Both ash and pellet samples showed good adsorption capacities toward the organic substances in wastewater. Furthermore, the surface nature of the white ash and pellet adsorbent could be modified through either hydration or esterification reactions. Corresponding changes in silanol concentrations were successfully correlated to changes in adsorption capacity toward either Congo red or vacuum pump oil molecules. PMID:11333045

  20. Predicting multi-wall structural response to hypervelocity impact using the hull code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1993-01-01

    Previously, multi-wall structures have been analyzed extensively, primarily through experiment, as a means of increasing the meteoroid/space debris impact protection of spacecraft. As structural configurations become more varied, the number of tests required to characterize their response increases dramatically. As an alternative to experimental testing, numerical modeling of high-speed impact phenomena is often being used to predict the response of a variety of structural systems under different impact loading conditions. The results of comparing experimental tests to Hull Hydrodynamic Computer Code predictions are reported. Also, the results of a numerical parametric study of multi-wall structural response to hypervelocity cylindrical projectile impact are presented.